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  • 151.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Working with Educational Games: Fundamental guidelines for developers and educators2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This short guide to using and developing games for use in classrooms was written during the European Union Interreg IV A funded project Scandinavian Game Developers. Scandinavian Game Developers is a collaboration between researchers (the University of Skövde), educators (Århus Social- og Sundhedsskole), and developers (Arsenalet and The Ranch Game Incubator), and this guide is an abridged overview of some of the important conclusions our group has reached during our work in the project. Whether you’re a game developer, teacher, or principal interested in educational video games, we hope that this guide will serve as a good tool for you to improve your understanding of what educational games are. As an educator, you’ll get some insight into what a game might bring to a classroom environment as well as the different challenges you might face when trying to use games in your regular teaching environment. For developers, we’ve put together some guidelines that will hopefully make your first educational game projects flow smoother and properly prepare you for some of the more common challenges that many educational game projects encounter.

  • 152.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Educational Games in Practice: The Challenges Involved in Conducting a Game-Based Curriculum2016In: Electronic Journal of e-Learning, ISSN 1479-4403, E-ISSN 1479-4403, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 122-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The task of integrating games into an educational setting is a demanding one, and integrating games as a harmonious part of a bigger ecosystem of learning requires teachers to orchestrate a myriad of complex organizational resources. Historically, research on digital game‑based learning has focused heavily on the coupling between game designs, previously established learning principles, student engagement, and learning outcomes much to the expense of understanding how games function in their int ended educational contexts and how they impact the working processes of teachers. Given the significant investments of time and resources teachers need to make in order to conduct game‑based learning activities, the foci of past research is problematic as it obfuscates some of the pressing realities that highly affect games viability as tools for teaching and learning. This paper aims to highlight the demands that the implementation and use of an educational game in formal educational settings puts on te achers working processes and skillsets. The paper is based on two case studies in which a researcher collaborated with K‑12 teachers to use MinecraftEdu (TeacherGaming LLC, 2012) as a classroom activity over a five‑month long period. By documenting bot h the working processes involved in implementing the game into the classroom environment, as well as the execution of the actual game‑based classroom activities, the studies identified a wide variety roles that a teacher needs to take on if they are to ma ke games a central part of a school curriculum. Ultimately, the paper highlights the importance of understanding the constraints under which teachers work, and argues that a better understanding of the contexts in which games are to be used, and the roles teachers play during game‑based learning scenarios, is a necessary foundation for improving games viability as educational tools. 

  • 153.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Teachers’ Many Roles in Game-Based Learning Projects2015In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Games Based Learning / [ed] Robin Munkvold and Line Kolås, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2015, p. 359-367Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines what roles teachers need to take on when attempting to integrate and use computer games in their educational environments. The task of integrating games into an educational setting is a demanding one, and integrating games as a harmonious part of a bigger ecosystem of learning requires teachers to orchestrate a myriad of complex organizational resources. Historically, the field of digital game-based learning research has had a tendency to focus heavily on the coupling between game designs, previously established learning principles, student engagement, and learning outcomes much to the expense of understanding how games impact the working processes of teachers. Given the significant investments of time and resources teachers need to make in order to conduct game-based learning activities, this research gap is problematic. Teachers needs to have a certain amount of gaming literacy in order to actively supervise, support, and guide their students before, during, and after the play sessions. The teacher also needs to be proficient in setting up play sessions in a limited amount of preparation time and tackle eventual technical difficulties. Beyond these demands, teachers also need to serve as a conduit between the learning context and the play context, and need to know how to continuously contextualize game activities and the content that students experience in the subject matter being taught.

    This paper describes the outcomes of two five month long studies where Swedish K-12 teachers were introduced to using MinecraftEdu as a classroom activity. The study identifies the different roles that a teacher takes on throughout game-based learning processes, such as technical administrator, game administrator, game tutor, subject matter expert, lecturer, debriefer, and classroom supervisor. Ultimately, the paper highlights the importance of understanding the constraints under which teachers work, and argues that a better understanding of the contexts in which games are to be used, and the roles teachers play during game-based learning scenarios, is a necessary foundation for improving games’ viability as educational tools.

  • 154.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Dahlin, Carl-Johan
    ius information AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Game-Based Approach to Support Social Presence and Awareness in Distributed Project-Based Learning2014In: International Journal of Games Based Learning, ISSN 2155-6849, E-ISSN 2155-6857, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important factor for success in project-based learning (PBL) is that the involved project groups establish an atmosphere of social interaction in their working environment. In PBL-scenarios situated in distributed environments, most of a group's work-processes are mediated through the use of production-focused tools that are unconcerned with the important informal and social aspects of a project. On the other hand, there are plenty of tools and platforms that focus on doing the opposite and mainly support informal bonding (e.g., Facebook), but these types of environments can be obtrusive and contain distractions that can be detrimental to a group's productivity and are thus often excluded from working environments. The aim of this paper is to examine how a game-based multi-user environment (MUVE) can be designed to support project-based learning by bridging the gap between productivity-focused and social software. To explore this, the authors developed a game-based MUVE which was evaluated in a PBL-scenario. The result of the study revealed several crucial design elements that are needed to make such a MUVE work effectively, and that the acceptance towards game-based MUVEs is high, even with a rudimentary execution.

