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  • 151.
    Andrén, Martina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Stenman, Isabelle
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Anorexia nervosa - unga kvinnors upplevelser av mötet med vårdpersonalen: En självbiografistudie2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Anorexia nervosa usually affects young women. The disease is based on askewed perception of the body, which leads to dieting to reach an ideal weight. Individualswith anorexia nervosa can have bad self-image and low self-confidence which can result intoself-destructive behavior and suffering. The nurse during the meeting needs to show trustand create safety for the patient. Professional support by communication and interaction canestablished a good care relationship. Aim: To describe how young women diagnosed withanorexia nervosa experience the meeting with health professionals. Method: The datamaterial consists of five autobiographies that have been analyzed with qualitative contentanalysis. Results: The analysis revealed four categories; feel unfairly treated, ending up indisadvantage, exposed to abuse of power and compulsion, hope and confidence. A total ofeight subcategories emerged. Conclusion: The meeting with healthcare is experienced bothnegatively and positively. It is important that healthcare professionals respect the youngwomen’s autonomy and engage them in their healthcare. That the healthcare should becharacterized by an ethical perspective and that time is given in the meeting is important.Good treatment, adequate knowledge and non-judgmental attitudes from healthprofessionals are important.

  • 152.
    Anicic, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Kristiansson, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Bröstcancer vänder upp och ner på hela livet: En studie av självbiografier om kvinnors erfarenheter av att leva med bröstcancer2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Every year thousands of women are affected with breast cancer in Sweden. The disease changes the womens life in different ways. The diagnosis gives them different emotions like worry, anxiety and fear. The treatment involves different side effects that can give the feeling of losing your identity. These experiences require that the nurse have the right knowledge to give support, care and treatment to relive the suffering and promote health. Aim: The aim was to illustrate women's experiences of living with breast cancer. Method: Five autobiographies was chosen and analyzed with a qualitative content analysis described by Lundman and Hällgren Graneheim (2014). Results: Four categories emerged from the analysis; Fear of the future, Lose her female identity, The need for interaction and Altered outlook, with eight subcategories. Discussion: It is important that the nurse has knowledge of the psychological and physical changes that occur in women with breast cancer. If the nurse is aware of women's knowledge and experience the knowledge for individualized care increases. Conclusion: Women with breast cancer live with a constant fear, anxiety and worry. Support from people in the same situation and nurses have an important impact on women's health and helps to reduce their suffering.

  • 153.
    Annerfalk, Alice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. a.annerfalk@gmail.com.
    Svensson, Ida
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sociala mediers effekt på ungdomar och unga vuxnas psykiska hälsa: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: In recent years, the use of social media has increased significantly in young people. 92 percent of all 13 to 16-year-olds today use social media where the most common media are Facebook, Instagram and Snapchat. Something else that increases at the same rate as social media is mental illness in young people. Aim: The purpose of this literature study is to investigate whether adolescents and young adults (age 13-24) use of social media has any effects on their mental health and well-being. Method: The method is a literature study in which 21 peer reviewed articles have been analyzed to answer the questions. Result: Social media proved to have both a negative and a positive effect on young people. Psychological consequences could be demonstrated and explained by how social media are used, how often they are used and different mediating variables. The strongest mediation was shown to be FoMO, the fear of missing something out if not constantly checking through their social media. Social media was also shown to be a health-promoting tool if used in moderation, as the individual then develops his or her communication skills and strengthens the social interaction and support. Conclusion: Social media have both positive and negative effects on mental health. However, the conclusion in this literature study is that the negative effects outdo the positive effects, and social media should therefore be used with more caution and reflection.

     

  • 154.
    Annica, Hammarlund
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Stress, ångest & depression - faktorer hos kvinnor med bröstcancerdiagnos: Systematisk litteraturstudie om ångest, depression och stress hos kvinnor med en bröstcancer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Over time, disease patterns affecting the population have changes. Today, many people are diagnosed with diseases that were not common decades ago, which have now become a global public health problem. One of these diseases is cancer. Breast cancer is the most common cancer form for women, and stressful in part because of the association of breasts with femininity.  

    Purpose: The purpose of this literature study is to describe the mental health of the woman after a breast cancer diagnosis focusing on anxiety, depression and stress.

    Method: The chosen method is a systematic literature review. Articles have been systematically searched in the PubMed database. During the search process, 15 scientific articles were selected with relevant information to respond to the purpose of the study. Three themes emerged during the analysis of the articles: Fear of breast cancer recurrence, femininity, and psychological health effects.

    Result: The results show that women feel less feminine and attractive when a breast has been removed. Women with breast cancer history are afraid of recurrence which affects their lives through anxiety, anxiety and stress. Younger women are more afraid of death than older women, which may be because younger women have young children and are fearful of not seeing them grow up.

    Discussion: A breast cancer diagnosis can strongly affect a woman. After a woman's diagnosis, she needs to change her planning for the future. This can create anxiety and anxiety about recovery and how she will feel and lead to worry about the outcome of the disease. There is a need for more training for doctors and nurses to better help breast cancer patients who experience stress, anxiety and depression.

  • 155.
    Aregawi, Lydia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Johansson, Wenhong
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Patienters upplevelse av att leva med diabetes typ 2: En litteraturöversikt2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that can affect people of all ages. The disease causes suffering and even can affects patient’s quality of life. Ability for self-care is crucial to avoid the complications associated with diabetes.

    Aim: The study aims to describe patients' experience of living with type 2 diabetes.

    Method: The method chosen was a literature review consisting of 15 qualitative articles.

    Result: The result showed six themes; limitations in everyday life, evokes many emotions, the importance of self-care ability, the importance of knowledge and information, to be strengthened in the meeting with healthcare professionals and the need of support from their surroundings. Life with diabetes means a struggle with the requirements associated with disease management. Patients experience lack of motivation to perform self-care around the changes of living habits and management of disease. Knowledge results in an improved disease management. Patients express their need of information. Support from health professionals and environment facilitates patient’s daily life with diabetes.

    Conclusion: By understanding the experiences of patients living with diabetes, healthcare professionals can identify each individual's needs and expectations, and thereby offer a person-centered care. Health care professionals have a crucial role in promoting patients' ability to manage their illness and experiencing wellness.

  • 156.
    Arnoldussen, Ilse A. C.
    et al.
    Department of Anatomy, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Sundh, Valter
    Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bäckman, Kristoffer
    Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kern, Silke
    Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Östling, Svante
    Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blennow, Kaj
    Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Henrik
    Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Skoog, Ingmar
    Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kiliaan, Amanda J.
    Department of Anatomy, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Gustafson, Deborah R.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Neurology, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA / Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Institute for Neuroscience and Physiology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A 10-Year Follow-Up of Adiposity and Dementia in Swedish Adults Aged 70 Years and Older2018In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, ISSN 1387-2877, E-ISSN 1875-8908, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 1325-1335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adiposity measured in mid-or late-life and estimated using anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), or metabolic markers such as blood leptin and adiponectin levels, is associated with late-onset dementia risk. However, during later life, this association may reverse and aging- and dementia-related processes may differentially affect adiposity measures.

    Objective: We explored associations of concurrent BMI, WHR, and blood leptin and high molecular weight adiponectin levels with dementia occurrence.

    Methods: 924 Swedish community-dwelling elderly without dementia, aged 70 years and older, systematically-sampled by birth day and birth year population-based in the Gothenburg city region of Sweden. The Gothenburg Birth Cohort Studies are designed for evaluating risk and protective factors for dementia. All dementias diagnosed after age 70 for 10 years were identified. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to predict dementia occurrence between 2000-2005, 2005-2010, and 2000-2010 after excluding prevalent baseline (year 2000) dementias. Baseline levels of BMI, WHR, leptin, and adiponectin were used.

    Results: Within 5 years of baseline, low BMI (<20 kg/m(2)) was associated with higher odds of dementia compared to those in the healthy BMI category (>= 20-24.9 kg/m(2)). Compared to the lowest quartile, leptin levels in the second quartile were associated with lower odds of dementia in women (p < 0.05).

    Conclusion: In late-life, anthropometric and metabolic adiposity measures appear to be differentially associated with dementia risk. While BMI and leptin levels are highly positively correlated, our results show that their association with dementia at age >= 70 years, is asynchronous. These data suggest that with aging, the complexity of the adiposity exposure may increase and suggests metabolic dysregulation. Additional studies are needed to better understand this complexity.

  • 157.
    Aronsson, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Kan tacksamhet främja moraliskt beteende?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har undersökt om tacksamhet kan påverka vårt moraliska beteende, genom att se över studier som gjorts inom psykologi och kognitiv neurovetenskap. Tidigare forskning har fokuserat mestadels på hur det kognitiva resonerandet påverkar ens moral. På senare tid har forskningen allt mer betonat specifika emotioners avgörande roll för om man agerar efter moraliska normer eller inte. Dessa emotioner benämns som moraliska emotioner. En av dessa moraliska emotioner är tacksamhet. Tacksamhet har i studier visats fungera som en moralisk barometer, stärka välgörares fortsatta moraliska beteende samt fungera som ett moraliskt motiv. Den neurala grunden för tacksamhet är ännu relativt outforskad. Emotioners generella påverkan på moraliskt beteende samt positiva emotioners tendenser till agerande (eng: action tendencies) kan dock ses som ett steg till ökad förståelse om hur tacksamheten påverkar vårt moraliska beteende.

