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  • 151.
    Ahlinder, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Ströberg, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Lojalitet inom e-handeln: Ur ett konsumentperspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Konkurrensen har ökat online och fler e-handelsföretag behöver hitta sätt att få lojala konsumenter genom att designa webbplatsens olika delar. Konsumentbeteendet har ändrats, konsumenter har blivit mer kunniga då de kan söka mer information och har fler alternativ att välja bland. Fler klädbutiker öppnar upp online och antalet fysiska butiker riskerar att försvinna allt mer. Tidigare studier visar på att det är viktigt att veta hur kvinnor och män beter sig när de handlar kläder online då det är ett viktigt marknadssegment. Frågeställningen formuleras utifrån problembakgrunden.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva lojalitet inom e-handeln, hur den påverkas av konsumenters, kvinnor och mäns, upplevelse av webbplatsdimensioner.

    Metod: Genom en kvalitativ metod samlades det empiriska materialet in genom intervjuer med konsumenter. 12 intervjuer genomfördes med sex kvinnor och sex män som handlar kläder online.

    Slutsats: Uppsatsen visar att lojalitet påverkas direkt av webbplatsdimensionerna informationskvalitet och navigeringskvalitet. Dessa två dimensioner påverkar konsumenternas val av e-handelsföretag och tillit som skapas till företaget. Övriga dimensioner, till exempel estetik och informationsinnehåll, påverkar lojaliteten indirekt enskilt eller direkt tillsammans genom påverkan av tillfredsställelse. Kvinnor och mäns köpprocess skiljer sig till viss del, kvinnor och män spenderar båda tid i informationssökningsfasen, men män spenderar även tid i att utvärdera alternativ. Kvinnor påvisar mer falsk lojalitet och män är mer lojala, samt latent lojala.

    Nyckelord: Lojalitet, e-lojalitet, konsumentbeteende, webbplatsdimensioner och e-handel.

  • 152.
    Ahlm, Andreas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Att skriva musik för filmtrailers respektive speltrailers: Inom genren action2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 153.
    Ahlm, Robin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Björk, Anna-Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Vårdares upplevelser av att arbeta med döden och döendet utifrån hospicefilosofin: En intervjustudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Death is considered a stressor to all health care personnel and previous research shows that this applies to hospice caregivers as well. In addition, a number of common coping strategies are impossible to use due to the specific environment. One study however points out low burn-out rating among the hospice caregivers and suggests the holistic nursing perspective, among others, as one of the possible reasons for this seemingly ambivalent finding. Can the hospice philosophy influence the view on death among hospice caregivers? An interview based study was conducted among caregivers working in a hospice in Sweden, where three participants took part. The manifest content relating to the purpose of the study was identified and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The result shows that hospice caregivers indeed are influenced by the hospice philosophy in areas such as the view on end-of-life care, dying and professional cooperation. The participants displayed affection for their work style and a variety of ways in which to cope with the difficulty of their work. Work based on a philosophy that permeates the care of the patients seems to increase the appreciation of each other as co-workers. Further research in this area can be of interest.

  • 154.
    Ahlqvist, Hannes
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Sjöström, Hampus
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Robotiserad Rådgivning: Vilka faktorer påverkar de svenska storbankernas inställning till implementering?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title                            

    Robo-Advice - What factors affect the Swedish big banks' attitude towards implementation?

    Background                     

    The banking sector has experienced external pressure on change in the digital development of products and services. Computers and technology are gaining more space in our society and making the interaction between man and computer becoming more natural. The development of financial advisory services is becoming more and more digital in the form robo-advisory, which poses a challenge for the Swedish big banks when faced with a choice to implement this service or not in its organization.

    Purpose                             

    The purpose of the study is to identify and describe factors that affect the Swedish big banks' attitude towards implementing robo-advisory.

    Issue                                  

    What factors explain the Swedish big banks' attitude towards implementing robo-advisory?

    Method                             

    The study has been conducted with a qualitative method in the form of semistructured interviews to answer the study's question. The study is limited to including only the four major Swedish banks.

    Conclusion                        

    The authors of the study have been able to find three factors that affect the big banks' attitude towards the implementation of robo-advisory.

  • 155.
    Ahlrik, Johan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Ett holistiskt Business Intelligence för användning i Verksamhetsutveckling2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Världen förändras. Alla kan kommunicera med alla och kunskap är lättillgänglig. Idag kan vi skicka data mellan varandra med mobiltelefoner utan några direkta geografiska begränsningar och med hastigheter i nivå med vad en vanlig dator gjorde internt mellan processorn och internminnet 1984. Informations- och kommunikations-teknologin har skapat nya förutsättningar för företag att göra affärer samtidigt som den behövs för överlevnad med dagens snabba samhälleliga förändringar.

    Personalen beskrivs ofta som företagets viktigaste tillgång. Verksamhetens prestation beror mycket på deras engagemang och möjligheter att utföra sina arbetsuppgifter. Samtidigt är det även de som kan sina egna arbetsuppgifter bäst och har mycket kunskap kring hur de kan förbättras. Däremot är det inte så lätt att få fram dessa kunskaper, och som en f.d. koncernchef för Siemens sagt om problematiken: ”Om Siemens visste allt det som Siemens vet skulle vi inte ha några problem”.

    Den här studien ska utreda hur mobila teknologier kan användas för att ta till vara på personalens inneboende kunskaper på ett systematiskt sätt för att användas med Business Intelligence. Detta för att skapa möjligheter till anpassningsbara och lärande organisationer samt ge förutsättningar för innovativa organisationsstrukturer och affärsmodeller.

    De slutsatser som dras är att om bara företaget förstår relevansen i att anpassa sig, värdet i personalens inneboende kunskaper samt att de är beredda att ta initiativet, finns det stora möjligheter till att skaffa sig insikter kring sin egen verksamhet vilka kan användas för ständiga förbättringar.

    Nyckelord: Business Intelligence, Verksamhetsutveckling, Verksamhetsprestation

  • 156.
    Ahlstedt, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johansson, Terése
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Kartläggning av faktorer som påverkar acceptansen vid införande av telemedicin i ett utvecklingsland: IT som stöd för att bedriva vård över stora avstånd2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt fler organisationer väljer att förbättra sin verksamhet med hjälp av ett informationssystem. Användningen av datoriserade informationssystem ökar inom hälso- och sjukvården och sjuksköterskorna blir alltmer beroende av IT. Idag utgör telemedicinska tillämpningar en delmängd av alla de IT-tillämpningar som finns inom hälso- och sjukvården. Införandet av telemedicin bär med sig stora problem och hinder och ett av de mest kritiska problemen som bör försöka undvikas är utebliven användaracceptans. Då tidigare undersökningar inom telemedicin främst har genomförts i industriländer syftar detta arbete till att undersöka vilka faktorer som kan påverka acceptansen vid införande av telemedicin i utvecklingsländer. Genom att intervjua och observera sjuksköterskor och en systemutvecklare verksamma i ett telemedicinprojekt i Indien erhölls faktorer som har både en positivt och negativ inverkan på användaracceptansen vid införande av telemedicin. Faktorerna som framkom i resultatet var information och utbildning, upplevelsen av ny teknik, tidigare erfarenheter av datorer, inledande svårigheter vid användning av systemet, förståelsen för nyttan med systemet, användarmedverkan, användbarhet, begränsningar vid arbete med systemet, arbetsbelastning, mentala hinder, rädsla för att mista den yrkesverksamma friheten, förändringsovilja, fast i en gammal föreställning och teknikhinder.