  • 155.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The Practicalities of Educational Games: Challenges of taking games into formal educational settings2014In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games 2014) / [ed] Vanessa Camilleri, Alexiei Dingli & Matthew Montebello, University of Malta: IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 82-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of balancing educational purpose and engaging gameplay mechanics through appropriate design decisions has frequently been discussed in learning game literature. The discussion has primarily focused on highlighting connections between game design principles and learning principles and making guidelines for achieving engaging learning scenarios through game mechanics tailored to specific subject matters. Play, and the learning derived from it, is thus often studied as a phenomenon of the two disparate forces of education and gameplay colliding inside a closed system. The complexity of designing games for educational purposes is subsequently also seen as a product of the dichotomies between these two forces. However, the discussions on the design of learning games and their potential as learning tools seldom take the practicalities of formal educational environments into consideration. In this paper, learning game design principles are investigated alongside developers’ and educators’ working practices. In our analysis we identify and examine a set of issues that complicate learning game design and development. The primary conclusion of this research is that the contexts in which learning games are used significantly alter the way they can be played by introducing constraints as well as facilitating conditions to the play sessions. The paper concludes with an argument for a shift of attention from the product centric view of today to a view that takes pedagogical contexts and organizational values into better account.

  • 156.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Hellkvist, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    What Empirically Based Research Tells Us About Game Development2019In: The Computer Games Journal, E-ISSN 2052-773X, Vol. 8, no 3-4, p. 179-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews empirically grounded research on practices in game development with the intent to give a comprehensive overview of contemporary development practices used in the video game industry. While there are many intangible elements that inform game development processes, this review specifically covers the more immediate practical challenges. The review covers a total of 48 papers published between 2006 and 2016, which were all subjected to thematic analysis by three reviewers. The results of the review show that an almost universal characteristic of game development is that it is almost impossible to accurately plan a development project in detail, largely due to the soft requirements inherent in game production which emerge mid-process during development projects, during when testing is coupled with continuous ideation and refinement. Practicing game developers have created their own frameworks that accommodate for this lack of planning. They include flat hierarchies, democratic decision-making, creative autonomy, and informal communication, which are designed to create an environment that maintains creativity and openness to product changes long into the production process. These frameworks vary significantly between studios and often between individual projects. This review also shows that the term ‘Agile’, while often used by both researchers and developers to characterize the process of game development, is not an apt descriptor of how game developers actually work. Agile is used as shorthand for unstructured and flexible development, rather than serving as a descriptor of a definable or unified work method. Finally, as companies develop more complicated hierarchies of stakeholders and staff, the desired flexibility and autonomy of game development becomes increasingly complicated to maintain, and often necessitates more formalized management processes and company structures. In these cases, inherent tensions of game development become more pronounced, and continuous creativity is hard to maintain due to a growing need to formalize processes.

  • 157.
    Berg, Markus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Privat molnlagring i arbetet: En fallstudie om hur ett IT-företaghanterar att anställda använder privatmolnlagring för arbetsrelateradinformation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a case study was made on one company that is working with IT. The study was made to see how an IT company mitigates and handles the problem that employees use their private cloud storage to store work related information. A survey was sent to three different departments at the company to examine what employees think about private cloud storage and work related information and how and if it differs between different departments. One interview was also made with one informant from the same company to compare with the results from the survey. A second interview with another company was also made to validate the result from the first interview.The results from the survey showed that employees do store or have stored work related information in their private cloud storage, despite that the company policies forbid it. One of the departments that the survey was sent to was the information security team. It can be assumed that employees that work with information security have better understanding about security regarding information and how it should be stored. Despite that did the results show that the information security team was the department that used private cloud storage the most, compared to the other departments. The results from the interviews shows that the companies at least have policies on how and where the employees are allowed to store work related information. One company in particular works really hard and continuously to educate and enlighten its employees to take great care when dealing with work related information.

  • 158.
    Bergdahl, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Användarens önskade upplevelse vid behandling av social fobi med virtual reality2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Social fobi är en ångeststörning som i stor utsträckning påverkar livet hos den som är diagnostiserad. Kärnan i social fobi ligger i rädslan att bli granskad och riskera att göra bort sig eller bli förlöjligad. Den behandlingsmetod som visats vara mest effektiv i behandling mot social fobi är kognitiv beteendeterapi (KBT). Det är en tidsbegränsad och nutidsorienterad psykoterapi där patienten lär sig både kognitiva och beteenderelaterade färdigheter som behövs för att denne adaptivt ska kunna fungera i både inter- och intrapersonella världar. I takt med att teknologin utvecklas blir det möjligt att flytta terapin till en virtuell miljö, där patienten kan exponeras för de stimuli som de anser vara ångestframkallande. Denna behandingsform kallas för Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) och tar terorier inom KBT och förflyttar dem till en miljö i virtual reality. User experience-mål beskriver den önskade upplevelsen hos användaren när denne interagerar med interaktiva system. UX-mål delas upp i pragmatiska och hedoniska aspekter. Resultatet av studien blev två pragmatiska och två hedoniska UX-mål som beskriver den önskade upplevelsen hos användaren när denne behandlas med VRET mot social fobi. De framtagna målen visar att känslor av kontroll, realism, belöningar och utmaningar är det som användarna anser vara de viktigaste aspekterna när en mjukvara för behandling av social fobi ska designas.