  • 158.
    Arvidsson, Andrea
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Meditation, attention and the brain: function, structure and attentional performance2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Meditation has been practiced around the world for thousands of years and has during the past decade become increasingly popular in the Western world. Meditation can be seen as a form of mental exercise and refers to a family of complex emotional and attentional regulatory practices that involves different attentional, cognitive monitoring and awareness processes. Clinical research on meditation has demonstrated that meditation seem to reduce stress, anxiety, and depression. Recent interest in how meditation affect the human brain and body have lead to an increase in research regarding the neural correlates of meditation, structural changes induced by meditation, and the potential attentional and emotional benefits mediated by meditation. This thesis investigates expert related changes in neural activity, brain structure, and attentional performance induced by focused attention meditation (FAM) and open monitoring meditation (OMM). The research on meditation and the brain is still in its infancy but despite this, there seem to be some converging evidence of meditation’s impact on the human brain and mind. The results from the included studies in this thesis indicates that expert meditators show greater activation in some meditation related brain areas, as well as less activation in other areas when compared to novice meditators. The results also suggest that long-term meditation practice induce some structural changes in the brain and that meditation seem to enhance the practitioners’ attentional control. 

  • 159.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Slinde, Frode
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Sven
    Department of Internal Medicine/Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hulthén, Lena
    Department of Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Energy Cost in Children Assessed by Multisensor Activity Monitors2009In: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, ISSN 0195-9131, E-ISSN 1530-0315, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 603-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Purpose: The SenseWear Pro2 Armband (SWA; BodyMedia, Inc., Pittsburg, PA), the Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity (IDEEA; Minisun LLC, Fresno, CA), and the ActiReg (AR; PreMed AS, Oslo, Norway) were compared with indirect calorimetry to determine the ability of these devices to assess energy cost in children during resting and different physical activities. Methods: Fourteen children, 11–13 yr old, wore the SWA, the IDEEA, and the AR during resting, sitting, stationary bicycling, jumping on a trampoline, playing basketball, stair walking, and walking/running along a 50-m track. The Oxycon Mobile portable metabolic system (VIASYS Healthcare, Conshohocken, PA) was used as the criterion method for energy cost. Results: For resting and sitting, the three activity monitors showed comparable results, but none of them accurately assessed energy cost for stationary bicycling, jumping on a trampoline, or playing basketball. The IDEEA was the only activity monitor that accurately assessed energy cost for stair walking. Also, the IDEEA showed a close estimate of energy cost across the walking and the running intensities, whereas the SWA accurately assessed energy cost for slow to normal walking but showed increased underestimation of energy cost with increasing speed. The AR overestimated energy cost during walking and during slow running but did not respond to increasing running speed. Conclusions: To be able to capture children’s physical activity, all three activity monitors need to be further developed. Overall, the IDEEA showed the highest ability to assess energy cost in this study, but SWA may be more feasible for use in children under free-living conditions.

     

  • 160.
    Arvidsson, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Fallgren, Charlotta
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hur familjen till en patient med diagnosen schizofreni kan uppleva sjukdomen och dess inverkan på vardagen2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The diagnosis of schizophrenia has a direct effect on the family of the individual diagnosed. It’s a complex disease with several symptoms which generally debut in the ages between 15-35. The responsibilities of the nurses involve both support and information to both patient and close relatives. In order to fulfil these requirements the nurse must have an understanding of the affect the disease has, not only on the patient but also his or hers close family members. The aim of the study is, by using presently available research, to describe how the family of a patient with the diagnosis schizophrenia could experience the illness and its influence on their everyday-life. The result of a study of 12 scientific articles shows that the relatives experience great worry, stress and burden. They also experience feelings like sorrow and guilt, but still they feel hope. The study shows that there generally is a large waiting time for psychiatric care and that relatives desire for more direct information and support from health care professionals. The result can contribute to a nurses greater understanding of the relatives experiences, feelings and needs.

  • 161.
    Arvidsson, L.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Bogl, L. H.
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Sect Epidemiol & Social Med EPSO, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Inst Med,Sahlgrenska Acad, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hebestreit, A.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Nagy, P.
    Univ Pecs, Dept Pediat, Pecs, Hungary.
    Tornaritis, M.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, GENUD Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Siani, A.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Epidemiol & Populat Genet, Avellino, Italy.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Res Ctr, Tallinn, Estonia.
    De Henauw, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Lissner, L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sect Epidemiol & Social Med EPSO, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Inst Med,Sahlgrenska Acad, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fat, sugar and water intakes among families from the IDEFICS intervention and control groups: first observations from I.Family2015In: Obesity Reviews, ISSN 1467-7881, E-ISSN 1467-789X, Vol. 16, p. 127-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThe objective of this paper is to investigate differences in diets of families in intervention versus control communities 5years after the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants intervention ended. MethodsAltogether, 4,691 families from the I.Family study with at least one participating parent and one child are included in this analysis. Diet quality indicators, defined as propensities to consume fat, sugar, water and fruit and vegetables, are calculated from a 59-item food frequency questionnaire. Multilevel linear models with random intercepts for study centre are used to determine whether mean diet indicators, calculated at the family level, differed as a function of previous exposure to the intervention. ResultsFamilies in the intervention communities reported a significantly lower sugar propensity (19.8% vs. 20.7% of total food items, p<0.01) and a higher water propensity (47.3% vs. 46.0% of total beverages, p<0.05) compared with families in the control communities, while fat and fruit and vegetables propensities were similar. No significant diet differences between intervention and control children were present at the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants baseline. DiscussionThis result indicates better diet quality in intervention families, which was not present in children when their diets were assessed before the intervention, and gives some cause for optimism regarding the sustainability of some aspects of the diet intervention.

  • 162.
    Arvidsson, Louise
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Birkhed, Dowen
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Odontol, Dept Cariol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hunsberger, Monica
    Univ Gothenburg, Sect Epidemiol & Social Med, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lanfer, Anne
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS GmbH, Bremen, Germany.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Univ Gothenburg, Sect Epidemiol & Social Med, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mehlig, Kirsten
    Marild, Staffan
    Univ Gothenburg, Queen Silvia Childrens Hosp, Dept Paediat, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Sect Epidemiol & Social Med, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    BMI, eating habits and sleep in relation to salivary counts of mutans streptococci in children - the IDEFICS Sweden study2016In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1088-1092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between salivary counts of mutans streptococci (MS) and children's weight status, while considering associated covariates. MS ferments carbohydrates from the diet and contributes to caries by lowering the pH in dental plaque. In adults, high counts of MS in saliva have been associated with overweight, but this has not been shown in children. Design: Cross-sectional study investigating salivary counts of MS, BMI Z-score, waist circumference, meal frequency, sugar propensity and sleep duration, in children. Setting: West Sweden. Subjects: Children (n 271) aged 4-11 years. Results: Medium-high counts of MS were positively associated with higher BMI Z-score (OR=1.6; 95 % CI 1.1, 2.3). Positive associations were also found between medium-high counts of MS and more frequent meals per day (OR=1.5; 95 % CI 1.1, 2.2), greater percentage of sugar-rich foods consumed (OR=1.1; 95 % CI 1.0, 1.3) and female sex (OR=2.4; 95 % CI 1.1, 5.4). A negative association was found between medium-high counts of MS and longer sleep duration (OR=0.5; 95 % CI 0.3, 1.0). Conclusions: BMI Z-score was associated with counts of MS. Promoting adequate sleep duration and limiting the intake frequency of sugar-rich foods and beverages could provide multiple benefits in public health interventions aimed at reducing dental caries and childhood overweight.

  • 163.
    Arvidsson, Louise
    et al.
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine (EPSO), The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine (EPSO), The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hunsberger, Monica
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine (EPSO), The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
    Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Molnar, Denes
    Department of Paediatrics, Clinical Center, University of Pécs, Pecs, Hungary.
    Jilani, Hannah
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology-BIPS, Achterstrasse 30, Bremen, 283 59, Germany.
    Thumann, Barbara
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology-BIPS, Achterstrasse 30, Bremen, 283 59, Germany.
    Veidebaum, Toomas
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Russo, Paola
    Institute of Food Sciences, CNR Via Roma, Avellino, 64-83100, Italy.
    Tornatitis, Michael
    Research and Education Institute of Child Health REF, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M
    GENUD (Growth Exercise, Nutrition, and Development) Research Group, University of Zaragoza; Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón), Zaragoza, Spain.
    Pala, Valeria
    Nutritional Epidemiology Unit, Department of Preventive Medicine, Fondazione IRCSS Istituto Nazionale Dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine (EPSO), Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 453, Gothenburg, 405 30, Sweden.
    Bidirectional associations between psychosocial well-being and adherence to healthy dietary guidelines in European children: prospective findings from the IDEFICS study2017In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In children the relationship between a healthy diet and psychosocial well-being has not been fully explored and the existing evidence is inconsistent. This study investigates the chronology of the association between children's adherence to healthy dietary guidelines and their well-being, with special attention to the influence of weight status on the association.

