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  • 151.
    Jacobsson, G.
    et al.
    Skaraborg Hospital.
    Colque-Navarro, P.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Gustafsson, Erik
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Andersson, R.
    Skaraborg Hospital.
    Möllby, R.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Antibody responses in patients with invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections2010In: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 715-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Correlation between antibody response and clinical outcome in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia has yielded conflicting results. Immunization schedules have failed in clinical trials. Is the humoral response toward S. aureus of protective nature? A prospective study was performed in patients with invasive S. aureus (ISA) infections during the period 2003–2005. The antibody levels were determined at the beginning and at the end of treatment and one month later (n = 96, n = 71, and n = 51, respectively). As controls, 115 healthy individuals were used. A quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against eight purified antigens was performed. Bacterial isolates were grouped as to the production of alpha-toxin, agr type, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) type. Large variations were seen in the antibody levels. The levels in the second sample were the highest. A correlation between agr group, PFGE group, alpha-toxin production, and initial antibody levels was observed. Patients with fatal outcome displayed lower initial antibody levels to all antigens and significantly so in regard to teichoic acid, lipase, enterotoxin A, and scalded skin syndrome toxin. In episodes with complicated bacteremia, initial significantly low levels to teichoic acid and lipase were registered. Low initial antibody levels against several antigens were associated with increased mortality and complicated bacteremia in invasive S. aureus infections. Bacterial properties, strain, and toxin production affected the antibody response.

  • 152.
    James, John R.
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Weatherall Inst Mol Med, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Oxford OX3 9DS, England / Univ Oxford, Weatherall Inst Mol Med, Med Res Council Human Immunol Unit, Oxford OX3 9DS, England .
    McColl, James
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Chem, Cambridge CB2 1EW, England .
    Oliveira, Marta I.
    Univ Porto, Inst Biol Mol & Celular, Grp Cell Activat & Gene Express, P-4150180 Oporto, Portugal / Univ Porto, Inst Ciencias Biomed Abel Salazar, P-4099003 Oporto, Portugal .
    Dunne, Paul D.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Chem, Cambridge CB2 1EW, England .
    Huang, Elizabeth
    Univ Oxford, Weatherall Inst Mol Med, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Oxford OX3 9DS, England / Univ Oxford, Weatherall Inst Mol Med, Med Res Council Human Immunol Unit, Oxford OX3 9DS, England .
    Jansson, Andreas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Nilsson, Patric
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Sleep, David L.
    Univ Oxford, Weatherall Inst Mol Med, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Oxford OX3 9DS, England / Univ Oxford, Weatherall Inst Mol Med, Med Res Council Human Immunol Unit, Oxford OX3 9DS, England .
    Goncalves, Carine M.
    Univ Porto, Inst Biol Mol & Celular, Grp Cell Activat & Gene Express, P-4150180 Oporto, Portugal / Univ Porto, Inst Ciencias Biomed Abel Salazar, P-4099003 Oporto, Portugal .
    Morgan, Sara H.
    Univ Oxford, Weatherall Inst Mol Med, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Oxford OX3 9DS, England / Univ Oxford, Weatherall Inst Mol Med, Med Res Council Human Immunol Unit, Oxford OX3 9DS, England .
    Felce, James H.
    Univ Oxford, Weatherall Inst Mol Med, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Oxford OX3 9DS, England / Univ Oxford, Weatherall Inst Mol Med, Med Res Council Human Immunol Unit, Oxford OX3 9DS, England .
    Mahen, Robert
    Hutchison MRC Res Ctr, Med Res Council Canc Cell Unit, Cambridge CB2 0XZ, England.
    Fernandes, Ricardo A.
    Univ Oxford, Weatherall Inst Mol Med, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Oxford OX3 9DS, England / Univ Oxford, Weatherall Inst Mol Med, Med Res Council Human Immunol Unit, Oxford OX3 9DS, England .
    Carmo, Alexandre M.
    Univ Porto, Inst Biol Mol & Celular, Grp Cell Activat & Gene Express, P-4150180 Oporto, Portugal / Univ Porto, Inst Ciencias Biomed Abel Salazar, P-4099003 Oporto, Portugal .
    Klenerman, David
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Chem, Cambridge CB2 1EW, England .
    Davis, Simon J.
    Univ Oxford, Weatherall Inst Mol Med, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Oxford OX3 9DS, England / Univ Oxford, Weatherall Inst Mol Med, Med Res Council Human Immunol Unit, Oxford OX3 9DS, England .
    The T Cell Receptor Triggering Apparatus Is Composed of Monovalent or Monomeric Proteins2011In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 286, no 37, p. 31993-32001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the component stoichiometry of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) triggering apparatus is essential for building realistic models of signal initiation. Recent studies suggesting that the TCR and other signaling-associated proteins are preclustered on resting T cells relied on measurements of the behavior of membrane proteins at interfaces with functionalized glass surfaces. Using fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching, we show that, compared with the apical surface, the mobility of TCRs is significantly reduced at Jurkat T cell/glass interfaces, in a signaling-sensitive manner. Using two biophysical approaches that mitigate these effects, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and two-color coincidence detection microscopy, we show that, within the uncertainty of the methods, the membrane components of the TCR triggering apparatus, i.e. the TCR complex, MHC molecules, CD4/Lck and CD45, are exclusively monovalent or monomeric in human T cell lines, implying that TCR triggering depends only on the kinetics of TCR/pMHC interactions. These analyses also showed that constraining proteins to two dimensions at the cell surface greatly enhances random interactions versus those between the membrane and the cytoplasm. Simulations of TCR-pMHC complex formation based on these findings suggest how unclustered TCR triggering-associated proteins might nevertheless be capable of generating complex signaling outputs via the differential recruitment of cytosolic effectors to the cell membrane.

  • 153.
    Jansson, Andreas
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    A Mathematical Framework for Analyzing T Cell Receptor Scanning of Peptides2010In: Biophysical Journal, ISSN 0006-3495, E-ISSN 1542-0086, Vol. 99, no 9, p. 2717-2725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    T cells continuously search for antigenic peptides presented on major histocompatibility complexes expressed on nearly all nucleated cells. Because only a few antigenic peptides are presented in a sea of thousands of self-peptides, the T cells have a critical task in discriminating between self- and nonself-peptides. This search process for antigens must be performed with sufficient speed in order to induce a fast response against invading pathogens. This study presents a mathematical framework for analyzing the scanning process of peptides. The framework includes analytic expressions for calculating the sampling rate as well as continuous-systems- and stochastic-agent-based models. The results show that the scanning of self-peptides is a very fast process due to fast off-rates. The simulations also predict the existence of an optimal sampling rate for a certain range of on-rates based on the recently proposed confinement time model. Calculations reveal that most of the self-peptides located within a microdomain are scanned within just a few seconds, and that the T cell receptors have kinetics for self-peptides, facilitating fast scanning. The derived mathematical expressions within this study provide conceptual calculations for further investigations of how the T cell discriminates between self- and nonself-peptides.

  • 154.
    Jansson, Andreas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kinetic proofreading and the search for nonself-peptides2011In: Self/Nonself, ISSN 1938-2049, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The T cells scan the surface of antigen-presenting cells with their T cell receptors (TCR) in order to find and respond to specific peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHC). Since mainly self-peptides are expressed on antigen-presenting cells, the T cells must utilize sensible mechanisms in order to quickly discriminate between self and nonself-peptides. A range of different models have been proposed to account for this process. Due to the experimental inconsistency of how T cells respond to altered peptides it has been difficult to validate the competing models. Recent models, based on the kinetic proofreading model, propose that a short life-time of the TCR/pMHC complexes may be compensated by fast rebinding of the individual molecules. Hence, both the on- and off-rate involved in the interaction between pMHCs and TCRs will determine the fate of the T cell discrimination. I here briefly review some of the proposed models on T cell discrimination and scanning, and discuss the significance of determining self-peptide kinetics to validate the different models.