  • 159.
    Berger, Jesper B.
    et al.
    University of Siegen, Siegen, Germany.
    Rose, Jeremy
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark / Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Nine Challenges for e-Government Action Researchers2015In: International Journal of Electronic Government Research, ISSN 1548-3886, E-ISSN 1548-3894, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 57-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Action research is widespread in many of the background disciplines that underpin the e-Government field andis beginning to take root as a legitimate e-Government research method. Canonical Action Research (CAR)is the most widely used form of action research; however it relies on premises that can be problematic in thee-Government context. This article details some of those underlying assumptions, and shows the difficulties that result when applied to a relatively typical e-Government case study: the implementation of an advanced email system in Danish public administration. The empirical experience calls many of the standard premises into question, and these are categorised. The authors summarize the resulting experience as nine challenges for action researchers working in the e-Government field, and investigate some possible responses.

  • 160.
    Bergfeldt, Ellinor
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. ellinor.bergfeldt@gmail.com.
    Bikinirustning för män?: En studie av normöverskridande klädsel för manliga och kvinnliga spelkaraktärer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete fokuserar på de normer som förekommer gällande mäns och kvinnors klädsel i spel. Hur upplevs normöverskridande klädsel, och hur styr normer upplevelsen av klädseln baserad på karaktärens könstillhörighet? Resultaten av undersökningen visade att könsöverskridande klädsel upplevdes olika beroende på om den bars av en manlig eller kvinnlig karaktär. När den kvinnliga karaktären bar könsöverskridande klädsel identifierade de allra flesta att den var just könsöverskridande. Trots detta var det ingen som upplevde att klädslarna inte passade på kvinnan. När det däremot gällde de könsöverskridande klädslarna för den manliga karaktären var det få som ansåg att klädseln passade på mannen, den kunde även ses som humoristisk.

  • 161.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Molly
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johansson, Björn J.E.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Community resilience towards disruptions in the payment system2019In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management / [ed] Z Franco, J.J. González, J. H. Canós, Valencia, Spain: ISCRAM, 2019, Vol. 16, p. 1070-1076Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study where nine Swedish citizens were interviewed about their concerns and expectations, from a customer perspective, in relation to a 10 day disruption in the payment system. The purpose of the study was to understand the customer’s perspective in order to provide input to the development of a simulation environment. This simulation environment aims at allowing different stakeholders to experience how a disruption in the payment system affects the local community and thereby create understanding of how resilience is built and affected. The research questions were: What do customers expect to get access to? When? What are customers prepared for? How does this differ among different customer groups? The results indicate some understanding of how such a crisis affects the local community and what the informants expects to happen. The respondents represented a diversity of socio-economic backgrounds from rural and urban parts of the municipality.

  • 162.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Linköping University.
    Using a mixed-methods assessment approach in a gaming-simulation environment to increase resilience2018In: Proceedings of the 36th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE 2018), ACM Digital Library, 2018, p. 1-4, article id 20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructures for fuel, food, transport and the payment system become inceasingly entangled. Disruptions in the payment system can quickly lead to cascading effects and even the responses of actors in the various sectors are interrelated, which can cause escalation if the collaborative responses are not well-aligned. Our contribution to the track of Human Factors and simulation discusses how gaming-simulation can be used as a training environment where groups of practitioners can learn to develop in-depth understanding of system behaviour (i.e. cascading effects of disruptions) and learn how to develop collaborative resilience across many different critical infrastructures. More specifically, our paper focuses on the development and application of a mixed-methods assessment approach in the simulation-game. The assessment method captures qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of resilience and team-work. It can be used to assess the value of our simulation-game and to increase insight in what collective resilience actually implies.

  • 163.
    Berglund, Linus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Optimeringsstrategier för en sökalgoritm i javascript2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det blir allt vanligare med att använda webbläsare som plattform för applikationer istället för de konventionella som måste installeras lokalt. Frågan är hur pass bra JavaScript står sig när det kommer till intensiva och tunga algoritmer såsom sökalgoritmer för spel. Finns det optimeringar som kan förbättra tidsåtgången för sökalgoritmer så att användaren i slutändan inte tröttnar på att det tar för lång tid? Med hjälp av ett antal tekniker såsom Typed Arrays försöker det här arbetet påvisa huruvida Typed Arrays kan användas som optimeringsstrategi för en applikation handskriven i JavaScript för att sänka tidsåtgången.

    Detta arbete syftar till att utvärdera hur användbart av optimeringsstrategier såsom Typed Arrays påverkar tidsåtgången för en förutbestämd sökväg. Flera versioner av en applikation implementeras för att se vilken optimering som är mest lämpad och utvärderas sedermera genom prestandamätning. Resultatet visar att ingen av de valda optimeringsstrategierna gav någon nämnvärd förbättring utan var till vissa delar en försämring jämfört med referensmätningen.

