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  • 151.
    Landqvist, Anna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Det sexuella Självet onanerar: En symbolisk interaktionistisk studie om unga kvinnors upplevelser av sexuellt handlandet och varande2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats syfte är att beskriva och ge ökad förståelse för unga kvinnors upplevelser och erfarenheter av sexuella handlingar samt hur individen uppfattar och internaliserar normer och hur normerna och upplevelserna påverkar individens identitetsutvecklingen. Uppsatsen utgår ifrån ett socialpsykologiskt perspektiv med avstamp i symbolisk interaktionism (Mead, 1976), fenomenologi (Kvale, 1997) och socialkonstruktionism(Gergen, 1999). Den övergripande frågeställning är: På vilket sätt upplever kvinnor, i åldern 20-30 år, sexuella handlingar med sig själv och med partner/partners och hur förhåller sig dessa handlingar till varandra samt hur upplever de att genus-, kropps- och sexualitetsnormer bidrar till deras uppfattning om sig själva som individer? Teoretiker som Mead (1976), Berg (1992), Lundin (2009) och Berger och Luckmann (1979) har använts som verktyg för att förklara Självets utveckling samt socialisation. Connell (2003) och Ferguson (1980) har använts för att problematisera genus och Johansson (1999), Mead (1976) och Berger och Luckmann (1979) rör kroppen teoretiskt. Normer och institutioner har förklarats med hjälp av Johansson (1999), Connell (2003), Rubin (1984) och Berger och Luckmann (1979). Empirin har tagits fram genom semistrukturerade djupintervjuer (Kvale, 1997) med elva kvinnor. I studien framkom kunskap om att kroppen och genus är betydande för den sexuella situationen. Onani kan ibland upplevas som skamfyllt. Många fantiserar även vid onanistunden. Den sexuella situationen påverkas mycket av relationen personen är i. Tre olika relationer har framkommit; är den rena relationerna, sexuella relationer och episodiska sexuella möten (Giddens, 1995). Respondenterna vittnar om destruktiva relationer och idealiserar den hängivande sexuella relationen/situationen. Det framkom påverkan från samhällsnormer som betydande i den sexuella situationen/relationen, dessa verkar på olika plan och kan därför upplevas som förvirrande för individen.

  • 152.
    Lidén, Josefin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Intrinsic Motivation and its Neural Correlates2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Why is motivation important? The answer is simple to most of us: it is what makes people push forward and act. Intrinsic motivation is the kind of motivation that arises from within a person, making her or him strive towards a goal for no other reward than the feeling it will bring. Additionally, this kind of motivation has shown correlations with enhanced learning, creativity, performance, optimal development, and well-being. While intrinsic motivation has long been a topic within the field of psychology, the neural correlates underlying it have only recently become of interest for researchers, and studies have shown some interesting but also contradictory findings. Therefore, the aim of this literature review thesis is to investigate the neural correlates of intrinsic motivation further. Firstly, a background review of motivation in general and intrinsic motivation in particular is presented, focusing on concepts such as the self-determination theory, flow, and cognitive evaluation theory. This is followed by a chapter on motivation- and intrinsic motivation from a neuroscientific perspective, concerning concepts such as the reward system, the undermining effect, and studies examining the neural correlates of intrinsic motivation. These studies show that there was activity in several different areas when participants were intrinsically motivated. However, a frequent pattern of activity in dopaminergic pathways involving the striatum and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was detected in most studies, indicating the involvement of these areas in particular when a person is intrinsically motivated.

  • 153.
    Linde, Helene
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Alkoholens effekt på kognitiva funktioner med fokus på minnet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Alkohol är den vanligaste och mest accepterade drogen i världen. I västvärlden uppskattas 90 % ha konsumerat alkohol någon gång i livet varav 30 % utvecklar alkoholrelaterade problem. Alkoholkonsumtionen är störst i länder med högt ekonomiskt välstånd samtidigt som antalet nykterister i dessa länder är lågt. Alkohol har en global inhiberingseffekt på hjärnan vilket ofta leder till negativa konskevenser för samhället, enskilda individer samt dess närstående. Syftet med denna uppsats är att ge en omfattande överblick om de negativa konsekvenser alkohol har på kognitiva funktioner med fokus på minnet. Alkoholen påverkar främst hippocampus vilket leder till försämringar av minnet. Studier har visat att tillfällig kraftig alkoholkonsumtion stör inkodningen av ny episodisk information vilket leder till uppkomsten av begränsade perioder där minnen delvis eller helt saknas, vilket kallas för minnesluckor. Andra processer relaterade till minnet som long-term potentiation och long-term depression i hippocampus förhindras till viss del eller blockeras helt av alkohol. Studier har även visat att både tillfällig och långvarig alkoholkonsumtion leder till försämringar av kognitiva funktioner som minnet och exekutiva funktioner vilket ofta involverar förändrad neural aktivitet i frontalloben. Alkoholvolymen och alkoholkoncentrationen i blodet är två faktorer som har en avgörande roll för alkoholens effekt på kognitiva funktioner. Risken för uppkomsten av minnesluckor ökar vid tillfällig kraftig alkoholkonsumtion när alkoholvolymen är hög och alkoholkoncentrationen i blodet stiger fort till höga nivåer. Alkoholberoende utvecklas däremot genom att det sker fysiologiska förändringar av signalsubstanserna i hjärnan. Långvarig alkoholkonsumtion kan leda till utvecklandet av Korsakoff syndrom som innefattar amnesi.

  • 154.
    Lindersson, Carl
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Threatening Measures, at Face Value: Electrophysiology Indicating Confounds of the Facial Width-to-Height Ratio2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies support that the relative width of the upper face (facial width-to-height ratio; fWHR) has evolved to signal threat, but these studies rely greatly on subjective facial ratings and measurements prone to confounds. The present study objectively quantifies threat perception to the magnitude of the observers’ electrophysiological reaction, specifically the event-related potential (ERP) called the late positive potential (LPP), and investigate if brow height and jaw width could have confounded previous fWHR studies. Swedish and international students (N = 30, females = 11, Mage = 24 years, SDage = 2.9) were shown computer-generated neutral faces created with the underlying skeletal morphology varying in brow ridge height, cheekbone width and jaw width. Participants first rated how threatening each face was and then viewed 12 blocks of 64 faces while their electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. The results supported that the LPP could be used to index threat perception and showed that only brow height significantly affected both facial ratings (p < .001, ɳp2 = .698) and magnitude of the LPP within the 400 to 800 ms latency (p = .02, d = .542). Hence, brow height, not facial width, could explain previous findings. The results contradict the hypothesis that fWHR is an evolved cue of threat and instead support the overgeneralisation hypothesis in that faces with similar features to anger will be perceived as more threatening.

