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  • 151.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Balkenius, Christian
    Lund University Cognitive Science, Lund, Sweden.
    Modeling the Interplay between Conditioning and Attention in a Humanoid Robot: Habituation and Attentional Blocking2014Inngår i: Proceeding of The 4th International Conference on Development and Learning and on Epigenetic Robotics (IEEE ICDL-EPIROB 2014), IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, s. 41-47Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel model of role of conditioning in attention is presented and evaluated on a Nao humanoid robot. The model implements conditioning and habituation in interaction with a dynamic neural field where different stimuli compete for activation. The model can be seen as a demonstration of how stimulus-selection and action-selection can be combined and illustrates how positive or negative reinforcement have different effects on attention and action. Attention is directed toward both rewarding and punishing stimuli, but appetitive actions are only directed toward positive stimuli. We present experiments where the model is used to control a Nao robot in a task where it can select between two objects. The model demonstrates some emergent effects also observed in similar experiments with humans and animals, including attentional blocking and latent inhibition.

  • 152.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Hanson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Virtuella system.
    Digital Human Modelling in Action2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the 15th SweCog Conference / [ed] Linus Holm, Erik Billing, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2019, s. 25-28Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 153.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Hellström, Thomas
    Institutionen för Datavetenskap, Umeå Universitet.
    Janlert, Lars-Erik
    Institutionen för Datavetenskap, Umeå Universitet.
    Simultaneous recognition and reproduction of demonstrated behavior2015Inngår i: Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures, ISSN 2212-683X, Vol. 12, s. 43-53, artikkel-id BICA114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictions of sensory-motor interactions with the world is often referred to as a key component in cognition. We here demonstrate that prediction of sensory-motor events, i.e., relationships between percepts and actions, is sufficient to learn navigation skills for a robot navigating in an apartment environment. In the evaluated application, the simulated Robosoft Kompai robot learns from human demonstrations. The system builds fuzzy rules describing temporal relations between sensory-motor events recorded while a human operator is tele-operating the robot. With this architecture, referred to as Predictive Sequence Learning (PSL), learned associations can be used to control the robot and to predict expected sensor events in response to executed actions. The predictive component of PSL is used in two ways: 1) to identify which behavior that best matches current context and 2) to decide when to learn, i.e., update the confidence of different sensory-motor associations. Using this approach, knowledge interference due to over-fitting of an increasingly complex world model can be avoided. The system can also automatically estimate the confidence in the currently executed behavior and decide when to switch to an alternate behavior. The performance of PSL as a method for learning from demonstration is evaluated with, and without, contextual information. The results indicate that PSL without contextual information can learn and reproduce simple behaviors, but fails when the behavioral repertoire becomes more diverse. When a contextual layer is added, PSL successfully identifies the most suitable behavior in almost all test cases. The robot's ability to reproduce more complex behaviors, with partly overlapping and conflicting information, significantly increases with the use of contextual information. The results support a further development of PSL as a component of a dynamic hierarchical system performing control and predictions on several levels of abstraction. 

  • 154.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, JessicaHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.Ziemke, TomHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Proceedings of the 2015 SWECOG conference2015Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 155.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lowe, Robert
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandamirskaya, Yulia
    Institute of Neuroinformatics, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Simultaneous Planning and Action: Neural-dynamic Sequencing of Elementary Behaviors in Robot Navigation2015Inngår i: Adaptive Behavior, ISSN 1059-7123, E-ISSN 1741-2633, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 243-264Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A technique for Simultaneous Planning and Action (SPA) based on Dynamic Field Theory (DFT) is presented. The model builds on previous workon representation of sequential behavior as attractors in dynamic neural fields. Here, we demonstrate how chains of competing attractors can be used to represent dynamic plans towards a goal state. The presentwork can be seen as an addition to a growing body of work that demonstratesthe role of DFT as a bridge between low-level reactive approachesand high-level symbol processing mechanisms. The architecture is evaluatedon a set of planning problems using a simulated e-puck robot, including analysis of the system's behavior in response to noise and temporary blockages ofthe planned route. The system makes no explicit distinction betweenplanning and execution phases, allowing continuous adaptation of the planned path. The proposed architecture exploits the DFT property of stability in relation to noise and changes in the environment. The neural dynamics are also exploited such that stay-or-switch action selection emerges where blockage of a planned path occurs: stay until the transient blockage is removed versus switch to an alternative route to the goal.

  • 156.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Rosén, Julia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Expectations of robot technology in welfare2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report findings from a survey on expectations of robot technology in welfare, within the coming 20 years. 34 assistant nurses answered a questionnaire on which tasks, from their daily work, that they believe robots can perform, already today or in the near future. Additionally, the Negative attitudes toward robots scale (NARS) was used to estimate participants' attitudes towards robots in general. Results reveal high expectations of robots, where at least half of the participants answered Already today or Within 10 years to 9 out of 10 investigated tasks. Participants were also fairly positive towards robots, reporting low scores on NARS. The obtained results can be interpreted as a serious over-estimation of what robots will be able to do in the near future, but also large varieties in participants' interpretation of what robots are. We identify challenges in communicating both excitement towards a technology in rapid development and realistic limitations of this technology.

  • 157.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Sciutti, Alessandra
    Italian Institute of Technology, Genova, Italy.
    Sandini, Giulio
    Italian Institute of Technology, Genova, Italy.
    Proactive eye-gaze in human-robot interaction2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 158.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Svensson, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lowe, Robert
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Göteborgs Universitet, Tillämpad IT.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University.
    Finding Your Way from the Bed to the Kitchen: Re-enacting and Re-combining Sensorimotor Episodes Learned from Human Demonstration2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 3, nr 9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several simulation theories have been proposed as an explanation for how humans and other agents internalize an "inner world" that allows them to simulate interactions with the external real world - prospectively and retrospectively. Such internal simulation of interaction with the environment has been argued to be a key mechanism behind mentalizing and planning. In the present work, we study internal simulations in a robot acting in a simulated human environment. A model of sensory-motor interactions with the environment is generated from human demonstrations, and tested on a Robosoft Kompai robot. The model is used as a controller for the robot, reproducing the demonstrated behavior. Information from several different demonstrations is mixed, allowing the robot to produce novel paths through the environment, towards a goal specified by top-down contextual information. 