    METHODS: Seven thousand six hundred seventy five children 2 to 9 years old from the eight-country cohort study IDEFICS were investigated. They were first examined between September 2007 and June 2008 and re-examined again 2 years later. Psychosocial well-being was measured using self-esteem and parent relations questions from the KINDL® and emotional and peer problems from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. A Healthy Dietary Adherence Score (HDAS) was calculated from a 43-item food frequency questionnaire as a measure of the degree to which children's dietary intake follows nutrition guidelines. The analysis employed multilevel logistic regression (country as random effect) with bidirectional modeling of dichotomous dietary and well-being variables as both exposures and outcomes while controlling for respective baseline values.

    RESULTS: A higher HDAS at baseline was associated with better self-esteem (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.0;1.4) and fewer emotional and peer problems (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.1;1.3 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2;1.4) 2 years later. For the reversed direction, better self-esteem was associated with higher HDAS 2 years later (OR 1.1 95% CI 1.0;1.29). The analysis stratified by weight status revealed that the associations between higher HDAS at baseline and better well-being at follow-up were similar in both normal weight and overweight children.

    CONCLUSION: Present findings suggest a bidirectional relation between diet quality and self-esteem. Additionally, higher adherence to healthy dietary guidelines at baseline was associated with fewer emotional and peer problems at follow-up, independent of children's weight status.

  • 164.
    Arvidsson, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Therese
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser i samband med hjärtinfarkt2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Myocardial infarction has earlier been regarded as a disease that has struck mainly men. Research has in the recent years indicated that also women suffer from myocardial infarction, although they often show different symptoms compared to men. This

    has caused incorrect diagnosis and treatment of women who suffer from myocardial infarction. Aim: The aim was to describe women’s experiences in relation to their myocardial infarction.

    Method: A literature review was carried out with the intention to describe women’s experiences of myocardial infarction. Scientific articles were sought and four main themes and seven subthemes were identified. Result: The identified themes helped create an image of the women’s needs of support and information following myocardial infarction. It also emerged that the women experienced difficulties managing psychological issues and also that these women experience a suffering. Some affected women tended to hide or minimize their

    symptoms. The lack of adequate information was prominent and was mainly caused by false conceptions that only men suffer from myocardial infarction. Conclusion: The result indicates that the affected women are in great need of support and information in order to cope with their lived situation.

  • 165.
    Arvidsson, Tobias
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neural Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Emotion Regulation: Differences Between Adolescents and Adults2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The time of adolescence is marked by enhanced emotional experiences and difficulties with regulating one’s emotions. One way to improve the adolescent’s ability to regulate their emotions is to let them practice mindfulness meditation. The motivational drive behind this thesis is the question of what forms of mindfulness meditation are needed to give the highest increase in their emotion regulation-abilities. One problem is that while there exist neural studies on mindfulness meditation for adults, the research field of adolescent meditation lacks them. Because neural studies are needed to adequately answer this question, and the lack of brain imaging tools for this thesis, the focus here was to conduct some groundwork for this discussion. The first aim was to investigate the neural effects of mindfulness meditation on emotion regulation in adults and the second aim was to investigate to what extent we can generalize these neural effects to adolescents. To be able to theoretical discuss the second aim, neural and psychological studies on mindfulness meditation and emotion regulation were used as a base. The studies were grouped into five sub-categories based on age group and research field and then discussed with the help of developmental studies. Adult meditators had stronger functionality in regulatory brain regions than non-meditators during meditation and during the perception of negative stimuli. The discussion about the generalization of the adult neural patterns to adolescents showed that the findings were too diverse to come to any useful conclusions. Empirical and conceptual improvements, along with neural meditation studies on adolescents, are needed to improve the research field in both age groups.

  • 166.
    Aryal, Umesh R.
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu, Nepal / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Petzold, Max
    Akademistatistik - Centre for Applied Biostatistics, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bondjers, Göran
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Correlates of smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site2014In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-14, article id 24488Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Susceptibility to smoking is defined as an absence of firm commitment not to smoke in the future or when offered a cigarette by best friends. Susceptibility begins in adolescence and is the first step in the transition to becoming an established smoker. Many scholars have hypothesized and studied whether psychosocial risk factors play a crucial role in preventing adolescent susceptibility to smoking or discourage susceptible adolescents from becoming established smokers. Our study examined sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility among adolescents in a peri-urban area of Nepal.

    DESIGN: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study during October-November 2011 in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) located in a peri-urban area near Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal, where tobacco products are easily available. Trained local enumerators conducted face-to-face interviews with 352 respondents aged 14-16. We used stepwise logistic regression to assess sociodemographic and family and childhood environmental factors associated with smoking susceptibility.

    RESULTS: The percentage of smoking susceptibility among respondents was 49.70% (95% CI: 44.49; 54.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that smoking susceptibility was associated with smoking by exposure of adolescents to pro-tobacco advertisements (AOR [adjusted odds ratio] =2.49; 95% CI: 1.46-4.24), the teacher (2.45; 1.28-4.68), adolescents attending concerts/picnics (2.14; 1.13-4.04), and smoking by other family members/relatives (1.76; 1.05-2.95).

    CONCLUSIONS: Smoking susceptible adolescents are prevalent in the JD-HDSS, a peri-urban community of Nepal. Several family and childhood environmental factors increased susceptibility to smoking among Nepalese non-smoking adolescents. Therefore, intervention efforts need to be focused on family and childhood environmental factors with emphasis on impact of role models smoking, refusal skills in social gatherings, and discussing harmful effects of smoking with family members and during gatherings with friends.

  • 167.
    Aryal, Umesh Raj
    et al.
    Kathmandu Medical College, Nepal / Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Gothenburg.
    Petzold, Max
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Gothenburg, Sweden / Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Gothenburg / Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Perceived risks and benefits of cigarette smoking among Nepalese adolescents: a population-based cross-sectional study2013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, article id 187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The perceived risks and benefits of smoking may play an important role in determining adolescents' susceptibility to initiating smoking. Our study examined the perceived risks and benefits of smoking among adolescents who demonstrated susceptibility or non susceptibility to smoking initiation.

    METHODS: In October-November 2011, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional study in Jhaukhel and Duwakot Villages in Nepal. Located in the mid-hills of Bhaktapur District, 13 kilometers east of Kathmandu, Jhaukhel and Duwakot represent the prototypical urbanizing villages that surround Nepal's major urban centers, where young people have easy access to tobacco products and are influenced by advertising. Jhaukhel and Duwakot had a total population of 13,669, of which 15% were smokers. Trained enumerators used a semi-structured questionnaire to interview 352 randomly selected 14- to 16-year-old adolescents. The enumerators asked the adolescents to estimate their likelihood (0%-100%) of experiencing various smoking-related risks and benefits in a hypothetical scenario.

    RESULTS: Principal component analysis extracted four perceived risk and benefit components, excluding addiction risk: (i) physical risk I (lung cancer, heart disease, wrinkles, bad colds); (ii) physical risk II (bad cough, bad breath, trouble breathing); (iii) social risk (getting into trouble, smelling like an ashtray); and (iv) social benefit (looking cool, feeling relaxed, becoming popular, and feeling grown-up). The adjusted odds ratio of susceptibility increased 1.20-fold with each increased quartile in perception of physical Risk I. Susceptibility to smoking was 0.27- and 0.90-fold less among adolescents who provided the highest estimates of physical Risk II and social risk, respectively. Similarly, susceptibility was 2.16-fold greater among adolescents who provided the highest estimates of addiction risk. Physical risk I, addiction risk, and social benefits of cigarette smoking related positively, and physical risk II and social risk related negatively, with susceptibility to smoking.

    CONCLUSION: To discourage or prevent adolescents from initiating smoking, future intervention programs should focus on communicating not only the health risks but also the social and addiction risks as well as counteract the social benefits of smoking.

  • 168.
    Aryal, Umesh Raj
    et al.
    Kathmandu Medical College Nepal / Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Vaidya, Abhinav
    Kathmandu Medical College Nepal / Nordic School of Public Health NHV.
    Shakya-Vaidya, Suraj
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV / Nepal Medical College, Kathmandu Nepal.
    Petzold, Max
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV / Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV / Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Establishing a health demographic surveillance site in Bhaktapur district, Nepal: initial experiences and findings2012In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 5, article id 489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A health demographic surveillance system (HDSS) provides longitudinal data regarding health and demography in countries with coverage error and poor quality data on vital registration systems due to lack of public awareness, inadequate legal basis and limited use of data in health planning. The health system in Nepal, a low-income country, does not focus primarily on health registration, and does not conduct regular health data collection. This study aimed to initiate and establish the first HDSS in Nepal.

    RESULTS: We conducted a baseline survey in Jhaukhel and Duwakot, two villages in Bhaktapur district. The study surveyed 2,712 households comprising a total population of 13,669. The sex ratio in the study area was 101 males per 100 females and the average household size was 5. The crude birth and death rates were 9.7 and 3.9/1,000 population/year, respectively. About 11% of births occurred at home, and we found no mortality in infants and children less than 5 years of age. Various health problems were found commonly and some of them include respiratory problems (41.9%); headache, vertigo and dizziness (16.7%); bone and joint pain (14.4%); gastrointestinal problems (13.9%); heart disease, including hypertension (8.8%); accidents and injuries (2.9%); and diabetes mellitus (2.6%). The prevalence of non-communicable disease (NCD) was 4.3% (95% CI: 3.83; 4.86) among individuals older than 30 years. Age-adjusted odds ratios showed that risk factors, such as sex, ethnic group, occupation and education, associated with NCD.