  • 155.
    Lindqvist, Anna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    My World of Warcraft: en studie om de komponenter i onlinerollspelet World of Warcraft som lockar till deltagande.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Fler timmar och större intresse läggs idag ner på onlinerollspel vilka under de senaste åren blivit omåttligt populära. Våra sociala beteenden har idag förändrats och vi behöver inte längre fysiskt beträda det rum vi vanligen kommunicerade i. Vi öppnar istället upp dörrarna till en ny dimension där du “är” en virtuell identitet, och där du kanske har väldigt många fler möjligheter än i ditt fysiska liv. World of Warcraft är just ett sådant spel vilket underhåller tusentals av spelare och som kommer ligga till grund för denna uppsats.

    Syftet är att skapa en dokumentation av och ge en insyn i dessa nya sociala miljöer som vi finner i World of Warcraft. Vad har tillexempel en online identitet för betydelse för jaget (spelaren) och kan det som händer i ett community på internet påverka våra fysiska sociala liv? Samma sak händer om man vänder på frågan, vad händer med spelvärldens sociala liv om man inte spelar tillräckligt mycket, hur påverkar det spelandet i sig? Är en spelare tvungen att välja bara en social arena, eller finns det en god möjlighet till en balans mellan miljöerna? Frågor om interagerbarhet, interaktivitet och kommunikation i spelet kommer också att vara centrala i uppsatsen, eftersom dessa i någon form påverkar oss som individer och sociala varelser.

    Alltså vad är det som lockar och varför kan vi som individer bli påverkade av detta?

    De komponenter jag finner mest bidragande till delaktighet i World of Warcraft diskuteras och analyseras sedan utifrån utvalda teoretiska utgångspunkter. Syftet är också att utifrån videoinspelade intervjuer med spelarna ge en slags bild av hur fenomenet kan se ut. I Själva dokumentärfilmen ( som tillhör uppsatsen och som finns på separat DVD) läggs Fokus på intervjuerna, (där de intervjuade får en chans att säga sin mening) och de spelmiljöer man kan stöta på i World of Warcraft . Vi följer spelaren in i världen .Med dessa rörliga bilder kan vi också få större förståelse för vad World of Warcraft är och vad det betyder för miljontals människor.

    I intervjuerna med dessa respondenter försöker jag att gå in i samtal som är mer djupgående och kvalitativa. Denna form av undersökning, där så få personer medverkar kan inte kvantitativt framlägga ett övergripande mönster av hur majoritetens spelvanor ser ut.

     

  • 156.
    Lingvall, Johanna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Impact of Motor Imagery on Sport Performance and the Brain's Plasticity2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    New neuroimaging techniques have made it possible to examine imagery and found evidence for that imagery share similar neural correlates as in perception. Imagery can be used in different areas to enhance performance, and it is a popular technique in sports. Similar to physical practice (PP), motor imagery (MI) can result in brain plasticity. The aim of this thesis is to describe what imagery means and describe different theories of imagery. This is to further look into what impact MI has on performance in different sports, and then to further see if there are any changes in brain plasticity as a result of using MI. There is a lack of studies done on MI, performance and brain plasticity in sport. To answer the latter focus of this thesis, studies of healthy persons and patient studies using MI to improve performance and examining changes in the brain have been used. In order to do that this thesis aims to do a literature review. The results indicate that MI combined with PP can improve sport performance. It has also been showed that MI alone can be as good as PP. Most studies found that MI combined with PP can result in brain plasticity, and only one study did not found evidence for it. It has also showed that MI alone can result in brain plasticity. Future research should include larger samples, matching subjects, and comparing the effects of MI in several kinds of sports.

  • 157.
    Ljungberg, Eira
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    A review of brain areas associated with long-term mindfulness meditation practice2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in mindfulness meditation has increased immensely in psychology practice and research the past few decades. Yet, considerably little is known about the neurological mechanisms underlying mindfulness meditation and its effects on the human mind and behaviour. That is why this thesis aims to identify the brain regions that has been consistently associated with mindfulness meditation practice. When looking at both long-term and short-term effects of mindfulness meditation this thesis identified twelve brain areas consistently associated with mindfulness meditation: the cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex, temporoparietal junction, somatosensory cortices, the insula, hippocampus, inferior temporal and fusiform gyrus, precuneus and corpus callousum. By looking at the functions associated with these brain regions one might gain some insight into why and in what way mindfulness meditation also affects individuals behaviourally, cognitively and emotionally. Although the results are promising they are compromised by low methodological quality, especially due to small sample groups and difficulty deciding the causation in cross-sectional studies.

  • 158.
    Lund, Jesper
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    The Effects of Positive Emotions on School Satisfaction Among Adolescents2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between positive emotions and school satisfaction was studied in 19 adolescents aged 13,57 to 15,17 years (M=14,45, SD=0,446), of these 50% were female. The subjects were all Caucasian native Swedish speakers. Schools satisfaction, life satisfaction, positive affect, negative affect and gratitude was measured at the beginning of the study and again fourteen days later. During the fourteen days, the subjects were given a task to carry out each day. The control condition was asked to list up to five things that had affected them during the last day. The experimental condition was asked to list up to five things they were grateful for in the last day. The results did not show any relationship between positive affect and school satisfaction. It is suggested that the results might be caused by either too little time for the intervention to cause a significant effect, by the subjects failing to carry out the given task each day or by too few subjects to rule out random effects.

