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  • 151.
    Holmgren, Gustav
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden / Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. AstraZeneca Gothenburg, CVMD GMed, GMD, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Andersson, Christian X.
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Anders
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Expression profiling of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes exposed to doxorubicin - integration and visualization of multi omics data2018Ingår i: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 163, nr 1, s. 182-195Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin, are highly efficient chemotherapeutic agents against a variety of cancers. However, anthracyclines are also among the most cardiotoxic therapeutic drugs presently on the market. Chemotherapeutic-induced cardiomyopathy is one of the leading causes of disease and mortality in cancer survivors. The exact mechanisms responsible for doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy are not completely known, but the fact that the cardiotoxicity is dose-dependent and that there is a variation in time-to-onset of toxicity, and gender- and age differences suggests that several mechanisms may be involved.In the present study, we investigated doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes using proteomics. In addition, different sources of omics data (protein, mRNA, and microRNA) from the same experimental setup were further combined and analyzed using newly developed methods to identify differential expression in data of various origin and types. Subsequently, the results were integrated in order to generate a combined visualization of the findings.In our experimental model system, we exposed cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells to doxorubicin for up to two days, followed by a wash-out period of additionally 12 days. Besides an effect on the cell morphology and cardiomyocyte functionality, the data show a strong effect of doxorubicin on all molecular levels investigated. Differential expression patterns that show a linkage between the proteome, transcriptome, and the regulatory microRNA network, were identified. These findings help to increase the understanding of the mechanisms behind anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity and suggest putative biomarkers for this condition.

  • 152.
    Holmgren, Gustav
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Anna-Karin
    Department of Discovery Safety, Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca RandD, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Barragan, Isabel
    Section of Pharmacogenetics, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sabirsh, Alan
    Department of Bioscience, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, AstraZeneca RandD, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Cellectis AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Björquist, Petter
    NovaHep AB, Gothenburg, Sweden / Cellectis AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus
    Section of Pharmacogenetics, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Tommy B.
    Section of Pharmacogenetics, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, AstraZeneca RandD, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Edsbagge, Josefina
    Cellectis AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Long-term chronic toxicity testing using human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes2014Ingår i: Drug Metabolism And Disposition, ISSN 0090-9556, E-ISSN 1521-009X, Vol. 42, nr 9, s. 1401-1406Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) have the potential to become important tools for the establishment of new models for in vitro drug testing of, for example, toxicity and pharmacological effects. Late-stage attrition in the pharmaceutical industry is to a large extent caused by selection of drug candidates using nonpredictive preclinical models that are not clinically relevant. The current hepatic in vivo and in vitro models show clear limitations, especially for studies of chronic hepatotoxicity. For these reasons, we evaluated the potential of using hPSC-derived hepatocytes for long-term exposure to toxic drugs. The differentiated hepatocytes were incubated with hepatotoxic compounds for up to 14 days, using a repeated-dose approach. The hPSC-derived hepatocytes became more sensitive to the toxic compounds after extended exposures and, in addition to conventional cytotoxicity, evidence of phospholipidosis and steatosis was also observed in the cells. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of a long-term toxicity study using hPSC-derived hepatocytes, and the observations support further development and validation of hPSC-based toxicity models for evaluating novel drugs, chemicals, and cosmetics.

  • 153.
    Holmgren, Gustav
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Andersson, Christian X.
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Anders
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. AstraZeneca Gothenburg, CVMD GMed, GMD, Mölndal, Sweden.
    MicroRNAs as potential biomarkers for doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity2016Ingår i: Toxicology in Vitro, ISSN 0887-2333, E-ISSN 1879-3177, Vol. 34, s. 26-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin, are well-established, highly efficient anti-neoplastic drugs used for treatment of a variety of cancers, including solid tumors, leukemia, lymphomas, and breast cancer. The successful use of doxorubicin has, however, been hampered by severe cardiotoxic side-effects. In order to prevent or reverse negative side-effects of doxorubicin, it is important to find early biomarkers of heart injury and drug-induced cardiotoxicity. The high stability under extreme conditions, presence in various body fluids, and tissue-specificity, makes microRNAs very suitable as clinical biomarkers. The present study aimed towards evaluating the early and late effects of doxorubicin on the microRNA expression in cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells. We report on several microRNAs, including miR-34a, miR-34b, miR-187, miR-199a, miR-199b, miR-146a, miR-15b, miR-130a, miR-214, and miR-424, that are differentially expressed upon, and after, treatment with doxorubicin. Investigation of the biological relevance of the identified microRNAs revealed connections to cardiomyocyte function and cardiotoxicity, thus supporting the findings of these microRNAs as potential biomarkers for drug-induced cardiotoxicity.

  • 154.
    Holmgren, Gustav
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Bogestål, Yalda
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. SP Chemistry Materials and Surfaces, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Améen, Caroline
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellectis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Karolina
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellectis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Sandra
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellectis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Anders
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellectis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden / GMed CVMD, AstraZeneca, Mölndal.
    Identification of novel biomarkers for doxorubicin-induced toxicity in human cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent stem cells2015Ingår i: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 328, s. 102-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Doxorubicin is a chemotherapeutic agent indicated for the treatment of a variety of cancer types, including leukaemia, lymphomas, and many solid tumours. The use of doxorubicin is, however, associated with severe cardiotoxicity, often resulting in early discontinuation of the treatment. Importantly, the toxic symptoms can occur several years after the termination of the doxorubicin administration. In this study, the toxic effects of doxorubicin exposure have been investigated in cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC). The cells were exposed to different concentrations of doxorubicin for up to 2 days, followed by a 12 day recovery period. Notably, the cell morphology was altered during drug treatment and the cells showed a reduced contractile ability, most prominent at the highest concentration of doxorubicin at the later time points. A general cytotoxic response measured as Lactate dehydrogenase leakage was observed after 2 days' exposure compared to the vehicle control, but this response was absent during the recovery period. A similar dose-dependant pattern was observed for the release of cardiac specific troponin T (cTnT) after 1 day and 2 days of treatment with doxorubicin. Global transcriptional profiles in the cells revealed clusters of genes that were differentially expressed during doxorubicin exposure, a pattern that in some cases was sustained even throughout the recovery period, suggesting that these genes could be used as sensitive biomarkers for doxorubicin-induced toxicity in human cardiomyocytes. The results from this study show that cTnT release can be used as a measurement of acute cardiotoxicity due to doxorubicin. However, for the late onset of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy, cTnT release might not be the most optimal biomarker. As an alternative, some of the genes that we identified as differentially expressed after doxorubicin exposure could serve as more relevant biomarkers, and may also help to explain the cellular mechanisms behind the late onset apoptosis associated with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy.

  • 155.
    Holmgren, Noél
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Norrström, Niclas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Aps, Robert
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Kuikka, Sakari
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    A Concept of Bayesian Regulation in Fisheries Management2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 11, artikel-id e111614Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stochastic variability of biological processes and uncertainty of stock properties compel fisheries managers to look for tools to improve control over the stock. Inspired by animals exploiting hidden prey, we have taken a biomimetic approach combining catch and effort in a concept of Bayesian regulation (BR). The BR provides a real-time Bayesian stock estimate, and can operate without separate stock assessment. We compared the performance of BR with catch-only regulation (CR), alternatively operating with N-target (the stock size giving maximum sustainable yield, MSY) and F-target (the fishing mortality giving MSY) on a stock model of Baltic Sea herring. N-targeted BR gave 3% higher yields than F-targeted BR and CR, and 7% higher yields than N-targeted CR. The BRs reduced coefficient of variance (CV) in fishing mortality compared to CR by 99.6% (from 25.2 to 0.1) when operated with F-target, and by about 80% (from 158.4 to 68.4/70.1 depending on how the prior is set) in stock size when operated with N-target. Even though F-targeted fishery reduced CV in pre-harvest stock size by 19–22%, it increased the dominant period length of population fluctuations from 20 to 60–80 years. In contrast, N-targeted BR made the periodic variation more similar to white noise. We discuss the conditions when BRs can be suitable tools to achieve sustainable yields while minimizing undesirable fluctuations in stock size or fishing effort.

  • 156.
    Holmqvist, Merily
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Effekten av Omega-3 på demenssjukdom2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kännedom om Omega-3 började med att man upptäckte att omega-3 har en effekt på kardiovaskulära sjukdomar, sedan dess har man börjat utforska allt fler områden där omega-3 har visat sig ha en positiv effekt. Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka huruvida Omega-3 har en effekt på demens och den vanligaste demenssjukdomen Alzheimer. Demens orsakas bland annat av en omfattande celldöd i hjärnan och uttrycker sig genom att minnet och kognitionen blir gradvis försämrat eftersom det episodiska minnet är försämrat hos dementa. Alzheimer i sin tur har visat sig ha låga nivåer av DHA i hippocampus. Studier har visat att ett intag av fisk och Omega-3 kan förebygga en uppkomst av demens och Alzheimer och förbättra den kognitiva försämringen som sker vid demenssjukdom. Slutresultaten är motsägelsefulla. De flesta studier visar att Omega-3 påverkar och förbättrar kognitionen hos Demens och Alzheimer patienter och kan verka förebyggande och även som behandling. Emellertid finns det de studier som visar på att Omega-3 inte har visat någon signifikant effekt, eller enbart har en förebyggande effekt och endast ifall demenssjukdomen inte är starkt genetiskt betingad.