  • 157.
    Ahlström, Emma
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Myrén, Martina
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Obligatoriskt krav på hållbarhetsredovisning: Faktorer till utmaningar som kan uppstå i företags praktiska arbete2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Annual Account Act (1995:1554) introduced a change (2016:947) which implies that larger Swedish companies are forced to establish a sustainability report. In a previous survey it appears that nine out of ten companies experience the new legal requirement as challenging. This study therefore contributes with knowledge of which these challenges could be and what they may depend on. The purpose of the study is to observe what factors that are the reasons why companies perceive implementation of law (2016:947) as challenging. By this, the study can contribute to understand the practical work in the preparation of sustainability reports. It can be useful for companies that switch from voluntary to statutory sustainability reporting or companies that establish a sustainability report for the first time in a connection with a legal requirement.

    To achieve the aim, the study has been based on a qualitative research method in the form of interviews. There have been eight interviews with sustainability managers in companies within the fashion industry as well as the sports-and leisure industry. In order to gain empirical knowledge about the practical work, a qualitative method was considered most appropriate because it was desired that the informants provided practical examples. The result of the study can be explained by using the implementation theory where the properties understand, can and will are presented. In order to pay attention to difficulties with implementation, the study will investigate whether the companies process these three properties. When implementing a decision, it is essential to know what properties companies have in order to understand the effects of the control. In implementation theory, it appears that it is most problematic if there is no willingness to implement. The result from the study shows that there is challenges within the companies that can be linked to the properties understandand can. The property will appear in this study unable to connect to the challenges in the companies.

  • 158.
    Ahlström, Michael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Brandin, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Auditor independence: Auditor independence in Malaysia after the convergence to IFRS2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 159.
    Ahlström, Robin
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Stereotypa skräckantagonister: En jämförande undersökning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 160.
    Ahluwalia, Bani
    et al.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Calmino Group AB, Sahlgrenska Science Park, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Maria K.
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Stefan
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Öhman, Lena
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of Aloe barbadensis Mill. extract (AVH200®) on human blood T cell activity in vitro2016In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 179, p. 301-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Aloe barbadensis Mill. (Aloe vera) is a widely used medicinal plant well reputed for its diverse therapeutic applications. It has been used for thousands of years in folk medicine to treat various conditions and the Aloe vera gel has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory as well as immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory properties. However, the mode of action is still unclear.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was determine the effects of two well-defined A. barbadensis Mill. extracts AVH200® and AVE200 on human blood T cells in vitro.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors were stimulated polyclonally in the presence or absence of AVH200® and AVE200. The T cell phenotype was investigated by flow cytometry, cell proliferation was determined by CFSE dye and thymidine assay, respectively and cytokine secretion was determined by MSD® Multi-Spot Assay system and ELISA.

    RESULTS: The presence of AVH200® resulted in a reduced expression of CD25 among CD3(+) T cells and suppression of T cell proliferation in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, AVH200® reduced the expression of CD28 on CD3(+) T cells. AVH200® also reduced the secretion of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17A in PBMC cultures. The AVH200® dose dependent reduction in T cell activation and proliferation recorded in the cell cultures was not due to apoptosis or cell death. Additionally, AVH200® was found to be more effective as compared to AVE200 in reducing T cell activation and proliferation.

    CONCLUSION: AVH200® has the potential to reduce the activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion of healthy human blood T cells. Our study suggests that AVH200® has a suppressive effect on human blood T cells in vitro.

  • 161.
    Ahlén, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Äldre och teknologiska hjälpmedel: interaktionsmönster som metod för att studera hur teknik i framtiden kan användas inom äldreomsorgen.2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ny teknologi har skapat nya möjligheter inom utvecklingen av teknologi för äldre. Kunskap behövs om de äldres behov och vilka situationer i vardagen som skulle kunna underlättas av teknik för att minska de äldres beroende av andra människor. I utvecklingen av ett interaktivt teknologiskt hjälpmedel en så kallad virtual companion har en etnografisk studie gjorts för att kartlägga vardagen på ett äldreboende och interaktionen mellan vårdgivare och vårdtagare. Dessa har strukturerats upp i interaktionsmönster för att bli ett underlag till funktioner som skall implementeras i hjälpmedlet.

  • 162.
    Ahlén, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    ARAVQ som datareducerare för en klassificeringsuppgift inom datautvinning2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Adaptive Resource Allocating Vector Quantizer (ARAVQ) är en teknik för datareducering för mobila robotar. Tekniken har visats framgångsrik i enkla miljöer och det har spekulerats i att den kan fungera som ett generellt datautvinningsverktyg för tidsserier. I rapporten presenteras experiment där ARAVQ används som datareducerare på en artificiell respektive en fysiologisk datamängd inom en datautvinningskontext. Dessa datamängder skiljer sig från tidigare robotikmiljöer i och med att de beskriver objekt med diffusa eller överlappande gränser i indatarymden. Varje datamängd klassificeras efter datareduceringen med hjälp av artificiella neuronnät. Resultatet från experimenten tyder på att klassificering med ARAVQ som datareducerare uppnår ett betydligt lägre resultat än om ARAVQ inte används som datareducerare. Detta antas delvis bero på den låga generaliserbarheten hos de lösningar som skapas av ARAVQ. I diskussionen föreslås att ARAVQ skall kompletteras med en funktion för grannskap, motsvarande den som finns i Self-Organizing Map. Med ett grannskap behålls relationerna mellan de kluster som ARAVQ skapar, vilket antas minska följderna av att en beskrivning hamnar i ett grannkluster

  • 163.
    Ahlén, Niclas
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    En situerad ansats för utvecklingen av en räknande robot2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den situerade ansatsen inom artificiell intelligens har i tidigare experiment visat på stora möjligheter vid utvecklingen av enkla beteenden. Ansatsens framgångar är dock inte lika tydliga när det kommer till utvecklingen av mer komplexa beteenden som i högre grad påminner om de experiment som gjorts inom traditionell artificiell intelligens. I studien utvecklas en agent med ett ”Extended Sequential Cascaded Network” som kontrollarkitektur för att lösa en uppgift som kräver ett ”räkneliknande beteende”. Utvecklingen av nätverket grundas på en situerad syn på kognition, däribland att designern i så liten grad som möjligt skall styra utvecklingen. Experimentets resultat visar på en agent som inte ens löser den enklaste versionen av uppgiften. I diskussionen härleds misslyckandet till svårigheterna med en designeroberoende utveckling.

  • 164.
    Ahmadi, Nasser S.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Bennet, Louise
    Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Family Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Larsson, Charlotte A.
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden / Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Social Medicine and Global Health, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Andersson, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Månsson, Jörgen
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, SwedenDepartment of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Ulf
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Clinical characteristics of asymptomatic left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and its association with self-rated health and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide: a cross-sectional study2016In: ESC Heart Failure, E-ISSN 2055-5822, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 205-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimsLeft ventricular hypertrophy, obesity, hypertension, and N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) predict left ventricular diastolic dysfunction with preserved systolic function (DD-PSF). Self-rated health (SRH) is shown to be associated with chronic diseases, but the association of SRH with DD-PSF is unclear. In light of the clinical implications of DD-PSF, the following goals are of considerable importance: (1) to determine the role of SRH in patients with DD-PSF in the general population and (2) to study the association between Nt-proBNP and DD-PSF.