  • 159.
    Lundquist, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Åkesson, Gustav
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Medarbetares upplevelser av internrekryterade chefer2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Syftet med studien är att studera huruvida relationen mellaninternrekryterade chefer och deras medarbetare påverkar medarbetarnasupplevelse av chefernas ledaregenskaper. Vidare är syftet att studerahur medarbetare upplever sina internrekryterade chefer utifrånKunskapsanpassat ledarskap. Denna studie använder sig av enkvantitativ metod och utgår ifrån en deduktiv ansats. Studien användersig av en enkät med 53 flervalsfrågor som delades ut till medarbetare påfem olika företag. Totalt svarade 70 respondenter. Flervalsfrågornasyftade till att ta reda på medarbetarnas upplevelser av sin chef utifrånvåra valda ledarskapsteorier samt vår valda utbytesteori. Svarenanalyserades i statistikprogrammet SPSS. Studiens första hypotes ficksignifikant stöd medan de övriga hypoteserna inte fick signifikant stöd.

  • 160.
    Lönn, Josefina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Well-being and Dispositional Optimism in Uganda and Sweden: An empirical and neurobiological investigation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Uganda´s well-being ranks among the worst in the world, while Sweden´s well-being ranks among the best. This thesis investigates if there is a difference in well-being and dispositional optimism in Uganda and Sweden. The neurobiology underlying well-being and optimism is also examined. The neural correlations of well-being and optimism are connected to areas in the limbic system and cerebral cortex. Prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex are two curial regions involved in both well-being and optimism. Amygdala, parahippocampal gyrus, and thalamus are central areas for hedonic well-being, dispositional optimism, and optimism bias. In this thesis 284 Ugandans and 256 Swedes completed a questionnaire based survey. Greater hedonic well-being was found among Swedes, whereas greater eudiamonic well-being was found among Ugandans. Swedes reported greater global life satisfaction than Ugandans, but Ugandans expressed higher satisfaction with their current lives compared with Swedes. In relation to dispositional optimism, Ugandans were found to be both more optimistic and more pessimistic than Swedes. This unexpected dispositional optimism pattern is discussed and future research directions are proposed.

  • 161.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    et al.
    Department of psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Sex differences in personality are larger in gender equal countries: Replicating and extending a surprising finding2019Inngår i: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 54, nr 6, s. 705-711Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sex differences in personality have been shown to be larger in more gender equal countries. We advance this researchby using an extensive personality measure, the IPIP-NEO-120, with large country samples (N > 1000), from 22countries. Furthermore, to capture the multidimensionality of personality we measure sex differences with a multivariateeffect size (Mahalanobis distance D). Results indicate that past research, using univariate measures of effect size, haveunderestimated the size of between-country sex differences in personality. Confirming past research, there was a strongcorrelation (r = .69) between a country’s sex differences in personality and their Gender Equality Index. Additionalanalyses showed that women typically score higher than men on all five trait factors (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness), and that these relative differences are larger in more gender equal countries. Wespeculate that as gender equality increases both men and women gravitate towards their traditional gender roles.

  • 162.
    Modigh, Daniel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Effekten av längre tids praktiserande av mindfulnessmeditation på hjärnfunktion och struktur – en summering utifrån nyare studier av vipassana- och zenmeditation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Västerländsk mindfulnessmeditation har sina rötter i tusenårig buddhistisk tradition, främst genom vipassana- och zentraditionerna. Senaste tiden har mindfulness ökat i popularitet och blivit en accepterad klinisk metod i former som mindfulness based stress reduction. Möjligheten att undersöka dess effekter genom neurovetenskapliga metoder bidrar med intressant och viktig forskning om mänskligt välbefinnande. Dock har tidigare studier visat på bristande samstämmighet vad gäller resultat och metod. Uppsatsen är en litteraturstudie där det huvudsakliga syftet är att utifrån nyare studier undersöka de tydligaste effekterna på hjärnfunktion och struktur av långvarigt praktiserande av mindfulness utifrån vipassana- och zenmeditation. Uppsatsen syftar även till att redogöra för samstämmigheten i dessa nyare studier. Detta gäller resultat men också metod. Studierna tyder på minskad aktivitet i prefrontala cortex (PFC), posteriora cingulum cortex (PCC) och minskad aktivitet mellan PFC och regioner inom default mode network(DMN) som anteriora cingulum cortex (ACC). Studier visar även ökad aktivitet från parietala-occipitala området. Resultaten tyder på förbättrad kroppsmedvetenhet och ökad sensorisk klarhet, ökad förmåga till uppmärksamhetsreglering och inhibition av automatiska responser samt minskning av och ökad kontroll över det spontana flödet av tankar och en förändrad självuppfattning. Jag finner att resultaten var samstämmiga beträffande minskat involverande av frontala och parietala områden, samt svagare förbindelser mellan dessa (dlPFC-IPL, PFC-dACC). Gemensamt för studierna är också att mindfulnessmeditation tycks påverka DMN och områden kopplade till det självrefererande processandet. Det är dock inte klart hur predispositioner inverkat på resultaten och det är något för framtida forskning att klargöra.

  • 163.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Herrera, Carlos
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    On Cognition as Dynamical Coupling: An Analysis of Behavioral Attractor Dynamics2008Inngår i: Adaptive Behavior, ISSN 1059-7123, E-ISSN 1741-2633, Vol. 16, nr 2-3, s. 182-195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The interaction of brain, body, and environment can result incomplex behavior with rich dynamics, even for relatively simpleagents. Such dynamics are, however, often difficult to analyze.In this article, we explore the case of a simple simulated roboticagent, equipped with a reactive neurocontroller and an energylevel, which the agent has been evolved to recharge. A dynamicalsystems analysis shows that a non-neural internal state (energylevel), despite its simplicity, dynamically modulates the behavioralattractors of the agent—environment system, such thatthe robot's behavioral repertoire is continually adapted toits current situation and energy level. What emerges is a dynamic,non-deterministic, and highly self-organized action selectionmechanism, originating from the dynamical coupling of four systems(non-neural internal states, neurocontroller, body, and environment)operating at very different timescales.