  • 157.
    Horning, Aaron M.
    et al.
    University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA.
    Awe, Julius Adebayo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Manitoba Institute of Cell Biology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada / Department of Clinical Genetics, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wang, Chiou-Miin
    University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA.
    Liu, Joseph
    University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA.
    Lai, Zhao
    University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA.
    Wang, Vickie Yao
    University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA.
    Jadhav, Rohit R.
    University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA.
    Louie, Anna D.
    University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA.
    Lin, Chun-Lin
    University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA.
    Kroczak, Tad
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
    Chen, Yidong
    University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA.
    Jin, Victor X.
    University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA.
    Abboud-Werner, Sherry L.
    University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA.
    Leach, Robin J.
    University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA.
    Hernandez, Javior
    University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA.
    Thompson, Ian M.
    University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA.
    Saranchuk, Jeff
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Drachenberg, Darrel
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Chen, Chun-Liang
    University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA.
    Mai, Sabine
    University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.
    Huang, Tim Hui-Ming
    University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, USA.
    DNA Methylation Screening of Primary Prostate Tumors Identifies SRD5A2 and CYP11A1 as Candidate Markers for Assessing Risk of Biochemical Recurrence2015Ingår i: The Prostate, ISSN 0270-4137, E-ISSN 1097-0045, Vol. 75, nr 15, s. 1790-1801Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND. Altered DNA methylation in CpG islands of gene promoters has been implicated in prostate cancer (PCa) progression and can be used to predict disease outcome. In this study, we determine whether methylation changes of androgen biosynthesis pathway (ABP)-related genes in patients' plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) can serve as prognostic markers for biochemical recurrence (BCR). METHODS. Methyl-binding domain capture sequencing (MBDCap-seq) was used to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in primary tumors of patients who subsequently developed BCR or not, respectively. Methylation pyrosequencing of candidate loci was validated in cfDNA samples of 86 PCa patients taken at and/or post-radical prostatectomy (RP) using univariate and multivariate prediction analyses. RESULTS. Putative DMRs in 13 of 30 ABP-related genes were found between tumors of BCR (n = 12) versus no evidence of disease (NED) (n = 15). In silico analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas data confirmed increased DNA methylation of two loci-SRD5A2 and CYP11A1, which also correlated with their decreased expression, in tumors with subsequent BCR development. Their aberrant cfDNA methylation was also associated with detectable levels of PSA taken after patients' post-RP. Multivariate analysis of the change in cfDNA methylation at all of CpG sites measured along with patient's treatment history predicted if a patient will develop BCR with 77.5% overall accuracy. CONCLUSIONS. Overall, increased DNA methylation of SRD5A2 and CYP11A1 related to androgen biosynthesis functions may play a role in BCR after patients' RP. The correlation between aberrant cfDNA methylation and detectable PSA in post-RP further suggests their utility as predictive markers for PCa recurrence. (C) 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 158.
    Hossain, Monayem
    et al.
    Molecular Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Khatun, Most Amena
    Molecular Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Haque, Najmul
    Molecular Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Bari, Azizul
    Molecular Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh / Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Alam, Firoz
    Molecular Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kabir, Ahmad Humayan
    Molecular Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Silicon alleviates arsenic-induced toxicity in wheat through vacuolar sequestration and ROS scavenging2018Ingår i: International journal of phytoremediation, ISSN 1522-6514, E-ISSN 1549-7879, Vol. 20, nr 8, s. 796-804Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) is a phytotoxic element causing health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) alleviates As toxicity in wheat. The addition of Si under As-stress significantly improved morphophysiological characteristics, total protein, and membrane stability compared to As-stressed plants, suggesting that Si does have critical roles in As detoxification in wheat. Analysis of arsenate reductase activity and phytosiderophore (PS) release reveals their no involvement in the Si-mediated alleviation of As in wheat. Furthermore, Si supplementation in As-stressed plants showed a significant increase of As in roots but not in shoots compared with the plants grown under As stress. Further, gene expression analysis of two chelating molecules, TaPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and TaMT1 (metallothionein synthase) showed significant induction due to Si application under As stress compared with As-stressed plants. It is consistent with the physiological observations and suggests that alleviation of As toxicity in rice might be associated with As sequestration in roots leading to reduced As translocation in shoots. Furthermore, increased catalase, peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activities in roots imply the active involvement of reactive oxygen species scavenging for protecting wheat plants from As-induced oxidative injury. The study provides mechanistic evidence on the beneficial effect of Si on As toxicity in wheat plants.

  • 159.
    Howell, Daniel
    et al.
    Institute of Marine Research, Nordnes, Norway.
    Kempf, Alexander
    Thuenen Institute of Sea Fisheries, Hamburg, Germany.
    Bauer, Barbara
    Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Belgrano, Andrea
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Thorpe, Robert
    Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), Suffolk, United Kingdom.
    Vinther, Morten
    DTU-Aqua, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Bartolino, Valerio
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Pope, John
    NRC (Europe) Ltd.
    Lehuta, Sigrid
    French Institute of Research for the Exploitation of the sea (Ifremer), Nantes, France.
    Gaichas, Sarah
    NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods Hole, USA.
    Lucey, Sean
    Dept. of Commerce/NOAA/NMFS Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods Hole, USA.
    Norrström, Niclas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Spence, Michael
    Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Holmgren, Noél
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Villanueva, Ching
    French Institute of Research for the Exploitation of the Sea (Ifremer), Nantes, France.
    Poos, Jan Jaap
    Wageningen Marine Research, Ijmuiden, the Netherlands.
    Kulatska, Nataliia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Report of the Working Group on Multispecies Assessment Methods (WGSAM), 10-14 October 2016, Reykjavik, Iceland2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The Working Group on Multispecies Assessment Methods (WGSAM) met in Reykjavik, Iceland, 10–14 October 2016. In this tenth report of the pan-regional WGSAM, work focused on four (B, E, F, G) of the multi-annual ToRs.

    Based on their knowledge, participants provided an updated inventory of progress of multispecies models in ICES Ecoregions (ToR A), noting those regions where no information was available. Reporting on ToR A was scarce compared to previous years, partly because recent relevant work was reported against ToR E and G instead.

    A Key Run (ToR B) of the Baltic Sea Ecopath with Ecosim (NS-EwE) model was presented and reviewed in detail by 4 WGSAM experts, and approved by the group following implementation of changes agreed in plenary at the meeting and verified by the 4 experts in January. The Key Run is documented in a detail in Annex 3, with key outputs summarised in Section 3 and data files made available on the WGSAM webpage). WGSAM also conducted an informal review of the LeMans modelling framework for potential application in the Irish Sea, and recommended adjustments to the framework for further review. Because the LeMans framework is a within-model ensemble addressing parameter uncertainty, this review also related to ToR D.

    Multispecies model skill assessment (ToR C) and multi-model ensemble methods (ToR D) were not emphasized this year. However, plans were made to coordinate future work for ToR C, and one ToR D presentation reviewed the utility of a dynamic multimodel ensemble for making inferences about the real world. This method can infer results for individual components of aggregate groups; the ensemble model uses correlations in other ecosystem models to determine what the models that group species would have predicted for individual species. A proof of concept for the North Sea was presented.

    Ecosystem indicator analyses (ToR E) were presented from a wide range of ecosystems. A theoretical analysis comparing results from the Celtic and North Seas with 4 “idealized” fleets was presented to analyse the performance of selected indicators in a multispecies mixed fishery. Four indicators including the Large Fish Indicator (LFI) were examined, and shown to have mixed utility in measuring the impact of different fleet sectors, with the best indicator varying by ecosystem. A multivariate analysis of ecosystem responses to multiple drivers was conducted for four US ecosystems using gradient forest method to identify potential ecosystem thresholds. Other multivariate methods were reviewed that draw on the strengths of multiple indicators for the Northeast US shelf ecosystem. A food web based biodiversity indicator was presented with an application for the Baltic Sea. This could be extended to any ecosystem with an EwE or similar model. A community status indicator relating a species-area relationship to the LFI and mean trophic levels was presented for the Swedish west coast.