  • 155.
    Jansson, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Davis, Simon J.
    Univ Oxford, John Radcliffe Hosp, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Oxford OX3 9DS, England / Univ Oxford, John Radcliffe Hosp, Med Res Council Human Immunol Unit, Weatherall Inst Mol Med, Oxford OX3 9DS, England.
    Quantitative analysis predicts the relative therapeutic efficacy of different forms of CTLA4Ig2011In: Molecular Immunology, ISSN 0161-5890, E-ISSN 1872-9142, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 527-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modulating the activities of costimulatory molecules controlling immune responses holds considerable promise for immunotherapy. CTLA4Ig (abatacept), a soluble version of the T cell-expressed membrane receptor CTLA-4, is approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Like natural CTLA-4 molecules, CTLA4Ig ligates B7-1 and B7-2 on antigen presenting cells, preventing CD28-mediated costimulation of T cells. However. CTLA4Ig can also prevent ligation of CTLA-4, potentially blocking vital inhibitory signals, thereby augmenting immunity. There have been no quantitative analyses of the likely effects of CTLA4Ig on costimulatory interactions at the immunological synapse. We present a mathematical model, based on rigorous biophysical and expression data, for simulating the effects of abatacept and a mutated derivative, LEA29Y, on the synaptic interactions of CD28 and CTLA-4. The simulations reveal an unexpectedly large window within which CD28, but not CTLA-4, ligation is blocked by CTLA4Ig, perhaps explaining the efficacy of abatacept at the recommended therapeutic dose (10 mg/kg) and its relative safety. However, the simulations suggest that the present dosing regimen is close to the maximum theoretically safe dose. The simulations also show that, within the therapeutic window, LEA29Y enhances the interaction of CTLA-4 with the more potent of its two native ligands, B7-1. They also suggest that CTLA-4 ligation by B7-1 could, in principle, be enhanced by further decreasing the off-rate of CTLA4Ig for binding to B7-2. Our findings therefore offer molecular explanations for why LEA29Y might prove to be more effective than abatacept in a clinical setting, and suggest ways in which its therapeutic efficacy could be further optimised. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 156.
    Jansson, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Jirstrand, Mats
    Chalmers Science Park.
    Biochemical modeling with Systems Biology Graphical Notation2010In: Drug Discovery Today, ISSN 1359-6446, E-ISSN 1878-5832, Vol. 15, no 9-10, p. 365-370Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN) is an emerging standard for graphical notation developed by an international systems biology community. Standardized graphical notation is crucial for efficient and accutate communication of biological knowledge between researchers with various backgrounds in the expanding field of systems biology. Here, we highlight SBGN from a practical point of view and describe how the user can build and simulate SBGN models from a simple drag-and drop graphical user interface in PathwayLab.

  • 157.
    Jansson, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Nilsson, Patric
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jirstrand, Mats
    Fraunhofer-Chalmers Research Centre for Industrial Mathematics, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hornquist, Elisabeth Hultgren
    Univ Örebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, Dept Biomed, Örebro, Sweden.
    Toward Quantifying the Thymic Dysfunctional State in Mouse Models of Inflammatory Bowel Disease2013In: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, ISSN 1078-0998, E-ISSN 1536-4844, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 881-888Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammatory bowel disease is characterized by a number of immunological alterations, not the least in the T-cell compartment. Numerous animal models of colitis have revealed aberrant thymocyte dynamics associated with skewed thymocyte development. The recent advancements in quantitative methods have proposed critical kinetic alterations in the thymocyte development during the progression of colitis. This review focuses on the aberrant thymocyte dynamics in G alpha i2-deficient mice as this mouse model provides most quantitative data of the thymocyte development associated with colitis. Herein, we discuss several dynamic changes during the progression of colitis and propose a hypothesis for the underlying causes for the skewed proportions of the thymocyte populations seen in the G alpha i2-deficient mice and in other mouse models of colitis. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2013; 19: 881-888)

  • 158.
    Johansson, Lennart F.
    et al.
    University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    de Weerd, Hendrik A.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    de Boer, Eddy N.
    University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    van Dijk, Freerk
    University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Te Meerman, Gerard J.
    University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Sijmons, Rolf H.
    University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit
    University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Swertz, Morris A.
    University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    NIPTeR: an R package for fast and accurate trisomy prediction in non-invasive prenatal testing2018In: BMC Bioinformatics, ISSN 1471-2105, E-ISSN 1471-2105, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Various algorithms have been developed to predict fetal trisomies using cell-free DNA in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). As basis for prediction, a control group of non-trisomy samples is needed. Prediction accuracy is dependent on the characteristics of this group and can be improved by reducing variability between samples and by ensuring the control group is representative for the sample analyzed.

    RESULTS: NIPTeR is an open-source R Package that enables fast NIPT analysis and simple but flexible workflow creation, including variation reduction, trisomy prediction algorithms and quality control. This broad range of functions allows users to account for variability in NIPT data, calculate control group statistics and predict the presence of trisomies.

    CONCLUSION: NIPTeR supports laboratories processing next-generation sequencing data for NIPT in assessing data quality and determining whether a fetal trisomy is present. NIPTeR is available under the GNU LGPL v3 license and can be freely downloaded from https://github.com/molgenis/NIPTeR or CRAN.

  • 159.
    Jonas, W.
    et al.
    Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Heath Care, Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Linda M.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agriculture, Skara, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Heath Care, Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ejdebäck, Mikael
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Ransjö-Arvidson, A. B.
    Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Heath Care, Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agriculture, Skara.
    Effects of Intrapartum Oxytocin Administration and Epidural Analgesia on the Concentration of Plasma Oxytocin and Prolactin, in Response to Suckling During the Second Day Postpartum2009In: Breastfeeding Medicine, ISSN 1556-8253, E-ISSN 1556-8342, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 71-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Oxytocin and prolactin stimulate milk ejection and milk production during breastfeeding. The aim of the present study was to make a detailed analysis of maternal release of oxytocin and prolactin in response to breastfeeding during the second day postpartum in mothers who had received oxytocin either intravenously for stimulation of labor or intramuscularly for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and/or epidural analgesia or those who had received no such treatment in connection with birth.

    Methods: In a descriptive comparative study plasma oxytocin and prolactin concentrations were measured in response to suckling during the second day postpartum in women who had received intravenous intrapartum oxytocin (n = 8), intramuscular postpartum oxytocin (n = 13), or epidural analgesia, either with (n = 14) or without (n = 6) intrapartum oxytocin infusion, and women who received none of these interventions (n = 20). Hormone levels were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay.

    Results: All mothers showed a pulsatile oxytocin pattern during the first 10 minutes of breastfeeding. Women who had received epidural analgesia with oxytocin infusion had the lowest endogenous median oxytocin levels. The more oxytocin infusion the mothers had received during labor, the lower their endogenous oxytocin levels were during a breastfeeding during the second day postpartum. A significant rise of prolactin was observed after 20 minutes in all women, but after 10 minutes in mothers having received oxytocin infusion during labor. In all women, oxytocin variability and the rise of prolactin levels between 0 and 20 minutes correlated significantly with median oxytocin and prolactin levels.

    Conclusion: Oxytocin, released in a pulsatile way, and prolactin were released by breastfeeding during the second day postpartum. Oxytocin infusion decreased endogenous oxytocin levels dose-dependently. Furthermore, oxytocin infusion facilitated the release of prolactin. Epidural analgesia in combination with oxytocin infusion influenced endogenous oxytocin levels negatively.