    CONCLUSION: Our baseline survey demonstrated that it is possible to collect accurate and reliable data in a village setting in Nepal, and this study successfully established an HDSS site. We determined that both maternal and child health are better in the surveillance site compared to the entire country. Risk factors associated with NCDs dominated morbidity and mortality patterns.

  • 169.
    Asplund, Annika
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pradip, Arvind
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden / Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    van Giezen, Mariska
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Aspegren, Anders
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Choukair, Helena
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rehnström, Marie
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Susanna
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ghosheh, Nidal
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    El Hajjam, Dorra
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Sandra
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden / Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Susanna
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Benecke, Jörg
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Butron, Mariela
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wigander, Annelie
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Noaksson, Karin
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. AstraZeneca R&D, GMD CVMD GMed, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Björquist, Petter
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden / NovaHep AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Edsbagge, Josefina
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Arvid Wallgrens Backe 20, 413 46, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    One Standardized Differentiation Procedure Robustly Generates Homogenous Hepatocyte Cultures Displaying Metabolic Diversity from a Large Panel of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells2016In: Stem Cell Reviews, ISSN 1550-8943, E-ISSN 1558-6804, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 90-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human hepatocytes display substantial functional inter-individual variation regarding drug metabolizing functions. In order to investigate if this diversity is mirrored in hepatocytes derived from different human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines, we evaluated 25 hPSC lines originating from 24 different donors for hepatic differentiation and functionality. Homogenous hepatocyte cultures could be derived from all hPSC lines using onestandardized differentiation procedure. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a standardized hepatic differentiation procedure that is generally applicable across a large panel of hPSC lines without any adaptations to individual lines. Importantly, with regard to functional aspects, such as Cytochrome P450 activities, we observed that hepatocytes derived from different hPSC lines displayed inter-individual variation characteristic for primary hepatocytes obtained from different donors, while these activities were highly reproducible between repeated experiments using the same line. Taken together, these data demonstrate the emerging possibility to compile panels of hPSC-derived hepatocytes of particular phenotypes/genotypes relevant for drug metabolism and toxicity studies. Moreover, these findings are of significance for applications within the regenerative medicine field, since our stringent differentiation procedure allows the derivation of homogenous hepatocyte cultures from multiple donors which is a prerequisite for the realization of future personalized stem cell based therapies.

  • 170.
    Asplund, Annika
    et al.
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Andersson, Christian X.
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A novel maintenance medium extends the life-span and enables long term applications for both human primary hepatocytes and human pluripotent stem cell derived hepatocytes in conventional 2D cultures2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 171.
    Asplund Fromholz, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Idrottsprestationers påverkan av anspänning, oro och stress och förslag till prestationshöjande tekniker2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Anspänning, oro och stress är tre begrepp som har studerats länge, vilket har gett upphov till flertalet modeller, teorier och domäner där dessa begrepp har studerats och fortfarande studeras. I denna uppsats så kommer dessa tre begrepp bland annat att redogöras för var för sig med koppling till mätmetoder, idrott och kognitiv neurovetenskap. Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva hur idrottsprestationer kan påverkas av anspänning, oro och stress för att utifrån det kunna redogöra för evidensbaserade metoder som kan appliceras för att främja en idrottsprestation. Först kommer anspänning att redogöras för, anspänning följs sedan av oro som i sin tur följs av stress som sista begrepp. Avslutningsvis så behandlas även problematik och möjligheter för dessa begrepp inom forskningsfältet och dess tillämpningsområden.

  • 172.
    Audhav, EvA
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Norenius, Csilla
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    SVENSKA TJÄNSTEMÄNS UPPFATTNING OM ORGANISATORISKA STRESSFÖREBYGGANDE STRATEGIER: EN KVALITATIV STUDIE2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Psychosocial health is one of the biggest causes of absenteeism among employees. Few studies are designed to investigate prevention activities for stress at the organizational level. EU-OSHA offers recommendation to companies about stress prevention. The purpose of this study was to describe how officials experience EU-OSHA´s recommendation on organizational stress prevention. The study aimed to clarify whether the recommendations may be considered feasible, if there are any obstacles making implementation difficult and what conditions are required to fulfill implementation. The method used had an inductive qualitative approach, in which 16 interviews were conducted at six large Swedish companies. The result showed that the recommendations were considered feasible but they were at times experienced too general and vague. The various conditions and constrains described formed the following theses: Company Culture, Requirements, Control & Support and Knowledge & Skills. Discussion: The recommendations may seem simple but it was found that they do not give practical support to companies. All respondents found them good but sometimes ambiguous and consequently interpreted differently. Moreover, the recommendations are given no particular order of priority. The respondents listed different barriers that made implementation difficult. The conditions needed for a successful implementation seem to depend on good company culture, the possibility to influence and manage your own working environment as well as the chance to turn personal knowledge into practical skills.

  • 173.
    Awe, Julius Adebayo
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. Manitoba Institute of Cell Biology, University of Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada / Department of Clinical Genetics, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Saranchuk, Jeff
    Department of Surgery, Manitoba Prostate Center, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
    Drachenberg, Darrel
    Department of Surgery, Manitoba Prostate Center, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
    Mai, Sabine
    Manitoba Institute of Cell Biology, University of Manitoba, CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
    Filtration-based enrichment of circulating tumor cells from all prostate cancer risk groups2017In: Urologic Oncology, ISSN 1078-1439, E-ISSN 1873-2496, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 300-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To combine circulating tumor cell (CTC) isolation by filtration and immunohistochemistry to investigate the presence of CTCs in low, intermediate, and high-risk prostate cancer (PCa). CTCs isolated from these risk groups stained positive for both cytokeratin and androgen receptors, but negative for CD45.

    Patients and methods: Blood samples from 41 biopsy confirmed patients with PCa at different clinical stages such as low, intermediate, and high risk were analyzed. The samples were processed with the ScreenCell filtration device and PCa CTCs were captured for all patients. The isolated CTCs were confirmed PCa CTCs by the presence of androgen receptors and cytokeratins 8, 18, and 19 that occurred in the absence of CD45 positivity. PCa CTC nuclear sizes were measured using the TeloView program.

    Results: The filtration-based isolation method used permitted the measurement of the average nuclear size of the captured CTCs. CTCs were identified by immunohistochemistry in low, intermediate, and high-risk groups of patients with PCa.

    Conclusion: CTCs may be found in all stages of PCa. These CTCs can be used to determine the level of genomic instability at any stage of PCa; this will, in the future, enable personalized patient management. 

  • 174.
    Axelsson, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Karlberg, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    En litteraturöversikt: Kvinnors upplevelser av hur deras sexuella hälsa har påverkats av behandling mot bröstcancer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The sexual health might be negatively affected by breast cancer treatments and cause suffering for women. Medical treatments for breast cancer cause menopausal symptoms, fatigue and hair loss, while surgical treatments might affect women’s body image. Aim: To highlight women's experiences of how their sexual health has been affected by breast cancer treatments. Method: A literature review based on qualitative and quantitative research. Results: Three categories were identified in the result; reduced sexual activity, altered body image and the influence of relationships on the sexual health. The most common side effects that were experienced were reduced sexual desire and pain during sexual intercourse due to vaginal dryness. Loss of femininity as a result of mastectomy was a common experience among these women. It was found that a supportive and understanding partner is important to promote their sexual health. Conclusion: Women's sexual health is affected both mentally and physically by the breast cancer treatments, which should be observed by nurses in all health facilities. It is important that nurses are working from a patient centered approach and adjust information and support to individual requirements and needs to prevent sexual illness.

  • 175.
    Axelsson, Annie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Lennér, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sjuksköterskors akuta bedömningar av sköra äldre: En intervjustudie med sjuksköterskor i kommunal hemsjukvård2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of frail elderly people is increasing in society which places great demands on the health system. In municipal homecare nurses often work alone which can lead to uncertainty in emergency assessments. To make informed decisions about continuing care of the frail elderly is vital. From an economic aspect is the correct care at the right level also significant.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to highlight nurses' experiences of acute assessment of frail elderly persons with deteriorating health in municipal home care.

    Method: The method used was qualitative with an inductive approach where data was analyzed with a qualitative content analysis. There were 11 registered nurses/district nurses working in municipal home care interviewed.

    Results: From the analysis of the data emerged three categories; to make informed, long-term planning, collaboration on patient involves with seven subcategories.

    Conclusion: For nurses to experience good support in the acute assessment requires effective cooperation especially with doctors. The result shows that insecurity in the assessment often leads patients to be sent to the hospital. The medical care plans have proven to be a great help in the assessments and needs to be implemented on many frail elderly persons in municipal homecare.