    Impacts of apex predators on fisheries (ToR F) were examined with one presentation and a group discussion planning further work. A multipecies production model was parameterized to simulate interactions between three fish guilds, fisheries, and one marine mammal guild, concluding that fish reference points and trajectories change with marine mammal interactions. Fishery management was also important to reduce vessel interactions with and ensure prey supply to marine mammals. 4 | ICES WGSAM REPORT 2016 Exploration of practical advice for fisheries management incorporating multispecies, mixed fishery, and environmental factors (ToR G) was evident across regions. Two approaches for incorporating species, fleet, environmental, and other interactions are in progress in the Northeast US. One presentation outlined the New England approach, and another outlined the Mid-Atlantic approach. In New England, a management strategy evaluation is in progress to evaluate harvest control rules that consider herring's role as forage in the ecosystem. The modelling framework and stakeholder workshops were discussed. In the Baltic, a Nash Equilibrium optimisation approach incorporating environmental factors was presented for the cod-herring-sprat fishery to attempt to identify a solution that would give good yield for all species simultaneously. In the North Sea a theoretical analysis using 4 “idealized” fleets was presented to analyse the potential implications of "Pretty Good Yield" ranges around MSY. The model examined the likelihood of the fishery being precautionary for the different species given the uncertainties involved, and concluded that the upper ends of MSY ranges would not guarantee precautionarity.

  • 160.
    Howell, Daniel
    et al.
    Institute of Marine Research, Nordnes, Norway.
    Kempf, Alexander
    Thuenen Institute of Sea Fisheries, Hamburg, Germany.
    Belgrano, Andrea
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. Aquatic Resources, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Thorpe, Robert
    Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Suffolk, United Kingdom.
    Vinther, Morten
    DTU-Aqua, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Bartolino, Valerio
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. Aquatic Resources, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Pope, John
    NRC (Europe) Ltd.
    Perez Rodriguez, Alfonso
    Wageningen Marine Research.
    Gaichas, Sarah
    NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods Hole, MA, USA.
    Cerviño, Santiago
    Instituto Españo de Oceanografia, Spain.
    Norrström, Niclas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Spence, Michael
    Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Suffolk, United Kingdom.
    Villanueva, Ching
    French Institute of Research for the Exploitation of the sea, Plouzané, France.
    Kulatska, Nataliia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Aquatic Resources, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Sturludottir, Erla
    Science Institution, University of Iceland, Iceland.
    Trijoulet, Vanessa
    Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods Hole, MA, USA.
    Rindorf, Anna
    DTU-Aqua, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Andonegi, Eider
    AZTI, Pasaia, Spain.
    Altuna, Miren
    AZTI, Pasaia, Spain.
    Sánchez Maroño, Sonia
    AZTI, Pasaia, Spain.
    Urtizberea, Agurtzane
    AZTI, Pasaia, Spain.
    Interim Report of the Working Group on Multispecies Assessment Methods (WGSAM)2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The pan-regional Working Group on Multispecies Assessment Methods (WGSAM) met in San Sebastian, Spain, 16–20 October 2017. In this eleventh report of the group, work focused on three of the multi-annual ToRs (B, C, D). Based on their knowledge, participants provided an updated inventory of progress of multispecies models in ICES Ecoregions (ToR A), noting those regions where no information was available. A Key Run (ToR B) of the North Sea Stochastic Multispecies Model (SMS) was presented and reviewed in detail by 4 WGSAM experts, and approved by the group following implementation of changes agreed in plenary at the meeting and verified by a subset of experts post-meeting. The Key Run is documented in detail in Annex for ToR B, with key outputs summarised in Section 5 and data files made available on the WGSAM webpage and the ICES expert group Github (https://github.com/iceseg/wg_WGSAM). Since the M2 values are used for the assessment of important North Sea stocks, it is recommended to publish the annex also on the official stock annex website. In addition, WGSAM does not recommend updating existing data series of natural mortality by simply adding the latest three new years. The timeseries as a whole shows patterns which are not retained by this procedure. Multispecies model skill assessment (ToR C) and multi-model ensemble methods (ToR D) were emphasized this year. Considerable progress has been made towards advancing both aspects of multispecies modelling. Investigation of skill assessment and ensemble methods and case studies is critical to ensure that outputs of multispecies assessment models are reliable for use in operational assessment and to inform management decisions. Progress was also made on investigations of top predator impacts on managed fish across several regions (ToR F), including the North Sea where new information was included in the SMS key run. Further progress was also made on multispecies and ecosystem level reference points and harvest control rules in mixed fisheries (ToR G).

  • 161.
    Howell, Daniel
    et al.
    Institute of Marine Research, Nordnes, Norway.
    Mackinson, Steve
    CEFAS, United Kingdom.
    Kempf, Alexander
    Thuenen Institute of Sea Fisheries, Hamburg, Germany.
    Rindorf, Anna
    DTU-Aqua, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Belgrano, Andrea
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden / Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment (SIME), Göteborg, Sweden.
    Thorpe, Robert
    Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), United Kingdom.
    Vinther, Morten
    DTU-Aqua, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Bartolino, Valerio
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Pope, John
    NRC (Europe) Ltd.
    Rodriguez, Alfonso Perez
    Institute of Marine Research, Nordnes, Norway.
    Garcia, Clement
    Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), United Kingdom.
    Lehuta, Sigrid
    French Institut of Research for the Exploitation of the Sea (Ifremer), Nantes, France .
    Kaplan, Isaac
    NOAA Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, USA.
    Gaichas, Sarah
    NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods Hole, USA.
    Kiersten, Curti
    NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods Hole, USA.
    Lucey, Sean
    Dept. of Commerce/NOAA/NMFS Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods Hole, USA.
    Gamble, Robert
    NOAA Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Woods Hole, USA.
    Cole, Harriet
    Marine Lab, Marine Scotland Science, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
    Lindstrom, Ulf
    Instittute of Marine Research, Tromsø, Norway.
    Holmgren, Noel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Villanueva, Ching
    French Institut of Research for the Exploitation of the Sea (Ifremer), Plouzané, France.
    Poos, Jan Jaap
    IMARES, IJmuiden, The Netherlands.
    Report of the Working Group on Multispecies Assessment Methods (WGSAM), 9–13 November 2015, Woods Hole, USA2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Three meetings were held between 2013 and 2015 (Stockholm, London and Woods Hole), with progress being made on all the Terms of Reference. WGSAM has been making significant contributions required to enable ICES to develop its capability to give advice on the ecosystem impacts of fishing and climate change. This is a priority area identified in the ICES strategic plan and is consistent with scientific needs to support implementation of the Common Fisheries Policy and Marine Strategy Framework Directive. This final report summarises the key progress made against each ToR. A particularly important area established during this period has been the discussions that have led to guidelines on quality assurance of ecosystem models in-tended for advice giving. WGSAM prepared a specific briefing on this issue and con-tinues to work on issues related to model review processes, model validation and developing methods for generating advice from multi-model ensembles. These are all important areas of work in the evolution toward giving integrated, ecosystem-based advice to ICES clients. We recommend that ICES supports continuation of WGSAM new ToRs and considers more specifically how to support WGSAM in developing advice relevant products.

  • 162.
    Huq, Laboni
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. a12labhu@student.his.se.
    Reality as simulation: A comparative study of the selfmodel theory of subjectivity and biological realism.2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The empirical study of consciousness is a young field still in its pre paradigmatic stage and so in need of a unifying framework. This comparative literature review examines two theories of consciousness, Thomas Metzinger’s the self-model theory of subjectivity and Antti Revonsuo’s Biological realism, theories which both try to provide such a framework for the science of consciousness. This paper gives an overview of some of the more central parts of each theory, along with criticism directed towards them. The paper show that these theories, although on the surface very similar, disagree on some fundamental philosophical questions due to differences in their underlying background assumptions. The theories also slightly differ in their view on some methodological questions, as well as in their view of certain aspects on consciousness.  

  • 163.
    Hurme, Mikko
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Railo, Henry
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Early processing in primary visual cortex is necessary for conscious and unconscious vision while late processing is necessary only for conscious vision in neurologically healthy humans2017Ingår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 150, s. 230-238Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The neural mechanisms underlying conscious and unconscious visual processes remain controversial. Blindsight patients may process visual stimuli unconsciously despite their VI lesion, promoting anatomical models, which suggest that pathways bypassing the VI support unconscious vision. On the other hand, physiological models argue that the major geniculostriate pathway via VI is involved in both unconscious and conscious vision, but in different time windows and in different types of neural activity. According to physiological models, feedforward activity via VI to higher areas mediates unconscious processes whereas feedback loops of recurrent activity from higher areas back to VI support conscious vision. With transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) it is possible to study the causal role of a brain region during specific time points in neurologically healthy participants. In the present study, we measured unconscious processing with redundant target effect, a phenomenon where participants respond faster to two stimuli than one even when one of the stimuli is not consciously perceived. We tested the physiological feedforward-feedback model of vision by suppressing conscious vision by interfering selectively either with early or later VI activity with TMS. Our results show that early VI activity (60 ms) is necessary for both unconscious and conscious vision. During later processing stages (90 ms), VI contributes selectively to conscious vision. These findings support the feedforward-feedback-model of consciousness.