    The robot model is also used in a covert mode, where actions are inhibited and perceptions are generated by a forward model. As a result, the robot generates an internal simulation of the sensory-motor interactions with the environment. Similar to the overt mode, the model is able to reproduce the demonstrated behavior as internal simulations. When experiences from several demonstrations are combined with a top-down goal signal, the system produces internal simulations of novel paths through the environment. These results can be understood as the robot imagining an "inner world" generated from previous experience, allowing it to try out different possible futures without executing actions overtly.

    We found that the success rate in terms of reaching the specified goal was higher during internal simulation, compared to overt action. These results are linked to a reduction in prediction errors generated during covert action. Despite the fact that the model is quite successful in terms of generating covert behavior towards specified goals, internal simulations display different temporal distributions compared to their overt counterparts. Links to human cognition and specifically mental imagery are discussed.

  • 159.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Department of Computer & Information Science, Linköping University.
    Robot-Enhanced Therapy for Children with Autism2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 14th SweCog Conference / [ed] Tom Ziemke, Mattias Arvola, Nils Dahlbäck, Erik Billing, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2018, s. 19-22Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 160.
    Bjarnehed, Mathilda
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Berättelse och mekaniker i konflikt: Ludonarrativ dissonans effekt på narrativ transport2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    För att kunna skapa intressanta och engagerande berättelser i spel behövs förståelse för hur spels unika egenskaper påverkar berättande. Ett spelnarrativa kan delas upp i det inbäddade narrativet, som består av till exempel texter och dialog, samt det emergenta narrativet, som uppstår ur spelets gameplay. När dessa två delar inte stämmer överens uppstår ludonarrativ dissonans. I detta arbete undersöks hur ludonarrativ dissonans påverkar narrativ transport, det vill säga inlevelse i en berättelse. Två versioner av ett berättelsedrivet spel skapades med olika mekanikerna för att uppnå låg respektive hög ludonarrativ dissonans. I en undersökning spelade två grupper av deltagare spelversionerna och deras narrativa transport mättes. Resultaten indikerar att högre ludonarrativ dissonans leder till lägre narrativ transport och belyste nuvarande kunskapsluckor. Det finns ett behov av djupare förståelse för hur narrativ transport fungerar i spel och av större studier för att tydliggöra ett eventuellt samband mellan narrativ transport och ludonarrativ dissonans.

  • 161.
    Blais, Curtis
    et al.
    MOVES Institute, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, United States.
    Gustavsson, Paul
    SimVentions, Inc, Fredericksburg, VA, United States.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Saab Training Systems and Information Fusion, Skövde, Sweden / Coalition Battle Management Language Standardization, SISO, United States.
    Reichental, Steven
    Boeing Corporation, Anaheim, CA, United States / Logistics organization, Anaheim, CA, United States.
    Design and Development of an Architecture for Demonstrating the Interplay of Emerging SISO Standards2007Inngår i: Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization - Spring Simulation Interoperability Workshop 2007, 07 Spring SIW, 2007, s. 302-309Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) focuses on facilitating simulation interoperability across government and non-government applications worldwide. A number of standards are emerging that will individually have great impact on the development and operation of simulation systems, as well as interoperation across simulation systems and command and control systems. Taken together, however, the emerging standards represent a set of capabilities and technologies which can revolutionize the simulation industry, radically improving the way we develop and deliver interoperable systems.

    In the Fall 2006 Simulation Interoperability Workshop, an architecture for demonstrating the interplay of several current and emerging SISO standards was presented. The following standards were selected for development of an initial demonstration system: (1) the Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) for unambiguous expression of plans and orders for live, constructive, and robotic forces; (2) the Military Scenario Definition Language (MSDL) for describing a scenarios that can be shared across multiple systems; (3) Base Object Models (BOMs) for specifying building blocks for composing larger model sets; (4) the Simulation Reference Markup Language (SRML) for platform-independent representation of executable behavior models; and (5) the Distributed Interactive Simulation Extensible Markup Language (DIS-XML) initiative for representing DIS Protocol Data Units in XML to enhance interchange of dynamic entity state and entity interactions across diverse systems in web-based network centric architectures.

    This paper discusses how the framework can be used by the SISO community as a means for educating the community on emerging standards and as a platform for demonstration of new concepts and capabilities as a precursor to a new standardization effort. It describes work performed to design and develop an initial test case demonstrating the integration of these standards, including problems encountered, problem resolutions, lessons learned, and future work.

  • 162. Blasch, Erik
    et al.
    Valin, Pierre
    Bosse, Eloi
    Nilsson, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Shahbazian, Elisa
    Implication of Culture: User Roles in Information Fusion for Enhanced Situational Understanding2009Inngår i: Information Fusion, 2009. FUSION '09. 12th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, s. 1272-1279Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Fusion coordinates large-volume data processing machines to address user needs. Users expect a situational picture to extend their ability of sensing events, movements, and activities. Typically, data is collected and processed for object location (e.g. target identification) and movement (e.g. tracking); however, high-level reasoning or situational understanding depends on the spatial, cultural, and political effects. In this paper, we explore opportunities where information fusion can aid in the selection and processing of the data for enhanced tacit knowledge understanding by (1) display fusion for data presentation (e.g. cultural segmentation), (2) interactive fusion to allow the user to inject a priori knowledge (e..g. cultural values), and (3) associated metrics of predictive capabilities (e.g. cultural networks). In a simple scenario, cultural information impacts on situational understanding from deception is demonstrated using the Technology-Emotion-Culture-Knowledge (TECK) attributes of the Observer-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) model.