  • 160.
    Jonsson, Annie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Vetenskaplig utvärdering av åtgärdseffekter mot almsjukan inom projektet LifeELMIAS: Rapport till Naturvårdsverket 2017-10-312017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    EU-projektet ”LifeELMIAS - Saving wooded Natura 2000 habitats from invasive alien fungi species on the Island of Gotland, Sweden” startade i augusti 2013 och avslutas under 2018. Projektet har haft sitt fokus på att bekämpa och i bästa fall utrota almsjukan på Gotland, samt långsiktigt skydda och bevara den biologiska mångfalden som är speciellt knuten till alm och även ask. Projektet drivs av Skogsstyrelsen med flera samarbetspartners bland annat Naturvårdsverket. Från 2013 har bekämpningsåtgärderna finansierats i projektet LifeElmias och det kostar i medeltal 5 miljoner kronor per år. För att kunna ta ställning till hur almsjukan ska hanteras på Gotland efter projektavslut har Naturvårdsverket beställt följande utvärdering. I uppdraget har det ingått att sammanställa vad som genomförts i LifeElmias och vilka slutsatser man kan göra, samt en diskussion om framtida möjligheter.

     

    Så snart almsjukan upptäcktes på Gotland 2005 sattes bekämpningsåtgärder in som har pågått fram till idag. Till och med 2009 spred sig sjukdomen mycket snabbt på ön. Därefter har den stoppats upp och dess spridningstakt har inte ökat signifikant sedan dess. Det finns tyvärr inget som tyder på att det skulle vara möjligt att utrota sjukdomen på Gotland. Ett uppehåll i bekämpningen kommer att innebära att almsjukan återigen går in i en starkt växande fas. Då skulle upp till 90% av almbeståndet kunna slås ut på bara några år. Fram till idag har endast 3% av beståndet på 1 miljon almar insjuknat. Almarterna dör inte ut helt om man slutar med bekämpningen men förekomsterna kommer till största delen bestå av unga träd och buskartade bestånd. Vilken total effekt det har på den biologiska mångfalden generellt går inte att förutsäga. Artsammansättningen kommer dock att förändras och populationsstorlekar påverkas i både negativ och positiv riktning.

     

    Den hittills mest effektiva metoden att bekämpa almsjukan har varit att upptäcka sjuka träd och destruera dem. Nya möjligheter med fjärranalys för att inventera finns inom räckhåll och med hjälp av ekologisk geografisk modellering skulle man kunna finna strategier för att effektivisera kontrollen eller upprätta skyddszoner för specifikt bevarande av almbestånden inom Natura 2000-områdena. Både fjärranalys och ekologisk modellering kräver dock ett utvecklingsarbete med anpassningar för de specifika situationerna med almsjuka, Gotlands geografi, klimat med flera faktorer. Men dessa metoder skulle långsiktigt kunna effektivisera arbetet och minska kostnaderna för ett fortsatt kontrollprogram.

  • 161.
    Jonsson, Annie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Bertilsson, Ann
    Örnborg Kyrkander Biologi och Miljö AB.
    Ökad biologisk mångfald och renare vatten med livskraftiga stormusselbestånd i Göta älvs vattensystem: Dagens situation och åtgärder för att minska vattenkraftens negativa påverkan2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Göta älv är Sveriges största vattendrag. Älven används av många olika intressen. Människan utnyttjande av älven påverkar dock vattenekosystemen negativt. Sötvattenslevande stormusslor har drabbats hårt av människans exploatering av vattendrag och mark kring vattendrag. De är betydelsefulla organismer som tillhandahåller flera ekosystemtjänster.

    Projektets första mål har varit att samla in kunskap om alla de stora sötvattensmusselarternas förekomster i Göta älvs vattensystem (biflöden) från Vänern till havet. Det finns stora kunskapsluckor över musslornas förekomster i Sverige, särskilt de mer vanligt förekommande arterna. Projektets andra mål har varit att samla in miljödata och analysera vilka eventuella miljöproblem som påverkar musselförekomsterna i de olika delarna av vattensystemet. Utifrån resultaten har vi diskuterat olika åtgärder och prioriteringar i generella drag och även kort för respektive biflödessystem.

    Resultatet visar att musselförekomsterna är få och svaga. Musslor har påträffats i knappt en tredjedel av de undersökta 201 lokalerna. Musslor har bara påträffats i 10 av de 25 undersökta biflödessystemen. Positivt är dock att fynd har gjorts av alla de fem arterna allmän dammussla, större dammussla, flat dammussla, spetsig målarmussla och flodpärlmussla. Föryngring har också förekommit någonstans i systemet av dessa arter. Alltså har vi möjlighet att handla!

    Projektet har finasierats av Naturskyddsföreningen och Göta älvs vattenvårdsförbund.

  • 162.
    Jonsson, Annie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Bertilsson, Ann
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Rydgård, Mats
    Water Protection Department, County Administrative Board of Västra Götaland, Mariestad, Sweden.
    Spatial distribution and age structure of the freshwater unionid mussels Anodonta anatina and Unio tumidus: Implications for environmental monitoring2013In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 711, no 1, p. 61-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surveys of unionid populations have been incorporated into the Swedish national environmental monitoring program. Nevertheless there is still lack of knowledge of important aspects of the biology of many unionid species. There may also be differences between species. This work compares the spatial distribution of two unionid species, Anodonta anatina and Unio tumidus, at four sites in Sweden. Samples were taken at transects along the shoreline at different water depths on the surface bed and in the sediments. Individual mussel ages were determined. Our results indicated that younger mussel individuals do not show differences in horizontal spatial distribution compared to older mussel individuals. However, they showed a preference to be burrowed in the sediment compared to older individuals that were predominantly found at the sediment surface. We also found a large difference in burrowing frequency between species with a higher frequency of burrowed adult individuals of A. anatina than U. tumidus. This result may be due to the timing of our field survey that coincided with the period of glochidia release for U. tumidus. We can conclude that a monitoring program for freshwater mussel populations needs to be carefully planned in time. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  • 163.
    Jonsson, Annie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Toräng, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Utvärdering av Hornborgasjöns restaurering: måluppfyllelse och effekter på biologisk mångfald med fokus på vegetation och fågelfauna2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hornborgasjön räknas idag som en av Sveriges rikaste fågelsjöar och är internationellt utpekad som en av Sveriges värdefullaste våtmarker. Sjön har stor betydelse som både rast- och häckplats för en mängd fågelarter. Området är också av stort intresse för friluftslivet och som ett levande kulturlandskap. Under de senaste 150 åren har Hornborgasjön genomgått stora förändringar. En serie av sjösänkningar under 1800 och 1900-talen ledde till kraftig igenväxning och följdes av ett storskaligt restaureringsprojekt i senare tid. Syftet med Hornborgasjöns restaurering var att säkerställa Hornborgasjöns framtid som fågelsjö. Restaureringen är ett av Sveriges största naturvårdsprojekt. I denna rapport har vi utvärderat hur Hornborgasjöns restaurering påverkat vegetation och fågelfauna. Syftet var att analysera om och till vilken grad de biologiska målen med restaureringen uppnåtts.För att utvärdera måluppfyllelsen har vi i första hand jämfört olika naturtypers utbredning mellan åren 1905 och 2010 samt förändringar i fågelfaunan under flera tidsperioder. Analyser av vegetationskartor visar att vass- och buskområden kraftigt reducerats och att en stor öppen vattenspegel och omgivande mader återskapats. Våtmarksfåglarnas numerär har generellt sett återhämtat sig från igenväxningsperioden och är för vissa arter till och med större än vid förra sekelskiftet. För vissa naturtyper och fågelarter, som till exempel vassområden och häckande vadare, är dagens situation dock inte i linje med målen. Det står ändå klart att det övergripande målet och många av de mer specifika delmålen har uppfyllts så att Hornborgasjön idag är en levande våtmark med stort antal häckande och rastande fågelarter.I analyser av fågeldata från senare tid finns indikationer på negativa trender som man behöver vara observant på för att för framtiden säkra en biologiskt rik Hornborgasjö. En utmaning för denna utvärdering har dock varit bristen på högkvalitativa och jämförbara data att basera analyserna på. Vi belyser därför vikten av att ha ett fungerande övervakningssystem som kontinuerligt följer upp statusen i ekosystemet.