  • 176.
    Axelsson Brakstad, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Pettersson, Linda
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    KRÄVS DET EN SNARA RUNT HALSEN FÖR ATT BLI TAGEN PÅ ALLVAR?: Kvinnors upplevelse av vården vid själskadebeteende. En självbiografistudie.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Women with self-harm don’t cut themselves because they want to die, they do it to ease the psychic pain, and they get control over their angst. It is important that the nurses see the big picture in the person behind the self-harming behavior. Women with this behavior wants to be seen and treated like the other patients.

    Aim: Women’s experiences of health care in regards to self-harm.

    Methods: The study, was made with a qualitative meaning analysis. Five self-biographies where analyzed and became the results.

    Results: The four themes in the results; to experience the significance of the meeting between staff and women, to experience treatment as caring or damaged, to experience the importance of getting confirmation by caring and to experience the role of emotions in caring. These themes shows that the women wants to be seen and feel trust to the nurses and other professionals. Time and places for conversations are the women`s needs for having good treatment and care.

    Conclusion: Women’s experiences is positive and negative. Participation and explanation about their disease and treatment experience the woman as an important part of being able to feel good and to health care should be a good experience. 

  • 177.
    Axelsson, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Styrud, Sara
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av teamarbete i hemvård2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nurses today have a supervising role primarily in the community health services. Aim: To illuminate nurse’s experience of team work around the patient in home care. Background: Since Ädelreformen 1992, nurses have become a more prominent employee in the community health care. Working within the community homecare is a challenge because it requires a wide knowledgebase for nurses. Nurses are regulated by laws and constitutions that stresses her role as supervisor and her work for the team interaction. Previous research suggests that teamwork promotes both work colleagues' comfort with each other and the quality of care. Method: Qualitative approach. 10 stories from nurses working in homecare were analyzed with inspiration from Dahlberg`s three analysis phases Results: Six categories emerged in the analysis: Cooperation, Communication, Relation, Responsibility, Shortage of time, Patient. Communication appears to play an important role both as obstacles and as possibilities for teamwork. To see each other's competence and to trust it is important. Lack of cooperation could lead to patients not receiving the care he/she should get emerged in the study. The study suggests that it may be important in the future to highlight teamwork in homecare because there seems to be lack of co-operation between nurses and assistant nurses, which may affect the nursing care.

  • 178.
    Axelsson, K. F.
    et al.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden / Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden / Center for Bone Research at the Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, R.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundh, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Lorentzon, M.
    Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden / Center for Bone Research at the Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effectiveness of a minimal resource fracture liaison service2016In: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 27, no 11, p. 3165-3175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate if a 2-year intervention with a minimal resource fracture liaison service (FLS) was associated with increased investigation and medical treatment and if treatment was related to reduced re-fracture risk.

    METHODS: The FLS started in 2013 using existing secretaries (without an FLS coordinator) at the emergency department and orthopaedic wards to identify risk patients. All patients older than 50 years of age with a fractured hip, vertebra, shoulder, wrist or pelvis were followed during 2013-2014 (n = 2713) and compared with their historic counterparts in 2011-2012 (n = 2616) at the same hospital. Re-fractures were X-ray verified. A time-dependent adjusted (for age, sex, previous fracture, index fracture type, prevalent treatment, comorbidity and secondary osteoporosis) Cox model was used.

    RESULTS: The minimal resource FLS increased the proportion of DXA-investigated patients after fracture from 7.6 to 39.6 % (p < 0.001) and the treatment rate after fracture from 12.6 to 31.8 %, which is well in line with FLS types using the conventional coordinator model. Treated patients had a 51 % lower risk of any re-fracture than untreated patients (HR 0.49, 95 % CI 0.37-0.65 p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: We found that our minimal resource FLS was effective in increasing investigation and treatment, in line with conventional coordinator-based services, and that treated patients had a 51 % reduced risk of new fractures, indicating that also non-coordinator based fracture liaison services can improve secondary prevention of fractures.

  • 179.
    Axelsson, K. F.
    et al.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden / Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wallander, M.
    Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, H.
    Institute for Health and Ageing, Catholic University of Australia, Melbourne, Vic., Australia.
    Lundh, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Lorentzon, M.
    Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and ClinicalNutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Geriatric Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Hip fracture risk and safety with alendronate treatment in the oldest-old2017In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 282, no 6, p. 546-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. There is high evidence for secondary prevention of fractures, including hip fracture, with alendronate treatment, but alendronate's efficacy to prevent hip fractures in the oldest-old (80 years old), the population with the highest fracture risk, has not been studied. Objective. To investigate whether alendronate treatment amongst the oldest-old with prior fracture was related to decreased hip fracture rate and sustained safety. Methods. Using a national database of men and women undergoing a fall risk assessment at a Swedish healthcare facility, we identified 90 795 patients who were 80 years or older and had a prior fracture. Propensity score matching (four to one) was then used to identify 7844 controls to 1961 alendronate-treated patients. The risk of incident hip fracture was investigated with Cox models and the interaction between age and treatment was investigated using an interaction term. Results. The case and control groups were well balanced in regard to age, sex, anthropometrics and comorbidity. Alendronate treatment was associated with a decreased risk of hip fracture in crude (hazard ratio (HR) 0.62 (0.49-0.79), P < 0.001) and multivariable models (HR 0.66 (0.51-0.86), P < 0.01). Alendronate was related to reduced mortality risk (HR 0.88 (0.82-0.95) but increased risk of mild upper gastrointestinal symptoms (UGI) (HR 1.58 (1.12-2.24). The alendronate association did not change with age for hip fractures or mild UGI. Conclusion. In old patients with prior fracture, alendronate treatment reduces the risk of hip fracture with sustained safety, indicating that this treatment should be considered in these high-risk patients.

  • 180.
    Axelsson, Kristian F.
    et al.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden / Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Anna G.
    Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Endocrinology, Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wedel, Hans
    Health Metrics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundh, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Lorentzon, Mattias
    Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Geriatric Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Association between alendronate use and hip fracture risk in older patients using oral prednisolone2017In: Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), ISSN 0098-7484, E-ISSN 1538-3598, Vol. 318, no 2, p. 146-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance  Oral glucocorticoid treatment increases fracture risk, and evidence is lacking regarding the efficacy of alendronate to protect against hip fracture in older patients using glucocorticoids.Objective  To investigate whether alendronate treatment in older patients using oral prednisolone is associated with decreased hip fracture risk and adverse effects.Design, Setting, and Participants  Retrospective cohort study using a national database (N = 433 195) of patients aged 65 years or older undergoing a health evaluation (baseline) at Swedish health care facilities; 1802 patients who were prescribed alendronate after at least 3 months of oral prednisolone treatment (≥5 mg/d) were identified. Propensity score matching was used to select 1802 patients without alendronate use from 6076 patients taking prednisolone with the same dose and treatment time criteria. Follow-up occurred between January 2008 and December 2014.Exposures  Alendronate vs no alendronate use; no patients had previously taken alendronate at the time of prednisolone initiation.Main Outcomes and Measures  The primary outcome was incident hip fracture.Results  Of the 3604 included patients, the mean age was 79.9 (SD, 7.5) years, and 2524 (70%) were women. After a median follow-up of 1.32 years (interquartile range, 0.57-2.34 years), there were 27 hip fractures in the alendronate group and 73 in the no-alendronate group, corresponding to incidence rates of 9.5 (95% CI, 6.5-13.9) and 27.2 (95% CI, 21.6-34.2) fractures per 1000 person-years, with an absolute rate difference of −17.6 (95% CI, −24.8 to −10.4). The use of alendronate was associated with a lower risk of hip fracture in a multivariable-adjusted Cox model (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.22-0.54). Alendronate treatment was not associated with increased risk of mild upper gastrointestinal tract symptoms (alendronate vs no alendronate, 15.6 [95% CI, 11.6-21.0] vs 12.9 [95% CI, 9.3-18.0] per 1000 person-years; P = .40) or peptic ulcers (10.9 [95% CI, 7.7-15.5] vs 11.4 [95% CI, 8.0-16.2] per 1000 person-years; P = .86). There were no cases of incident drug-induced osteonecrosis and only 1 case of femoral shaft fracture in each group.Conclusions and Relevance  Among older patients using medium to high doses of prednisolone, alendronate treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk of hip fracture over a median of 1.32 years. Although the findings are limited by the observational study design and the small number of events, these results support the use of alendronate in this patient group.