    Methods and resultsThe current study is a cross-sectional study conducted on a random sampling of a rural population. Individuals 30–75 years of age were consecutively subjected to conventional echocardiography and tissue velocity imaging. Data were collected on 500 (48%) men and 538 (52%) women (n = 1038). DD-PSF was the main outcome, and SRH and Nt-proBNP were the primary indicators. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity were accounted for as major confounders of the association with SRH. DD-PSF was identified in 137 individuals, namely, 79 men (15.8%) and 58 women (10.8%). In a multivariate regression model, SRH (OR 2.95; 95% CI 1.02–8.57) and Nt-proBNP (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 OR 4.23; 95% CI 1.74–10.26) were both independently associated with DD-PSF.

    ConclusionsSRH, evaluated based on a descriptive question on general health, should be included in the diagnostic process of DD-PSF. In agreement with previous studies, our study confirms that Nt-proBNP is a major indicator of DD-PSF.

  • 165.
    Ahmed, Adell
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Analys och simulering av produktionsflödet på ett tillverkningsföretag: Simulering kombinerat med Lean-principer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Production concurrence within manufacturing companies is continuously increasing due to production requirements and demand of mass produced customized goods. In order to meet customers’ requirements nowadays, companies need to increase customize production without suffering a loss of quality. In pursuance of an increased production on the main shop floor of the industrial partner involved in this project, the company investigates the idea of investing in an automated pressing machine to centralize the process outside different assembly lines. With the help of automation, simulation, and Lean, the potential of the company to reduce lead times to satisfy the customer needs can be increased.

    The aim of this final year project is to investigate the potential of a stator pressing machine to manage the supply of product parts to four assembly lines. One of the requirements is that the yearly volume of the new system could be increased by 50%.

    The methodology used in this study is based on Lean, simulation, and optimization. In order to have an overview of the problem, a situation analysis was made on the current production flow. Therefore, a data collection process was performed through observations, continuous communication with matter experts, and historical data. This data was used to analyze the system and feed the simulation model of the proposed new system. Different Lean tools were also used for the analysis and improvement of the system.

    The company presented ideas on how they wanted the production flow to look like, which were then further developed and used as a basis for the improvement suggestions. One requirement was that the solution had to be Lean inspired.

    The aim of the study was achieved by creating a simulation model to test how the system would behave in different configurations. A first scenario designed as a Pull flow system where the products were only produced according to demand. The second scenario was a Push based system without considering just-in-time production. The first scenario was presented as suggestion for final solution.

    The result from the simulation scenarios showed a clear difference between the two systems. The Pull flow was more suitable due to a drastic decrease in both number of products as work- in-progress and lead time. The final solution, using a Kanban method, and a suggestion for the production layout of the future production flow is presented in the report.

  • 166.
    Ahmed, Bulbul
    et al.
    University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Monzur
    University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Islam, Rafiul
    University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Kumar Saha, Ananda
    University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    A review on natural sweetener plant - Stevia having medical and commercial importance2011In: Agronomy Journal, ISSN 0002-1954, Vol. 73, no 1-2, p. 75-91Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stevia is a perennial herb that belongs to the Asteraceae family. It is a natural sweetener plant and estimated to be 300 times sweeter than cane sugar. The leaves of stevia are the source of diterpene glycosides, viz. stevioside and rebaudioside. Stevioside is regenerated as a valuable natural sweetening agent because of its relatively good taste and chemical stability. Now it is being cultivated in Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Hawaii, Malaysia and overall South America for food and pharmaceutical products. Products can be added to tea and coffee, cooked or baked goods, processed foods and beverages, fruit juices,

  • 167.
    Ahmed, Bulbul
    et al.
    Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Khatun, Mansura
    Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Monzur
    Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Islam, Rafiul
    Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Biswas, Manosh
    Rajshahi University, Rajshahi, Bangladesh.
    Mandal, Abul
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Establishment of an Indirect Genetic Transformation Method for Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Bangladesh2011In: Journal of Central European Agriculture, ISSN 1332-9049, E-ISSN 1332-9049, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 519-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arabidopsis thaliana is a small flowering plant belonging to the Brassicaceae family, which is adopted as a model plant for genetic research. Agrobacterium tumifaciensmediated transformation method for A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh was established. Leaf discs of A. thaliana were incubated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 containing chimeric nos. nptII. nos and intron-GUS genes. Following inoculation and co-cultivation, leaf discs were cultured on selection medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin + 50 mg/l cefotaxime + 1.5 mg/l NAA and kanamycin resistant shoots were induced from the leaf discs after two weeks. Shoot regeneration was achieved after transferring the tissues onto fresh medium of the same combination. Finally, the shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 50 mg/l kanamycin. Incorporation and expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR analysis. Using this protocol, transgenic A. thaliana plants can be obtained and indicates that genomic transformation in higher plants is possible through insertion of desired gene. Although Agrobacterium mediated genetic transformation is established for A. thaliana, this study was the conducted to transform A. thaliana ecotype Bangladesh.

  • 168.
    Ahmed, Karuan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Grafiska designens påverkan på tilliten hos högskolestudenter gällande trovärdigheten för nyheter på en webbplats2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a comparison with previous studies on how the graphic design on a news site influences students’ trust in the website and influences the articles credibility from the perspective of the students. The studie was conducted on the basis of two methods, qualitative and quantitative method. Data collection was conducted through use of questionnaries and interviews. The purpose of this studie is to gain an understanding of the factors that affect the trust of news websites and if there are similarities between this study and previous studies. 

  • 169.
    Ahmed, Reham
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Dynamiska metoder för små systemutvecklingsprojekt2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Litteratur inom systemutvecklingsområdet visar behov av nya snabbare systemutvecklingsmetoder. Orsaken är komplexiteten både i systemutvecklingsprojekten och i organisationer, där systemutveckling sker. Nu föredras små projekt, som omfattar färre än tio deltagare och genomförs på mindre än ett år. De traditionella systemutvecklingsmetoder anses vara lämpliga för stora projekt. Det finns nya systemutvecklingsmetoder, som får benämningen dynamiska metoder, för små projekt. I detta examensarbete studeras faktorer för två dynamiska metoder som gör dem lämpliga för små projekt. De två dynamiska metoderna som kommer att studeras är Extreme Programming och en specifik dokumenterad anpassning av RUP.

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att studera metoddokumentationen för två dynamiska metoder för att reda ut i vilken utsträckning de passar för små projekt. Ett ytterligare syfte är att genom analys av andras erfarenheter om tillämpningar av de två metoderna redogöra för det som styrker argumenten om deras lämplighet för små projekt.

    För att besvara frågeställningen studerades litteratur och ett antal artiklar. Två telefonintervjuer genomfördes också för att besvara en av de två delfrågorna, som tillsammans utgör frågeställningen för denna studie. Resultatet visar att den specifikt dokumenterade anpassade RUP inte följer alla aspekter för små projekt. Däremot följer Extreme Programming alla de aspekterna.