  • 164.
    Jonsson, Annie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Wennergren, Uno
    Linköping University, Linköpings Universitet.
    Approximations of population growth in a noisy environment: on the dichotomy of non-age and age structure2019In: Theoretical Ecology, ISSN 1874-1738, E-ISSN 1874-1746, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 99-110Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 165.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Conditions for Eltonian Pyramids in Lotka-Volterra Food Chains2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 10912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In ecological communities consumers (excluding parasites and parasitoids) are in general larger and less numerous than their resource. This results in a well-known observation known as 'Eltonian pyramids' or the ` pyramid of numbers', and metabolic arguments suggest that this pattern is independent of the number of trophic levels in a system. At the same time, Lotka-Volterra (LV) consumer-resource models are a frequently used tool to study many questions in community ecology, but their capacity to produce Eltonian pyramids has not been formally analysed. Here, I address this knowledge gap by investigating if and when LV food chain models give rise to Eltonian pyramids. I show that Eltonian pyramids are difficult to reproduce without density-dependent mortality in the consumers, unless biologically plausible relationships between mortality rate and interaction strength are taken into account.

  • 166.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Metabolic theory predicts animal self-thinning2017In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 645-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    1. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) predicts observed patterns in ecology based on metabolic rates of individuals. The theory is influential but also criticized for a lack of firm empirical evidence confirming MTE's quantitative predictions of processes, e.g. outcome of competition, at population or community level.
    2. Self-thinning is a well-known population level phenomenon among plants, but a much less studied phenomenon in animal populations and no consensus exists on what a universal thinning slope for animal populations might be, or if it exists.
    3. The goal of this study was to use animal self-thinning as a tool to test population-level predictions from MTE, by analysing (i) if self-thinning can be induced in populations of house crickets (Acheta domesticus) and (ii) if the resulting thinning trajectories can be predicted from metabolic theory, using estimates of the species-specific metabolic rate of A. domesticus.
    4. I performed a laboratory study where the growth of A. domesticus was followed, from hatching until emergence as adults, in 71 cohorts of five different starting densities.
    5. Ninety-six per cent of all cohorts in the three highest starting densities showed evidence of self-thinning, with estimated thinning slopes in general being remarkably close to that expected under metabolic constraints: A cross-sectional analysis of all data showing evidence of self-thinning produced an ordinary least square (OLS) slope of −1·11, exactly that predicted from specific metabolic allometry of A. domesticus. This result is furthermore supported by longitudinal analyses, allowing for independent responses within cohorts, producing a mean OLS slope across cohorts of −1·13 and a fixed effect linear mixed effects models slope of −1·09. Sensitivity analysis showed that these results are robust to how the criterion for on-going self-thinning was defined. Finally, also as predicted by metabolic theory, temperature had a negative effect on the thinning intercept, producing an estimate of the activation energy identical to that suggested by MTE.
    6. This study demonstrates a direct link between the metabolic rate of individuals and a population-level ecological process and as such provides strong support for research that aims to integrate body mass, via its effect on metabolism, consumption and competition, into models of populations and communities.
  • 167.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berg, Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Division of Theoretical Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Emmerson, Mark
    School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK.
    Pimenov, Alexander
    Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Lee Road, Cork, Ireland / Weierstrass Institute, Berlin, Germany.
    The context dependency of species keystone status during food web disassembly2015In: Food Webs, ISSN 2352-2496, Vol. 5, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 168.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Dept of Ecology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berg, Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Dept of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Div. of Theoretical Biology, Linköping Univ., Linköping, Sweden.
    Pimenov, Alexander
    Environmental Res. Inst., Univ. College Cork, Cork, Ireland / Weierstrass Inst., Berlin, Germany.
    Palmer, Catherine
    Environmental Res. Inst., Univ. College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Emmerson, Mark
    School of Biological Sciences, Queen's Univ. Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    The reliability of R50 as a measure of vulnerability of food webs to sequential species deletions2015In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 446-457Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 169.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kaartinen, Riikka
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Mattias
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Predictive power of food web models based on body size decreases with trophic complexity2018In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 702-712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food web models parameterised using body size show promise to predict trophic interaction strengths (IS) and abundance dynamics. However, this remains to be rigorously tested in food webs beyond simple trophic modules, where indirect and intraguild interactions could be important and driven by traits other than body size. We systematically varied predator body size, guild composition and richness in microcosm insect webs and compared experimental outcomes with predictions of IS from models with allometrically scaled parameters. Body size was a strong predictor of IS in simple modules (r(2)=0.92), but with increasing complexity the predictive power decreased, with model IS being consistently overestimated. We quantify the strength of observed trophic interaction modifications, partition this into density-mediated vs. behaviour-mediated indirect effects and show that model shortcomings in predicting IS is related to the size of behaviour-mediated effects. Our findings encourage development of dynamical food web models explicitly including and exploring indirect mechanisms.

  • 170.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jonsson, Annie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Food web structure affects the extinction risk of species in ecological communities2006In: Ecological Modelling, ISSN 0304-3800, E-ISSN 1872-7026, Vol. 199, no 1, p. 93-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the effect of food web structure on the extinction risk of species. We examine 793 different six-species food web structures with different number, position and strength of trophic links and expose them to stochasticity in a model with Lotka–Volterra predator–prey dynamics. The characteristics of species (intrinsic rates of increase as well as intraspecific density dependence) are held constant, but the interactions with other species and characteristics of the food web are varied.

    Extinctions of producer species occurred but were rare. Species at all trophic levels went extinct in communities with strong interactions as compared to communities with no strong interactions where only the secondary consumer went extinct. Extinction of a species directly involved in a strong interaction was more frequent than extinctions of species not directly involved in strong interactions (here termed direct and indirect extinctions, respectively). In model webs where both direct and indirect extinctions occurred, roughly 20% were indirect extinctions. The probability of indirect extinctions decreased with number of links. It is concluded that not just the presence of strong interactions but also their position and direction can have profound effects on extinction risk of species.

    Three principal components, based on 11 different food web metrics, explained 76.6% of the variation in trophic structure among food webs that differed in the number and position, but not strength, of trophic links. The extinction risk of consumer species was closely correlated to at least two of the three principal components, indicating that extinction risk of consumer species were affected by food web structure. The existence of a relationship between food web structure and extinction risk of a species was confirmed by a regression tree analysis and a complementary log-linear analysis. These analyses showed that extinction of consumer species were affected by the position of strong interactions and a varying number of other food web metrics, different for intermediate and top species. Furthermore, the degree to which the equilibrium abundance of a species is affected by a press perturbation is an indication of the risk of extinction that this species faces when exposed to environmental stochasticity. It is concluded that extinction risk of a species is determined in a complicated way by an interaction among species characteristics, food web structure and the type of disturbance.

  • 171.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Karlsson, Patrik
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jonsson, Annie
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Trophic interactions affect the population dynamics and risk of extinction of basal species in food webs2010In: Ecological Complexity: An International Journal on Biocomplexity in the Environment and Theoretical Ecology, ISSN 1476-945X, E-ISSN 1476-9840, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 60-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses effects of trophic complexity on basal species, in a Lotka–Volterra model with stochasticity. We use simple food web modules, with three trophic levels, and expose every species to random environmental stochasticity and analyze (1) the effect of the position of strong trophic interactions on temporal fluctuations in basal species’ abundances and (2) the relationship between fluctuation patterns and extinction risk. First, the numerical simulations showed that basal species do not simply track the environment, i.e. species dynamics do not simply mirror the characteristics of the applied environmental stochasticity. Second, the extinction risk of species was related to the fluctuation patterns of the species.