  • 163.
    Bogers, Toine
    et al.
    Department of Communication and Psychology, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Koolen, Marijn
    Huygens ING, Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Netherlands.
    Mobasher, Bamshad
    School of Computing, DePaul University, United States.
    Said, Alan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Petersen, Casper
    Sampension, Denmark.
    2ndWorkshop on Recommendation in Complex Scenarios (ComplexRec 2018)2018Inngår i: RecSys 2018 - 12th ACM Conference on Recommender Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, s. 510-511Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decade, recommendation algorithms for ratings prediction and item ranking have steadily matured. However, these state-of-the-art algorithms are typically applied in relatively straightforward scenarios. In reality, recommendation is often a more complex problem: it is usually just a single step in the user's more complex background need. These background needs can often place a variety of constraints on which recommendations are interesting to the user and when they are appropriate. However, relatively little research has been done on these complex recommendation scenarios. The ComplexRec 2018 workshop addresses this by providing an interactive venue for discussing approaches to recommendation in complex scenarios that have no simple one-size-fits-all solution. © 2018 ACM. 978-1-4503-5901-6/18/10. . . $15.00

  • 164.
    Boldyreff, Cornelia
    et al.
    University of Lincoln, Department of Computing and Informatics, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, LN6 7TS, UK.
    Crowston, KevinSyracuse University, School of Information Studies, USA.Lundell, BjörnHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.Wasserman, Anthony I.Carnegie Mellon Silicon Valley, USA.
    Open Source Ecosystems: Diverse Communities Interacting: 5th IFIP WG 2.13 International Conference on Open Source Systems, OSS 2009, Skövde, Sweden, June 3-6, 2009. Proceedings2009Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 165.
    Boström, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Calibrating Random Forests2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA'08), IEEE Computer Society, 2008, s. 121-126Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     When using the output of classifiers to calculate the expected utility of different alternatives in decision situations, the correctness of predicted class probabilities may be of crucial importance. However, even very accurate classifiers may output class probabilities of rather poor quality. One way of overcoming this problem is by means of calibration, i.e., mapping the original class probabilities to more accurate ones. Previous studies have however indicated that random forests are difficult to calibrate by standard calibration methods. In this work, a novel calibration method is introduced, which is based on a recent finding that probabilities predicted by forests of classification trees have a lower squared error compared to those predicted by forests of probability estimation trees (PETs). The novel calibration method is compared to the two standard methods, Platt scaling and isotonic regression, on 34 datasets from the UCI repository. The experiment shows that random forests of PETs calibrated by the novel method significantly outperform uncalibrated random forests of both PETs and classification trees, as well as random forests calibrated with the two standard methods, with respect to the squared error of predicted class probabilities.

     

     

  • 166.
    Boström, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Estimating class probabilities in random forests2007Inngår i: ICMLA 2007. Sixth International Conference onMachine Learning and Applications, 2007., IEEE Computer Society, 2007, s. 211-216Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For both single probability estimation trees (PETs) and ensembles of such trees, commonly employed class probability estimates correct the observed relative class frequencies in each leaf to avoid anomalies caused by small sample sizes. The effect of such corrections in random forests of PETs is investigated, and the use of the relative class frequency is compared to using two corrected estimates, the Laplace estimate and the m-estimate. An experiment with 34 datasets from the UCI repository shows that estimating class probabilities using relative class frequency clearly outperforms both using the Laplace estimate and the m-estimate with respect to accuracy, area under the ROC curve (AUC) and Brier score. Hence, in contrast to what is commonly employed for PETs and ensembles of PETs, these results strongly suggest that a non-corrected probability estimate should be used in random forests of PETs. The experiment further shows that learning random forests of PETs using relative class frequency significantly outperforms learning random forests of classification trees (i.e., trees for which only an unweighted vote on the most probable class is counted) with respect to both accuracy and AUC, but that the latter is clearly ahead of the former with respect to Brier score.

  • 167.
    Boström, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Feature vs. Classifier Fusion for Predictive Data Mining: a Case Study in Pesticide Classification2007Inngår i: 10th International Conference on Information Fusion, 2007, IEEE Press, 2007, s. 1-7Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two strategies for fusing information from multiple sources when generating predictive models in the domain of pesticide classification are investigated: i) fusing different sets of features (molecular descriptors) before building a model and ii) fusing the classifiers built from the individual descriptor sets. An empirical investigation demonstrates that the choice of strategy can have a significant impact on the predictive performance. Furthermore, the experiment shows that the best strategy is dependent on the type of predictive model considered. When generating a decision tree for pesticide classification, a statistically significant difference in accuracy is observed in favor of combining predictions from the individual models compared to generating a single model from the fused set of molecular descriptors. On the other hand, when the model consists of an ensemble of decision trees, a statistically significant difference in accuracy is observed in favor of building the model from the fused set of descriptors compared to fusing ensemble models built from the individual sources.

  • 168.
    Boström, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Maximizing the Area under the ROC Curve with Decision Lists and Rule Sets2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the 7th SIAM International Conference on Data Mining / [ed] C. Apte, B. Liu, S. Parthasarathy, D. Skillicorn, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics , 2007, s. 27-34Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Decision lists (or ordered rule sets) have two attractive properties compared to unordered rule sets: they require a simpler classi¯cation procedure and they allow for a more compact representation. However, it is an open question what effect these properties have on the area under the ROC curve (AUC). Two ways of forming decision lists are considered in this study: by generating a sequence of rules, with a default rule for one of the classes, and by imposing an order upon rules that have been generated for all classes. An empirical investigation shows that the latter method gives a significantly higher AUC than the former, demonstrating that the compactness obtained by using one of the classes as a default is indeed associated with a cost. Furthermore, by using all applicable rules rather than the first in an ordered set, an even further significant improvement in AUC is obtained, demonstrating that the simple classification procedure is also associated with a cost. The observed gains in AUC for unordered rule sets compared to decision lists can be explained by that learning rules for all classes as well as combining multiple rules allow for examples to be ranked according to a more fine-grained scale compared to when applying rules in a fixed order and providing a default rule for one of the classes.