  • 164.
    Hurme, Mikko
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Railo, Henry
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    V1 activity during feedforward and early feedback processing is necessary for both conscious and unconscious motion perception2019Ingår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 185, s. 313-321Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of blindsight has revealed a seminal dissociation between conscious vision and visually guided behavior: some patients who are blind due to V1 lesions seem to be able to employ unconscious visual information in their behavior. The standard assumption is that these findings generalize to the neurologically healthy. We tested whether unconscious processing of motion is possible without the contribution of V1 in neurologically healthy participants by disturbing activity in V1 using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Unconscious processing was measured with redundant target effect (RTE), a phenomenon where participants respond faster to two stimuli than to one stimulus, when the task is just to respond as fast as possible when one stimulus or two simultaneous stimuli are presented. We measured the RTE caused by a motion stimulus. V1 activity was interfered with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA) to test whether TMS delivered in a specific time window suppresses conscious perception (participant reports seeing only one of the two stimuli) but does not affect unconscious processing (RTE). We observed that at each SOA, when TMS suppressed conscious perception of the stimulus, the RTE was also eliminated. However, when visibility of the redundant target was suppressed with a visual mask, we found unconscious processing of motion. This suggests that unconscious processing of motion depends on V1 in neurologically healthy humans. We conclude that the neural mechanisms that enable motion processing in blindsight are modulated by neuroplastic changes in connectivity between subcortical areas and the visual cortex after the V1 lesion. Neurologically healthy observers cannot process motion unconsciously without functioning of V1. 

  • 165.
    Huynh, Yen Nhi
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Who am I?: The Neurobiology of the Big Five2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Personality is something that sets every human being apart, yet it is something that has been quite hard to pinpoint. Recently, neuroscientists have begun pinning down the neural correlates of personality traits – with focus on the Big Five, sparking a whole new subfield within personality research, known as personality neuroscience. By using neuroscientific methods and techniques to find the underpinnings of the Big Five have led to a deeper and broader understanding of how genetics and the environment integrate into making individuals who they are. This research has also been helpful in the prediction of various outcomes e.g. academic performance and achievement and neuropsychological disorders. In this thesis, the supposed neural correlates of the Big Five are examined through thorough and critical investigations, where evidence from some of the existing relevant studies is reviewed and compared, as well as the different problems and complexities that the field of personality neuroscience is dealing with. The findings in this thesis shows that extraversion has neurobiological basis in the frontal areas of the brain, neuroticism with reduced volume in the frontal areas, agreeableness with frontoparietal areas that are related to theory of mind as well as temporal regions, conscientiousness with frontal parts that are associated with planning and goal-orientation, and openness/intellect with frontoparietal areas as well as subcortical regions, which have been linked with intelligence and creativity. However, some of the correlations were inconsistent and scattered and further research needs to be done. The analysis of academic achievement and performance, as well as neuropsychological disorders and the Big Five with neuroimaging as a method, have shown to be limited, thus much more research is needed.

  • 166.
    Håkansson, Nina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Flisberg, P.
    Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Algers, B.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Annie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Rönnqvist, M.
    Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden / University Laval, Quebec City, Canada.
    Wennergren, U.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping, Sweden.
    Improvement of animal welfare by strategic analysis and logistic optimisation of animal slaughter transportation2016Ingår i: Animal Welfare, ISSN 0962-7286, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 255-263Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The transportation of animals to slaughterhouses is a major welfare concern. The number of slaughterhouses has decreased over time in Europe due to centralisation. This is expected to increase transport time for animals and as a consequence negatively affect animal welfare. We propose an optimisation model based on a facility location model to perform strategic analysis to improve transportation logistics. The model is tested on the Swedish slaughter transport system. We show that, by strategic planning and redirection of transports while keeping the slaughterhouse capacities as of the originaldata, the potential exists to reduce transport distance by 25% for pigs and 40% for cattle. Furthermore, we demonstrated that approximately 50% of Swedish slaughterhouses can be shut down with a minimal effect on total transport distances. This implies that in terms of the overall welfare picture, the decision of which animals to send where plays a for more significant role than the number of slaughterhouses. In addition, by changing relative weights on distances in the optimisation function the amount of individualtransports with longjourney times can be decreased. We also show results from altered slaughterhouse capacity and geographical location of slaughterhouses. This is the first time an entire country has been analysed in great detail with respect to the location, capacity and number of slaughterhouses. The focus is mainly on the analysis of unique and detailed information of actual animal transports in Sweden and a demonstration of the potential impact redirection of the transports and/ or altering of slaughterhouses can have on animal welfare.

  • 167.
    Höglind, Linnéa
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Grönfläckig padda - Tillväxt och metamorfos hos yngel2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete testades en hypotes som säger att yngel av grönfläckig padda (Bufo viridis) kan tänkas utsöndra en viss kemisk substans i vattnet för att hämma andra yngels tillväxt. Hypotesen grundades på en australiensisk studie av Crossland & Shine (2012). De gjorde en studie på yngel av agapadda (Rhinella marina) där de upptäckte att ynglen producerar en vattenburen kemisk substans i vattnet som hämmar tillväxten. Idén om att använda en grupp med enbart syskon och en grupp med yngel från flera honor kom av att det finns något som kallas för ”kin recognition”, vilket i försök visat att det finns arter som med hjälp av feromoner kan känna igen nära besläktade individer (Devall et al. 1986).Genom att jämföra två grupper med yngel där ena gruppen levde tillsammans med enbart sina syskon och den andra gruppen levde tillsammans med yngel från alla honor i försöket, kunde vi jämföra tillväxt i längd samt i vikt grupperna emellan. Efter tio veckor gjordes statistiska analyser på resultatet. Innan ynglen metamorferat mättes ynglens längd och efter metamorfosen vägdes i stället ynglen. Resultatet visade på att det fanns skillnader i längd men inte några säkerställda skillnader i vikt mellan grupperna. Att gruppen med enbart syskon visade på bättre tillväxt i längd skulle kunna bero på att de har råd att lägga energi på att bli längre och därmed har fördel inför metamorfosen. Blandgruppen där emot kanske lägger mer energi på att tillväxa i vikt och därmed har en fördel inför metamorfosen.

  • 168.
    Iinatti, Sara
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    En modell som förutsäger naturlig skogstyp utifrån geografik information2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sveriges yta täcks idag av närmare 60 % skog, varav större delen utnyttjas för skogsbruk. Hur skogsbruk ska bedrivas är omdiskuterat, och alternativa metoder till det dominerande trakthyggesbruket har utvecklats. Vissa av dessa metoder, t.ex. Lübeckmodellen, utgår från naturliga förutsättningar för att producera en skog som lämpar sig på en given plats.

    Syftet med denna studie är att utveckla en modell som med enkla GIS-data översiktligt kan prediktera naturliga skogstyper utifrån andra variabler än befintlig skog, då den skog som finns idag ofta är planterad och därför inte alltid avslöjar en plats naturliga skogstyp. Förhoppningen är att modellen ska kunna vara användbar vid skötsel av och omställning till naturlig skog.

    Studien baserades på skogsområden vars vegetation antogs vara naturlig (naturreservat, nyckelbiotoper o.dyl.) i Askersunds kommun, Örebro län. En additiv Generalized linear model (GZLM) har använts, och prediktionen baseras på jordmån, berggrund, höjddata och grundvattendata.

    Resultatet av första testet, baserat på de träningspunkter som utgjorde grunden för modellen, och av valideringen med nya, oberoende punkter från andra skogsområden, skiljer sig åt. Det första testet indikerar att prediktionen fungerar väl för flera av skogstyperna, medan valideringen ger motsatt bild och visar att prediktionen i praktiken inte fungerar.

    Om modellen vidareutvecklas och kan fungera skulle den kunna underlätta och effektivisera skötsel av skog, t.ex. vid kontinuerligt skogsbruk anpassat efter naturlig skogstyp. Fältarbetet skulle kunna koncentreras till områden som predikterats till lämplig skogstyp. 

  • 169.
    Isaacs, Sofie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    How hardwired are we against threats?: An EDA study comparing modern and evolutionary fear-relevant stimuli.2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The threat superiority effect refers to an ability to quickly and efficiently detect threatening cues in one’s environment. Hence, ensuing and appropriate behavioral defense responses entail greater chances of survival for an organism. Some researchers argue that natural selection has led us to automatically prioritize threats that would have been salient during the period of evolutionary adaptation; as for example snakes. However, others have also argued that activation of our defense response system is more flexible, thus able to also be triggered to dangers of more recent age: such as guns or airplane crashes. The present study has sought to impact this debate, by measuring the electrodermal activity (EDA) – more specifically the skin conductance responses (SCRs) – of subjects who were visually presented with both evolutionary (snakes and spiders) and modern (guns and knives) fear-relevant stimuli. The results demonstrated no significant difference between the two categories within subjects, suggesting that both evolutionary and modern threatening cues activate the defense response system in a similar manner. Although the results are preliminary, and would need further verification in higher powered studies, they can be seen to favor the view that our defense response system is flexibly adaptive in relation to the age of a given threat.