    More specifically, we show (i) that despite being forced by random stochasticity without temporal autocorrelation (i.e. white noise), there is significant temporal autocorrelation in the time series of all basal species’ abundances (i.e. the spectra of basal species are red-shifted), (ii) the degree of temporal autocorrelation in basal species time series is affected by food web structure and (iii) the degree of temporal autocorrelation tend to be correlated to the extinction risks of basal species.

    Our results emphasize the role of food web structure and species interactions in modifying the response of species to environmental variability. To shed some light on the mechanisms we compare the observed pattern in abundances of basal species with analytically predicted patterns and show that the change in the predicted pattern due to the addition of strong trophic interactions is correlated to the extinction risk of the basal species. We conclude that much remain to be understood about the mechanisms behind the interaction among environmental variability, species interactions, population dynamics and vulnerability before we quantitatively can predict, for example, effects of climate change on species and ecological communities. Here, however, we point out a new possible approach for identifying species that are vulnerable to environmental stochasticity by checking the degree of temporal autocorrelation in the time series of species. Increased autocorrelation in population fluctuations can be an indication of increased extinction risk.

  • 172.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Setzer, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    A freshwater predator hit twice by effects of warming across trophic levels2015In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 6, article id 5992Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 173.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Setzer, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Pope, John G.
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark..
    Sandstrom, Alfred
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Addressing catch mechanisms in gillnets improves modeling of selectivity and estimates of mortality rates: a case study using survey data on an endangered stock of Arctic char2013In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 70, no 10, p. 1477-1487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation of fish stock size distributions from survey data requires knowledge about gear selectivity. However, selectivity models rest on assumptions that seldom are analyzed. Departures from these can lead to misinterpretations and biased management recommendations. Here, we use survey data on great Arctic char (Salvelinus umbla) to analyze how correcting for entanglement of fish and nonisometric growth might improve estimates of selectivity curves, and subsequently estimates of size distribution and age-specific mortality. Initial selectivity curves, using the entire data set, were wide and asymmetric, with poor model fits. Removing potentially nonmeshed fish had the greatest positive effect on model fit, resulting in much narrower and less asymmetric selection curves, while attempting to take nonisometric growth into account, by using girth rather than length, improved model fit but not as much. Using simulations we show that correcting for both entanglement and size selectivity produces accurate estimates of mortality rates, while correcting for size selectivity only does not. Our study demonstrates an approach that increases the accuracy of estimates of fish size distributions and mortality rates from survey data.

  • 174.
    Junnarkara, Manisha V.
    et al.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Thakarea, Prasad M.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Yewalea, Priti P.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Rahman, Aminur
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jass, Jana
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Nawani, Neelu N.
    Dr. D. Y. Patil Biotechnology and Bioinformatics Institute, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune, India.
    Evaluation of Probiotic Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Different Sources in Western India2018In: Food biotechnology, ISSN 0890-5436, E-ISSN 1532-4249, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 112-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lactic acid bacteria isolated from unconventional sources are often attractive targets in the quest for obtaining better probiotics. In the present study, 16 members of the genus Lactobacillus, isolated from 3 different sources in western India, viz., plants, fermented foods and beverages, and human feces, were evaluated for their probiotic and bioactive properties. The isolates were closely related to Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and mainly Lactobacillus plantarum. The isolates were tolerant to bile salt, acidic pH and pancreatin, although pancreatin tolerance was generally low. Cellular extracts of several isolates displayed antioxidant activity, while cell-free supernatants displayed antibacterial activity against human pathogens. Antioxidant activity of Lactobacilli of human origin was higher than those from vegetables or fermented foods and beverages. L. plantarum AG40V prevented spoilage of fresh-cut fruits, vegetables and sprouted mung-beans. Lactobacilli from all sources displayed equal probiotic potential and those of human origin displayed superior antioxidant activity over others.

  • 175.
    Jurcevic, Sanja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    MicroRNA expression profiling in endometrial adenocarcinoma2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Jurcevic, Sanja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Ejeskär, Katarina
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Verification of microRNA expression in human endometrial adenocarcinoma2016In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 261Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 177.
    Jurcevic, Sanja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    MicroRNA expression in human endometrial adenocarcinoma2014In: Cancer Cell International, ISSN 1475-2867, E-ISSN 1475-2867, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of different cancer types. The aim of this study was to identify miRNAs that are differentially expressed in endometrial adenocarcinoma compared to healthy endometrium. These miRNAs can potentially be used to develop a panel for classification and prognosis in order to better predict the progression of the disease and facilitate the choice of treatment strategy.

    METHODS: Formalin fixed paraffin embedded endometrial tissue samples were collected from the Örebro university hospital. QPCR was used to quantify the expression levels of 742 miRNAs in 30 malignant and 20 normal endometrium samples. After normalization of the qPCR data, miRNAs differing significantly in expression between normal and cancer samples were identified, and hierarchical clustering analysis was used to identify groups of miRNAs with coordinated expression profiles.

    RESULTS: In comparisons between endometrial adenocarcinoma and normal endometrium samples 138 miRNAs were found to be significantly differentially expressed (p < 0.001) among which 112 miRNAs have not been previous reported for endometrial adenocarcinoma.

    CONCLUSION: Our study shows that several miRNAs are differentially expressed in endometrial adenocarcinoma. These identified miRNA hold great potential as target for classification and prognosis of this disease. Further analysis of the differentially expressed miRNA and their target genes will help to derive new biomarkers that can be used for classification and prognosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma.

  • 178.
    Jurcevic, Sanja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Validation of Suitable Endogenous Control Genes for Quantitative PCR Analysis of microRNA gene expression in a rat model of endometrial cancer2013In: Cancer Cell International, ISSN 1475-2867, E-ISSN 1475-2867, Vol. 13, article id 45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    MicroRNAs are small RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression by translational inhibition or mRNA cleavage. The discovery that abnormal expression of particular miRNAs contributes to human disease, including cancer, has spurred growing interest in analysing expression profiles of these molecules. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction is frequently used for quantification of miRNA expression due to its sensitivity and specificity. To minimize experimental error in this system an appropriate endogenous control gene must be chosen. An ideal endogenous control gene should be expressed at a constant level across all samples and its expression stability should be unaffected by the experimental procedure.

    Results

    The expression and validation of candidate control genes (4.5S RNA(H) A, Y1, 4.5S RNA(H) B, snoRNA, U87 and U6) was examined in 21 rat cell lines to establish the most suitable endogenous control for miRNA analysis in a rat model of cancer. The stability of these genes was analysed using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. U87 and snoRNA were identified as the most stable control genes, while Y1 was least stable.

    Conclusion

    This study identified the control gene that is most suitable for normalizing the miRNA expression data in rat. That reference gene will be useful when miRNAs expression are analyzed in order to find new miRNA markers for endometrial cancer in rat.