  • 181.
    Axelsson, Kristian F.
    et al.
    Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Werling, Malin
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Björn
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Szabo, Eva
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Näslund, Ingmar
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Wedel, Hans
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundh, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Lorentzon, Mattias
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Fracture risk after gastric bypass surgery – a retrospective cohort study2018In: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, ISSN 0884-0431, E-ISSN 1523-4681, Vol. 33, no 12, p. 2122-2131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gastric bypass surgery constitutes the most common and effective bariatric surgery to treat obesity. Gastric bypass leads to bone loss, but fracture risk following surgery has been insufficiently studied. Furthermore, the association between gastric bypass and fracture risk has not been studied in patients with diabetes, which is a risk factor for fracture and affected by surgery. In this retrospective cohort study using Swedish national databases, 38 971 obese patients undergoing gastric bypass were identified, 7758 with diabetes and 31 213 without. An equal amount of well-balanced controls were identified through multivariable 1:1 propensity score matching. The risk of fracture and fall injury was investigated using Cox proportional hazards and flexible parameter models. Fracture risk according to weight loss and degree of calcium and vitamin D supplementation one-year post- surgery was investigated. During a median follow-up time of 3.1 (IQR 1.7-4.6) years, gastric bypass was associated with increased risk of any fracture, in patients with and without diabetes using a multivariable Cox model (HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.05- 1.53 and HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.18-1.47, respectively). Using flexible parameter models, the fracture risk appeared to increase with time. The risk of fall injury without fracture was also increased after gastric bypass. Larger weight loss or poor calcium and vitamin D supplementation after surgery were not associated with increased fracture risk. In conclusion, gastric bypass surgery is associated with an increased fracture risk, which appears to be increasing with time and not associated with degree of weight loss or calcium and vitamin D supplementation following surgery. An increased risk of fall injury was seen after surgery, which could contribute to the increased fracture risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • 182.
    Axelsson, Lina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Andersson, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Förälders alkoholproblematik och dess påverkan på barns psykiska hälsa (0-17 år): En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: About 385 000 children in Sweden grow up in families where one or both parents show a risky alcohol consumption, which means that 4- 5 children in each class has at least one parent with risky alcohol consumption, and at least 60 000 children under 18 years of age have a parent which has serious alcohol problems. These children have an increased risk of developing illnesses, where mental illness is one of the most serious long-term public health risks. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe parental alcohol problems and the mental health outcome in children (0-17 years). Method: The method is a literature review, where 10 scientific articles have been analyzed and compiled, in order to follow the aim. Result: The reviewed studies clearly show that the mental health of children is affected by parental alcohol problems. Among the outcomes both internalizing- and externalizing symptoms are represented, as well as the risk of developing an own addiction problem. Conclusion: Research shows a connection between parental alcohol problems and the outcome in terms of children’s mental health. However, the parental alcohol problem in itself is not a sole risk factor for an unfavorable development of the children also other mediating factors interact and exert an influence.  Girls and boys are affected differently and also varying interpretations on how seriously children are affected, are found.

  • 183.
    Axelsson, Louise
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Stadin, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Att leva i väntan på döden: En litteraturöversikt om patientens upplevda hälsa vid livets slutskede2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To receive a cancer diagnosis and going through the transition from curative to palliative care is a life changing experience that affects the patients’ day to day life. The patient finds himself in a situation where he is forced to surrender himself to others. Health and suffering attains another meaning when life is coming to an end and a good death is seen as vital. Everyone around the patient can affect how he perceives his health. Aim: The aim was to describe different factors that influence the patients experience of health in a palliative care context while suffering from cancer. Method: A literature review based on 12 scientific articles. Results: The result is presented in three main categories and seven subcategories that discusses different factors that influences the patients experience of health. Conclusion: When a patient finds himself in a palliative stage of a cancer illness his experience of health can fluctuate depending on weather he receives relevant information, experiences a good support from the nurse and his family and gets the opportunity to be a participant in life to the extent that is possible in relation to his illness.

  • 184.
    Axelsson, Mikaela
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Vildhede, Emilia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    "Ni ska inte tro att jag vet": Tvåföderskors förväntningar inför kommande förlossning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a connection between the pregnant woman's expectations of childbirth and the actual childbirth experience. Aim: To illustrate multiparous women’s expectations of their forthcoming childbirth. Method: This study used a qualitative method with hermeneutic text analysis inspired by Gadamer. Nine multiparous women aged 26-33 years were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Results: Analysis of the interviews revealed four main themes: Mixed emotions – expectations are formed by the first childbirth experience, The partner – for some, an important source of support, The midwife as a guide through childbirth and “Go with the flow” - expectations of control during childbirth. Results showed that the women held the opinion that the first childbirth experience has a major impact on their expectations for future childbirth, both good and bad. There was a concern amongst the women that because of their previous childbirth experience, they would be expected to "know what to do". Conclusion: Women generally have positive expectations of childbirth. Given the concern of these multiparous women that they may be considered as experienced in childbirth, it is clear that the midwife should be prepared to offer professional support to multiparous women based on their individual needs.

  • 185.
    Axelsson, Veronica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Svensson, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    När du fick alzheimers förändrades allt: Hur närståendes livskvalité påverkas av att någon de älskar drabbas av Alzheimers sjukdom2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alzheimer´s disease is often called the relative's illness on the grounds that the disease also affects the relatives. It is therefore important that the nurse working with a holistic approach and obtain an understanding of the impact of Alzheimer´s disease on family and relatives. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe the experience of how quality of life is affected by being related to a person with Alzheimer's disease. Method: This is an qualitative content analysis, where autobiographical works have been analyzed. Results: The results are presented in three categories: "A new day", "Living with suffering" and "A heavy responsibility." Each category has two subcategories. The life that was previously known to the relatives became a memory. New challenges in everyday life and a heavy responsibility that resulted in that the quality of life was affected. Mental and physical health became a fact. Conclusion: There were several factors that led to impaired quality of life. One factor was that the relatives had to take full responsibility for everyday life and played an important role for the person with Alzheimer´s disease. For this reason, the nurse must be able to support the relatives so that they can cope with their caring role and minimize the risk of mental illness.

  • 186.
    Axéll, Catharina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ericsson, Frida
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Skolsköterskans hälsofrämjande omvårdnadsarbete med psykisk hälsa hos barn2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 187.
    Ayukekbong, James A.
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases/Section of Clinical Virology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, M. E.
    Department of Infectious Diseases/Section of Clinical Virology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vansarla, Goutham
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Tah, F.
    Camyaids Institute of Laboratory Diagnosis and Clinical Research, Douala, Cameroon.
    Nkuo-Akenji, T.
    Faculty of Science Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon.
    Lindh, M.
    Department of Infectious Diseases/Section of Clinical Virology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergström, T.
    Department of Infectious Diseases/Section of Clinical Virology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Monitoring of seasonality of norovirus and other enteric viruses in Cameroon by real-time PCR: an exploratory study2014In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 142, no 7, p. 1393-1402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the seasonal fluctuation of norovirus and other enteric viruses in Cameroon. Two hundred participants aged between 1 and 69 years were prospectively followed up. Each participant provided monthly faecal samples over a 12-month period. A total of 2484 samples were tested using multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of norovirus, rotavirus and enterovirus. The effect of weather variables and risk factors were analysed by Pearson correlation and bivariate analysis. Overall, enterovirus was the most commonly detected virus (216% of specimens), followed by norovirus (39%) and rotavirus (04%). Norovirus and enterovirus were detected throughout the year with a peak of norovirus detection at the beginning of the rainy season and a significant alternation of circulation of norovirus genogroups from one month to the next. Age <5 years and consumption of tap water were risk factors for norovirus infection. Better understanding of factors influencing transmission and seasonality may provide insights into the relationship between physical environment and risk of infection for these viruses.

  • 188.
    Azarm, Asieh
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Effect of oxaliplatin on HCT116 P53+/- colon cancer cells2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Oxaliplatin as an effective chemotherapeutic agent in FOLFOX regimens is using to treat colorectal cancer. In this study we investigate cytotoxicity of Oxaliplatin as single chemotherapeutic agent toHCT116P53+/- to identify molecular mechanism of Oxaliplatin action in induction of apoptosis pathway. Oxaliplatin exposure to HCT116P53+/- colorectal cell lines with deficiency of mismatch repair characteristic resulted to decrease the number of viable cells through apoptosis. Effective Oxaliplatin concentrations (IC50) which inhibit 50% of cell viability were determined using XTT method. Standard curve and time-dependent assay performed to confirm IC50 concentration. Western blot analysis demonstrated relocalization of Bax to mitochondria and induction of intrinsic apoptosis pathway resulted Oxaliplatin exposure. Inactivation of Bax in HCT116P53+/- will result significant reduction in number of viable cells following treatment with Oxaliplatin