  • 170.
    Isaacs, Sofie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Roles of the Amygdala and the Hippocampus in Fear Conditioning2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The amygdala, a small structure located deep bilaterally in the medial temporal lobe, is the key structure for the emotional processing and storage of memories associated with emotional events, especially fear. The structure has also been shown to enable humans and animals to detect and respond to environmental threats. Fear conditioning became the main model to examine the neural substrates of emotional learning in mammals and specifically in rats’. With the fear conditioning method, researchers can tests rats’, responses to aversive stimuli during the delivery of a cue and then measure how the responses change after learning of the association between the stimuli and the cue. After learning of the two stimuli, the delivery of a cue alone will prompt a fear response in the rats. The fear response can also be elicited by placing the rats in the same chamber in which the aversive stimuli has previously been experienced, which depends on both the amygdala and the hippocampus. Where the amygdala stores the memories of stimulus related to fear, the hippocampus seems to hold all the fear memories in relation to contextual information about the stimulus. The aim of this paper will be to make a comprehensive overview of internal neural processes of both the amygdala and hippocampus and the interaction between the two structures during fear conditioning, to see how the structures separately work to overlap emotion and memory processes.

  • 171.
    Islam, Md Shofikul
    et al.
    University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh / Islamic University, Kushtia-7003, Bangladesh.
    Mohanto, Nayan Chandra
    University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh.
    Karim, Md Rezaul
    Islamic University, Kushtia-7003, Bangladesh.
    Aktar, Sharmin
    University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh.
    Hoque, Md Mominul
    University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Atiqur
    University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh.
    Jahan, Momotaj
    University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh.
    Khatun, Rabeya
    University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh.
    Aziz, Abdul
    University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh.
    Abdus Salam, Kazi
    University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh / National institutes of Health, Bethesda, USA.
    Saud, Zahangir Alam
    University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Mostaque
    Kaliganj Upazila Health Complex, Gazipur, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Aminur
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Haque, Azizul
    Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.
    Miyataka, Hideki
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Japan.
    Himeno, Seiichiro
    Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Japan.
    Hossain, Khaled
    Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Elevated concentrations of serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and their associations with circulating markers of cardiovascular diseases in chronic arsenic-exposed individuals2015Ingår i: Environmental health, ISSN 1476-069X, E-ISSN 1476-069X, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikel-id 92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and cancers are the major causes of chronic arsenic exposure-related morbidity and mortality. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and −9 (MMP-9) are deeply involved in the pathogenesis of CVDs and cancers. This study has been designed to evaluate the interactions of arsenic exposure with serum MMP-2 and MMP-9 concentrations especially in relation to the circulating biomarkers of CVDs.

    Methods: A total of 373 human subjects, 265 from arsenic-endemic and 108 from non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. Arsenic concentrations in the specimens were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and serum MMPs were quantified by immunoassay kits.

    Results: Serum MMP-2 and MMP-9 concentrations in arsenic-endemic population were significantly (p < 0.001) higher than those in non-endemic population. Both MMPs showed significant positive interactions with drinking water (rs = 0.208, p < 0.001 for MMP-2; rs = 0.163, p <0.01 for MMP-9), hair (rs= 0.163, p < 0.01 for MMP-2; rs = 0.173, p < 0.01 for MMP-9) and nail (rs= 0.160, p < 0.01 for MMP-2; rs = 0.182, p < 0.001 for MMP-9) arsenic of the study subjects. MMP-2 concentrations were 1.02, 1.03 and 1.05 times, and MMP-9 concentrations were 1.03, 1.06 and 1.07 times greater for 1 unit increase in log-transformed water, hair and nail arsenic concentrations, respectively, after adjusting for covariates (age, sex, BMI, smoking habit and hypertension). Furthermore, both MMPs were increased dose-dependently when the study subjects were split into three (≤10, 10.1-50 and > 50 μg/L) groups based on the regulatory upper limit of water arsenic concentration set by WHO and Bangladesh Government. MMPs were also found to be significantly (p < 0.05) associated with each other. Finally, the concentrations of both MMPs were correlated with several circulating markers related to CVDs.

    Conclusions: This study showed the significant positive associations and dose–response relationships of arsenic exposure with serum MMP-2 and MMP-9 concentrations. This study also showed the interactions of MMP-2 and MMP-9 concentrations with the circulating markers of CVDs suggesting the MMP-2 and MMP-9 -mediated mechanism of arsenic-induced CVDs.

  • 172.
    Jaconelli, Victoria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Grupper och Grupprestationer ur ett Neurovetenskapligt Perspektiv2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grupper och grupprestationer har studerats länge utifrån olika perspektiv och discipliner, vilket har gett upphov till ett flertal teorier och förklaringsmodeller som innefattar olika tillvägagångssätt för hur grupper kan studeras. I denna uppsats förklaras begreppen grupper, grupprocesser och grupprestationer utifrån olika perspektiv och discipliner innan ett neurovetenskapligt perspektiv på grupper och grupprestationer antas. Detta för att redogöra för hur kognitiv neurovetenskap och neurovetenskapliga mätmetoder som electroencephalography (EEG) och functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) kan förhålla sig till forskning på grupper, grupprocesser och grupprestationer. Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva hur grupper kan studeras utifrån ett neurovetenskapligt perspektiv samt hur kognitiv neurovetenskap kan komplettera studier på grupper och grupprestationer. Först presenteras en förklaring på vad grupper, grupprocesser och grupprestationer är, inklusive en redogörelse för relevanta begrepp som ledarskap, gruppsammanhållning och gruppkognition. Detta följs sedan av hur grupper och grupprestationer kan studeras ytterligare med ett neurovetenskapligt perspektiv, för att avslutas med problematik och möjligheter för kognitiv neurovetenskap inom forskningsfältet.

  • 173.
    Jahic, Sani
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Functional investigation of the potential therapeutic target gene DLG2 in an11q-deleted neuroblastoma cell line and effects of 1,25 vitamin D3 and retinoic acid combination treatments2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroblastoma as a pediatric tumor develops in the sympathetic nervous system. DLG2 is a gene that encodes a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family and it resides in the chromosome region 11q. SK-N-AS is a neuroblastoma cell line with 11q deletion and consequently only one copy of the potential tumor suppressor gene DLG2. This study investigated synergistic effect by a combination treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 and the vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid.  Separately, SK-N-AS cells was transfected with expression vector pcDNA3.1+‐DYK that contained the DLG2-gene, followed by monitoring cell proliferation and qPCR, investigating the expression of the genes DLG2, DLG3, DLG4, VDR and PDIA3. Simultaneously, effects of knocked-down of DLG2, by siRNA transfection was monitored.  Transfection of expression plasmid with the DLG2 gene increased significantly gene expression in SK-N-AS cells with significant inhibition of the proliferation rate. Furthermore, silencing of DLG2 gene had no effect on the cell growth as well. Slower cell growth showed in combination treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 (1nM) and 9-cis RA after 48 hours of treatment. Down-regulated VDR and possible missing RARRES3 could be the reason why SK-N-AS cell line showed resistance to the combination treatment with vitamin metabolites. All these results raised the question if another vitamin D synthetic analog could be a better choice for the future study of SK-N-AS cells. Moreover, overexpression of NAIP, large amounts of IGF-II, or not responsive RXR-VDR heterodimer to 1,25(OH)2D3 could be a potential explanation for the SK-N-AS cell unresponsiveness to the treatment.

  • 174.
    Jedbäck, William
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Personality and Neurobiology: A Review of Fronto-Limbic Structural and Functional Connectivity in Neuroticism2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The five-factor model is the most prominent theory in personality science which aspire to understand the thoughts, feelings and behavior of individuals, determined by five relatively stable domains. Neuroticism, defined as a higher threat reactivity and susceptibility to negative affect, is one domain which has proven problematic for well-being, and has estimated societal costs of approximately 2.5 times that of common mental disorder per 1 million inhabitants. Problem: The neural correlates of neuroticism could supply research with a fundamental base of understanding the trait, however, due to scattered founding’s of segregated activity in brain structures relative to neuroticism, meta-analyses argue that increased understanding of global rather than local organization, could be more fruitful for the investigation. Methodology: Since neuroticism is convergent with emotional instability, two structures of interest with regards to global organization are the amygdala, crucial for emotion generation, and the prefrontal cortex (PFC), responsible for emotion interpretation and emotion regulation. Reviewing brain imaging research conducted with emphasis on integrative communication between the amygdala and the PFC in individuals with high trait neuroticism has therefore been the main objective of this thesis. Results/conclusion: According to the investigated research there is compromised structural integrity correlated with neuroticism, while the research on functional communication between the structures explored is not yet sufficiently covered to supply a satisfactory answer. Some of these neurobiological findings are in line with personality science observation in neuroticism, and could hence contribute to the investigation. However, more research is warranted in this field of neuroscience.