  • 164.
    Mustafa, Miran
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Det är inte lätt att vara gammal: En socialpsykologisk studie om hur äldre människor upplever att de blir behandlade i det postmoderna samhället2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är inte lätt att kunna definiera begreppet äldre, det finns yngre äldre och äldre äldre. Det beror helt enkelt på vem man jämför sig med, vilken perspektiv man pratar om, det kronologiska eller det sociala. Syftet med min uppsats är att få bredare förståelse för hur de äldre upplever att de blir betraktade i det postmoderna samhället. Jag utgår ifrån socialkonstruktionistisk teori vilken förklarar verkligheten som en produkt av det sociala samspelet mellan människor, dvs. våra uppfattningar om verkligheten är socialt konstruerade. Jag har valt en kvalitativ metod med semi-strukturerad intervju där urvalet blev äldre från 75 år och uppåt. Det är 6 personer med blandat kön. För i tiden var det anhöriga som tog hand om de äldre men nu vilar det ett större ansvar på staten och kommunen. Äldres attityder formuleras av deras erfarenheter, normer och familjkultur. Undersökningen visade att det postmoderna samhället har påverkat relationen mellan de äldre och deras anhöriga så att respekten uttrycks på ett annat sätt.

  • 165.
    Määttä, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Moral Cognition and Emotion: A Dual-Process Model of Moral Judgment2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive and emotional processes both seem to contribute in the production of moral judgments, but how they interact is still under investigation. Greene’s dual-process model suggests that these processes constitute dissociable systems in the brain, which are hypothesized to give rise to two qualitatively different ways of moral thinking characterized by two normative moral theories, consequentialism and deontology. Greene indicates that this research undermine deontology as a normative theory. The empirical investigation of moral judgments implies that the dual-process model only seems to accurately predict and explain moral judgments in moral dilemmas involving physical harmful intentions. Regardless of the models empirical support, the empirical findings in the study of moral judgments could have normative and metaethical implications.

  • 166.
    Móró, Levente
    et al.
    University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku, FI-20014, Finland.
    Noreika, Valdas
    University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku, FI-20014, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Sakari, Kallio
    University of Turku, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku, FI-20014, Finland.
    Hypnotizability, sleepiness, and subjective experience2011Inngår i: International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis, ISSN 0020-7144, E-ISSN 1744-5183, Vol. 59, nr 2, s. 211-224Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationships between hypnotizability, sleepiness, and the subjective experience of hypnotic suggestions were investigated in 90 participants. Scores from the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility Form A (HGSHS:A), the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and our self-developed Questionnaire on Subjective Hypnotic Experiences (QSHE) were analyzed. Findings show that hypnotizability correlates with both habitual daytime sleepiness and instantaneous sleepiness after the hypnotic procedure. Results also indicate that subjective self-evaluation of responses to hypnotic suggestions may be a useful tool in some cases when comparing with other subjectively rated scales, such as those concerning sleepiness.

  • 167.
    Nair, Vipul
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Drejing, Karl
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Hemeren, Paul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Incidental processing of biological motion:: Effects of orientation, local-motion and global-form features2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on biological motion perception indicate that the processing of biological motion is fast and automatic. A segment of these studies has shown that task irrelevant and to-be-ignored biological figures are incidentally processed since they interfere with the main task. However more evidence is needed to understand the role of local-motion and global-form processing mechanisms in incidentally processed biological figures. This study investigates the effects of local-motion and global-form features on incidental processing. Point light walkers (PLW) were used in a flanker paradigm in a direction discrimination task to assess the influence of the flankers. Our results show that upright oriented PLW flankers with global-form features have more influence on visual processing of the central PLW than inverted or scrambled PLW flankers with only local-motion features.

  • 168.
    Niemi, Markus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neuroscientific perspective on the bidirectional relationship between life satisfaction and health: Are people happier because they are healthy, or are they healthier because they are happy?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Bentham’s 1832 Greatest Happiness Principle states that the greatest happiness for the greatest amount of people should be the goal of public policy. When people are asked what they wish for in life, health and happiness are consistently mentioned. This thesis examines the relationship between health and happiness. However, as happiness is difficult to consistently operationalize across different studies and scientific disciplines, life satisfaction is used as a proxy for happiness. This thesis studies the relationship between health and life satisfaction with a particular focus on the directionality of the relationship and the tentative processes indicated to be involved with this process. This study is accomplished through a literary review of the scientific literature related to life satisfaction, its neural correlates and their relationship with physical health. This study is modelled on the top-down, bottom-up and bidirectional debate within the larger Subjective Well-Being (SWB) literature. The results indicate that the correlation between life satisfaction and health appears to be robust, but the exact directionality and causality is unclear and difficult to establish with a literary review, with only predictive ability of life satisfaction on later physical health or vice versa established. Furthermore, the results appear to indicate that the central process linking this relationship is resilience - the ability to adaptively respond to stressors. Enhancing resiliency through psychological interventions may be a method to promote happiness and health in individuals as well as in society as a whole.

  • 169.
    Niklas, Stenberg
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Reviewing the Dual-Process Theory of Moral Judgment2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The dual-process theory of moral judgment by Joshua Greene has influenced

    much of contemporary research on moral cognition. The dual-process research paradigm can

    be argued to have yielded fruitful results. The results in general often indicate a dichotomy

    between reasoning and emotional mechanisms. These results are interpreted in the existing

    theoretical framework as producing specific differentiations in moral judgment among test

    subjects. The experimental conditions expose subjects to moral dilemmas during functional

    brain scanning. A competitive interaction between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and

    ventromedial prefrontal cortex has been identified to affect subjects’ response. During more

    recent years, critique aimed at the dual-process theory that falls into three main categories has

    been raised against this paradigm. These problems may have negative effects on the results

    derived from the dual-process paradigm. In this essay I will review problems within the

    framework of the dual-process theory that concern terminology, where concepts tied to

    normative ethics, can be misleading.

    Researchers have also identified methodological

    problems that are proposed to create extraneous emotional variables unaccounted for in the

    dual-process theory.

    I compare results and proposals from initial studies with the critique and

    go through normative issues concerning what ethical conclusions neuroscientific data derived

    from dual-process paradigm could give. My conclusion is that the dual-process theory is a

    functional descriptive theory that needs to redefine its concepts, multiply emotional spectrum

    analysis and divide itself from normative claims.