  • 179. Jörgensen, O A
    et al.
    Storr - Paulsen, M
    Ringdahl, K
    Lövgren, J
    Gröhsler, T
    Oberst, R
    Schaber, M
    Bergenius, J
    Pönni, J
    Aho, T
    Holmgren, Noel M. A.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Norrström, Niclas
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Aps, R
    Kuikka, S
    Vasilyev, Dmitri
    Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS)2011Report (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Kabir, Ahmad H.
    et al.
    Plant and Crop Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Mohammad M.
    Plant and Crop Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Khatun, Most A.
    Plant and Crop Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Haider, Syed A.
    Plant and Crop Physiology Laboratory, Department of Botany, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Role of Silicon Counteracting Cadmium Toxicity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)2016In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 7, article id 1117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most phytotoxic elements causing an agricultural problem and human health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) ameliorates Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants caused significant improvement in morpho-physiological features as well as total protein and membrane stability, indicating that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in Alfalfa. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd stressed plants showed a significant decrease in Cd and Fe concentrations in both roots and shoots compared with Cd-stressed plants, revealing that Si-mediated tolerance to Cd stress is associated with Cd inhibition in Alfalfa. Results also showed no significant changes in the  expression of two metal chelators [MsPCS1 (phytochelatin synthase) and MsMT2  (metallothionein)] and PC (phytochelatin) accumulation, indicating that there may be no metal sequestration or change in metal sequestration following Si application under Cd stress in  Alfalfa. We further performed a targeted study on the effect of Si on Fe uptake mechanisms. We observed the consistent reduction in Fe reductase activity, expression of Fe-related genes [MsIRT1 (Fe transporter), MsNramp1 (metal transporter) and OsFRO1 (ferric chelate reductase] and Fe chelators (citrate and malate) by Si application to Cd stress in roots of Alfalfa. These results support that limiting Fe uptake through the down-regulation of Fe acquisition mechanisms confers Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in Alfalfa. Finally, an increase of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities along with elevated methionine and proline subjected to Si application might play roles, at least in part, to reduce H2O2 and to provide antioxidant defense against Cd stress in Alfalfa. The study shows evidence of the effect of Si on alleviating Cd toxicity in Alfalfa and can be further extended for phytoremediation of Cd toxicity in plants.

  • 181.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Sweden.
    Cross-cultural personality differences between East Asia and Northern Europe in IPIP-NEO2017In: International Journal of Personality Psychology, E-ISSN 2451-9243, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 182.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Honesty-Humility predicting self-estimated academic performance2016In: International Journal of Personality Psychology, ISSN 2451-9243, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has established relationships between the Big Five personality factors, cognitive ability, and academic performance. A more recent personality trait, Honesty-Humility with its four facets (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty) is suggested to have predictive value especially in self-promoting behaviors. The aim of the present study was to find out whether lower Honesty-Humility would predict higher self-reported academic performance, and account for additional variance, after controlling for the Big Five and cognitive ability. The participants were Swedish 17-19 year-old students (N = 154) in late secondary high school. The results revealed a significant negative correlation between Honesty-Humility and self-estimated academic performance, mainly through low scores in the facets Sincerity and Modesty, as well as an additional 7% accounted for variance. The discussion concludes that the new trait Honesty-Humility may be a welcomed addition to the understanding of how students use self-promoting strategies in contemporary school.

  • 183.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    The Future of Personalized Care: Scientific, Measurement, and Practical Advancements in Personality and Brain Disorders2019In: Personality and Brain Disorders: Associations and Interventions / [ed] Danilo Garcia, Trevor Archer, Richard M. Kostrzewa, Springer, 2019, 1, p. 269-281Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Person-centered care sciences are experiencing rapid progress. Personalization in care services is becoming the norm, and implementation from scientific knowledge is increasingly acknowledged and mandated. Advances in personality and brain disorder research are crucial in assisting the future development of personalized care.  

    Aim: We will attempt to present glimpses into the future of personalized care with support from frontline science, measurement, and practice, updating with input from personality genetics and measurement theory.

    Outline: We present three broad developments: 1) Scientific advancements in understanding how personality and genetics are central in predicting mental health and disorders, with the potential to increase predictive diagnosis and treatment validity 2) Measurement advancements with help of trait dimensions and latent structures, with the potential to increase reliability in assessing personalized care needs and functioning 3) Practical advancements in implementing a personalized approach in care services, with the potential to increase effectiveness and satisfaction with patients. We review this glimpse into the future by referencing key findings in personality and assessment meta-analyses, Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), and trait measurements in psychiatric disorders.

    Conclusion: Personalizing care services will benefit practitioners and patients. We suggest and recommend that personalized care diagnosis and treatment is the way forward, and that the future will be potentially revolutionized by incorporating the presented advancements in personality research and brain sciences.

  • 184.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Short Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and its Conjoined structure with the Common Five-Factor Model2017In: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 372-384Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg / Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Björkman, Therese
    Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Dark malevolent traits and everyday perceived stress2018In: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is a factor that greatly impacts our lives. Previous research has examined individual differences in relation to stress. However, research regarding malevolent personality traits in relation to how stress is perceived is limited. The purpose of thepresent study was to investigate relationships between dark malevolent personality traits; psychopathy (EPA), Machiavellianism(MACH-IV), vulnerable narcissism (HSNS), grandiose narcissism (NPI-13), and perceived stress (PSS-10) in a communitysample (N = 346). The results showed a strong positive relationship between vulnerable narcissism and perceived stress, whilegrandiose narcissism and psychopathy showed a small negative relationship with perceived stress. The discussion centers on thatnarcissism should be treated as two separate traits, and that psychopathy and Machiavellianism overlap in relation to theexperience of stress in everyday life.

  • 186.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Sweden.
    Carlander, Anders
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Centre for Finance, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Who gets ahead in life?: Personality traits and childhood background in economic success2017In: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 59, p. 164-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many societies around the world, the ideal is that anyone can achieve a successful lifeindependent of family background. An indication of such social mobility could be that personalitycharacteristics have stronger impact than childhood background on economic success.The present study investigated how much of life outcomes (i.e., educationalattainment, annual income, and life outcome satisfaction) were accounted for by adult personalitytraits (the Big Five), when controlled for childhood socio-economic status (SES).The results from a large, representative Swedish sample (N = 5280) showed that personalitytraits (especially neuroticism) were associated as much as or more than childhood SESto annual income and life outcome satisfaction, whereas childhood SES related more toeducational attainment. These results may help facilitate our understanding of the mechanismsbehind individual economic success.

  • 187.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Sweden.
    Conceptualizations of Personality Disorders with the Five Factor Model-count and Empathy Traits2017In: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 141-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has long advocated that emotional and behavioral disorders are related to general personality traits, such as the Five Factor Model (FFM). The addition of section III in the latest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) recommends that extremity in personality traits together with maladaptive interpersonal functioning, such as lack of empathy, are used for identifying psychopathology and particularly personality disorders (PD). The objective of the present study was to measure dispositions for DSM categories based on normal personality continuums, and to conceptualize these with empathy traits. We used a validated FFM-count method based on the five personality factors (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), and related these to 4 empathy traits (emphatic concern, perspective-taking, fantasy, and personal distress). The results showed that FFM-based PD scores overall could be conceptualized using only two of the empathy traits, low emphatic concern and high personal distress. Further, specific dispositions for personality disorders were characterized with distinct empathy traits (e.g., histrionic with high fantasy, and paranoid with low perspective-taking). These findings may have both theoretical and practical implications in capturing potential for personality disorders with ease and efficiency.

  • 188.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn N.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jonason, Peter K.
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Hedonism, Achievement, and Power: Universal Values that Characterize the Dark Triad2015In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 77, p. 173-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a sample of Swedes and Americans (N = 385), we attempted to understand the Dark Triad traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) in terms of the universal social values. The Dark Triad traits correlated significantly with all 10 value types, forming a sinusoid pattern corresponding to the value model circumplex. In regression analyses, Machiavellianism and narcissism were positively associated with the values Achievement and Power, while psychopathy was positively associated with the values Hedonism, and Power. In addition, the Dark Triad traits explained significant variance over the Big Five traits in accounting for individual differences in social values. Differences between the Swedish and the US sample in the social value Achievement was mediated by the Dark Triad traits, as well as age. Given the unique complex of values accounted for by the Dark Triad traits compared to the Big Five traits, we argue that the former account for a system of self-enhancing “dark values”, often hidden but constantly contributing in evaluations of others.