  • 169.
    Boström, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Johansson, Ronnie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    On Evidential Combination Rules for Ensemble Classifiers2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion, IEEE , 2008, s. 553-560Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensemble classifiers are known to generally perform better than each individual classifier of which they consist. One approach to classifier fusion is to apply Shafer’s theory of evidence. While most approaches have adopted Dempster’s rule of combination, a multitude of combination rules have been proposed. A number of combination rules as well as two voting rules are compared when used in conjunction with a specific kind of ensemble classifier, known as random forests, w.r.t. accuracy, area under ROC curve and Brier score on 27 datasets. The empirical evaluation shows that the choice of combination rule can have a significant impact on the performance for a single dataset, but in general the evidential combination rules do not perform better than the voting rules for this particular ensemble design. Furthermore, among the evidential rules, the associative ones appear to have better performance than the non-associative.

  • 170.
    Boström, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Norinder, Ulf
    Utilizing Information on Uncertainty for In Silico Modeling using Random Forests2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 3rd Skövde Workshop on Information Fusion Topics (SWIFT 2009), University of Skövde , 2009, s. 59-62Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information on uncertainty of measurements or estimates of molecular properties are rarely utilized by in silico predictive models. In this study, different approaches to handling uncertain numerical features are explored when using the stateof- the-art random forest algorithm for generating predictive models. Two main approaches are considered: i) sampling from probability distributions prior to tree generation, which does not require any change to the underlying tree learning algorithm, and ii) adjusting the algorithm to allow for handling probability distributions, similar to how missing values typically are handled, i.e., partitions may include fractions of examples. An experiment with six datasets concerning the prediction of various chemical properties is presented, where 95% confidence intervals are included for one of the 92 numerical features. In total, five approaches to handling uncertain numeric features are compared: ignoring the uncertainty, sampling from distributions that are assumed to be uniform and normal respectively, and adjusting tree learning to handle probability distributions that are assumed to be uniform and normal respectively. The experimental results show that all approaches that utilize information on uncertainty indeed outperform the single approach ignoring this, both with respect to accuracy and area under ROC curve. A decomposition of the squared error of the constituent classification trees shows that the highest variance is obtained by ignoring the information on uncertainty, but that this also results in the highest mean squared error of the constituent trees.

  • 171.
    Bouguelia, Mohamed-Rafik
    et al.
    Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Pashami, Sepideh
    Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Nowaczyk, Sławomir
    Center for Applied Intelligent Systems Research, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Holst, Anders
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Sweden.
    Mode tracking using multiple data streams2018Inngår i: Information Fusion, ISSN 1566-2535, E-ISSN 1872-6305, Vol. 43, s. 33-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 172.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Anomaly Detection in the Surveillance Domain2011Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the post September 11 era, the demand for security has increased in virtually all parts of the society. The need for increased security originates from the emergence of new threats which differ from the traditional ones in such a way that they cannot be easily defined and are sometimes unknown or hidden in the “noise” of daily life.

    When the threats are known and definable, methods based on situation recognition can be used find them. However, when the threats are hard or impossible to define, other approaches must be used. One such approach is data-driven anomaly detection, where a model of normalcy is built and used to find anomalies, that is, things that do not fit the normal model. Anomaly detection has been identified as one of many enabling technologies for increasing security in the society.

    In this thesis, the problem of how to detect anomalies in the surveillance domain is studied. This is done by a characterisation of the surveillance domain and a literature review that identifies a number of weaknesses in previous anomaly detection methods used in the surveillance domain. Examples of identified weaknesses include: the handling of contextual information, the inclusion of expert knowledge and the handling of joint attributes. Based on the findings from this study, a new anomaly detection method is proposed. The proposed method is evaluated with respect to detection performance and computational cost on a number datasets, recorded from real-world sensors, in different application areas of the surveillance domain. Additionally, the method is also compared to two other commonly used anomaly detection methods. Finally, the method is evaluated on a dataset with anomalies developed together with maritime subject matter experts. The conclusion of the thesis is that the proposed method has a number of strengths compared to previous methods and is suitable foruse in operative maritime command and control systems.

  • 173.
    Brax, Christoffer
    et al.
    Training Systems and Information Fusion, Business Area Electronic Defence Systems, Saab AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Dahlbom, Anders
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    A Study of Anomaly Detection in Data from Urban Sensor Networks2012Inngår i: Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 9th International Conference, MDAI 2012, Girona, Catalonia, Spain, November 21-23, 2012. Proceedings / [ed] Vicenç Torra, Yasuo Narukawa, Beatriz López, Mateu Villaret, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, s. 185-196Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In many sensor systems used in urban environments, the amount of data produced can be vast. To aid operators of such systems, high-level information fusion can be used for automatically analyzing the surveillance information. In this paper an anomaly detection approach for finding areas with traffic patterns that deviate from what is considered normal is evaluated. The use of such approaches could help operators in identifying areas with an increased risk for ambushes  or improvised explosive devices (IEDs).

  • 174.
    Brax, Christoffer
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Andler, Sten F.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Johansson, Ronnie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Evaluating Precise and Imprecise State-Based Anomaly Detectors for Maritime Surveillance2010Inngår i: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Information Fusion, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, s. Article number 5711997-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend the State-Based Anomaly Detection approach by introducing precise and imprecise anomaly detectors using the Bayesian and credal combination operators, where evidences over time are combined into a joint evidence. We use imprecision in order to represent the sensitivity of the classification regarding an object being  normal or anomalous. We evaluate the detectors on a real-world maritime dataset containing recorded AIS data and show that the anomaly detectors outperform   previously proposed detectors based on Gaussian mixture models and kernel density estimators. We also show that our introduced anomaly detectors perform slightly better than the State-Based Anomaly Detection approach with a sliding window.