  • 164.
    Bergmark, Allis
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Kvinnliga spelare och deras uppfattning och val av kvinnliga karaktärer med bred representation: Kroppsform, ras (hudfärg) och ålder2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning har fokuserat på kvinnliga spelare och deras uppfattning och val av kvinnliga spelkaraktärer då representationen av kvinnliga karaktärer i spel är mindre varierad än den av manliga. Målet med undersökningen var att undersöka vilken av de fyra karaktärerna i undersökningen de valde baserat på utseende, och spelklass, samt ifall de kände sig representerade av någon av karaktärerna och hur de motiverade sina val. Detta för att undersöka vad av utseende och spelklass som väger tyngst hos kvinnliga spelare och, ifall utseende väger tyngre; vilka designval de anser mest viktiga hos karaktären. Resultaten av undersökningen tyder på att spelklass är viktigare vid val av karaktär men att det även finns en efterfrågan gällande en bredare representation av kvinnliga spelkaraktärer.

  • 165.
    Bergqvist, Emil
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Auditory displays: A study in effectiveness between binaural and stereo audio to support interface navigation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses if the change of auditory feedback can improve the effectiveness of performance in the interaction with a non-visual system, or with a system used by individuals with visual impairment. Two prototypes were developed, one with binaural audio and the other with stereo audio. The interaction was evaluated in an experiment where 22 participants, divided into two groups, performed a number of interaction tasks. A post-interview were conducted together with the experiment. The result of the experiment displayed that there were no great difference between binaural audio and stereo regarding the speed and accuracy of the interaction. The post-interviews displayed interesting differences in the way participants visualized the virtual environment that affected the interaction. This opened up interesting questions for future studies.

  • 166.
    Bergqvist, Emil
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Spatial orientation & imagery: What are the gender differences in spatial orientation and mental imaging when navigating a virtual environment with only auditory cues?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis analyses the gender differences in spatial orientation and mental imagery when navigating a virtual environment with only auditory cues. A prototype was developed for an iPod Touch device to evaluate possible gender difference in performance of orientation. A sketch map task was conducted to externalize the participants’ mental representation they achieved from the environment. Questionnaires were used to collect data on previous video game experience, spatial orientation self-assessment and spatial anxiety. A post-interview was conducted to gather qualitative information from the participants on how they experienced the experiment and to collect some background about them. In total, 30 participants (15 females, 15 males) with tertiary education participated in the experiment. The result indicates that there are gender differences in time to complete the tasks in the virtual environment. In the sketch map task, there were no gender differences in how well they sketch and externalize their mental representation of the environment. The post-interview showed tendencies that there are possible gender differences in vividness of mental imagery.

  • 167.
    Bergström, Anton
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Novelty Search och krav inom evolutionära algoritmer: En jämförelse av FINS och PMOEA för att generera dungeon nivåer med krav2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Evolutionära algoritmer har visat sig vara effektiva för att utveckla spelnivåer. Dock finns fortfarande ett behov av nivåer som både uppfyller de krav som spelen har, samt att nivåerna som skapas ska vara så olika som möjligt för att uppmuntra upprepade spelomgångar. För att åstadkomma detta kan man använda Novelty Search. Dock saknar Novelty Search funktioner som gör att populationen vill uppfylla de krav som nivåerna ska ha. Arbetet fokuserar därför på att jämföra två Novelty Search baserade algoritmer som båda uppmuntrar kravuppfyllning: Feasible Infeasible Novelty Search (FINS) och Pareto based Multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (PMOEA) med två mål: krav och Novelty Search.

    Studien jämför algoritmerna utifrån tre värden: hur stor andel av populationen som följer de ställda kraven, hur bra dessa individer är på att lösa ett nivårelaterat problem samt diversiteten bland dessa individer. Utöver PMOEA och FINS implementeras även en Novelty Search algoritm och en traditionell evolutionär algoritm. Tre experiment genomförs där nivåernas storlek och antalet krav varierade.

    Resultatet visar att PMOEA var bättre på att skapa fler individer som följde alla kraven och att dessa individer överlag var bättre på att optimera lösningar än vanlig Novelty Search och FINS. Dock hade FINS högre diversitet bland individerna än alla algoritmerna som testades. Studiens svaghet är att resultatet är subjektivt till algoritmernas uppsättning i artefakten, som sådan borde framtida arbeten fokusera på att utforska nya uppsättningar för att generalisera resultatet.

  • 168.
    Bergström, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thesis Proposal: A Method for Information Classification2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the highly digitalized world in which we live today, information and information systems have become key assets to organizations.  These assets need to be managed properly because it is difficult to safeguard assets that an organization does not know exist and does not know the value they offer. In an Information Security Management System (ISMS), asset management is an important activity as it aims at identifying, assigning ownership and adding protection to information assets. Within asset management, one activity is information classification that has the objective to ensure that information receives an appropriate level of protection in accordance with its importance to the organization. In practice, this is usually done using a classification scheme, and the result is handled as input to the risk analysis. Information classification is a well-known practice for all kind of organizations, both in the private and public sector, and is included in different variants in standards such as ISO/IEC 27002, COBIT and NIST-SP800.