  • 189.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn N.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosenberg, Patricia
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The (mis)measurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, article id e1748Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Johnson, John
    Department of Psychology, Pennsylvania State University, State College, USA.
    Assessing the Structure of the Five Factor Model of Personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the Public Domain2019In: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 260-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of individual differences in personality traits is arguably one of the hallmarks of psychological research. Testing the structural validity of trait measurements is paramount in this endeavor. In the current study, we investigated 30 facet traits in one of the accessible and comprehensive public-domain Five Factor Model (FFM) personality inventories, IPIP-NEO-120 (Johnson, 2014), using one of the largest US samples to date (N = 320,128). We present structural loadings for all trait facets organized into respective FFM-trait domain (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Both hierarchical second-order and bi-factor models showed tolerable model fit indices, using confirmatory factor analysis in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. Some facet traits were substantially more representative than others for their respective trait domain, which facilitate further discussions on FFM-construct content. We conclude that IPIP-NEO is sufficiently structurally robust for future use, for the benefit of research and practice in personality assessment.

  • 191.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johnson, John
    Pennsylvania State University, United States.
    Sex differences in 30 facets of the five factor model of personality in the large public (N = 320,128)2018In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 129, p. 126-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study reports on the scope and size of sex differences in 30 personality facet traits, using one of the largest US samples to date (N = 320,128). The study was one of the first to utilize the open access version of the Five-Factor Model of personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the large public. Overall, across age-groups 19–69 years old, women scored notably higher than men in Agreeableness (d = 0.58) and Neuroticism (d = 0.40). Specifically, women scored d > 0.50 in facet traits Anxiety, Vulnerability, Openness to Emotions, Altruism, and Sympathy, while men only scored slightly higher (d > 0.20) than women in facet traits Excitement-seeking and Openness to Intellect. Sex gaps in the five trait domains were fairly constant across all age-groups, with the exception for age-group 19–29 years old. The discussion centers on how to interpret effects sizes in sex differences in personality traits, and tentative consequences. 

  • 192.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Personality traits across countries: Support for similarities rather than differences2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 1-13, article id e0179646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current climate of migration and globalization, personality characteristics of individualsfrom different countries have received a growing interest. Previous research has establishedreliable differences in personality traits across countries. The present study extends thisresearch by examining 30 personality traits in 22 countries, based on an online survey inEnglish with large national samples (NTotal = 130,602). The instrument used was a comprehensive,open-source measure of the Five Factor Model (FFM) (IPIP-NEO-120). We postulatedthat differences in personality traits between countries would be small, labeling this aSimilarities Hypothesis. We found support for this in three stages. First, similarities acrosscountries were observed for model fits for each of the five personality trait structures. Second,within-country sex differences for the five personality traits showed similar patternsacross countries. Finally, the overall the contribution to personality traits from countries wasless than 2%. In other words, the relationship between a country and an individual's personalitytraits, however interesting, are small. We conclude that the most parsimonious explanationfor the current and past findings is a cross-country personality Similarities Hypothesis.

  • 193.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Posthypnotic Suggestion Alters Conscious Color Perception in an Automatic Manner2013In: International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis, ISSN 0020-7144, E-ISSN 1744-5183, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 371-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors studied whether a posthypnotic suggestion to see a brief, masked target as gray can change the color experience of a hypnotic virtuoso. The visibility of the target was manipulated by varying the delay between the target and the mask that followed it. The virtuoso's subjective reports indicated that her conscious color experience was altered already at short delays between the target and the subsequent mask. The virtuoso's objectively measured pattern of responding under posthypnotic suggestion could not be mimicked either by control participants nor the virtuoso herself. Due to posthypnotic amnesia, the virtuoso was unaware of suggestions given during hypnosis. Importantly, the virtuoso could not alter her color perception without a hypnotic suggestion. These results suggest that hypnosis can affect even a highly automatic process such as color perception.

  • 194.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Koivisto, Mika
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Seeing Blue As Red: A Hypnotic Suggestion Can Alter Visual Awareness of Colors2016In: International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis, ISSN 0020-7144, E-ISSN 1744-5183, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 261-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some highly hypnotizable individuals have reported changes in objects' color with suggestions given in normal waking state. However, it is not clear whether this occurs only in their imagination. The authors show that, although subjects could imagine colors, a posthypnotic suggestion was necessary for seeing altered colors, even for a hypnotic virtuoso. She reported posthypnotic color alterations also selectively in response to specific target shapes in briefly presented object arrays. Surprisingly, another highly hypnotizable person showed a very different pattern of results. The control participants could not simulate virtuosos' results by applying cognitive strategies. The results imply that hypnosis can alter the functioning of automatic visual processes but only in some of the most hypnotizable individuals.

  • 195.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku Institute for Advanced Studies and Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku Institute for Advanced Studies and Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kaakinen, Johanna K.
    Turku Institute for Advanced Studies and Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Synaesthesia-type associations and perceptual changes induced by hypnotic suggestion2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 17310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are synaesthetic experiences congenital and so hard-wired, or can a functional analogue be created? We induced an equivalent of form-colour synaesthesia using hypnotic suggestions in which symbols in an array (circles, crosses, squares) were suggested always to have a certain colour. In a Stroop type-naming task, three of the four highly hypnotizable participants showed a strong synaesthesia-type association between symbol and colour. This was verified both by their subjective reports and objective eye-movement behaviour. Two resembled a projector-and one an associator-type synaesthete. Participant interviews revealed that subjective experiences differed somewhat from typical (congenital) synaesthesia. Control participants who mimicked the task using cognitive strategies showed a very different response pattern. Overall, the results show that the targeted, preconsciously triggered associations and perceptual changes seen in association with congenital synaesthesia can rapidly be induced by hypnosis. They suggest that each participant's subjective experience of the task should be carefully evaluated, especially when studying hypnotic hallucinations. Studying such experiences can increase understanding of perception, automaticity, and awareness and open unique opportunities in cognitive neuroscience and consciousness research.

  • 196.
    Kallionpää, R. E.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, A.
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital,Turku, Finland.
    Kallionpää, R. A.
    Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sandman, N.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, Universityof Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kallioinen, M.
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Laitio, R.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital,Turku, Finland.
    Laitio, T.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital,Turku, Finland.
    Kaskinoro, K.
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital,Turku, Finland.
    Kuusela, T.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Scheinin, H.
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital,Turku, Finland / Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology,Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.
    Spoken words are processed during dexmedetomidine-induced unresponsiveness2018In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 121, no 1, p. 270-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studying the effects of anaesthetic drugs on the processing of semantic stimuli could yield insights into how brain functions change in the transition from wakefulness to unresponsiveness. Here, we explored the N400 event-related potential during dexmedetomidine- and propofol-induced unresponsiveness. Methods: Forty-seven healthy subjects were randomised to receive either dexmedetomidine (n = 23) or propofol (n = 24) in this open-label parallel-group study. Loss of responsiveness was achieved by stepwise increments of pseudo-steady-state plasma concentrations, and presumed loss of consciousness was induced using 1.5 times the concentration required for loss of responsiveness. Pre-recorded spoken sentences ending either with an expected (congruous) or an unexpected (incongruous) word were presented during unresponsiveness. The resulting electroencephalogram data were analysed for the presence of the N400 component, and for the N400 effect defined as the difference between the N400 components elicited by congruous and incongruous stimuli, in the time window 300-600 ms post-stimulus. Recognition of the presented stimuli was tested after recovery of responsiveness. Results: The N400 effect was not observed during dexmedetomidine- or propofol-induced unresponsiveness. The N400 component, however, persisted during dexmedetomidine administration. The N400 component elicited by congruous stimuli during unresponsiveness in the dexmedetomidine group resembled the large component evoked by incongruous stimuli at the awake baseline. After recovery, no recognition of the stimuli heard during unresponsiveness occurred. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine and propofol disrupt the discrimination of congruous and incongruous spoken sentences, and recognition memory at loss of responsiveness. However, the processing of words is partially preserved during dexmedetomidine-induced unresponsiveness.