  • 189.
    Bachelet, Delphine
    et al.
    CESP, INSERM UMR 1018, Faculty of Medicine, Paris-Sud University, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France.
    Albert, Thilo
    Institute of Experimental Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, University Clinic Bonn, Germany.
    Mbogning, Cyprien
    CESP, INSERM UMR 1018, Faculty of Medicine, Paris-Sud University, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France.
    Hässler, Signe
    CESP, INSERM UMR 1018, Faculty of Medicine, Paris-Sud University, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France.
    Zhang, Yuan
    CESP, INSERM UMR 1018, Faculty of Medicine, Paris-Sud University, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France.
    Schultze-Strasser, Stephan
    University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University, Department of Pediatrics, Molecular Haemostasis and Immunodeficiency, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Repessé, Yohann
    CHU Caen, Hématologie Biologique, Caen, Caen, France.
    Rayes, Julie
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR_S 1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.
    Pavlova, Anna
    Institute of Experimental Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Pezeshkpoor, Behnaz
    Institute of Experimental Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Liphardt, Kerstin
    Institute of Experimental Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Davidson, Julie E.
    GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, Middlesex, United Kingdom.
    Hincelin-Méry, Agnès
    Sanofi, Chilly-Mazarin, France.
    Dönnes, Pierre
    SciCross AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Lacroix-Desmazes, Sébastien
    Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, UMR_S 1138, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.
    Königs, Christoph
    University Hospital Frankfurt, Goethe University, Department of Pediatrics, Molecular Haemostasis and Immunodeficiency, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Oldenburg, Johannes
    Institute of Experimental Haematology and Transfusion Medicine, University Clinic Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Broët, Philippe
    CESP, INSERM UMR 1018, Faculty of Medicine, Paris-Sud University, UVSQ, Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France / AP-HP, Paris-Sud University Hospitals, Villejuif, France.
    Risk stratification integrating genetic data for factor VIII inhibitor development in patients with severe hemophilia A2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 6, article id e0218258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Replacement therapy in severe hemophilia A leads to factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors in 30% of patients. Factor VIII gene (F8) mutation type, a family history of inhibitors, ethnicity and intensity of treatment are established risk factors, and were included in two published prediction tools based on regression models. Recently investigated immune regulatory genes could also play a part in immunogenicity. Our objective is to identify bio-clinical and genetic markers for FVIII inhibitor development, taking into account potential genetic high order interactions. The study population consisted of 593 and 79 patients with hemophilia A from centers in Bonn and Frankfurt respectively. Data was collected in the European ABIRISK tranSMART database. A subset of 125 severely affected patients from Bonn with reliable information on first treatment was selected as eligible for risk stratification using a hybrid tree-based regression model (GPLTR). In the eligible subset, 58 (46%) patients developed FVIII inhibitors. Among them, 49 (84%) were "high risk" F8 mutation type. 19 (33%) had a family history of inhibitors. The GPLTR model, taking into account F8 mutation risk, family history of inhibitors and product type, distinguishes two groups of patients: a high-risk group for immunogenicity, including patients with positive HLA-DRB1*15 and genotype G/A and A/A for IL-10 rs1800896, and a low-risk group of patients with negative HLA-DRB1*15 / HLA-DQB1*02 and T/T or G/T for CD86 rs2681401. We show associations between genetic factors and the occurrence of FVIII inhibitor development in severe hemophilia A patients taking into account for high-order interactions using a generalized partially linear tree-based approach.

  • 190.
    Backhaus, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Berg, Stefan
    Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Trollfors, Birger
    Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Rune
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Persson, Elisabet
    Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Claesson, Bernt E. B.
    Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Larsson, Peter
    Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ek, Elisabeth
    Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Lars
    Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Borås Hospital, Borås, Sweden.
    Rådberg, Gunilla
    Uddevalla Hospital, Uddevalla, Sweden.
    Johansson, Siv
    Halmstad Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Ripa, Torvald
    Halmstad Hospital, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Diana
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Andersson, Kerstin
    Department of Clinical Bacteriology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococcal isolates from a region in south-west Sweden 1998-20012007In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 19-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Invasive disease caused by antibiotic resistant pneumococci is a worldwide problem. All invasive pneumococcal strains in an area of south-west Sweden with 1.7 million inhabitants were collected prospectively during 1998-2001. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by E-test and correlated to serotypes and clinical characteristics. Of 827 strains, 744 (90%) were susceptible (S) to all agents tested and 83 (10%) were indeterminate (I) or resistant (R) to at least 1 agent. 22 isolates (2.7%) were I to penicillin (MIC gt0.06 to ≤1.0 mg/l), but none were R (MIC gt1.0 mg/l). Numbers and proportions of decreased susceptibility against other agents tested were as follows: erythromycin R: 30 (3.6%), clindamycin R: 6 (0.7%), tetracycline R: 16 (1.9%), moxifloxacin R: 1 (0.1%), cotrimoxazole I: 17 (2%) and R: 31(4%). Non-susceptibility to at least 1 agent was not correlated with age, clinical manifestation, underlying diseases and outcome. The serotype distribution differed between non-susceptible and susceptible strains. The serotypes in the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine covered 42% of all infections and 73% of those caused by non-susceptible strains. In conclusion, the impact of antibiotic resistance in invasive pneumococcal disease remains limited in south-west Sweden.

  • 191.
    Backman, Malin
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Browall, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Carl Johan
    Department of Physiology & Pharmacology and Unit for Bioentrepreneurship, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden / Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Experiencing health - Physical activity during adjuvant chemotherapy treatment for women with breast cancer2016In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 21, p. 160-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore how women with breast cancer experience physical activity (PA) during adjuvant chemotherapy treatment.

    METHODS: This study included sixteen women diagnosed with breast cancer who had participated in a supervised 16-week PA intervention during adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. The qualitative approach included semi-structured individual and focus group interviews. Data were analyzed inductively with content analysis.

    RESULT: The content analysis resulted in a description of experiencing health during chemotherapy treatment covered by five categories: Solidarity with others and being good to oneself; Experiencing functional improvement and social support; Empowerment and motivation to focus on health; Barriers to adherence to PA during illness and treatment; and Enabling health and independence. A core category was identified; PA a tool for maintenance and recovery of physical, mental and social health. The women reported that PA had a positive impact on both physical function and mental wellbeing. Participating in the PA intervention also increased their feeling of social support, which was reported to be important to motivate adherence to PA when the side effects became more severe. Symptom burden, time and lack of motivation were reported as barriers to continue PA during treatment.

    CONCLUSION: The women in this study reported that PA had a positive impact on their perceived health and that it was possible to exercise despite increasing symptom burden from treatment. PA was perceived as a tool that supported health processes and gave the women a feeling of getting respite from the illness.

  • 192.
    Backström, Linus
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Establishing a biopsychosocial model for conspiracy theory ideation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to provide the grounds for a biopsychosocial understanding of the underpinnings of conspiracy theorist ideation by studying research articles from different scientific disciplines. Cross-disciplinary concurring results are presented and discussed, as well as some examples of how conspiracy theories have been used during the 20th century. Also discussed is how this is used in political discourse in the populist climate of today, with the rise of radical right-wing movements, the justification of “alternative facts” from higher governmental ranks, and religious fundamentalism, making it a societal issue of possible big magnitude. Neurological similarities was found between religiousness and proneness to conspiracy theory ideation, and the articles concerning neural correlates therefore stem from research on religious individuals due to the lack of neuro-biopsychological research on actual conspiracy theorists. Since conspiracy theory ideation has shown the ability to cause negative consequences it is also advised that governmental agencies and society as a whole revise its stance on populism and the spread of flawed information, in order to maintain an open society. Also presented are a few ideas on how to begin countering the rise of populism.

  • 193.
    Bagewitz, Astrid
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Skolsköterskors erfarenhet av att förebygga kränkningar i skolor och på nätet: En kvalitativ studie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research shows a strong connection between pupils exposed to harassment and to physical and mental illness. Harassment occurring on the internet are perceived by teens as extra harmful to their mental health. School nurses have the opportunity to prevent harassment and to promote health on three different levels; individual,- interpersonal,- and system level.

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to investigate the school nurses’ experiences in preventing harassment in schools and on the internet. 

    Method: A qualitative methodology was used in the study and the results were analyzed by content analysis. Seven school nurses in Sweden have been interviewed by email. 

    Result: Three categories appeared in the result: to be available to pupils and their guardians, to talk with pupils and to cooperate. 

    Conclusion: The study shows that school nurses demonstrate broad experiences in preventing harassment. These experiences occur primarily in the individual-oriented and interpersonal work level. Experiences at the system level are less occuring. It appears there were varied experiences of norm-critical perspective as a working method.

  • 194.
    Bahadi, Nour
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Enhancing iron bioavailability and accessibility by analyzing the effect of micro-milling and hydrothermal processing on iron release and uptake in wheat flour2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the UK cereals products (mostly wheat) are considered to be the main source of iron as they contribute to 39-50% of iron intake. Iron from cereals has low availability due to presence of anti-nutrients and the resistance to digest plants cell wall in the human GI tract. However, they are still considred main dietry source due to the high consumption rate. Aleurone which is the layer found between the starch endosperm and the outer bran is rich in iron. However, aleurone is removed during white flour production leading to iron loss. Therefore, white flour in the UK is fortified with elemental iron which has low solubility. Adding aleurone back to white flour might have a greater bioavailability compared to wholegrain and white with elemental iron flour.

    The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of hydrothermal processing and micro-milling on iron release, bioavailability, and phytic acid content which is the main iron bioavailability inhibitor. After in vitro digestion (gastric and intestinal), total iron release from baked and boiled bread made with different types of flour was determined using ICP-OES. Iron uptake by Caco-2 cells was measured using ICP-MS. Phytic acid levels in the bread samples was measured using K-PHYT kit (Megazyme, Inc, Bray, Ireland). All the obtained data was then analyzed applying two-way and three-way ANOVA.

    Neither micro-milling nor hydrothermal processing had a significant difference on iron release and uptake. However, iron release from stand and micro-milled wholegrain and white flour enriched with aleurone in gastric phase was significantly increased compared to intestinal phase irrespective of cooking method. Phytic acid content which is found in wheat grain and is abundant in aleurone layer was significantly decreased in cooked wholegrain and aleurone flour compared to raw flour. Together with all the findings of this study, using aleurone as a fortificate for bioavailable iron can be possible. However, a human study which will take place soon can establish whether aleurone has the potential to be used as food fortificant for iron as well as other micronutrients.