    However, information classification has received little attention from academia, and many organizations are struggling with the implementation. Little is known about the reasons behind why it is problematic, and how to address such issues. Furthermore, the existing methods, described in, e.g., standards do not provide a coherent and systematic approach to information classification. The short descriptions in standards, and literature alike, leave out important aspects needed for many to adopt any kind of information classification. For instance, there is a lack of detailed descriptions regarding (1) overview of procedures, and concepts, (2) which roles are involved in the classification, and how they interact, (3) how to tailor the method for different situations and (4) a framework that structures and guides the classification. If information classification is not implemented in an organization, the organization might not know what information they possess, what the value of the information is, but even if it is implemented, an unclear approach can lead to information being under or overvalued, which, in turn, lead to under or overprotected information.

    This thesis aims to increase the applicability of information classification by devising a method for information classification in ISMS that draws from established standards and practice. In order to address this aim, a Design Science Research (DSR) study has been performed in five cycles. The contributions so far include an identification of issues and enablers for information classification and propose a component-based method for information classification. Furthermore, eighth design principles underpinning an information classification method are presented. Additionally, an outline for further research is provided, where the objectives are to further develop the method by addressing the context around information classification (the risk analysis and security controls), and by adding usage views to the method. Finally, a security declaration as an addition to the information classification method is outlined as a complement for tying security controls to the information classification scheme. 

  • 169.
    Bergström, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Carlén, Urban
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lennerholt, Christian
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Certifications in Higher Education - Friend or Foe?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the uncritical approach among teachers and students of how certifications are used and applied within higher education. This paper offers a clearer image of how to use certification in a learning environment that support student learning and further developing the academia as a learning organisation.  In the last decade universities worldwide has started to adopt certifications offered by multinational corporations, such as Cisco and Microsoft. For example, Cisco’s curriculum is taught in over 10.000 academies such as universities to more than 1.000.000 students currently, which reveals the huge influences those certifications have for the organisation of courses and examination of academic skills.  Academy and industry needs to collaborate to offer students relevant tools and knowledge, but the lack of uncritical views based on scientific values and proven experience challenges teachers to explicit what knowledge have to be taught within academia to reach further academic goals.  The methods used are initially a literature study to identify positive aspects and challenges with integrated certifications. Based on these results, we have performed interviews with students, teachers and certified instructors with different backgrounds.  Literature describing information and communications technology (ICT) certifications mainly refer to positive aspects such as meeting job market needs, standardisation of courses, and decreased time for course development. Challenges identified raise several questions and call for further investigation. Among challenges identified were companies practically deciding examination criteria, student’s recall learnt material rather than understanding concepts, and the usage of non-academic material.  Interviews reveal that students are aware of many challenges, but still the benefits of achieving a certification outweighs. For instance, students rather accept a course with out-dated material and company decided examination criteria that result in a certification than taking a course based on research and examinations that foster creativity through reflection, analysing skills with no certification.  From a teacher and instructor perspective, the interviews reveal that there is awareness about the challenges of using certifications in higher education. One of the pedagogical issues we would like to present is how to create a learning environment with embedded certification in a course rather than basing courses on certifications alone.  This paper also open up for a discussion on how these results affect other areas than the ICT domain, but also on how the challenges can be tackled from a higher education perspective that rethink the academia as a learning organisation. 

  • 170.
    Bergström, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Carlén, Urban
    University West.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    How to Include Female Students in Technical Computer Science Study Programs2016In: NU2016 Högskolan i samhället - samhället i högskolan, 2016, article id BT30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines why female students do not register in computer sciencerelated programs after submitting their application. In design for inclusion in academic culture, pedagogical implications are based on empirical findings that intend to foster a more heterogeneous group, which can be introduced to promote student’s interest in technology.

  • 171.
    Bergström, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Holgersson, Jesper
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Kävrestad, Joakim
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Larsson, Sanna
    University of Skövde.
    Lindgren, Frida
    University of Skövde.
    Mandl, Paul
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Persson, Louise
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Svensson, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Erfarenheter, lärdomar och effekter med gränsöverskridande arbete för utbytesstudier2018In: NU2018 - Det akademiska lärarskapet, 2018, article id 685Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Högskolan i Skövdes (HS) nuvarande utvecklingsplan beskrivs att samtliga utbildningsprogram som ges vid lärosätet skall erbjuda möjligheter till studier utomlands. Som en konsekvens har en strategisk satsning för att stimulera en ökad mobilitet vid HS initierats genom att Institutionen för informationsteknologi (IIT) tillsammans med verksamhetsstödet har deltagit i ett UHR-projekt med fokus på vägledningsprocessen i samband med mobilitet.

    Projektet har pågått under 18 månader och ett 10-tal deltagare som representerar de flesta roller som är involverade i internationaliseringsarbetet på IIT och verksamhetsstödet har ingått. Projektet har bedrivits främst som en serie av workshoppar där parallell datainsamling har skett med hjälp av intervjuer och enkätstudier.