  • 197.
    Kallionpää, Roosa E.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Pesonen, Henri
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Computer Science, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Scheinin, Annalotta
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland / Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Sandman, Nils
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku,Finland.
    Laitio, Ruut
    Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Scheinin, Harry
    Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland / Turku PET Centre, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Finland / Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Single-subject analysis of N400 event-related potential component with five different methods2019In: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 144, p. 14-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several different approaches to analyze event-related potentials (ERPs) at single-subject level, and the aim of the current study is to provide information for choosing a method based on its ability to detect ERP effects and factors influencing the results. We used data from 79 healthy participants with EEG referenced to mastoid average and investigated the detection rate of auditory N400 effect in single-subject analysis using five methods: visual inspection of participant-wise averaged ERPs, analysis of variance (ANOVA) for amplitude averages in a time window, cluster-based non-parametric testing, a novel Bayesian approach and Studentized continuous wavelet transform (t-CWT). Visual inspection by three independent raters yielded N400 effect detection in 85% of the participants in at least one paradigm (active responding or passive listening), whereas ANOVA identified the effect in 68%, the cluster-method in 59%, the Bayesian method in 89%, and different versions of t-CWT in 22–59% of the participants. Thus, the Bayesian method was the most liberal and also showed the greatest concordance between the experimental paradigms (active/passive). ANOVA detected significant effect only in cases with converging evidence from other methods. The t-CWT and cluster-based method were the most conservative methods. As we show in the current study, different analysis methods provide results that do not completely overlap. The method of choice for determining the presence of an ERP component at single-subject level thus remains unresolved. Relying on a single statistical method may not be sufficient for drawing conclusions on single-subject ERPs. 

  • 198.
    Kaneryd, Linda
    et al.
    Division of Theoretical Biology, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Borrvall, Charlotte
    Division of Theoretical Biology, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Berg, Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Division of Theoretical Biology, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Curtsdotter, Alva
    Division of Theoretical Biology, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Eklöf, Anna
    Division of Theoretical Biology, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hauzy, Céline
    Division of Theoretical Biology, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden / Laboratoire Ecologie et Evolution, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Münger, Peter
    Division of Theoretical Biology, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Setzer, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Division of Theoretical Biology, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Säterberg, Torbjörn
    Division of Theoretical Biology, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ebenman, Bo
    Division of Theoretical Biology, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Species-rich ecosystems are vulnerable to cascading extinctions in an increasingly variable world2012In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 858-874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming leads to increased intensity and frequency of weather extremes. Such increased environmental variability might in turn result in increased variation in the demographic rates of interacting species with potentially important consequences for the dynamics of food webs. Using a theoretical approach, we here explore the response of food webs to a highly variable environment.We investigate how species richness and correlation in the responses of species to environmental fluctuations affect the risk of extinction cascades. We find that the risk of extinction cascades increases with increasing species richness, especially when correlation among species is low. Initial extinctions of primary producer species unleash bottom-up extinction cascades, especially in webs with specialist consumers. In this sense, species-rich ecosystems are less robust to increasing levels of environmental variability than species-poor ones. Our study thus suggests that highly speciesrich ecosystems such as coral reefs and tropical rainforests might be particularly vulnerable to increased climate variability.

  • 199.
    Karim, Md Rezaul
    et al.
    Rajshahi University, Bangladesh / Islamic University, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, Mashiur
    Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    Islam, Khairul
    Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    Al Mamun, Abdullah
    Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Shakhawoat
    Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Ekhtear
    Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    Aziz, Abdul
    Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    Yeasmin, Fouzia
    Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    Agarwal, Smita
    Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Md Imam
    Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    Saud, Zahangir Alam
    Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    Nikkon, Farjana
    Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Mostaque
    Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jenkins, Richard O.
    De Montfort University, United Kingdom .
    Haris, Parvez I.
    De Montfort University, United Kingdom .
    Miyataka, Hideki
    Tokushima Bunri University, Japan.
    Himeno, Seiichiro
    Tokushima Bunri University, Japan.
    Hossain, Khaled
    Rajshahi University, Bangladesh.
    Increases in Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein and Other Inflammatory and Adhesion Molecules With a Concomitant Decrease in High-Density Lipoprotein in the Individuals Exposed to Arsenic in Bangladesh2013In: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 135, no 1, p. 17-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated exposure to arsenic has been suggested to be associated with atherosclerosis leading to cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, biochemical events underlying the arsenic-induced atherosclerosis have not yet been fully documented. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of circulating molecules involved in atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure in the individuals exposed to arsenic in Bangladesh. A total of 324 study subjects, 218 from arsenic-endemic areas and 106 from nonendemic areas in Bangladesh, were recruited. Drinking water, hair, nail, and blood samples were collected from the study subjects for analysis. Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were lower in arsenic-endemic subjects than those of nonendemic subjects. Oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL), C-reactive protein (CRP), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) levels were significantly higher in arsenic-endemic subjects than those in nonendemic subjects. All these circulating molecules showed significant correlations with arsenic exposure (water, hair, and nail arsenic concentrations), and all these relations were significant before and after adjusting for relevant covariates. Among the circulating molecules tested in this study, HDL, Ox-LDL, and CRP showed dose-response relationships with arsenic exposure. Ox-LDL/ HDL ratios were increased with the increasing concentrations of arsenic in the water, hair, and nails. Furthermore, non-HDL cholesterol and TC/ HDL ratios were significantly correlated with arsenic exposure before and after adjusting for relevant covariates. Thus, all the observed associations may be the major features of arsenic exposure-related atherosclerosis leading to CVD.

  • 200.
    Kariminejad, Ariana
    et al.
    Kariminejad-Najmabadi Pathology & Genetics Centre, Tehran, Iran.
    Almadani, Navid
    Kariminejad-Najmabadi Pathology & Genetics Centre, Tehran, Iran.
    Khoshaeen, Atefeh
    Mehrgan Genetics Centre, Sari, Iran.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Moslemi, Ali-Reza
    Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tajsharghi, Homa
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Truncating CHRNG mutations associated with interfamilial variability of the severity of the Escobar variant of multiple pterygium syndrome2016In: BMC Genetics, ISSN 1471-2156, E-ISSN 1471-2156, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:In humans, muscle-specific nicotinergic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) is a transmembrane protein with five different subunits, coded by CHRNA1, CHRNB, CHRND and CHRNG/CHRNE. The gamma subunit of AChR encoded by CHRNG is expressed during early foetal development, whereas in the adult, the γ subunit is replaced by a ε subunit. Mutations in the CHRNG encoding the embryonal acetylcholine receptor may cause the non-lethal Escobar variant (EVMPS) and lethal form (LMPS) of multiple pterygium syndrome. The MPS is a condition characterised by prenatal growth failure with pterygium and akinesia leading to muscle weakness and severe congenital contractures, as well as scoliosis.

    RESULTS:Our whole exome sequencing studies have identified one novel and two previously reported homozygous mutations in CHRNG in three families affected by non-lethal EVMPS. The mutations consist of deletion of two nucleotides, cause a frameshift predicted to result in premature termination of the foetally expressed gamma subunit of the AChR.

    CONCLUSIONS:Our data suggest that severity of the phenotype varies significantly both within and between families with MPS and that there is no apparent correlation between mutation position and clinical phenotype. Although individuals with CHRNG mutations can survive, there is an increased frequency of abortions and stillbirth in their families. Furthermore, genetic background and environmental modifiers might be of significance for decisiveness of the lethal spectrum, rather than the state of the mutation per se. Detailed clinical examination of our patients further indicates the changing phenotype from infancy to childhood.

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