  • 175.
    Brax, Christoffer
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Laxhammar, Rikard
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Approaches for detecting behavioural anomalies in public areas using video surveillance data2008Inngår i: Proceedings of SPIE Europe 2008, 16–18 September 2008, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom / [ed] David A. Huckridge; Reinhard R. Ebert, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2008, s. Article number 711318-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 176.
    Brax, Christoffer
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    An approach for increased supply chain security by using automatic detection of anomalous vehicle behavior2009Inngår i: CD-ROM Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence (MDAI 2009), 2009, s. 165-176Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the development of low-cost GPS transceivers has made it possible to equip all trucks in a fleet with equipment for automatically reporting the status of the trucks to a fleet management system. The downside is that the huge amount of information that is gathered must be evaluated in real-time by an operator. We propose the use of a data-driven anomaly detection algorithm that learns "normal" vehicle behaviour and detects anomalous behaviour such as smuggling, accidents and hijacking, The algorithm is evaluated on real-world data from trucks and commuters equipped with GPS transceivers. The results give initial support to the claim that anomaly detection based on statistical learning can be used to support human descision making. This ability can increase supply chain security by alerting an operator on anomalous vehicle behaviour.

  • 177.
    Brax, Christoffer
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Enhanced situational Awareness in the Maritime Domain: An Agent-based Approach for Situation Management2009Inngår i: Intelligent Sensing, Situation Management, Impact Assessment, and Cyber-Sensing: Proceedings of SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing 2009 / [ed] Stephen Mott, John F Buford, Gabriel Jakobson, SPIE Press , 2009, s. Aticle ID 735203-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime Domain Awareness is important for both civilian and military applications. An important part of MDA is detection of unusual vessel activities such as piracy, smuggling, poaching, collisions, etc. Today's interconnected sensorsystems provide us with huge amounts of information over large geographical areas which can make the operators reach their cognitive capacity and start to miss important events. We propose and agent-based situation management system that automatically analyse sensor information to detect unusual activity and anomalies. The system combines knowledge-based detection with data-driven anomaly detection. The system is evaluated using information from both radar and AIS sensors.

  • 178.
    Brax, Christoffer
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Laxhammar, Rikard
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    An ensemble approach for increased anomaly detection performance in video surveillance data2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2009), Seattle, Washington, USA, 6–9 July 2009, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, s. 694-701Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased societal need for surveillance and the decrease in cost of sensors have led to a number of new challenges. The problem is not to collect data but to use it effectively for decision support. Manual interpretation of huge amounts of data in real-time is not feasible; the operator of a surveillance system needs support to analyze and understand all incoming data. In this paper an approach to intelligent video surveillance is presented, with emphasis on finding behavioural anomalies. Two different anomaly detection methods are compared and combined. The results show that it is possible to best increase the total detection performance by combining two different anomaly detectors rather than employing them independently.

     

  • 179.
    Brax, Christoffer
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Smedberg, Martin
    Saab Microwave Systems, Saab AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Finding behavioural anomalies in public areas using video surveillance data2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion, IEEE conference proceedings, 2008, s. 1655-1662Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     In this paper we propose an approach forvdetecting anomalies in data from visual surveillancevsensors. The approach includes creating a structure for representing data, building “normal models” by filling the structure with data for the situation at hand, and finally detecting deviations in the data. The approach allows detections based on the incorporation of a priori knowledge about the situation and on data-driven analysis. The main advantages with the approach compared to earlier work is the low computational requirements, iterative update of normal models and a high explainability of found anomalies. The proposed approach is evaluated off-line using real-world data and the results support that the approach could be used to detect anomalies in real-time applications.

     

  • 180.
    Brodin, Martin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    A Framework for GDPR Compliance for Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises2019Inngår i: European Journal for Security Research, ISSN 2365-0931, E-ISSN 2365-1695, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 243-264Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU’s General Data Protection (GDPR) is an EU regulation that affects everyone in the EU and all organisations outside the EU that wants to do business with the EU. GDPR introduces tougher requirements for processing personal data, which may be difficult for many small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to follow without major adjustments. This work uses design science to develop a framework for SMEs to adapt to GDPR. The framework was empirically evaluated in three different types of organisations, resulting of GDPR compliance according to their Data Protection Officers. It was also theoretical evaluated against scientific literature including the identified implications of GDPR. In this paper the framework is presented, from initial analysis and design to implementation and future work, with advice on how to work with each part to achieve compliance. The paper also highlights some of the most important changes in GDPR compared to its predecessor, Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data (DIR95).

  • 181.
    Brodin, Martin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Actea Consulting AB.
    BYOD vs. CYOD: What is the difference?2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th IADIS International Conference: Information Systems 2016 / [ed] Miguel Baptista Nunes, Pedro Isaías, Philip Powell, IADIS Press, 2016, s. 55-62Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last years mobile devices have become very popular to use both for work and pleasure. Different strategies have evolved to increase productivity and to satisfy the employees. In this paper, we look at the two most popular strategies and look at the strengths and weaknesses of those. This is done by a systematic literature review and semi-structured interviews with CIO’s or equivalent roles. We conclude that BYOD and CYOD comes with similar strengths, but CYOD brings a little fewer security risks.

  • 182.
    Brodin, Martin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Combining ISMS with strategic management: The case of BYOD2015Inngår i: Information Systems 2015: Proceedings of the 8th IADIS International Conference / [ed] Miguel Baptista Nunes, Pedro Isaias, Philip Powell, IADIS Press, 2015, s. 161-168Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) (where employees use their private devices for work) causes problems for organisations since their management systems are seldom designed for this purpose. If BYOD is not adequately regulated, many security and privacy issues may result. This paper proposes an analysis-design-action framework for designing a suitable security management strategy by combining Johnson and Scholes’ strategic management model with the ISO/IEC 27000-series.