  • 170.
    Ahmed, Zakarie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Nasani, Rami
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Modellering och emulering av en människa- robot samarbetande arbetscell2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative robots are a key challenge in industrial development. The problem today is that industrial robots are not adapted for close collaboration with humans and security gates are a need. This study focuses on developing an emulation model that can demonstrate such collaboration without the need for security gates. The project is based on the concept (virtual commissioning) which is about using emulation tools to develop a digital twin that is a copy of a physical system. With the help of the model, the system's functions and program code will be tested and validated before a real implementation is performed. On behalf of the University of Skövde, the thesis work was carried out to investigate the possibility of a close collaboration between a person and industrial robot in a virtual environment. In the study, two different methods have been developed to investigate the possibility of a collaboration but also to develop an emulation model. With this, operating lists have been created to clarify the person and the robot work tasks. Process scenarios were then created to demonstrate how such collaboration can take place in a virtual environment. A functioning emulation model in which man and robot collaborate, was delivered to the University of Skövde. By using the emulation model, the university can create and test different solutions before an implementation of a real system takes place. Finally, an emulation method is proposed that can be used to develop a digital twin.

  • 171.
    Ahrens, W.
    et al.
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Bremen, Germany / Institute of Statistics, Bremen University, Bremen, Germany.
    Siani, A.
    Institute of Food Sciences, National Research Council, Avellino, Italy.
    Adan, R.
    Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    De Henauw, S.
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gwozdz, W.
    Department of Intercultural Communication and Management, Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hebestreit, A.
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Hunsberger, M.
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kaprio, J.
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Institute for Molecular Medicine (FIMM), Helsinki, Finland.
    Krogh, V.
    Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Fondazione IRCSS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.
    Lissner, L.
    Section for Epidemiology and Social Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Molnár, D.
    Department of Paediatrics, University of Pe´cs, Pe´cs, Hungary.
    Moreno, L. A.
    GENUD (Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development) Research Group, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Page, A.
    Centre for Exercise, Nutrition & Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Picó, C.
    Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Nutrition and Biotechnology (Nutrigenomics), University of the Balearic Islands (UIB) and CIBER Fisiopatologıa de la Obesidad y Nutricion, Palma de Mallorca, Spain.
    Reisch, L.
    Department of Intercultural Communication and Management, Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Smith, R. M.
    Minerva Communications UK, Andover, UK.
    Tornaritis, M.
    Research and Education Institute of Child Health, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Veidebaum, T.
    National Institute for Health Development, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Williams, G.
    Department of Politics, Philosophy and Religion, Lancaster University, Lancaster, UK.
    Pohlabeln, H.
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Pigeot, I.
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Bremen, Germany / Institute of Statistics, Bremen University, Bremen, Germany.
    Cohort Profile: The transition from childhood to adolescence in European children-how I.Family extends the IDEFICS cohort2017In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 1394-1395Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 172.
    Ahumada, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Uppfattningar om barnfetma och om myndigheternas åtgärder bland invånarna i Viña del Mar - Chile2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Obesity development is one of the most obvious - and at the same time, one of the most neglected - public health problems (WHO, 2018). Objective: The primary purpose was to investigate the understanding of the factors behind childhood obesity in a limited group of participants living in three areas in Viña del Mar, Chile; Reñaca Alto, Santa Inés and Center. The secondary purpose of the study was to elucidate the perception of the authorities' health-promoting efforts among participants in different socio-economic groups in these areas. The two main research questions were: What are the views of the residents of Viña del Mar about the factors behind childhood obesity? What are the opinions of residents of Viña del Mar about measures to counteract the problem? Method: The study is a cross-sectional survey (n = 63) and the data were collected and analysed using SPSS statistical program and an Excel program. The results are presented through descriptive statistics, in the form of tables. Results: The survey was answered by 63 persons, representing 63 families, consisting of a total of 231 persons, divided into 156 adults and 75 children. The results show that 15% of the participants do not know the severity of child obesity. Furthermore, 88% of the participants perceive that the household economy is the main significant risk factor for child obesity, followed by a high consumption of sugar and sugar-containing products. In addition, participants perceive that it is possible to influence the childhood obesity epidemic and 84% of participants feel that the family can have a positive influence on childhood obesity, but more tools are needed in the form of knowledge and support. The results show that only 10% of the participants think that the authorities are making a considerable effort, while 49% (n = 25) think that they are not doing enough. Behaviour-changing measures show a better result in population groups with a high SEP (Socio Economic Position) than in those with a low, since the former are more influenced by the information. However, a multidisciplinary holistic perspective is needed on health promotion work. If the SES gap (Socio Economic Status) is reduced and SEP equated, more people can get advice and be given the opportunity to have a healthy lifestyle. Socioeconomic factors affect the risk of childhood obesity in particular in economic transition processes. If SEP and SES, both individually and socially, change from poor to rich, child obesity in society increases and Chile is an example of this phenomenon. The health promotion efforts in the country are multifaceted and innovative in many ways and there are many actors working with these. However, the question is how effective the efforts are when the work is done in many different forms and often without being anchored to one another. Finally, prevention efforts should be developed and implemented in collaboration with the target groups.

  • 173.
    Aisenberg Ferenhof, Helio
    et al.
    Department of Production Engineering and System, Complexo de Ensino Superior de Santa Catarina (CESUSC) and Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Brazil.
    Durst, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Hesamamiri, Roozbeh
    Iran University of Science & Technology (IUST), Tehran, Iran.
    The impact of social media on knowledge management2016In: IFKAD 2016 - 11th International Forum on Knowledge Asset Dynamics: Towards a New Architecture of Knowledge: Big Data, Culture and Creativity Proceedings / [ed] J. C. Spender, Giovanni Schiuma, Joerg Rainer Noennig, Institute of Knowledge Asset Management (IKAM) , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to review extant research on the impact of social media on knowledge management (KM) to establish the current body of knowledge and, on this basis, to suggest some promising avenues for future research.

    The study consists of a systematic literature review of eighteen refereed empirical articles on social media and knowledge management. In order to get access to the articles, we used different scientific databases such as Scopus and ProQuest. As keywords, we decided to use multiple keyword combinations. After having read the abstracts of the articles identified, we ended up with a final set of eighteen articles, which represented the basis for analysis. The systematic approach helped us to make sure that the majority of relevant papers would be covered. 

    To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no systematic literature review on social media and knowledge management has previously been published or presented.

    The topic seems to be a promising field for systematic and intensive research and offers a variety of future research avenues.

  • 174.
    Aisenberg Ferenhof, Helio
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, Brazil.
    Durst, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Selig, Paulo M.
    Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, Brazil.
    Knowledge Waste & Knowledge Loss: What is it All About?2016In: Navus Revista de Gestão e Tecnologia, ISSN 2237-4558, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 38-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we are interested in developing an understanding of the concepts of knowledge waste and knowledge loss. The latter can in the worst case lead to "a decreased capacity for effective action or decision making in a specific organizational context" (DeLong, 2004, p. 21). Whereas knowledge waste means that companies are not using the full capacity of existing knowledge. As outlined by Ferenhof (2011) it is any failure in the process of knowledge conversion. These definitions imply differences between the concepts, the literature however suggests that many authors uses them interchangeably. Is that correct? Are the concepts important, of relevance? The present article's aim is to highlight the importance of having better insights into the concepts. The authors believe that both theory and corporate practice will benefit from an improved understanding.