  • 170.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    Department of Behavioral Science and Social Work, Jönköping university, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Cultivating mindfulness through the practice of iaidō2017Inngår i: Contemporary Buddhism, ISSN 1463-9947, E-ISSN 1476-7953, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 37-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 171.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Department of Literature, History of Ideas and Religion, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Making Mindfulness: Highlighting the Social and Existential Dimensions2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 172.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Mindful hållbart åldrande – holistiskt åldrande i ny belysning2016Inngår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 93, nr 6, s. 692-703Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 173.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Socioexistential mindfulness: Bringing empathy and compassion into health care practice2016Inngår i: Spirituality in Clinical Practice, ISSN 2326-4500, Vol. 3, nr 1, s. 22-31Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 174.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet / Karolinska Institutet.
    Mindfulness – terapier och paradoxer2016Inngår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 93, nr 1, s. 106-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 175.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Mindfulness Therapies and Assessment Scales: A Brief Review2016Inngår i: International Journal of Psychological Studies, ISSN 1918-7211, E-ISSN 1918-722X, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 11-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 176.
    Nilsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Reconciling and Thematizing Definitions of Mindfulness: The Big Five of Mindfulness2016Inngår i: Review of General Psychology, ISSN 1089-2680, E-ISSN 1939-1552, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 183-193Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported online in Review of General Psychology on Jul 11 2016 (see record 2016-33699-001). In the original article, there was an error in the abstract. The second core element of the concept of mindfulness yielded by the analysis was incorrectly listed as “nonjudgmental attitude.” It should be “present-centeredness.” The online version of this article has been corrected.] Mindfulness is an emerging concept in many professions and spheres of social life. However, mindfulness (or sati in Buddhism) can connote many plausible meanings. Thus, the concept is not easily defined and the definitions provided in the literature easily confuse the reader. Some mindfulness researchers offer definitions whereas others do not and take the definition of mindfulness for granted. Beyond the problem of defining mindfulness, the fact that the phenomenon is of great interest to various disciplines, each of which has its own theoretical and methodological approaches, different authors use different terms in describing this phenomenon. In the present article 33 definitions of mindfulness were extracted from a pool of 308 peer-reviewed full-length theoretical or empirical articles written in English, published between 1993 and March 2016, after systematic searches in Google Scholar, PsycARTICLES, and SocINDEX. The definitions were analyzed with a particular focus on the defining attributes or core elements of the concept of mindfulness. The analysis yielded 4 core elements of awareness and attention, present-centeredness, external events, and cultivation. Furthermore, an additional core element emerged from this analysis as being absent in Western definitions of mindfulness. This formed the basis for formulation of a new definition of mindfulness with an emphasis on ethical-mindedness. We argue that this core element is instrumental in filling in the gap that exists in current Western definitions, and with highlighting this element we hope to bridge the Western and Buddhist notions of mindfulness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)

  • 177.
    Noreika, Valdas
    et al.
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.
    Jylhänkangas, Leila
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.
    Móró, Levente
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, 20014 Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Kaskinoro, Kimmo
    Department of Anesthesia, Intensive Care, Emergency Medicine and Pain Therapy, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Aantaa, Riku
    Department of Anesthesia, Intensive Care, Emergency Medicine and Pain Therapy, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, Harry
    Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology, and Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Consciousness lost and found: Subjective experiences in an unresponsive state2011Inngår i: Brain and Cognition, ISSN 0278-2626, E-ISSN 1090-2147, Vol. 77, nr 3, s. 327-334Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anesthetic-induced changes in the neural activity of the brain have been recently utilized as a research model to investigate the neural mechanisms of phenomenal consciousness. However, the anesthesiologic definition of consciousness as ‘‘responsiveness to the environment’’ seems to sidestep the possibility that an unresponsive individual may have subjective experiences. The aim of the present study was to analyze subjective reports in sessions where sedation and the loss of responsiveness were induced by dexmedetomidine, propofol, sevoflurane or xenon in a nonsurgical experimental setting. After regaining responsiveness, participants recalled subjective experiences in almost 60% of sessions. During dexmedetomidine sessions, subjective experiences were associated with shallower ‘‘depth of sedation’’ as measured by an electroencephalography-derived anesthesia depth monitor. Results confirm that subjective experiences may occur during clinically defined unresponsiveness, and that studies aiming to investigate phenomenal consciousness under sedative and anesthetic effects should control the subjective state of unresponsive participants with post-recovery interviews.

  • 178.
    Olivari, Maria Giulia
    et al.
    Psychology Department, CRIdee, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano, Italy.
    Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina
    Department of Home Economics and Ecology, Harokopio University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Antonopoulou, Katerina
    Department of Home Economics and Ecology, Harokopio University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
    Confalonieri, Emanuela
    Psychology Department, CRIdee, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano, Italy.
    Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Sweden, Italy and Greece: An Exploratory Study2015Inngår i: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 244-258Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 179.
    Olowe, Omorinsola
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Temporal Dynamics of Emotion Regulation Strategies: An ERP Study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Distraction and cognitive reappraisal are two widely used types of emotional regulation strategies that are thought to be reliable when down-regulating our emotions to negative or unpleasant stimuli. Gross‘s process model of emotion generation (Gross, 1998) holds that they differ in the time they intervene in the emotiongenerative process and also how they impact emotional responses when they are used to regulate negative emotions. Distraction which involves attentional deployment is expected to operate earlier than reappraisal that entails meaning evaluation and reevaluation. Cognitive reappraisal encompasses various strategies that are used to regulate our emotions through reinterpretation. Self-focused and situation-focused reappraisal are two of them. The former is considered more efficient and thus would lead to a greater attenuation of the LPPthan the latter. To test this prediction, electrocortical responses to angry faces when using these strategies were measured using the late positive potential (LPP). Twenty four healthy participants were recruited for the study and were cued to down-regulate their emotions using these strategies while angry and neutral facial stimuli were seen on a computer screen. Contrary to prediction, distraction did not modulate the LPP earlier than reappraisal. However, supporting our hypothesis self-focused strategies largely modulated the LPP than situation-focused strategy. The pattern of result suggests that reappraisal might have an influence on the early neural processes of emotion generation and that the subcategories of cognitive reappraisal have a differential effect on emotional regulation.