  • 183.
    Brodin, Martin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Management of Mobile Devices: How to Implement a New Strategy2016Inngår i: Proceedings of The 27th International Business Information Management Association Conference: Innovation Management and Education Excellence Vision 2020: From Regional Development Sustainability to Global Economic Growth / [ed] Khalid S. Soliman, International Business Information Management Association (IBIMA), 2016, s. 1261-1268Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since smartphones entered the market the need for them has exploded, today 85 % believe that their mobile is a central part of their life. Despite the major focus on mobile devices and increased budgets, there are still many organisations missing a strategy for mobile devices. This article investigates the most important steps to take when implementing a mobile device strategy by conducting an empirical study with interviews with CIO or equivalent roles in 13 organisations with 50 to 15 000 employees. The result is an improved framework for mobile device implementation.

  • 184.
    Brodin, Martin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Actea Consulting AB.
    Mobile Device Strategy: A management framework for securing company information assets on mobile devices2016Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem addressed by this research is a demand for increased flexibility in access to organisational information, driven by the increasing popularity of mobile devices. Employees increasingly bring private devices to work (Bring Your Own Device, BYOD) or use work devices for private purposes (Choose Your Own Device, CYOD). This puts managers in a difficult position, since they want the benefits of mobility, without exposing organisational data to further risk. The research focuses on management (particularly information security management) issues in the design and implementation of strategies for mobile devices.  There are two objectives. The first is to identify existing information security management strategies for mobile and dual-use devices. The second is to develop a framework for analysing, evaluating and implementing a mobile device strategy.

    The overall research strategy is inspired by Design Science; where the mission is to develop an artefact, in this case a framework, which will help to solve a practical problem. Methods include literature review, theoretical development, and the collection and analysis of qualitative data through interviews with executives. The main result of this work is the framework, which deals with the complete process, including analysis, design and implementation of a mobile device management strategy. It helps researchers to understand necessary steps in analysing phenomenon like BYOD and gives practitioners guidance in which analyses to conduct when working on strategies for mobile devices. The framework was developed primarily through theoretical work (with inspiration from the mobile security and strategic management literature, and the ISO/IEC 27000 standard), and evaluated and refined through the empirical studies. The results include twelve management issues, a research agenda, argumentation for CYOD and, guidance for researchers and practitioners.

  • 185.
    Brodin, Martin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Actea Consulting AB.
    Mobile Device Strategy: From a Management Point of View2017Inngår i: Journal of Mobile Technologies, Knowledge and Society, ISSN 2155-4811, E-ISSN 2155-4811, Vol. 2017, artikkel-id 593035Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, mobile devices have become an indispensable part of working life. However, in many cases the same device is also used privately, which has blurred the line between personal and company data. This situation needs to be analysed, and a long-term strategy implemented for organisations not to lose control of their data. This article is based on interviews with executives and a theoretical framework for managing mobile devices. Empirical input from practice is used to update the framework to help organisations to better respond to emerging trends for mobile devices.

  • 186.
    Brodin, Martin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Actea Consulting AB, Sweden.
    Security strategies for managing mobile devices in SMEs: A theoretical evaluation2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Information, Intelligence, Systems & Applications (IISA), IEEE, 2017, s. 89-94Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With mobile devices connecting personal and business lives together creating opportunities for both employees and employers the need for a longtime mobile strategy increases. The scientific literature provides four different approaches which are analyzed together with an approach from a governmental agency. As basis for the analysis is identified security challenges which are adopted to a SMEs environment. The conclusion is that most of the framework manage the security challenges well, but only two take benefits with mobile devices into account.

  • 187.
    Brodin, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Rose, Jeremy
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Management issues for Bring Your Own Device2015Inngår i: Proceedings of 12th European, Mediterranean & Middle Eastern Conference on Information Systems 2015 (EMCIS2015) / [ed] Kostantinos Lambrinoudakis, Vincenzo Morabito & Marinos Themistocleous, European, Mediterranean & Middle Eastern Conference on Information Systems (EMCIS) , 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) is an emerging research area focusing on the organisational adoption of (primarily mobile) devices used for both private and work purposes. There are many information security related problems concerning the use of BYOD and it should therefore be considered an issue of strategic importance for senior managers. This paper presents a systematic literature analysis using a BYOD strategic management framework to assess developing research trends. The analysis reveals early work in the analysis and design aspects of BYOD strategies, but a lack of research in operationalizing (planning, implementation and evaluating) strategy – the action phase. The resulting research agenda identifies twelve management issues for further research and four overall research directions that may stimulate future research.

  • 188.
    Brohede, Marcus
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Andler, Sten F
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    A Distributed Whiteboard Infrastructure for Information Fusion Simulations2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 32nd Annual IEEE Software Engineering Workshop (SEW-32) / [ed] Breitman, K; Sterritt, R; Bohner, S, IEEE Computer Society Press , 2009, s. 134-142Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue that architecural ideas from DeeDS, a distributed real-time database, can be used to create a whiteboard infrastructure usable in information fusion applications as well as in fault tolerant simulations. We discuss the need for faulttolerant real-time simulation in information fusion, and how this can be supported by the whiteboard infrastructure. There are many reasons to perform real-time simulations (including environment simulation) - the use of real hardware or systems can be prohibitively expensive or dangerous to people and equipment, or may simply not be available at all. The combination of real and simulated objects, or nodes, is of particular interest when it is prohibitively expensive, dangerous, or impossible to test sufficient numbers of collaborating nodes in a realistic application. The need for fault tolerance of such real-time simulations, with a mixture of real and simulated nodes, occurs because it is difficult/impossible to restart physical nodes or wait for restart of simulated nodes, if one or more simulation instances fail. The key problem when mixing real and simulated nodes is the occurrence of "external actions" that cannot easily be undone and redone when a failure has occurred. We describe a natural approach to support multiple degrees of fault tolerance in realtime simulations, based on optimistic synchronization on top of a whiteboard architecture. The whiteboard architecture is a natural and useful infrastructure metaphor for information fusion, an information-based exchange that allows real and simulated nodes to be freely mixed.