  • 175.
    Aisenberg Ferenhof, Helio
    et al.
    Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Brazil.
    Durst, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Selig, Paulo Mauricio
    Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Brazil.
    Knowledge waste in organizations: A review of previous studies2015In: Brazilian Journal of Operations & Production Management, ISSN 1679-8171, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 160-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we are interested in the knowledge that is “wasted” in organizations, that is existing relevant knowledge that is overlooked in the process of knowledge conversion. Given the competitive pressure firms are facing in today´s business environment, a waste of knowledge is not only costly but also dangerous. This means that we consider knowledge from a knowledge at risk perspective. Having this in mind, the purpose of this paper is to review research on knowledge waste in organizations to establish our current body of knowledge regarding this topic. The study consists of a systematic review of 51 peer-reviewed articles addressing knowledge waste in organizations. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no systematic literature review on this topic has previously been published or presented. The topic seems to be a promising field for intensive research and offers a variety of future research avenues. In view of practitioners, the study´s finding may enable an increased awareness towards the areas where existing knowledge is at the mercy of “waste”. This can assist practitioners to better cope with risks related to this waste and, therefore, better exploit the (limited) knowledge base available.

  • 176.
    Aisenberg Ferenhof, Helio
    et al.
    Production Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.
    Durst, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Zaniboni Bialecki, Mariana
    Production Engineering Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.
    Selig, Paulo Mauricio
    Engineering & Knowledge Management Department, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.
    Intellectual capital dimensions: state of the art in 20142015In: Journal of Intellectual Capital, ISSN 1469-1930, E-ISSN 1758-7468, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 58-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review extant literature to identify models intended to measure/classify intellectual capital (IC) to establish the current body of knowledge that has been built since the review by Marr et al. (2004).

    Design/methodology/approach – The study consists of a systematic review of peer-reviewed articles on IC classification. The review was conducted for the period 2004-2014 in order to reach the aim. To ensure that all major models are included, important works developed prior to 2004 were captured as well.

    Findings – The review resulted in 83 additional models indicating continued research activities with regard to the topic. These models were merged with prior IC models and mapped on a timeline. The timeline clarifies that 2008, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013 represent the years of greatest research activity (outcomes). Additionally, the analysis of the list of IC frameworks resulted in the development of an IC Meta model. It synthesizes research activities in the field and highlights the main IC dimensions and sub-dimensions.

    Research limitations/implications – This study may not have enabled a complete coverage of all existing peer-reviewed articles in the field of IC classification. Yet, it seems reasonable to assume that the review process covered a large proportion of studies available.

    Originality/value – By aggregating and consolidating the IC frameworks covered, the study does not only provide an IC Meta model, but also promising directions for future research.

  • 177.
    Aisenberg Ferenhof, Helio
    et al.
    Faculdade Senac Chapecó, Santa Catarina.
    Fabiano Fernandes, Roberto
    Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina.
    Systematic Review and Bibliometrics: A Step-by-step GuideOther (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 178.
    Ajuzie, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Utilization of information and communication technology and educational games in senior secondary schools in Owerri, Imo state Nigeria: Challenges and prospects2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Use of information and communication technology in formal education settings is a fundamental issue in management of education across the globe. But in Africa the issues takes a different turn as it regards to how to apply and utilize technology in education. Facility and technology experts have been on debate across board as the literature implies. Thus, understanding the digital native factors behind individuals’ application and utilization is central to the development of ICT in Nigeria and Africa in general. The main goal of this thesis was to explore factors influencing effective utilization of computer and ICT (Computer laboratories) in the secondary school level. However, in the literature the thesis identify issues affecting utilization of computer and ICT facilities in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA), Nigeria and secondary schools (SS). The thesis proposed the use of educational games to drive the concept of utilization of computer and ICT facilities in the educational sector. In addition to the main goal of the thesis, use of computer and ICT facilities in secondary schools are explored alongside teachers and students interest in educational games. Qualitative interviews and a questionnaire survey were used in conduct of the study. Thematic and descriptive analysis was used to analyze the qualitative and quantitative data respectively.

    The results indicate that computer and ICT facilities (Computer laboratories) were poorly utilized by teachers and students due to lack of funds, poor infrastructure and technology knowledge. The results also demonstrate that teachers and students have knowledge about educational games and are willing to apply it in teaching and learning. But the issues of application of educational games into the mainstream could be hindered by Government curriculum policy and infrastructural facilities. The study indicates the relevance of applying educational games in secondary schools to reduce the level of digital divide among graduates. This thesis further argues that the inclusion of educational games would encourage teachers and students to effectively utilization of computer and ICT Facilities (Computer laboratory).

  • 179.
    Akbarian, Anahita
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Azhmi, Roya
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Derestey Deim, Irene
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    ”Såna är dom!”: En socialpsykologisk studie om skillnader mellan unga killars och tjejers stereotypa tänkande och fördomar.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The way man divides his thoughts and sorts them into different boxes, is a cognitive activity which works alike for every person. We split peoplesexterior attributes and characteristic qualities into stereotypes or prejudicemind patterns and treat them along those.

    This study examines through a qualitative method what twelve respondents (six women and six men) between the ages 16-21, think about “intense” conceptions, which may show stereotype or prejudice ways of thinking. There spondents have been chosen regardless ethnic or economic background andare all enrolled in an upper secondary school located centrally in a Swedish big city.

    The purpose is to find out if there are any differences between how some young men and some young women spontaneously think in stereotypical orprejudice patterns. The result is interpreted on the basis of the social cognitive perspective and from out of theories about how people create schemes andprototypes to separate individuals and groups from each other.

    This study suggests that men more easily express their stereotypes and prejudice, while women more often seem to be careful with their stereotypes and prejudice, and end up redefining them. Further in the discussion, aspects involving how the society, if not becoming aware of stereotypes and prejudice, can affect the people representing those stereotypes.

  • 180.
    Akgul, Edvin
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Arbetsmotivation: Utifrån Nordeas medarbetarperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Denna studie är utförd inom Nordea AB som ämnar undersöka området arbetsmotivation. Bakgrunden till studien grundar sig på att företag tenderar att öka sina prestationer om medarbetare är motiverade.

    Syfte/ frågeställningar

    Syftet med denna studie är att öka förståelsen för hur en grupp anställda i en välkänd organisation ser på arbetsmotivation och vad som påverkar denna. Vidare avser studien att undersöka om de insatser som cheferna gör upplevs som motiverande och även vad cheferna kan göra för att höja arbetsmotivationen.

    -       Vad innebär arbetsmotivation enligt medarbetarna på Nordea, och vad påverkar denna?

    -       Vad kan cheferna göra för att höja arbetsmotivationen hos medarbetarna?

    Teori

    De teorier som har använts under studien är målsättningsteorin, Herzbergs tvåfaktorteori och Maslows Behovstrappa. Studien har även använt sig av tidigare forskning.

    Metod

    Studien har antagit en kvalitativ metod för att uppnå studiens syfte och vidare besvara frågeställningarna. Datainsamlingen bygger på semistrukturerade intervjuer med fem medarbetare och två chefer.