    I detta bidrag vill vi visa några av de mål som projektet fokuserat på samt syftet med dessa. Projektet har haft följande mål:

    Identifiera minst tre partnerlärosäten som passar varje utbildningsprogram - Målet syftar till att kartlägga både existerande och nya partnerlärosäte för att på så sätt sänka tröskeln för studenter som är intresserade av utbyte, men som har svårt att hitta lämpliga alternativ.

    Tydliggöra roll- och ansvarsfördelning i mobilitetsprocessen - Detta mål syftar till att utforma processbeskrivningar för att tydliggöra roll- och ansvarsfördelning kring utresandeprocessen för programansvarig, ämnesföreträdare, internationell koordinator, studie- och karriärvägledaren, studenten och partnerlärosätet. Även kommunikationsaspekter och studentperspektiv beaktas i detta mål.

    Skapa adekvat vägledning och informationsinsatser gentemot studenterna - Syftet med målet är att utveckla, strukturera och systematisera informationsvägar och kommunikation mellan vägledning, programansvarig, partnerlärosäte och studenter.

    Identifiera och utvärdera nyckelfaktorerna för att förbättra stödet till studenterna, undanröja hinder i mobilitetsprocessen samt underlätta programansvarigas och studie- och karriärvägledarnas arbete med utresande studenter - Målet är att identifiera och utvärdera nyckelfaktorer som hindrar mobilitet som kan spridas internt på HS samt externt för att i förlängningen öka mobiliteten bland Sveriges studenter.

    Se till att samtliga kandidatprogram på IIT har en termin avsatt för utlandsstudier och undanröja de hinder som finns i befintliga programstrukturer - Syftet är att göra det enklare för studenter att under sin ordinarie studietid genomföra utbytesstudier utan att deras studier vid HS blir drabbade av förkunskapsstrukturer som hindrar fortsatta studier vid hemkomst.

    I studien inkludera de studenter som har varit intresserade eller sökt utbytesstudier men som inte kommit iväg på utbyte - Syftet är att skapa en god översikt över vilka skäl denna studentkategori har haft för att avstå utbytesstudier för att på så vis kunna förbättra existerande processer för utbytesstudier och därmed minimera risken att intresserade studenter väljer att avstå från utbytesstudier.

    Vid projektets avslut analyserades projektets direkta och indirekta interorganisatoriska effekter tillsammans med aktuell statistik för de studenter som under 2017 nominerats för utbytesstudier. En uppenbar effekt av projektets arbete är att antalet studenter som 2017 vid IIT nominerats för utbytesstudier ökat kraftigt. Likaså observeras ökade kunskaper om processen kring utbytesstudier och ett förbättrat studentperspektiv och bättre kunskaper om studenternas upplevelse av nomineringsprocessen.

    Under presentation vill vi visa upp fler detaljer från vår analys samt hur vi planerar att arbeta vidare med de resultat vi fått fram i projektet.

  • 172.
    Bergström, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundgren, Martin
    Department of Computer Science, Information Systems, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Ericson, Åsa M.
    Department of Computer Science, Information Systems, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Revisiting information security risk management challenges: a practice perspective2019In: Information and Computer Security, E-ISSN 2056-4961, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 358-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The study aims to revisit six previously defined challenges in information security risk management to provide insights into new challenges based on current practices. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on an empirical study consisting of in-depth interviews with representatives from public sector organisations. The data were analysed by applying a practice-based view, i.e. the lens of knowing (or knowings). The results were validated by an expert panel. Findings: Managerial and organisational concerns that go beyond a technical perspective have been found, which affect the ongoing social build-up of knowledge in everyday information security work. Research limitations/implications: The study has delimitation as it consists of data from four public sector organisations, i.e. statistical analyses have not been in focus, while implying a better understanding of what and why certain actions are practised in their security work. Practical implications: The new challenges that have been identified offer a refined set of actionable advice to practitioners, which, for example, can support cost-efficient decisions and avoid unnecessary security trade-offs. Originality/value: Information security is increasingly relevant for organisations, yet little is still known about how related risks are handled in practice. Recent studies have indicated a gap between the espoused and the actual actions. Insights from actual, situated enactment of practice can advise on process adaption and suggest more fit approaches. 

  • 173.
    Bergström, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Pehrsson, Helen
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Performance Assessments in Computer Science - An example of student perceptions2014In: Next Generation Learning Conference: Conference Summary / [ed] Erik Brunnert Walfridsson, 2014, p. 4-16Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 174.
    Bergström, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Söderström, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Reference Implementations - Usages And The Quest For A Definition2014In: EURAS Proceedings 2014: Cooperation among standardisation organisations and the scientific and academic community / [ed] Ivana Mijatovic, Kai Jakobs, Aachen: Wissenschaftsverlag Mainz , 2014, p. 17-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a systematic literature review performed to investigate if there is a prevailing definition of reference implementation in the standards community, and how reference implementations are referenced to be used within the standards community. The literature review targets all electronically available core journals and conferences in the field, and the results are classified according to a framework introduced in the paper. We found that there is one definition that focuses on conformance testing, but the results from the literature review show more uses of reference implementations such as when developing standards, when implementing them, and when developing products.