  • 175.
    Jensen, Magnus J. C.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The antecedents of free will: The importance of concept heterogeneity inresearch interpretation and discussion2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific research on free will was started by Libet et al. (1982). They detected that thereadiness potential (RP) proceeded urges with up to 350ms. One interpretation of the RP wasthat it represented motor planning. The research progress of antecedent brain activity inrelation to conscious urges is investigated by looking at contemporary studies. How differentassumptions and definitions of the free will concept influences interpretation of these studiesis also discussed. The evidence is in favor that the RP is not representing motor planning.Antecedent activity has been detected with numerous technologies, most notably fMRIclassifiers which have been used to predict decisions in advance. Scrutiny of these resultsreveals that the experimental setups are dependent on time-locking trials which may construethe results. It is shown that predictions based on probabilistic antecedents can be interpretedin numerous ways. The review shows that free will positions differ from each other onseveral factors, such as whether free will is either-or or exists on a spectrum. Some notablepositions are not dependent on antecedent activity at all. The notion of control is one of thepivotal factors deciding if a subject experience free will, not if they are the causer per se.Future discussion will be improved by systematizing the differences between the free willpositions and communicating them clearly. Convergent evidence points at the explanatorymodel of free will being a cognitive feeling – A feeling which reports ownership over actionsbut does not cause them.

  • 176.
    Johansson, Anna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Plasma metabolite biomarkers associated with different meat consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: A case-control study nested within a northern Swedish cohort2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous epidemiological studies show that processed meat consumption is associated to type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the results are less consistent for unprocessed meat and poultry intake. However, in the studies the meat consumption has been estimated through self-reporting using questionnaires. This method is known to suffer from measurement errors, which may lead to dubious observed diet-disease associations. Dietary biomarkers may be used as more objective instruments of specific meat intake. Therefore, the aim in this study was to (1) identify plasma metabolites associated to total, processed, unprocessed meat and poultry intake, and (2) to investigate their associations with the risk of developing T2D. Furthermore, a correlation analysis was performed to elucidate dietary patterns related to the reported meat intakes and their metabolites. Through multivariate modelling, panels of 22, 22, 15 and 19 metabolites where selected, that mirrors total, processed, unprocessed meat and poultry intake, respectively. Ridge predictive modelling was performed generating metabolite scores reflective of the diverse meat consumptions. These scores and the reported meat intakes were used in conditional logistic regression for the assessment of their association with risk of developing T2D. Both the processed metabolite scores and reported intakes were associated with higher risk of developing T2D, whereas the unprocessed meat, poultry scores and associated intakes were not. In conclusion, assessments of plasma metabolite scores appears promising as objective measurements of dietary meat intakes and could be used as a complement to the questionnaires. Results need to be validated in independent cohorts.

  • 177.
    Johansson, Lennart F.
    et al.
    University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    de Weerd, Hendrik A.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    de Boer, Eddy N.
    University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    van Dijk, Freerk
    University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Te Meerman, Gerard J.
    University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Sijmons, Rolf H.
    University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit
    University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Swertz, Morris A.
    University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    NIPTeR: an R package for fast and accurate trisomy prediction in non-invasive prenatal testing2018Ingår i: BMC Bioinformatics, ISSN 1471-2105, E-ISSN 1471-2105, Vol. 19, nr 1, artikel-id 531Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Various algorithms have been developed to predict fetal trisomies using cell-free DNA in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). As basis for prediction, a control group of non-trisomy samples is needed. Prediction accuracy is dependent on the characteristics of this group and can be improved by reducing variability between samples and by ensuring the control group is representative for the sample analyzed.

    RESULTS: NIPTeR is an open-source R Package that enables fast NIPT analysis and simple but flexible workflow creation, including variation reduction, trisomy prediction algorithms and quality control. This broad range of functions allows users to account for variability in NIPT data, calculate control group statistics and predict the presence of trisomies.

    CONCLUSION: NIPTeR supports laboratories processing next-generation sequencing data for NIPT in assessing data quality and determining whether a fetal trisomy is present. NIPTeR is available under the GNU LGPL v3 license and can be freely downloaded from https://github.com/molgenis/NIPTeR or CRAN.

  • 178.
    Johansson, Martin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Visual Attentional Capture Resists Modulation in Singleton Search under Verbal Working Memory Load2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual attentional capture is a form of visual attentional selection that is automatic and involuntary in nature, and is of high adaptive value as it allows visual attention to be oriented in a reflexive manner towards visual information without necessarily being guided by pre-existing knowledge, goals, and plans. According to the load-hypothesis (Lavie & De Fockert, 2005), attentional capture of salient stimuli increases under load on working memory due to disruption of stimulus-processing priorities. Moreover, it has been proposed that maintenance of task-irrelevant verbal information increases distractor interference in singleton search by increasing attentional capture of salient, but task-irrelevant, color singletons. This hypothesis was tested in the present study by having participants complete several succeeding trials of singleton search while simultaneously maintaining digits in working memory. The presence of task-irrelevant color singletons in the search array of a singleton search task led to increased response times, indicating attentional capture. However, the cost to response times associated with distractor presence did not increase under load on working memory, indicating that distractor interference may not be affected by load on working memory when task-irrelevant verbal information is maintained over an extended period of time. Individual differences in action video game playing and trait anxiety were considered and excluded as possible confounders.

  • 179.
    Johansson, Ruben
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Science of Deception and fMRI Lie-Detection2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Deception has long been of interest to humans, but only recently has the neuroscience of deception started. Similarly, lie-detection, as an applied aspect of the study of deception, has long been studied but only with the advent of imaging techniques and the development of the neuroscience of deception has it become possible to develop techniques based on scanningour brains. Currently, both areas suffer from methodological and philosophical problems. As an applied science fMRI lie-detection has greater issues to deal with, specifically legal and ethical issues. Despite interesting results, implicating frontal regions as the neural correlates of deception, the neuroscience of deception need better designs and more study to be able to draw any general inferences. By its nature fMRI lie-detection suffers greatly from this, and additional problems concerning privacy and legality make it seem too early to implement it incourt or anywhere, as stated by many scientists. On the other hand the technology already exists and is likely to be used.

  • 180.
    Joneken, Isabelle
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Empathy and Ethnicity: The Ethnic Empathy Bias2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to overview studies examining the effect ethnicity has on the neural and physiological responses associated with empathy and the underlying mechanisms behind this effect.  It has been revealed that ethnicity can modulate the empathic responses in that faster physiological arousal and greater sensorimotor resonance occurs during the perception of own ethnic members in suffering. A reduction and even total absence of activity in empathy-associated brain regions such as anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, temporo partial junction and medial prefrontal cortex has further been seen during the perception of other ethnic members in pain. There have however been studies where ethnicity has not had an effect on empathic responses, indicating that it might not be ethnicity per se but instead other underlying mechanisms that causes the difference in empathic responses. There is an ongoing debate on which these mechanisms might be. It has been suggested that it might be attitudes, similarity and familiarity with the target, general ingroup bias, differences in perceptual processes and culture. The thesis will end with a discussion on how the results can be interpreted, the implications of the results, proposals for future research directions and a conclusion.

  • 181.
    Jones, Madeleine
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Empathy for pain and its modulating factors2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis deals with the concept of empathy for pain, its neurobiological underpinnings and modulations of the phenomenon. Empathy for pain is understood as the empathic response that occurs when recognising another in pain and entails at least the affective processes of actually felt pain in oneself. Cortical areas of importance for empathy for pain are the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex. Moreover, the phenomenon is correlated with high levels of empathy, as established by behavioural self-reports. Further, empathy for pain has been shown to be highly susceptible to modulatory factors giving rise to changes in the empathic response. Perceived fairness, perspective taking, intent and out-groups are all factors that can evoke change in the subsequent empathy for pain responses in humans. These modulatory factors provide insight into in- and out-group mechanisms. Cognitive strategies can regulate a diminished empathy for pain response, although further research is needed on how to cultivate and strengthen our ability to have empathy for another’s pain.

  • 182.
    Jones, Madeleine
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Visual Perception of the Facial Width-to-Height Ratio: Possible Influences of Angry Facial Expressions as Revealed by Event-Related Brain Potentials2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is a measure of the cheekbone width divided by the height of the face from the upper lip to the brows. The metric is hypothesised to have evolved as an intra-sexual competition mechanism in males, where large fWHRs are thought to signal both threat and aggression. The fWHR is suggested to subtly resemble angry facial expressions, which, in turn, also signal threat. The late positive potential (LPP) and the vertex positive potential (VPP) are two event-related potentials (ERPs) especially sensitive to emotional content. Studies have also found that viewing angry compared to neutral facial expressions elicit a stronger response on the LPP. However, no study has tested how responses to the fWHR and angry facial expressions elicit changes in the LPP or VPP. In this study, participants firstly rated how threatening faces were with either low or high fWHRs with neutral or angry facial expressions. Secondly, EEG-activity was recorded during a picture-viewing task of the same faces. In the first task, participants rated the faces with angry facial expressions as more threatening compared to all other faces, regardless of fWHR, although the high fWHRs were rated as more threatening than the low fWHRs. In the second task, LPP and VPP mean amplitudes were significantly higher for the angry, high fWHR face compared to all other faces tested. This suggests that an additive effect of both angry facial expressions and high fWHRs together creates the highest threat level in both subjective ratings as well as in ERP mean amplitudes. Further ERP research is needed on the relationship between fWHRs and anger to establish how the two features work both separately and together.