    Resultat/Slutsats

    Utifrån respondenternas svar har rapportförfattaren kunnat kartlägga vad arbetsmotivation innebär för medarbetarna. Det är en drivkraft som får de att vilja gå till arbetet och prestera. Några av de faktorerna som påverkar medarbetarnas motivation är: utvecklingsmöjligheter, arbetsuppgifterna, de sociala relationerna och feedback. Resultaten i denna studie överensstämmer med tidigare forskning, men motsäger även delar av tidigare studier. Exempelvis att de sociala relationerna är en motivationsfaktor, detta är i linje med Maslows behovstrappa men säger emot Herzbergs tvåfaktorteori.

    Chefer och ledare inom banksektorn, och främst i Sverige kan dra nytta av denna studie eftersom det är av stor vikt för dem att känna till vad som får personalen att prestera till sin fulla potential. Denna studie är genomförd inom den svenska banksektorn och har medarbetarnas åsikter och önskemål i huvudfokus, vilket gör denna studie intressant för chefer inom den svenska banksektorn. Ett förslag till vidare studier är att jämföra konkreta prestationer mellan en bank med omotiverade medarbetare respektive en bank med motiverade medarbetare.

  • 181.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Fermale immigrant' health and working conditions in Sweden2007In: International Journal of Diversity in Organisations, Communities and Nations, ISSN 1447-9532, E-ISSN 1447-9583, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 275-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the European countries that has successively changed from a mainly ethnically homogeneous society into a multi-ethnic society. In 2001, almost 20 per cent of the Swedish population was classified as immigrants, i.e., they were either born abroad and naturalized, of foreign nationality or born in Sweden with at least one parent who had been born abroad. Reports, statistics and research have shown that the health of female immigrants is worse than that of the total population and that the incidence of long-term sickness absence and early retirement is higher in this group. The overall aim of this article is to describe, understand and analyze factors that contribute to poor health among female immigrants in Sweden from the perspective of class, gender and ethnicity. Being unemployed, on sick leave or working in occupation with low income and low status are examples that are related to class position, gender and ethnicity. The main three aspects based on class are wage, professional status and female immigrants position in the hierarchical work organisation. Other factors are discrimination due to ethnicity and gender, unfavourable physical and psychosocial work environment and absence of opportunities for skills upgrade training. Experiences of rape, domestic violence, unanswered emotional and sexual needs and patriarchal culture are examples that are related to gender. And experiencing traumatic events (in pre-migration periods such as experiences of war, prison, etc. and in post-migration periods such as experiences of discrimination and racism) are examples that are related to ethnicity.

  • 182.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Invandrade kvinnors hälsa och arbetsvillkor i Sverige2011In: Perspektiv på kvinnors hälsa i arbetslivet / [ed] Sandmark, Hélène, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, 1, p. 135-142Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 183.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Midwives' views on factors that contribute to health care inequalities among immigrants in Sweden: a qualitative study2012In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 11, p. 47-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in the Swedish health care system have increased. Most indicators suggest that immigrants have significantly poorer health than native Swedes. The purpose of this study was to explore the views of midwives on the factors that contribute to health care inequality among immigrants. Methods: Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with ten midwives. These were transcribed and related categories identified through content analysis. Results: The interview data were divided into three main categories and seven subcategories. The category "Communication" was divided into subcategories "The meeting", "Cultural diversity and language barriers" and "Trust and confidence". The category "Potential barriers to the use of health care services" contained two subcategories, "Seeking health care" and "Receiving equal treatment". Finally, the category "Transcultural health care" had subcategories "Education on transcultural health care" and "The concept". Conclusions: This study suggests that midwives believe that health care inequality among immigrants can be the result of miscommunication which may arise due to a shortage of meeting time, language barriers, different systems of cultural beliefs and practices and limited patient-caregiver trust. Midwives emphasized that education level, country of origin and length of stay in Sweden play a role when an immigrant seeks health care. Immigrants face more difficulties when seeking health care and in receiving adequate levels of care. However, different views among the midwives were also observed. Some midwives were sensitive to individual and intra-group differences, while some others viewed immigrants as a group of "others". Midwives' beliefs about subgroup-specific health services vs. integrating immigrants' health care into mainstream health care services should be investigated further. Patients' perspective should also be considered.

  • 184.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Utvärdering av projektet "utlandsfödda kvinnor som doulor och kulturtolkar"2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 185.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Edge, Dawn
    School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work , The University of Manchester , Manchester , UK.
    Foreign-Born Women's Experiences of Community-Based Doulas in Sweden - A Qualitative Study2012In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 33, no 9, p. 833-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study our aim was to explore the experiences of doula support among foreign-born women in Sweden in the context of a “Community-Based Doula” (CBD) intervention project. We conducted interviews with ten women and analyzed the data using content analysis. Participating women reported that, in addition to support during labor; doulas provided important information and continuity of care, which apparently increased their satisfaction with and trust in maternity health care. Training of CBDs therefore has implications for delivery of equitable maternity care, which apply not only to Sweden and other European countries but wherever there are increasingly diverse populations.

  • 186.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Karlsen, Saffron
    University College London.
    Practitioner and Client Explanations for Disparities in Health Care Use Between Migrant and Non-migrant Groups in Sweden: A Qualitative Study2013In: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 188-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate variations in explanations given for disparities in health care use between migrant and nonmigrant groups, by clients and care providers in Sweden. Qualitative evidence collected during in-depth interviews with five ‘migrant’ health service clients and five physicians. The interview data generated three categories which were perceived by respondents to produce ethnic differences in health service use: ‘‘Communication issues’’, ‘‘Cultural differences in approaches to medical consultations’’ and ‘‘Effects of perceptions of inequalities in care quality and discrimination’’. Explanations for disparities in health care use in Sweden can be categorized into those reflecting social/structural conditions and the presence/absence of power and those using cultural/behavioural explanations. The negative perceptions of ‘migrant’ clients held by some Swedish physicians place the onus for addressing their poor health with the clients themselves and risks perpetuating their health disadvantage. The power disparity between doctors and ‘migrant’ patients encourages a sense of powerlessness and mistreatment among patients.

  • 187.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Lundgren, Ingela
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Hlth & Care Sci, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Midwives' experiences of doula support for immigrant women in Sweden: A qualitative study2012In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 80-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: to describe and analyse midwives’ experiences of doula support for immigrant women in Sweden. Design: qualitative study, analysed using content analysis. Data were collected via interviews. Setting: interviews were conducted at the midwives’ workplaces. One midwife was interviewed at a cafe. Participants: ten midwives, who participated voluntarily and worked in maternity health care in western Sweden. Findings: the interview data generated three main categories. (1) ‘A doula is a facilitator for the midwife’ has two subcategories, ‘In relation to the midwife’ and ‘In comparison with an interpreter’, (2) ‘Confident women giving support, ’has two subcategories, ‘Personal characteristics and attitudes’ and ‘Good support,’ (3) ‘Doulas cover shortcomings’ has two subcategories, ‘In relation to maternity care’ and ‘In relation to ethnicity’. Key conclusion and implications for practice: The findings of this study show that midwives experience that doulas are a facilitator for them. Doulas provide support by enhancing the degree of peace and security and improving communication with the women in childbirth. Doulas provide increased opportunities for transcultural care. They may increase childbearing women’s confidence and satisfaction, help meet the diverse needs of childbearing women and improve care quality.