  • 180.
    Palmquist, Adam
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    A product to gamify other products: Implementing gamification in existing software2019Inngår i: 2019 11th International Conference on Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications (VS-Games): Proceedings Vienna, Austria 4 - 6 September 2019 / [ed] Fotis Liarokapis, IEEE, 2019, Vol. 11, s. 55-63Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gamification is the incorporation of game elements in non-game contexts. Gamified products are created by including gamification as part of the original product design. However, how is it to implement gamification in already existing products? This paper investigates gamification designers’ and developers’ attitudes and opinions on implementing gamification for already existing software products. The data consist of interviews with a team of gamification developers and designers. This study shows that the practice of designing gamification for already existing software products differs from designing gamified software products from the beginning. This outcome indicates that there might be a need for a separation between “traditional” gamification – designing gamified software products from the beginning –- and what can be referred to as generic gamification applied in existing software products

  • 181.
    Palmquist, Adam
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Det digitaliserade klassrummet2019 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 182.
    Palmquist, Adam
    Magelungen Utveckling / Akademi Magelungen.
    Det spelifierade klassrummet2018 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 183.
    Persson, Agnieszka
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Vasilescu, Ioana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Virtuell interaktion och identitetsskapande hos individer som spelar Onlinespel.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Interaktion kan ske via möten ansikte mot ansikte, i telefon eller som i denna studie –via Onlinespel. Genom realintervju och e – postintervju har svar erhållits på frågor rörande identitetsskapande till följd av interaktion via Onlinespel, påverkan på individens identitet samt om spelandet var en social aktivitet eller ”bara ett spel”. Tio intervjuer gjordes i två separata grupper; realintervjun utfördes på en senareskola i Göteborg med elever i nionde klass samt e – postintervjuer som besvarades av vuxna. I studien framkom att spelandet var en social aktivitet, där individer via Onlinespel kunde interagera med andra och att spelandet hade en viss påverkan på deras identitet. Detta ledde till att det inte går att utesluta huruvida Onlinespel och interaktion via dessa kan bidra till identitetsskapande.

  • 184.
    Persson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Univ Turku, Dept Psychol, Finland.
    Searching for Machiavelli but Finding Psychopathy and Narcissism2019Inngår i: Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, ISSN 1949-2715, E-ISSN 1949-2723, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 235-245Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Machiavellianism is a psychological construct reflecting individual differences in manipulative and strategic thinking, pragmatic morality, and a cynical outlook on life. A recent stream of research has shown that Machiavellianism and psychopathy seem to be redundant constructs and that measures of Machiavellianism do not correspond well with theoretical expectations. In the present study, I juxtapose multiple measures of Machiavellianism against normal (i.e., the five-factor model and HEXACO) and abnormal (e.g., narcissism, psychopathy, impulsivity, and personality dysfunction) personality traits in an online sample (N = 591). Using Goldberg’s (2006) Bass–Ackwards approach, I investigate whether typical Machiavellian traits can be found anywhere in the construct hierarchy by comparing the levels of the hierarchy with expert-rated five-factor model prototypes of Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy, and external correlates. Our results indicate that measures of Machiavellianism mostly reflect psychopathy and narcissism. The implications of these results are discussed, including what the future may hold for Machiavellianism.

     

  • 185.
    Persson, Björn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Lilienfeld, Scott O.
    Department of Psychology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States of America / School of Psychological Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
    Social status as one key indicator of successful psychopathy: An initial empirical investigation2019Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 141, s. 209-217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder that researchers have subdivided into two types: successful and unsuccessful. Nevertheless, little headway has been made regarding how to conceptualize and operationalize success. We consider various accounts of success from the existing literature and make the case for a two-dimensional view of successful psychopathy. Specifically, we contend that successful psychopathy can be conceptualized with two conditions in mind: (a) high social status and (b) lack of serious antisocial behavior. We emphasize that high social status, best described using socioeconomic status (SES), has been largely overlooked in the literature. We tested this idea using a sample of 591 participants who received measures of the triarchic model of psychopathy (i.e., boldness, meanness, and disinhibition), SES, and personality dysfunction. The results demonstrated that, as predicted, the putatively adaptive features of psychopathy (i.e., boldness) were positively related to SES and personality functioning. In contrast, the putatively maladaptive psychopathy features disinhibition and meanness were negatively related to personality functioning, and disinhibition was negatively related to SES. The relevance of boldness to psychopathy and the benefits of conceptualizing success as a continuous variable are discussed.

  • 186.
    Persson, Björn N.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Blekinge Center of Competence, Region Blekinge, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Current Directions in Psychiatric Classification: From the DSM to RDoC2019Inngår i: Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions / [ed] Danilo Garcia, Trevor Archer, Richard M. Kostrzewa, Cham: Springer, 2019, 1, s. 253-268Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 187.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dark and bright values: The Dark Triad and empathy relating to universal values2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an emphasis on self-enhancing values in present-day society. Empathy is shown to be declining and callousness increasing.This two-study research set out to analyze dark personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) and brightpersonality traits (emotional and cognitive empathy), and their predictive validity on universal value types. Using a sample ofSwedes and Americans (N = 385), the Dark Triad (SD3) correlated significantly with all value types (Schwartz’s 10 values), forminga sinusoid pattern which aligned with the circumplex value model. Machiavellianism and narcissism were positively associated withthe self-enhancing values Achievement and Power, while psychopathy was positively associated with the self-enhancing valuesHedonism and Power. Using a middle-aged US sample, cognitive and emotional empathy (IRI) were positively related to the selftranscendingvalues of Universalism and Benevolence and negatively with the self-enhancement values of Achievement and Power.In addition, both the dark and bright personality traits explained significant variance over the basic Big Five traits in universal values.Given the complex of values accounted for, we argue that these results account for a system of self-enhancing “dark values” andself-transcending “bright values”. This research highlights that certain universal values of individual and societal relevance can bepredicted by personality traits.