  • 175.
    Bergström, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Information Classification Enablers2015In: Foundations and Practice of Security: 8th International Symposium, FPS 2015, Clermont-Ferrand, France, October 26-28, 2015, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin Kranakis, Evangelos Bonfante, Guillaume, Cham: Springer, 2015, Vol. 9482, p. 268-276Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comprehensive systematic literature review of information classification (IC) enablers. We propose a classification based on the well-known levels of management: strategic, tactical and operational. The results reveal that a large number of enablers could be adopted to increase the applicability of IC in organizations. The results also indicate that there is not one single enabler solving the problem, but rather several enablers can influence the adoption.

  • 176.
    Bergström, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Information Classification Issues2014In: Secure IT Systems: 19th Nordic Conference, NordSec 2014, Tromsø, Norway, October 15-17, 2014, Proceedings / [ed] Karin Bernsmed & Simone Fischer-Hübner, Springer, 2014, p. 27-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an extensive systematic literature review with the aim of identifying and classifying issues in the information classification process. The classification selected uses human and organizational factors for grouping the identified issues. The results reveal that policy-related issues are most commonly described, but not necessarily the most crucial ones. Furthermore, gaps in the research field are identified in order to outline paths for further research.

  • 177.
    Bergström, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Anteryd, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Informationsklassificering och säkerhetsåtgärder2016Report (Other academic)
  • 178.
    Bergström, Karl Viktor
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Agil Regelefterlevnad: Agila tankesätt för Compliance & PCI DSS2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Regulatory compliance is an important and growing topic that requires companies to adapt to rules and regulations. All organizations that want to be active in the business market must follow and adapt to these rules regardless of company size and capital. The consequences of not following the regulations are to a large extent fines or increased transaction costs.

    This study focuses on the usefulness of agile approaches in compliance and specifically PCI DSS regulations. PCI DSS is a framework that regulates the credit card payment system used by an organization. All security involving customer data during a card payment is also included in this ruleset.

    To execute the research on how agile methods function within compliance, a qualitative research strategy has been implemented. Empirical material has been collected through interviews with the company CGI. The respondents in this inquiry work in the compliance sector and have great knowledge of the subject.

    The result of the study show that respondents view agile methods within compliance projects in a positive light. That the obstacles experienced in these projects can be alleviated with the help of agile tools such as morning meetings and structured responsibilities.

  • 179.
    Bergström, Tobias
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Agency i Förgrenande Dialogsystem: En undersökning om agency i förgrenande dialogsystem i spel2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågeställningen till den här studien undersöker hur spelare upplever agency i ett förgrenande dialogsystem med tidsbegränsade valtillfällen i jämförelse med dialogsystem utan tidsbegränsningar. I bakgrunden observeras vad agency betyder och hur begreppet används samt vad tidigare studier har lett till. Kapitlet fortsätter med att diskutera vad meningsfulla val är för något och hur en berättelse kan upplevas som trovärdig.

    För att kunna besvara studiens frågeställning skapades två olika textbaserade spel, en med tidsbegränsningar i dialogerna och en utan. För övrigt har de inga andra skillnader. Dessa användes sedan till att mäta skillnader i hur spelarna upplevde agency genom att jämföra resultatet från två olika undersökningsgrupper, en för varje version av spelet.

    Resultatet bestod av ett antal åsikter från deltagarna angående sin spelupplevelse. Skillnaderna mellan grupperna var små och mängden insamlad data var för liten för att ge något säkert resultat och frågan fick inte något pålitligt svar.  

  • 180.
    Bergwall, Niklas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Dominans och undergivenhet hos spelkaraktärer: Faktorer som påverkar uppfattningen av dominans kontra undergivenhet hos animerade spelkaraktärer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker hur man som animatör bör gå tillväga för att gestalta karaktärer med dominanta alternativt undergivna personligheter. Ett antal faktorer som förväntas förmedla dominans respektive undergivenhet identifieras i bakgrundskapitlet och används sedan som bas för att gestalta sex olika animationer där dessa faktorer kombineras på olika sätt. Dessa faktorer inkluderar kraftcentrumets placering, expansivitet i poser, samt Labans efforts. Undersökningen genomförs med hjälp av en online-enkät där respondenterna får svara på frågor om hur de tolkar karaktärerna. Resultatet indikerar att de identifierade faktorerna alla har betydelse för hur dominant kontra undergiven karaktärerna uppfattas.

  • 181.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    How a Picture Postcard Can Help You Develop a Data-Driven Analytics Culture2019In: TDWI UpsideArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 182.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Admyre, Marco
    RuleCore, Sweden.
    Strand, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Fleet Management System Based on Complex Event Processing2014In: DSS 2.0 – Supporting Decision Making with New Technologies / [ed] Gloria Phillips-Wren, Sven Carlsson, Ana Respício, Patrick Brézillon, IOS Press, 2014, p. 241-252Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 183.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Forsberg, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Stein, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Svahn, Thomas
    Advectas AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Becoming a data-driven organisation2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisations seeking competitive advantage in the age of big data often adopt the strategy of becoming data-driven. The paper describes research in progress with an organisation pursuing this strategy. Initial results from literature study and preliminary interviews are outlined, including a two layer factor model and prototype maturity model. The next research steps are also explained.