  • 183.
    Jonsson, Annie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Vetenskaplig utvärdering av åtgärdseffekter mot almsjukan inom projektet LifeELMIAS: Rapport till Naturvårdsverket 2017-10-312017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    EU-projektet ”LifeELMIAS - Saving wooded Natura 2000 habitats from invasive alien fungi species on the Island of Gotland, Sweden” startade i augusti 2013 och avslutas under 2018. Projektet har haft sitt fokus på att bekämpa och i bästa fall utrota almsjukan på Gotland, samt långsiktigt skydda och bevara den biologiska mångfalden som är speciellt knuten till alm och även ask. Projektet drivs av Skogsstyrelsen med flera samarbetspartners bland annat Naturvårdsverket. Från 2013 har bekämpningsåtgärderna finansierats i projektet LifeElmias och det kostar i medeltal 5 miljoner kronor per år. För att kunna ta ställning till hur almsjukan ska hanteras på Gotland efter projektavslut har Naturvårdsverket beställt följande utvärdering. I uppdraget har det ingått att sammanställa vad som genomförts i LifeElmias och vilka slutsatser man kan göra, samt en diskussion om framtida möjligheter.

     

    Så snart almsjukan upptäcktes på Gotland 2005 sattes bekämpningsåtgärder in som har pågått fram till idag. Till och med 2009 spred sig sjukdomen mycket snabbt på ön. Därefter har den stoppats upp och dess spridningstakt har inte ökat signifikant sedan dess. Det finns tyvärr inget som tyder på att det skulle vara möjligt att utrota sjukdomen på Gotland. Ett uppehåll i bekämpningen kommer att innebära att almsjukan återigen går in i en starkt växande fas. Då skulle upp till 90% av almbeståndet kunna slås ut på bara några år. Fram till idag har endast 3% av beståndet på 1 miljon almar insjuknat. Almarterna dör inte ut helt om man slutar med bekämpningen men förekomsterna kommer till största delen bestå av unga träd och buskartade bestånd. Vilken total effekt det har på den biologiska mångfalden generellt går inte att förutsäga. Artsammansättningen kommer dock att förändras och populationsstorlekar påverkas i både negativ och positiv riktning.

     

    Den hittills mest effektiva metoden att bekämpa almsjukan har varit att upptäcka sjuka träd och destruera dem. Nya möjligheter med fjärranalys för att inventera finns inom räckhåll och med hjälp av ekologisk geografisk modellering skulle man kunna finna strategier för att effektivisera kontrollen eller upprätta skyddszoner för specifikt bevarande av almbestånden inom Natura 2000-områdena. Både fjärranalys och ekologisk modellering kräver dock ett utvecklingsarbete med anpassningar för de specifika situationerna med almsjuka, Gotlands geografi, klimat med flera faktorer. Men dessa metoder skulle långsiktigt kunna effektivisera arbetet och minska kostnaderna för ett fortsatt kontrollprogram.

  • 184.
    Jonsson, Annie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Bertilsson, Ann
    Örnborg Kyrkander Biologi och Miljö AB.
    Ökad biologisk mångfald och renare vatten med livskraftiga stormusselbestånd i Göta älvs vattensystem: Dagens situation och åtgärder för att minska vattenkraftens negativa påverkan2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Göta älv är Sveriges största vattendrag. Älven används av många olika intressen. Människan utnyttjande av älven påverkar dock vattenekosystemen negativt. Sötvattenslevande stormusslor har drabbats hårt av människans exploatering av vattendrag och mark kring vattendrag. De är betydelsefulla organismer som tillhandahåller flera ekosystemtjänster.

    Projektets första mål har varit att samla in kunskap om alla de stora sötvattensmusselarternas förekomster i Göta älvs vattensystem (biflöden) från Vänern till havet. Det finns stora kunskapsluckor över musslornas förekomster i Sverige, särskilt de mer vanligt förekommande arterna. Projektets andra mål har varit att samla in miljödata och analysera vilka eventuella miljöproblem som påverkar musselförekomsterna i de olika delarna av vattensystemet. Utifrån resultaten har vi diskuterat olika åtgärder och prioriteringar i generella drag och även kort för respektive biflödessystem.

    Resultatet visar att musselförekomsterna är få och svaga. Musslor har påträffats i knappt en tredjedel av de undersökta 201 lokalerna. Musslor har bara påträffats i 10 av de 25 undersökta biflödessystemen. Positivt är dock att fynd har gjorts av alla de fem arterna allmän dammussla, större dammussla, flat dammussla, spetsig målarmussla och flodpärlmussla. Föryngring har också förekommit någonstans i systemet av dessa arter. Alltså har vi möjlighet att handla!

    Projektet har finasierats av Naturskyddsföreningen och Göta älvs vattenvårdsförbund.

  • 185.
    Jonsson, Annie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Toräng, Per
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Utvärdering av Hornborgasjöns restaurering: måluppfyllelse och effekter på biologisk mångfald med fokus på vegetation och fågelfauna2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hornborgasjön räknas idag som en av Sveriges rikaste fågelsjöar och är internationellt utpekad som en av Sveriges värdefullaste våtmarker. Sjön har stor betydelse som både rast- och häckplats för en mängd fågelarter. Området är också av stort intresse för friluftslivet och som ett levande kulturlandskap. Under de senaste 150 åren har Hornborgasjön genomgått stora förändringar. En serie av sjösänkningar under 1800 och 1900-talen ledde till kraftig igenväxning och följdes av ett storskaligt restaureringsprojekt i senare tid. Syftet med Hornborgasjöns restaurering var att säkerställa Hornborgasjöns framtid som fågelsjö. Restaureringen är ett av Sveriges största naturvårdsprojekt. I denna rapport har vi utvärderat hur Hornborgasjöns restaurering påverkat vegetation och fågelfauna. Syftet var att analysera om och till vilken grad de biologiska målen med restaureringen uppnåtts.För att utvärdera måluppfyllelsen har vi i första hand jämfört olika naturtypers utbredning mellan åren 1905 och 2010 samt förändringar i fågelfaunan under flera tidsperioder. Analyser av vegetationskartor visar att vass- och buskområden kraftigt reducerats och att en stor öppen vattenspegel och omgivande mader återskapats. Våtmarksfåglarnas numerär har generellt sett återhämtat sig från igenväxningsperioden och är för vissa arter till och med större än vid förra sekelskiftet. För vissa naturtyper och fågelarter, som till exempel vassområden och häckande vadare, är dagens situation dock inte i linje med målen. Det står ändå klart att det övergripande målet och många av de mer specifika delmålen har uppfyllts så att Hornborgasjön idag är en levande våtmark med stort antal häckande och rastande fågelarter.I analyser av fågeldata från senare tid finns indikationer på negativa trender som man behöver vara observant på för att för framtiden säkra en biologiskt rik Hornborgasjö. En utmaning för denna utvärdering har dock varit bristen på högkvalitativa och jämförbara data att basera analyserna på. Vi belyser därför vikten av att ha ett fungerande övervakningssystem som kontinuerligt följer upp statusen i ekosystemet.

  • 186.
    Jonsson, Annie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Wennergren, Uno
    Linköping University, Linköpings Universitet.
    Approximations of population growth in a noisy environment: on the dichotomy of non-age and age structure2019Ingår i: Theoretical Ecology, ISSN 1874-1738, E-ISSN 1874-1746, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 99-110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 187.
    Jonsson, Malin K. B.
    et al.
    Genome Institute of Singapore, Genome, Singapore.
    van Veen, Toon A. B.
    Department of Medical Physiology, Division of Heart & Lungs, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Synnergren, Jane
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för naturvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Becker, Bruno
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Towards Creating the Perfect In Vitro Cell Model2016Ingår i: Stem Cells International, ISSN 1687-9678, Vol. 2016, artikel-id 3459730Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 188.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Conditions for Eltonian Pyramids in Lotka-Volterra Food Chains2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikel-id 10912Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In ecological communities consumers (excluding parasites and parasitoids) are in general larger and less numerous than their resource. This results in a well-known observation known as 'Eltonian pyramids' or the ` pyramid of numbers', and metabolic arguments suggest that this pattern is independent of the number of trophic levels in a system. At the same time, Lotka-Volterra (LV) consumer-resource models are a frequently used tool to study many questions in community ecology, but their capacity to produce Eltonian pyramids has not been formally analysed. Here, I address this knowledge gap by investigating if and when LV food chain models give rise to Eltonian pyramids. I show that Eltonian pyramids are difficult to reproduce without density-dependent mortality in the consumers, unless biologically plausible relationships between mortality rate and interaction strength are taken into account.