  • 189.
    Brown, Ashley M. L.
    et al.
    Brunel University London, United Kingdom.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Animal Crossing: New Leaf and the Diversity of Horror in Video Games2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2015 DiGRA International Conference: Diversity of Play: Games – Cultures - Identities, Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) , 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the diverse ways horror can be conveyed in games by investigating how games that are not associated with the horror genre can produce unsettling or scary experiences. To conduct this exploration, this study uses interaction mapping, as outlined by Consalvo and Dutton (2006), to examine a game that has thoroughly pleasant and cutesy trappings: Animal Crossing: New Leaf (Nintendo 2013). The interactions were analysed according to three themes prevalent within literature on horror and horror games: the loss of agency, the Freudian uncanny, and the Heideggerian uncanny. Ultimately, this paper demonstrates that a game which is not explicitly scary is occasionally made so through its rudimentary simulation of human behaviour and societal constructs as well as its autonomous functions and inclusion of real-world time, showing that games have very diverse means of conveying unsettling or horrifying experiences. The paper also shows how frameworks used to analyse games in the horror genre can be applicable to critical readings of non-horror games in order to understand the unexpected player reactions they can evoke.

  • 190.
    Brusk, Jenny
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Computer Game Development: Diversity and Inclusiveness2016Inngår i: Art and Game Obstruction / [ed] Lars Kristensen, Göteborg: Rojal Förlag , 2016, s. 47-52Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer games combine various artistic disciplines, such as visual art, sound, music and storytelling, with low-level data representations and algorithms in order to create an interactive experience for one or more players. This essay discusses the implications of exploring the design space at the intersection of games and art from a game design perspective. In particular, this essay argues that exploring and treating games as art is a step towards inclusive game development.

  • 191.
    Brusk, Jenny
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Kristine Jørgensen: Gameworld Interfaces2014Inngår i: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 36, nr 4, s. 70-71Artikkel, omtale (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 192.
    Brusk, Jenny
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Steps Towards Creating Socially Competent Game Characters2014Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates and presents approaches towards creating more socially competent NPCs by means of natural language dialogues. The aim is to provide hands-on solutions for game developers who want to offer interactions with the NPCs in the game that are socially driven rather than functionally motivated and that encourage the player to build and maintain relationships between the character they control and the other game characters. By means of gameplay design patterns (GDPs), i.e. a semi-formal means of describing, sharing and expanding knowledge about game design, a selection of games have been analysed in order to identify existing and hypothetical GDPs for game dialogues. The analysis resulted in a number of GDPs that support, or could support, social interaction among game characters. A selection of the identified patterns has then been modelled using Harel statecharts and implemented in State Chart XML, a candidate to become a W3C standard.

  • 193.
    Bröndum, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Graphic Notation, Indeterminacy and Improvisation: Implementing Choice Within a Compositional Framework2018Inngår i: Open Cultural Studies, ISSN 2451-3474, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 639-653Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to examine the use of graphic notation in relation to improvisation and indeterminacy in practice. The paper opens with a background context around terms and ideas about improvisation and indeterminate music pioneered by composers in the 20th century. The techniques the author used in the pieces Fluttering (Brondum 2015) and Serpentine Line (Brondum 2010) are examined and discussed in informal interviews with four musicians. The paper closes with a discussion and conclusions gained from the interviews and from working with musicians in the context of using graphic notation as a bridge between improvisation and notated music. Documentation of the author’s practice and research of these methodological and aesthetical issues may be of interest to composers and musicians that work with similar techniques. It may also add to theory by developing the understanding of a composer’s own approach, and in extension, to ask questions on how to develop these theories further.

  • 194.
    Bröndum, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Where Do We Go From Here?: The Future of Composers in the Post-Digital Era2019Inngår i: Popular Music in the Post-Digital Age: Politics, Economy, Culture and Technology / [ed] Ewa Mazierska, Les Gillon, Tony Rigg, Bloomsbury Academic, 2019, 1, s. 155-170Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 195.
    Bröndum, Lars
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Kristensen, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Work in Improvised Music: Playbour, Improvisation and Neo-liberalism2019Inngår i: PARSE Journal, E-ISSN 2002-0953, nr 9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on a combination of theoretical and practical research. The purpose of this paper is to discuss digitalisation and its effect on music in relation to the concept of “playbour”. It combines theories of games and labour with the practices of improvisation in live electronic music and economy. We observe similarities between these two research fields, one of which is rooted in the social sciences and philosophy and the other in artistic composition and creative methodologies. Although we make no assessment on a possible causality in the chain of events between theory and practice, we do want to investigate a cross-disciplinary field that combines improvisation, game studies and the organisation of labour. These three fields all use the notion of play to convey different outcomes, which are valorised differently according to the concepts of labour applied. The world of fine art and music composition has in the past been associated with that of game and play,1 and both have been seen as socially formative and educational for the participants. But, as we will argue, it is in our current digital economy that computer games, music production and organisation of work have converged as part of the neo-liberal economy. We will argue that the neo-liberal digital economy flattens the spectrum of musical performance so that it resembles modern play in computer games or in work life. As a consequence of this, improvised music in particular is devalued and the players degraded to immaterial labourers without wage compensation. Our aim is to question how improvisation is valued according to the digital economy, which does not duly compensate musicians for their labour. How can we see musical improvisation as a form of labour that is reduced to modern forms of play? What is it that produces wealth and value in improvised music?

  • 196.
    Bubenko Jr, Janis
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Persson, Anne
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Stirna, Janis
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    An Intentional Perspective on Enterprise Modeling2010Inngår i: Intentional Perspectives on Information Systems Engineering / [ed] Selmin Nurcan, Camille Salinesi, Carine Souveyet, Jolita Ralyté, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, s. 215-237Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise Modeling (EM) has two main purposes: (1) Developing the business, which entails developing business vision, strategies, redesigning the way the business operates, developing the supporting information systems, etc., and (2) ensuring the quality of the business where the focus is on sharing the knowledge about the business, its vision and the way it operates, and ensuring the acceptance of business decisions through committing the stakeholders to the decisions made. In addition, EM has also shown to be useful as a general tool for articulating, discussing, and solving organizational problems. Based on a number of case studies, interviews and observations this chapter defines what is required from EM when adopted for these purposes and intentions respectively. More precisely, it addresses the following types of requirements; documents and models required as input, models that should be developed, requirements on the modeling language, requirements on the modeling process, tool requirements and model quality requirements. The defined requirements are then discussed taking a specific EM method, Enterprise Knowledge Development (EKD) as example.