  • 195.
    Bahrd, Phillie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The Blacked Out Brain: Neural Mechanisms of Unconsciousness in General Anesthesia and Disorders of Consciousness2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Finding the neural mechanisms of unconsciousness is a pursuit with significance to both the scientific study of consciousness as well as for the improvement of clinical diagnosis of patients with severe structural brain damage that has resulted in disorders of consciousness (DOC), such as coma or vegetative state . This literature review gives an account for what consciousness studies have contributed to the understanding of the neural mechanisms of unconsciousness, focusing on experiments using anesthetic agents to investigate the loss and return of consciousness. Mechanisms that frequently correlate with the loss of consciousness are modulation of the brainstem, the thalamus, and the cortex, but different anesthetic drugs act on different areas. According to a bottom-up approach unconsciousness can be induced by sleep-circuits in the brainstem, and according to a top-down approach unconsciousness can be induced by cortical and thalamocortical disruption. But the mechanisms involved during loss of consciousness are not the same as for return of consciousness, and this paper includes evidence for the mechanisms involved during the return being closer to what research should be further investigating. The mechanisms involved in return from anesthesia-induced unconsciousness resemble those mechanisms involved in recovery from DOC. Studying mechanisms of unconsciousness can further our understanding of consciousness, as well as improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with DOC.

  • 196.
    Baldursdottir, Birna
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Iceland / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Taehtinen, Richard E.
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Iceland / ICSRA (Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis), Reykjavik University, Iceland.
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Iceland / ICSRA (Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis), Reykjavik University, Iceland / Department of Health & Behavior Studies, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Community Medicine, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B.
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Iceland / Department of Oncological Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.
    Impact of a physical activity intervention on adolescents' subjective sleep quality: a pilot study2017In: Global Health Promotion, ISSN 1757-9759, E-ISSN 1757-9767, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 14-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this pilot study was to examine the impact of a brief physical activity intervention on adolescents' subjective sleep quality. Cross-sectional studies indicate that physically active adolescents have better subjective sleep quality than those with more sedentary habits. However, less is known about the effectiveness of physical activity interventions in improving adolescents' subjective sleep quality.

    METHODS: In a three-week physical activity intervention, four Icelandic upper secondary schools were randomized to either an intervention group with pedometers and step diaries or a control group without pedometers and diaries. Out of 84, a total of 53 students, aged 15-16 years, provided complete data or a minimum of two days step data (out of three possible) as well as sleep quality measures at baseline and follow-up. Subjective sleep quality, the primary outcome in this study, was assessed with four individual items: sleep onset latency, nightly awakenings, general sleep quality, and sleep sufficiency. Daily steps were assessed with Yamax CW-701 pedometers.

    RESULTS: The intervention group (n = 26) had significantly higher average step-count (p = 0.03, partial η(2) = 0.093) compared to the control group (n = 27) at follow-up. Subjective sleep quality improved (p = 0.02, partial η(2) = 0.203) over time in the intervention group but not in the control group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Brief physical activity interventions based on pedometers and step diaries may be effective in improving adolescents' subjective sleep quality. This has important public health relevance as the intervention can easily be disseminated and incorporated into school curricula.

  • 197.
    Baldursdottir, Birna
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B.
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland / Department of Oncological Sciences, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, USA.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Gylfason, Haukur Freyr
    School of Business, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Department of Psychology, School of Business, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland / ICSRA (Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis), Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland / Department of Health & Behavior Studies, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, USA .
    Age-related differences in physical activity and depressive symptoms among 10-19-year-old adolescents: A population based study2017In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 28, p. 91-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine age- and gender-related patterns of PA and depressive symptoms among students through their adolescent years. Design: Data from three population-based surveys were analysed to determine levels of moderate- to vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA), participation in organized sports and depressive symptoms among 10-19-year-old adolescents. Method: Questionnaires assessing PA and depressive symptoms were administered to 32 860 students in compulsory and upper-secondary schools in Iceland. Results: As age increased, depressive symptoms increased and PA decreased with over half of the adolescents in upper-secondary schools not achieving recommended daily PA. There were gender differences in PA and depressive symptoms with girls being less active and reporting higher levels of depressive symptoms than boys. MVPA was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms among both genders while organized sports had more impact on depressive symptoms among girls. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study is the first to simultaneously examine patterns of PA and depressive symptoms among students through their adolescent years. Our findings show that the decrease in PA and increase in depressive symptoms is most pronounced around the transition from compulsory to upper-secondary school, or around the age of 15-16. Thus the findings provide important information about when to tailor public health efforts to reduce the burden of depressive symptoms among adolescents, for example by employing PA interventions. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 198.
    Bammann, K.
    et al.
    Univ Bremen, Fac Human & Hlth Sci, Inst Publ Hlth & Nursing Res, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;BIPS Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Res, Bremen, Germany.
    Gwozdz, W.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Dept Intercultural Commun & Management, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Lanfer, A.
    BIPS Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Res, Bremen, Germany.
    Barba, G.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Avellino, Italy.
    De Henauw, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fernandez-Alvira, J. M.
    Univ Zaragoza, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev GENUD Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Kovacs, E.
    Univ Pecs, Dept Pediat, Pecs, Hungary.
    Lissner, L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev GENUD Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Tornaritis, M.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Dept Chron Dis, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Pigeot, I.
    BIPS Inst Epidemiol & Prevent Res, Bremen, Germany.
    Socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight in Europe: results from the multi-centre IDEFICS study2013In: Pediatric Obesity, ISSN 2047-6302, E-ISSN 2047-6310, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What is already known about this subject Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient. Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi-centre study with highly standardized study protoco. The strength of association between SES and overweight and obesity varies across European regions. In our study, the SES gradient is correlated with the regional mean income and the country-specific Human development index indicating a strong influence not only of the family but also of region and country on the overweight and obesity prevalence. Objective To assess the association between different macro- and micro-level socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight. Methods Data from the IDEFICS baseline survey is used to investigate the cross-sectional association between socioeconomic factors, like socioeconomic status (SES), and the prevalence of childhood overweight. Differences and similarities regarding this relationship in eight European regions (located in Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden) are explored. 11?994 children (50.9% boys, 49.1% girls) and their parents were included in the analyses. Results In five of the eight investigated regions (in Belgium, Estonia, Germany, Spain and Sweden), the prevalence of childhood overweight followed an inverse SES gradient. In the other three regions (in Cyprus, Hungary and Italy), no association between SES and childhood overweight was found. The SES-overweight association in a region was best explained by the country-specific human development index and the centre-specific mean income. For the investigated association between other socioeconomic factors and overweight, no clear pattern could be found in the different regions. Conclusion The association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight was shown to be heterogeneous across different European regions. Further research on nationwide European data is needed to confirm the results and to identify target groups for prevention.

  • 199.
    Bammann, K.
    et al.
    Univ Bremen, Inst Publ Hlth & Nursing Res ipp, Fac Human & Hlth Sci, FB 11,Grazer Str 2a, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Gwozdz, W.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Dept Intercultural Commun & Management, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Pischke, C.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fernandez-Alvira, J. M.
    Univ Zaragoza, Dept Phys Med & Nursing, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev GENUD Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    De Henauw, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, Ghent, Belgium.
    Lissner, L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Dept Phys Med & Nursing, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev GENUD Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Pitsiladis, Y.
    Univ Brighton, Ctr Sport & Exercise Sci & Med SESAME, Eastbourne, England.
    Reisch, L.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Dept Intercultural Commun & Management, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Dept Chron Dis, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Pigeot, I.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.;Univ Bremen, Fac Math & Comp Sci, Inst Stat, Bremen, Germany.
    The impact of familial, behavioural and psychosocial factors on the SES gradient for childhood overweight in Europe. A longitudinal study2017In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 54-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In highly developed countries, childhood overweight and many overweight-related risk factors are negatively associated with socioeconomic status (SES). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the longitudinal association between parental SES and childhood overweight, and to clarify whether familial, psychosocial or behavioural factors can explain any SES gradient. METHODS: The baseline and follow-up surveys of the identification and prevention of dietary and lifestyle induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study are used to investigate the longitudinal association between SES, familial, psychosocial and behavioural factors, and the prevalence of childhood overweight. A total of 5819 children (50.5% boys and 49.5% girls) were included. RESULTS: The risk for being overweight after 2 years at follow-up in children who were non-overweight at baseline increases with a lower SES. For children who were initially overweight, a lower parental SES carries a lower probability for a non-overweight weight status at follow-up. The effect of parental SES is only moderately attenuated by single familial, psychosocial or behavioural factors; however, it can be fully explained by their combined effect. Most influential of the investigated risk factors were feeding/eating practices, parental body mass index, physical activity behaviour and proportion of sedentary activity. CONCLUSION: Prevention strategies for childhood overweight should focus on actual behaviours, whereas acknowledging that these behaviours are more prevalent in lower SES families.

  • 200.
    Barker, Dean
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Jacob
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wahlström, Martin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barker-Ruchti, Natalie
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carlén, Urban
    University of West, Sweden.
    Maivorsdotter, Ninitha
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Jacob and Martin: Developing digital technology competence in physical education teacher education2017In: Digital technologies and learning in physical education: Pedagogical cases / [ed] Ashley Casey, Victoria A. Goodyear, Kathleen M. Armour, London: Routledge, 2017, p. 231-246Chapter in book (Other academic)
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