  • 188.
    Akkas, Sema
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Kvalitetsegenskaper på en kravspecifikation1997Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The result from Requirements Engineering is a Requirements Specification. Characteristics of a good Requirements Specification are unambiguity, completeness, verifiability, consistency, modifiability, traceability, correctness and ranked for importance and/or stability.

    This work defines these quality attributes and answers the questions how to reach these attributes and the diffuculties which exist in this area.

    This work should be read to get an overwiew of the area Requirements Engineering and Requirements Specification.

  • 189.
    Akl, Ziad
    et al.
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden / Youth Association for Social Awareness- YASA, Lebanon.
    Akl, Mona
    Youth Association for Social Awareness- YASA, Lebanon.
    Eriksson, Charli
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Gifford, Mervyn
    School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Higher School of Public Health, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    Evaluating seat belt use in Lebanon (1997-2017)2019In: Open Public Health Journal, ISSN 1874-9445, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 127-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The use of seat belts has made a significant contribution to the reduction of road traffic casualties, and the risk inherent with not wearing seat belts in all seats of a vehicle is now well-known worldwide. The use of seat belts has a major role in reducing fatal and nonfatal injuries in all types of motor-vehicles crashes. Aim: The aim of this study is to understand the reasons behind the variation in seat belt use over the past two decades in Lebanon. It analyzes the situation and suggests recommendations to improve seat belt use in Lebanon. Design: Nine observational studies had been conducted in Lebanon during the last two decades between 1997 and 2017, and one qualitative study was performed in 2017. Results: The results show a significant variation in the use of the seat belt. When enforcement efforts are in progress, seat belt use increases. While when there are no checkpoints and the enforcement of seat belt use is almost absent, a significant fall was noticed. Discussion: The results of this study proved the failure of the Lebanese government in saving hundreds of lives just by a simple measure of enforcing seat belt law. Although experiences from various countries prove that such laws usually have a long-lasting effect on seat belt use, Lebanon failed to pursue the successful implementation of this law due to security and political problems. Conclusion: During the past two decades, Lebanon witnessed continuous fluctuations in seat belt use. Outside few short enforcement campaigns, our observations showed lack in seat belt use. Our observations of seat belt use among drivers and front seat passengers showed a significant correlation between seat belt use and the enforcement of seat belt law. The greatest national benefits from seat belt use are obtained when wearing rates are very high. This can be achieved only through a sustained enforcement campaign alongside other seat belt wearing interventions such as publicity and education. © 2019 Open Public Health Journal. All rights reserved.

  • 190.
    Akrouh Ettaghadouini, Samy
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Metamodelling of a Finite Element Analysis of a Drilling Process with Replaceable Inserts2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to create a metamodel from a drilling tool with replaceable inserts from FEA of the machining process using MATLAB and ABAQUS. This report contains research in drilling and in metamodeling using neural networks and the work from the design of the CAD, through FEA and simulations, to the metamodeling, excluding the optimization.

    The work has resulted in a framework where a base FE model of the drill with two inserts that works, but due to time issues and given high cutting speed and feed the results of the FEA and the metamodeling are not very accurate. Therefore, the optimization analysis could not be done. However, it has been shown that feed has a major influence on the inserts temperature than the cutting speed, despite the higher range of this last one.

  • 191.
    Akterhall, Joakim
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Artificiell intelligens - ANN och evolution i shooterspel2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete undersöker hur två olika nätverksarkitekturer för artificiella neurala nätverk fungerar i en testmiljö av shooter-karaktär. De två arkitekturer som undersöks är ett feedforward-nätverk samt ett elman-nätverk som tränas med hjälp av evolutionära algoritmer. Skillnaden på de två valda nätverksarkitekturerna är att det sistnämnda har ett korttidsminne.

    Resultaten visar att det i den testmiljö som använts inte är någon skillnad på de två nätverksarkitekturerna, utan de uppnår i princip samma resultat. Dock så har de beteenden som nätverken uppnått visat på att det är möjligt att använda agenter som är skapade av artificiella neurala nätverk i ett shooter-spel och att de kan generera bra resultat.

    Något som inte fokuserats på i detta arbete men som skulle vara intressant att kolla vidare på, är till exempel förändring av storleken på nätverken eller att undersöka om ett långtidsminne på det rekurrenta nätverket hade förändrat resultatet.

  • 192.
    Akterhall, Pernilla
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Procedurella Texturer: Skapande av en procedurell textur utifrån en referensbild med hjälp av en genetisk algoritm2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Då dataspel blir mer grafiskt tilltalande för var år som går innebär detta också att mer utrymme behövs för att få plats med alla bildtexturer. Detta leder till att spel som annars skulle kunnat läggas ut på exempelvis XBOX Live Marketplace är för stora för att få plats där. Genom att byta ut vanliga bildtexturer mot procedurella texturer skulle detta problem kunna undvikas då de senare tar mindre plats än de förstnämnda.

    Denna uppsats tar upp och redovisar en metod för att återskapa bildtexturer som procedurella texturer, där en genetisk algoritm används för att evolvera fram procedurella texturer med visuella likheter med referenstexturen.

  • 193.
    Aktius, Malin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Nordahl, Mats
    Department of Applied Information Technology, Göteborg University and Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Behavior-Based Model of the Hydra, Phylum Cnidaria2007In: 9th European Conference, ECAL 2007: Advances in Artificial Life, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, p. 1024-1033Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavior-based artificial systems, e.g. mobile robots, are frequently designed using (various degrees and levels of) biology as inspiration, but rarely modeled based on actual quantitative empirical data. This paper presents a data-driven behavior-based model of a simple biological organism, the hydra. Four constituent behaviors were implemented in a simulated animal, and the overall behavior organization was accomplished using a colony-style architecture (CSA). The results indicate that the CSA, using a priority-based behavioral hierarchy suggested in the literature, can be used to model behavioral properties like latency, activation threshold, habituation, and duration of the individual behaviors of the hydra. Limitations of this behavior-based approach are also discussed.

  • 194.
    Aktius, Malin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Kognitiv robotik2012In: Kognitionsvetenskap / [ed] Jens Allwood, Mikael Jensen, Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 551-560Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 195.
    Al Falahi, Kanna
    et al.
    UAE University, United Arab Emirates.
    Atif, Yacine
    UAE University, United Arab Emirates.
    Abraham, Ajith
    VSB-Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Republic.
    Models of Influence in Online Social Networks2014In: International Journal of Intelligent Systems, ISSN 0884-8173, E-ISSN 1098-111X, Vol. 2, no 29, p. 161-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online social networks gained their popularity from relationships users can build with each other. These social ties play an important role in asserting users’ behaviors in a social network. For example, a user might purchase a product that his friend recently bought. Such phenomenon is called social influence, which is used to study users’ behavior when the action of one user can affect the behavior of his neighbors in a social network. Social influence is increasingly investigated nowadays as it can help spreading messages widely, particularly in the context of marketing, to rapidly promote products and services based on social friends’ behavior in the network. This wide interest in social influence raises the need to develop models to evaluate the rate of social influence. In this paper, we discuss metrics used to measure influence probabilities. Then, we reveal means to maximize social influence by identifying and using the most influential users in a social network. Along with these contributions, we also survey existing social influence models, and classify them into an original categorization framework. Then, based on our proposed metrics, we show the results of an experimental evaluation to compare the influence power of some of the surveyed salient models used to maximize social influence.