  • 189.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Metabolic theory predicts animal self-thinning2017Ingår i: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 86, nr 3, s. 645-653Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]
    1. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) predicts observed patterns in ecology based on metabolic rates of individuals. The theory is influential but also criticized for a lack of firm empirical evidence confirming MTE's quantitative predictions of processes, e.g. outcome of competition, at population or community level.
    2. Self-thinning is a well-known population level phenomenon among plants, but a much less studied phenomenon in animal populations and no consensus exists on what a universal thinning slope for animal populations might be, or if it exists.
    3. The goal of this study was to use animal self-thinning as a tool to test population-level predictions from MTE, by analysing (i) if self-thinning can be induced in populations of house crickets (Acheta domesticus) and (ii) if the resulting thinning trajectories can be predicted from metabolic theory, using estimates of the species-specific metabolic rate of A. domesticus.
    4. I performed a laboratory study where the growth of A. domesticus was followed, from hatching until emergence as adults, in 71 cohorts of five different starting densities.
    5. Ninety-six per cent of all cohorts in the three highest starting densities showed evidence of self-thinning, with estimated thinning slopes in general being remarkably close to that expected under metabolic constraints: A cross-sectional analysis of all data showing evidence of self-thinning produced an ordinary least square (OLS) slope of −1·11, exactly that predicted from specific metabolic allometry of A. domesticus. This result is furthermore supported by longitudinal analyses, allowing for independent responses within cohorts, producing a mean OLS slope across cohorts of −1·13 and a fixed effect linear mixed effects models slope of −1·09. Sensitivity analysis showed that these results are robust to how the criterion for on-going self-thinning was defined. Finally, also as predicted by metabolic theory, temperature had a negative effect on the thinning intercept, producing an estimate of the activation energy identical to that suggested by MTE.
    6. This study demonstrates a direct link between the metabolic rate of individuals and a population-level ecological process and as such provides strong support for research that aims to integrate body mass, via its effect on metabolism, consumption and competition, into models of populations and communities.
  • 190.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berg, Sofia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Division of Theoretical Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Emmerson, Mark
    School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.
    Pimenov, Alexander
    Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Lee Road, Cork, Ireland / Weierstrass Institute, Berlin, Germany.
    The context dependency of species keystone status during food web disassembly2015Ingår i: Food Webs, ISSN 2352-2496, Vol. 5, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 191.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Dept of Ecology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berg, Sofia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Dept of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Div. of Theoretical Biology, Linköping Univ., Linköping, Sweden.
    Pimenov, Alexander
    Environmental Res. Inst., Univ. College Cork, Cork, Ireland / Weierstrass Inst., Berlin, Germany.
    Palmer, Catherine
    Environmental Res. Inst., Univ. College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Emmerson, Mark
    School of Biological Sciences, Queen's Univ. Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    The reliability of R50 as a measure of vulnerability of food webs to sequential species deletions2015Ingår i: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 124, nr 4, s. 446-457Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 192.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kaartinen, Riikka
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Mattias
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Predictive power of food web models based on body size decreases with trophic complexity2018Ingår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 702-712Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Food web models parameterised using body size show promise to predict trophic interaction strengths (IS) and abundance dynamics. However, this remains to be rigorously tested in food webs beyond simple trophic modules, where indirect and intraguild interactions could be important and driven by traits other than body size. We systematically varied predator body size, guild composition and richness in microcosm insect webs and compared experimental outcomes with predictions of IS from models with allometrically scaled parameters. Body size was a strong predictor of IS in simple modules (r(2)=0.92), but with increasing complexity the predictive power decreased, with model IS being consistently overestimated. We quantify the strength of observed trophic interaction modifications, partition this into density-mediated vs. behaviour-mediated indirect effects and show that model shortcomings in predicting IS is related to the size of behaviour-mediated effects. Our findings encourage development of dynamical food web models explicitly including and exploring indirect mechanisms.

  • 193.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Setzer, Malin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    A freshwater predator hit twice by effects of warming across trophic levels2015Ingår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 6, artikel-id 5992Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 194.
    Junnarkara, Manisha V.
    et al.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Thakarea, Prasad M.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Yewalea, Priti P.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Rahman, Aminur
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Evaluation of Probiotic Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Different Sources in Western India2018Ingår i: Food biotechnology, ISSN 0890-5436, E-ISSN 1532-4249, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 112-129Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lactic acid bacteria isolated from unconventional sources are often attractive targets in the quest for obtaining better probiotics. In the present study, 16 members of the genus Lactobacillus, isolated from 3 different sources in western India, viz., plants, fermented foods and beverages, and human feces, were evaluated for their probiotic and bioactive properties. The isolates were closely related to Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and mainly Lactobacillus plantarum. The isolates were tolerant to bile salt, acidic pH and pancreatin, although pancreatin tolerance was generally low. Cellular extracts of several isolates displayed antioxidant activity, while cell-free supernatants displayed antibacterial activity against human pathogens. Antioxidant activity of Lactobacilli of human origin was higher than those from vegetables or fermented foods and beverages. L. plantarum AG40V prevented spoilage of fresh-cut fruits, vegetables and sprouted mung-beans. Lactobacilli from all sources displayed equal probiotic potential and those of human origin displayed superior antioxidant activity over others.

  • 195.
    Jurcevic, Sanja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    MicroRNA expression profiling in endometrial adenocarcinoma2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 196.
    Jurcevic, Sanja
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Olsson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Ejeskär, Katarina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Verification of microRNA expression in human endometrial adenocarcinoma2016Ingår i: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 16, nr 1, artikel-id 261Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 197.
    Jurcevic, Sanja
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Olsson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    MicroRNA expression in human endometrial adenocarcinoma2014Ingår i: Cancer Cell International, ISSN 1475-2867, E-ISSN 1475-2867, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikel-id 88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of different cancer types. The aim of this study was to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed in endometrial adenocarcinoma compared to healthy endometrium. These miRNAs can potentially be used to develop a panel for classification and prognosis in order to better predict the progression of the disease and facilitate the choice of treatment strategy.

    METHODS: Formalin fixed paraffin embedded endometrial tissue samples were collected from the Örebro university hospital. QPCR was used to quantify the expression levels of 742 miRNAs in 30 malignant and 20 normal endometrium samples. After normalization of the qPCR data, miRNAs differing significantly in expression between normal and cancer samples were identified, and hierarchical clustering analysis was used to identify groups of miRNAs with coordinated expression profiles.

    RESULTS: In comparisons between endometrial adenocarcinoma and normal endometrium samples 138 miRNAs were found to be significantly differentially expressed (p < 0.001) among which 112 miRNAs have not been previous reported for endometrial adenocarcinoma.

    CONCLUSION: Our study shows that several miRNAs are differentially expressed in endometrial adenocarcinoma. These identified miRNA hold great potential as target for classification and prognosis of this disease. Further analysis of the differentially expressed miRNA and their target genes will help to derive new biomarkers that can be used for classification and prognosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma.

  • 198.
    Järlström, Toni
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neural effects of compassion training2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Compassion is potentially an effective emotion-regulation strategy to face the suffering of self and others. The aim of this paper is to provide an evolutionary understanding of compassion and compassion training (CT) by examining the psychological, neural and behavioral effects of loving-kindness meditation and compassion meditation. The author presents various definitions of compassion and examines the physiological and neural processes behind it. Compassion seems to have evolutionary roots but can be limited due to inherited blocks and fears. Compassion is however trainable and can potentially bypass certain evolutionary-based biases. CT results in various significant psychological effects, most notably positive affect, increased (self) compassion, and mindfulness. Evidence is however inconsistent, especially in relation to active controls. Neural effects are significant yet inconsistent across different experimental conditions. CT without a concurrent task activates (1) the right somatosensory cortices (2) the parieto-occipital sulcus, and (3) the right anterior insula. In relation to the socio-affective video task, CT activates medial orbitofrontal cortex, ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens, putamen, and anterior parts of anterior cingulate cortex; regions related to positive affect, motivational reward and affiliation. These findings converge with the reviewed psychological literature. CT also results in increased altruistic and compassionate behavior towards others, even when it’s costly to the self and under no-reciprocity conditions. Behavioral effects are mostly demonstrated in game-settings against active controls but also in one real-life situation. Together, the results suggest that CT is beneficial to individuals as well as inter-group relationships. 

  • 199.
    Kabir, Ahmad H.
    et al.
    Plant and Crop Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Mohammad M.
    Plant and Crop Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Khatun, Most A.
    Plant and Crop Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Haider, Syed A.
    Plant and Crop Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 7, artikel-id 1117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the  expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2  (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in  Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants.

  • 200.
    Kader, Shoxan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Modulation of nlrp3 inflammasome by sp110: Regulation and inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome in Sp110 deficient THP-1 cells2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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