  • 188.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University West, Sweden.
    Dark values: The dark triad in Schwartz’ value types2016Inngår i: Independent in the heard: Inclusion and exclusion as social processes: Proceedings from the 9th GRASP conference, Linköping University, May 2014 / [ed] Robert Thornberg & Tomas Jungert, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, s. 82-96Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 189.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Empathy and Universal Values Explicated by the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis2016Inngår i: Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-4545, E-ISSN 1940-1183, Vol. 156, nr 6, s. 610-619Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research reports that empathy is on the decline in present-day society together with an increasing trend in self-enhancing values. Based on the empathy-altruism hypothesis we investigated whether these constructs are interlinked, by analyzing the relationships between emotional and cognitive empathy and 10 universal values. In the first study, using a middle-aged US sample, the results showed that empathy was strongly and positively related to altruistic values and negatively to self-enhancing values in a pattern which aligned with the empathy-altruism hypothesis. In a second confirmation study, these findings were replicated and extended, while also controlling for the Big Five personality traits, to discount that empathy is only captured by basic personality. Only emotional empathy, not cognitive empathy, accounted for up to 18% additional variance in altruistic values, which further confirmed the emphasis on feelings, as postulated by the empathy-altruism hypothesis.

  • 190.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / University West, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Lund University, Lund, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Revisiting the Structure of the Short Dark Triad2019Inngår i: Assessment (Odessa, Fla.), ISSN 1073-1911, E-ISSN 1552-3489, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 3-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decade, extensive interest has been directed toward the Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy), popularly assessed by the Short Dark Triad (SD3). Nevertheless, relatively little research has been conducted on the SD3's factor structure. We investigated the SD3's psychometric properties in three studies with three independent samples, using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses ( N1 = 1,487; N2 = 17,740; N3 = 496). In all three studies, Machiavellianism and psychopathy items displayed large general factor loadings, and narcissism larger specific factor loadings. In subsequent studies, two- and three-factor models fitted the data similarly, with the best fitting model being a bifactor model with items from Machiavellianism and psychopathy modelled as one specific factor, and narcissism as a second specific factor. On this basis, we suggest that the SD3 does not seem to capture the different mental processes theorized to underlie the similar behaviors generated by Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Additionally, we recommend the use of a single SD3 composite score, and not subscale scores, as subscales contain small amounts of reliable variance beyond the general factor.

  • 191.
    Persson, Björn N.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Sweden.
    Garcia, Denilo
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge Center of Competence, County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Department of Psychology, Lund University, Sweden.
    Testing construct independence in the Short Dark Triad using Item Response Theory2017Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 117, s. 74-80Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dark Triad (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy) is a popular construct for describing socially aversive personality traits. In recent years, the Short Dark Triad (SD3; Jones & Paulhus, 2014) has become a popular measure for assessing the Dark Triad constructs. However, recent research has called the supposed dissimilarity between the Dark Triad constructs into question. In particular, theoretical and empirical evidence suggests that a distinction between Machiavellianism and psychopathy may not be tenable. In order to investigate this issue further, we analyzed the SD3 in a large sample (N = 1983) using Item Response Theory. We establish item response parameter estimates for each Dark Triad construct and further test whether the Dark Triad constructs can be modelled together. Results show that Machiavellianism and narcissism could not be modelled together, but the combinations Machiavellianism and psychopathy, and narcissism and psychopathy, yielded acceptable model fit. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of how the Dark Triad constructs may be interpreted and studied in the future.

  • 192. Pettersson, Frida
    Attityder mot hemlösa och tron på en rättvis värld: En kvantitativ jämförandestudie bland blivande socialpsykologer2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats var att göra en jämförelse mellan studenter som läser det första respektive det sista året på socialpsykologiskt program på högskolan i Skövde ideras attityder mot hemlösa och tro på att världen är rättvis. Ett ytterligare syfte var att ta reda på om det fanns ett samband mellan attityder mot hemlösa och tro på att världen är rättvis. Den teoretiska utgångspunkten i uppsatsen var perspektivet socialkognition, med relevanta begrepp som attityder, stereotyper och fördomar samt Lerner´s teori (1980) om tron på en rättvis värld. Metoden som användes var kvantitativ och utfördes genom två enkäter; Attitudes Toward Homelessness Inventory (Kingree & Daves, 1997) och The Global Belief in a Just World Scale (Lipkus, 1991). Den statistiska bearbetningen skedde med hjälp av statistikdataverktyget PASW Statistics 17. Resultatet visade att ingen skillnad mellangrupperna i fråga om attityder mot hemlösa och tro på att världen är rättvis kunde påvisas. Däremot fanns ett samband mellan attityder mot hemlösa och tro på att världen är rättvis. Efterhand genomfördes även tester för att se om några könsskillnader eller etniska skillnader kunde påvisas, även om det inte var det ursprungliga syftet med denna studie. Resultatet visade att män hade något mer stigmatiserade attityder mot hemlösa än kvinnor och männen visade även en starkare tro på att världen är rättvis jämfört med kvinnorna. Det gick däremot inte att finna några statistiskt signifikanta etniska skillnader i attityder mot hemlösa eller tro på att världen är rättvis.

  • 193.
    Pettersson, Tove
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Neural Correlates of Body Dissatisfaction in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa: Examining the similarities between diagnosis of anorexia nervosa and body dissatisfaction2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Body dissatisfaction (BD) is a condition derived from negative thoughts and feelings about one's body and is a core symptom of the eating disorder anorexia nervosa (AN). Beingdissatisfied with one’s body is highly present in women and to some extent men. This might be a result of a skewed ideal in combination with social influences. In recent year, research on neurobiological risk factors as well as neuroscientific and cognitive mappings of AN and BD have gained traction, particularly when it comes to studies using neuroimaging- techniques and cognitive tests. Studies have identified brain regions (insular cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, parietal cortex, amygdala, dorsolateral and orbitofrontal areas of the prefrontal cortex) associated with the processing of body shape as well as dysfunctional processing of self-image and body satisfaction. Structural imaging studies of AN patients using CT and MRI have, in many cases, found reduced cerebral volume, increased spinal fluid (CSF) and enlarged ventricles. Usually, food and water restriction has been seen as the cause, and structural deficits in AN patients have shown to improve with weight gain after long-term recovery.