  • 196.
    Al Falahi, Kanna
    et al.
    College of Information Technology, UAE University, United Arab Emirates.
    Harous, Saad
    College of Information Technology, UAE University, United Arab Emirates.
    Atif, Yacine
    College of Information Technology, UAE University, United Arab Emirates.
    Clustering Algorithms For Intelligent Web2016In: International Journal of Computational Complexity and Intelligent Algorithmslgorithms, ISSN 2048-4720, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting users and data in the web is an important issue as the web is changing and new information is created every day. In this paper we will discuss six different clustering algorithms that are related to the intelligent web. These algorithms will help us to identify groups of interest in the web, which is very necessary in or- der to perform certain actions on specific group such as targeted advertisement. The algorithms under consideration are: Single-Link algorithm, Average-Link algorithm, Minimum-Spanning-Tree Single-Link algorithm, K-means algorithm, ROCK algorithm and DBSCAN algorithm. These algorithms are categorized into three groups: Hierarchical, Partitional and Density-based algorithms. We will show how each algorithm works and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. We will compare these algorithms to each others and discuss their ability to handle social web data which are of large datasets and high dimensionality. Finally a case study related to using clustering in social networks will be discussed.

  • 197.
    Al Falahi, Kanna
    et al.
    UAE University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.
    Mavridis, Nikolaos
    UAE University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.
    Atif, Yacine
    UAE University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.
    Social Networks and Recommendation Systems: A World of Current and Future Synergies2012In: Computational Social Network: Tools, Perspectives and Applications / [ed] Ajith Abraham, Aboul-Ella Hassanien, Springer London, 2012, p. 445-465Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there has been a significant growth in the science of networks, as well as a big boom in social networking sites (SNS), which has arguably had a great impact on multiple aspects of everyday life. Since the beginnings of the World Wide Web, another fast-growing field has been that of recommender systems (RS), which has furthermore had a proven record of immediate financial importance, given that a well-targeted online recommendation often translates into an actual purchase. Although in their beginnings, both SNSs as well as RSs had largely separate paths as well as communities of researchers dealing with them, recently the almost immediate synergies arising from bringing the two together have started to become apparent in a number of real-world systems. However, this is just the beginning; multiple potentially beneficial mutual synergies remain to be explored. In this chapter, after introducing the two fields, we will provide a survey of their existing interaction, as well as a forward-looking view on their potential future.

  • 198.
    Al Mamun, Abdullah
    et al.
    Division of Software Engineering Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berger, Christian
    Division of Software Engineering Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Explicating, Understanding and Managing Technical Debt from Self-Driving Miniature Car Projects2014In: Proceedings 2014 6th IEEE International Workshop on Managing Technical Debt: MTD 2014, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 11-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technical debt refers to various weaknesses in the design or implementation of a system resulting from trade-offs during software development usually for a quick release. Accumulating such debt over time without reducing it can seriously hamper the reusability and maintainability of the software. The aim of this study is to understand the state of the technical debt in the development of self-driving miniature cars so that proper actions can be planned to reduce the debt to have more reusable and maintainable software. A case study on a selected feature from two self-driving miniature car development projects is performed to assess the technical debt. Additionally, an interview study is conducted involving the developers to relate the findings of the case study with the possible root causes. The result of the study indicates that "the lack of knowledge" is not the primary reason for the accumulation of technical debt from the selected code smells. The root causes are rather in factors like time pressure followed by issues related to software/hardware integration and incomplete refactoring as well as reuse of legacy, third party, or open source code.

  • 199.
    Al Mamun, Md Abdullah
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berger, Christian
    Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hansson, Jörgen
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Effects of measurements on correlations of software code metrics2019In: Journal of Empirical Software Engineering, ISSN 1382-3256, E-ISSN 1573-7616, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 2764-2818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context

    Software metrics play a significant role in many areas in the life-cycle of software including forecasting defects and foretelling stories regarding maintenance, cost, etc. through predictive analysis. Many studies have found code metrics correlated to each other at such a high level that such correlated code metrics are considered redundant, which implies it is enough to keep track of a single metric from a list of highly correlated metrics.

    Objective

    Software is developed incrementally over a period. Traditionally, code metrics are measured cumulatively as cumulative sum or running sum. When a code metric is measured based on the values from individual revisions or commits without consolidating values from past revisions, indicating the natural development of software, this study identifies such a type of measure as organic. Density and average are two other ways of measuring metrics. This empirical study focuses on whether measurement types influence correlations of code metrics.

    Method

    To investigate the objective, this empirical study has collected 24 code metrics classified into four categories, according to the measurement types of the metrics, from 11,874 software revisions (i.e., commits) of 21 open source projects from eight well-known organizations. Kendall’s τ -B is used for computing correlations. To determine whether there is a significant difference between cumulative and organic metrics, Mann-Whitney U test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, and paired-samples sign test are performed.

    Results

    The cumulative metrics are found to be highly correlated to each other with an average coefficient of 0.79. For corresponding organic metrics, it is 0.49. When individual correlation coefficients between these two measure types are compared, correlations between organic metrics are found to be significantly lower (with p <0.01) than cumulative metrics. Our results indicate that the cumulative nature of metrics makes them highly correlated, implying cumulative measurement is a major source of collinearity between cumulative metrics. Another interesting observation is that correlations between metrics from different categories are weak.

    Conclusions

    Results of this study reveal that measurement types may have a significant impact on the correlations of code metrics and that transforming metrics into a different type can give us metrics with low collinearity. These findings provide us a simple understanding how feature transformation to a different measurement type can produce new non-collinear input features for predictive models.

  • 200.
    Al Shobky, Mohamed
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Utilization of cancer-specific genome-scale metabolic models in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas for biomarkers discovery and patient stratification2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas initiates in the exocrine part of the pancreatic tissue and represents over 90% of all the pancreatic cancers. Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas are extremely aggressive and are one of the most lethal malignant neoplasms. The five-year relative survival is currently less than 8% of the patients. The main reason behind such a low survival rate is that most of the cases are diagnosed at a very late stage. Although substantial advancement in pancreatic cancer research has been done, there has not been any remarkable significance in the mortality to incidence ratio. This is mainly a result of the scarce of early diagnostic characteristic symptoms and reliable biomarkers besides the unresponsiveness to the treatments. In this study, transcriptomics and proteomics data were used for the construction of a genome-scale metabolic model that was used in the detection of altered metabolic pathways, genes and metabolites using gene set analysis and reporter metabolites analysis. As a result, altered metabolic pathways in PDAC tumours were detected, including the lipid metabolism-related pathways as well as carbohydrate metabolism, in addition to nucleotide metabolism, which are considered as potential candidates for diagnostic biomarkers. Moreover, classification of the filtered DIRAC tightly regulated network genes, based on their prognostic values from the pathology atlas, detected two groups of PDAC patients that have significantly different survival outcome. The differential expression analysis of the two groups showed that six of the eight genes used in clustering were showing significantly altered expression, which suggests their importance in PDAC patient stratification. As a conclusion, this study shows the valuable outcome of the GEM reconstructions and other systems-level analyses for elucidating the underlying altered metabolic mechanisms of PDAC. Such analyses results should provide more insights into the biomarker discovery and developing of potential treatments.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-08-01 19:28
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