  • 197.
    Butler, Simon
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lundell, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Combitech AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Husqvarna AB, Huskvarna, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Tomas
    PrimeKey Solutions AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Feist, Jonas
    RedBridge AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lönroth, Erik
    Scania IT AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Maintaining interoperability in open source software: A case study of the Apache PDFBox project2020Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 159, artikkel-id 110452Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software interoperability is commonly achieved through the implementation of standards for communication protocols or data representation formats. Standards documents are often complex, difficult to interpret, and may contain errors and inconsistencies, which can lead to differing interpretations and implementations that inhibit interoperability. Through a case study of two years of activity in the Apache PDFBox project we examine day-to-day decisions made concerning implementation of the PDF specifications and standards in a community open source software (OSS) project. Thematic analysis is used to identify semantic themes describing the context of observed decisions concerning interoperability. Fundamental decision types are identified including emulation of the behaviour of dominant implementations and the extent to which to implement the PDF standards. Many factors influencing the decisions are related to the sustainability of the project itself, while other influences result from decisions made by external actors, including the developers of dependencies of PDFBox. This article contributes a fine grained perspective of decision-making about software interoperability by contributors to a community OSS project. The study identifies how decisions made support the continuing technical relevance of the software, and factors that motivate and constrain project activity. 

  • 198.
    Butler, Simon
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lundell, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Combitech AB, Linköping.
    Sjöberg, Johan
    Findwise AB, Göteborg.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Husqvarna AB.
    Gustavsson, Thomas
    PrimeKey Solutions AB, Stockholm.
    Feist, Jonas
    RedBridge AB, Stockholm.
    Lönroth, Erik
    Scania IT AB, Södertälje.
    On Company Contributions to Community Open Source Software Projects2019Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of contributions to community open source software (OSS) projects are made by practitioners acting on behalf of companies and other organisations. Previous research has addressed the motivations of both individuals and companies to engage with OSS projects. However, limited research has been undertaken that examines and explains the practical mechanisms or work practices used by companies and their developers to pursue their commercial and technical objectives when engaging with OSS projects. This research investigates the variety of work practices used in public communication channels by company contributors to engage with and contribute to eight community OSS projects. Through interviews with contributors to the eight projects we draw on their experiences and insights to explore the motivations to use particular methods of contribution. We find that companies utilise work practices for contributing to community projects which are congruent with the circumstances and their capabilities that support their short- and long-term needs. We also find that companies contribute to community OSS projects in ways that may not always be apparent from public sources, such as employing core project developers, making donations, and joining project steering committees in order to advance strategic interests. The factors influencing contributor work practices can be complex and are often dynamic arising from considerations such as company and project structure, as well as technical concerns and commercial strategies. The business context in which software created by the OSS project is deployed is also found to influence contributor work practices. CCBY

  • 199.
    Butler, Simon
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lundell, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Jonsson, Per
    Combitech AB.
    Sjöberg, Johan
    Findwise AB.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Husqvarna AB.
    Rickö, Niklas
    JAK.
    Gustavsson, Tomas
    PrimeKey Solutions AB.
    Feist, Jonas
    RedBridge AB.
    Landemoo, Stefan
    Saab AB.
    Lönroth, Erik
    Scania IT AB.
    An Investigation of Work Practices Used by Companies Making Contributions to Established OSS Projects2018Inngår i: ICSE-SEIP '18 Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, s. 201-210Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Professionals contribute to open source software (OSS) projects aspart of their employment. Previous research has addressed motivationsof individuals and the ways they engage with OSS projects.However, there is a lack of research which examines and explainswork practices used by companies in their engagement with projects.Work practices used by companies to contribute to five establishedOSS projects are investigated through examination of the actions ofemployees in public communication channels and draw on our experienceswhen analysing engagement with the same projects. Wefind that companies utilise work practices for contributing whichare congruent with the circumstances and their capabilities thatsupport their short and long term needs. We find that companiescontribute to OSS projects in different ways, such as employing coreproject developers, making donations, and joining project steeringcommittees in order to advance strategic interests.

  • 200.
    Cai, Haibin
    et al.
    School of Computing, University of Portsmouth, U.K..
    Fang, Yinfeng
    School of Computing, University of Portsmouth, U.K..
    Ju, Zhaojie
    School of Computing, University of Portsmouth, U.K..
    Costescu, Cristina
    Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Babe-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    David, Daniel
    Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Babe-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    Billing, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Department of Computer and Information Science, Linkoping University, Sweden.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Plymouth, U.K..
    Belpaeme, Tony
    University of Plymouth, U.K..
    Vanderborght, Bram
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel and Flanders Make, Belgium.
    Vernon, David
    Carnegie Mellon University Africa, Rwanda.
    Richardson, Kathleen
    De Montfort University, U.K..
    Liu, Honghai
    School of Computing, University of Portsmouth, U.K..
    Sensing-enhanced Therapy System for Assessing Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Feasibility Study2019Inngår i: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 1508-1518Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is evident that recently reported robot-assisted therapy systems for assessment of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) lack autonomous interaction abilities and require significant human resources. This paper proposes a sensing system that automatically extracts and fuses sensory features such as body motion features, facial expressions, and gaze features, further assessing the children behaviours by mapping them to therapist-specified behavioural classes. Experimental results show that the developed system has a capability of interpreting characteristic data of children with ASD, thus has the potential to increase the autonomy of robots under the supervision of a therapist and enhance the quality of the digital description of children with ASD. The research outcomes pave the way to a feasible machine-assisted system for their behaviour assessment. IEEE

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