  • 194.
    Pietilä Rosendahl, Sirpa
    et al.
    Research School of Health and Welfare, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Sweden / Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Bülow, Pia
    Department of Behavioral Science and Social work, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Björklund, Anita
    Department of Rehabilitation, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Twinship and Marriage – Experiences during the course of twin relationships2012Inngår i: Review of European Studies, ISSN 1918-7173, E-ISSN 1918-7181, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 45-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 195.
    Popovic, Janna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Syrag, Fathiya
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Kognitiv coaching: ett sätt att utvecklas framåt2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Kognitiv coaching hjälper individer att utveckla positiva tankar, känslor och beteenden. Kognitiv coaching kan användas av egenföretagare, entreprenörer, företagsledare och privatpersoner. Syftet med denna undersökning är att se hur kognitiv coaching kan framgångsrikt används som metod för att minska stressen samt balansera motivationen och prestationen hos individer. Detta skulle kunna ske genom kognitiva coachingens inflytande på gamla och negativa tankar, känslor och beteendescheman.Vårt arbete har en kvalitativ karaktär och hermeneutiken har använts som metod eftersom tolkning har gjorts utifrån redan befintlig fakta. Avsikten med vår empiriska undersökning har varit att se hur kognitiv coaching uppfattas och tillämpas av individen. Vårt urval består av fem respondenter som genomgått kognitiv coaching för att förbättra motivationen och prestationsförmågan och minska stressen. Resultat härledd ur vår undersökning ger stöd till att den kognitiva coachingen kan ändra och influera på gamla, negativa tanke, känslo- och beteendescheman hos individer samt att kognitiv coaching bidrar till att minska stressen och balansera motivationen samt prestationen.

  • 196.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Is quantum theory relevant to the study of consciousness?2007Inngår i: Futura, ISSN 0785-5494, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 90-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 197.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Mind, Matter and the Implicate Order2006 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 198.
    Pylkkänen, Paavo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Quantum Theories of Consciousness2018Inngår i: The Routledge Handbook of Consciousness / [ed] Rocco J. Gennaro, Taylor & Francis, 2018, 1, s. 216-231Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides a brief historical introduction to quantum theory, and shows that the theory opens up some radically new ways of thinking about the place of mind and consciousness in nature. Quantum theory is all about learning, on the basis of scientific experiments, to question the "obvious" truths about the nature of the physical world and to come up with more coherent alternatives. The chapter considers the famous two-slit experiment. It explores what the different interpretations of quantum theory say about situations like the two-slit experiment, and also considers what kind of theories of mind and consciousness some interpretations have inspired. The attempt to explain mind and consciousness in terms of the quantum theory involves heavy speculation. The advances in quantum biology, while not giving direct support to quantum brain theory, perhaps make a biologically grounded quantum theory of consciousness seem less inconceivable.

  • 199.
    Radek, L.
    et al.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Kallionpää, R. E.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku,Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Karvonen, M.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku,Finland.
    Scheinin, A.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Maksimow, A.
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Långsjö, J.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Department of Intensive Care, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere,Finland.
    Kaisti, K.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Vahlberg, T.
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Biostatistics, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital,Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, H.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku,Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Dreaming and awareness during dexmedetomidine- and propofol-induced unresponsiveness2018Inngår i: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 121, nr 1, s. 260-269Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Experiences during anaesthetic-induced unresponsiveness have previously been investigated by interviews after recovery. To explore whether experiences occur during drug administration, we interviewed participants during target-controlled infusion (TCI) of dexmedetomidine or propofol and after recovery. Methods: Healthy participants received dexmedetomidine (n = 23) or propofol (n = 24) in stepwise increments until loss of responsiveness (LOR1). During TCI we attempted to arouse them for interview (return of responsiveness, ROR1). After the interview, if unresponsiveness ensued with the same dose (LOR2), the procedure was repeated (ROR2). Finally, the concentration was increased 1.5-fold to achieve presumable loss of consciousness (LOC), infusion terminated, and the participants interviewed upon recovery (ROR3). An emotional sound stimulus was presented during LORs and LOC, and memory for stimuli was assessed with recognition task after recovery. Interview transcripts were content analysed. Results: Of participants receiving dexmedetomidine, 18/23 were arousable from LOR1 and LOR2. Of participants receiving propofol, 10/24 were arousable from LOR1 and two of four were arousable from LOR2. Of 93 interviews performed, 84% included experiences from periods of unresponsiveness (dexmedetomidine 90%, propofol 74%). Internally generated experiences (dreaming) were present in 86% of reports from unresponsive periods, while externally generated experiences (awareness) were rare and linked to brief arousals. No within drug differences in the prevalence or content of experiences during infusion vs after recovery were observed, but participants receiving dexmedetomidine reported dreaming and awareness more often. Participants receiving dexmedetomidine recognised the emotional sounds better than participants receiving propofol (42% vs 15%), but none reported references to sounds spontaneously. Conclusion: Anaesthetic-induced unresponsiveness does not induce unconsciousness or necessarily even disconnectedness.

  • 200.
    Radpour, Ava
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Dual-Process Theory of Moral Judgments: A Way of Explaining Why VMPFC Patients Make More Utilitarian Judgments in Relation to Harmful Situations2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    According to Joshua Greene’s dual-process theory, our moral judgments are processed in one of two systems in the brain referred to as the emotional (quick, unconscious) and rational (slow, conscious) system. The reason for why people tend to answer differently in the footbridge dilemma compared to the trolley dilemma is because the emotional system is dominating over the rational system. Research has demonstrated that patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage make more utilitarian judgments in moral dilemmas in relation to harmful situations. According to the dual-process theory, this is because the emotional system has been impaired which results in that the only working system is the rational system. The aim of this thesis is to investigate how the dual-process theory tries to explain why our moral judgments tend to differ in some moral dilemmas. This thesis will also look at how the dual-process theory tries to explain why patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage make utilitarian judgments in relation to harmful situations. This thesis will sustain that the dual-process theory have gained strong empirical support, especially from the research that has been made on patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage. This thesis will also argue that some modifications needs to be made on the dual-process theory in order to make it stronger. 

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