  • 184.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lennerholt, Christian
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Larsson, Peter
    Advectas AB, Sweden.
    Svahn, Thomas
    Advectas AB, Sweden.
    A Blueprint for Training Future Users of Self-Service Business Intelligence2019In: Business Intelligence Journal, ISSN 1547-2825, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 30-38Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lennerholt, Christian
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Svahn, Thomas
    Advectas AB, Malmö, Sweden.
    Larsson, Peter
    Advectas AB, Malmö, Sweden.
    13 Organizations' Attempts to Become Data-Driven2020In: International Journal of Business Intelligence Research, ISSN 1947-3591, E-ISSN 1947-3605, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Becoming a data-driven organization is a vision for several organizations. It has been frequently mentioned in the literature that data-driven organizations are likely to be more successful than organizations that mostly make decisions on gut feeling. However, few organizations make a successful shift to become data-driven, due to a number of different types of barriers. This article investigates, the initial journey to become a data-driven organization for 13 organizations. Data has been collected via documents and interviews, and then analyzed with respect to: i) how they scaled up the usage of analytics to become data-driven; ii) strategies developed; iii) barriers encountered; and iv) usage of an overall change process. The findings are that most organizations start their journey via a pilot project, take shortcuts when developing strategies, encounter previously reported top barriers, and do not use an overall change management process.

  • 186.
    Berntsson, Josefin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Engdahl, Pauline
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Machokrigare och jungfrur i nöd: Könsstereotypers påverkan på spelarpreferenser gällande romanser2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete fokuserar på de romanser som spelare kan inleda med icke-spelbara karaktärer samt vilken påverkan könsrelaterade stereotyper har på dessa. För att undersöka detta har det utvecklats ett textbaserat spel där deltagarna fick möjlighet att välja mellan karaktärer som porträtterar könsrelaterade stereotyper samt icke-stereotyper. Deltagarna intervjuades sedan skriftligt och en analys av den insamlade datan tyder på att spelare föredrar kvinnliga karaktärer som lever upp till stereotypiska ideal. För framtida arbeten skulle det vara intressant att även fråga deltagare efter deras sexuella läggning, då det i nuläget var en majoritet som inledde en romans med en kvinnlig karaktär och data således var något bristande för manliga karaktärer.

  • 187.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Federal University of Fronteira Sul.
    Game-calibrated and user-tailored remote detection of emotions: A non-intrusive, multifactorial camera-based approach for detecting stress and boredom of players in games2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Questionnaires and physiological measurements are the most common approach used to obtain data for emotion estimation in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) and games research. Both approaches interfere with the natural behavior of users, which affects any research procedure. Initiatives based on computer vision and remote extraction of user signals for emotion estimation exist, however they are limited. Experiments of such initiatives have been performed under extremely controlled situations with few game-related stimuli. Users had a passive role with limited possibilities for interaction or emotional involvement, differently than game-based emotion stimuli, where users take an active role in the process, making decisions and directly interacting with the media. Previous works also focus on predictive models based on a group perspective. As a consequence, a model is usually trained from data of several users, which in practice describes the average behavior of the group, excluding or diluting key individualities of each user. In that light, there is a lack of initiatives focusing on non-obtrusive, user-tailored emotion detection models, in particular regarding stress and boredom, within the context of games research that is based on emotion data generated from game stimuli.

    This thesis proposal presents a research that aims to fill that gap, providing the HCI and the games research community with an emotion detection process, instantiated as a software tool, which can be used to remotely study user's emotions in a non-obtrusive way within the context of games. The main knowledge contribution of this research is a novel process for emotion detection that is remote (non-contact) and constructed from a game-based, multifactorial, user-tailored calibration phase. The process relies on computer vision and remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) to read user signals, e.g. heart rate (HR) and facial actions, without physical contact during the interaction with games to perform the detection of stress/boredom levels of users. The approach is automated and uses an ordinary camera to collect information, so specialized equipment, e.g. HR sensors, are not required.

    Current results of this research show that individualities can be detected regarding facial activity, e.g. increased number of facial actions during the stressful part of games. Regarding physiological signals, findings are aligned with and reinforce previous research that indicates higher HR mean during stressful situations in a gaming context. The findings also suggest that changes in the HR during gaming sessions are a promising indicator of stress, which can be incorporated into a model aimed at emotion detection. The literature reviews, the experiments conducted so far and the planned future tasks support the idea of using a set of signals, e.g. facial activity, body movement, and HR estimations as sources of information in a multifactorial analysis for the identification of stress and boredom in games. It will produce a novel user-tailored approach for emotion detection focused on the behavioral particularities of each user instead of the average group pattern. The proposed approach will be implemented as a software tool, which can be used by researchers and practitioners for games research.

  • 188.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Game-calibrated and user-tailored remote detection of emotions: A non-intrusive, multifactorial camera-based approach for detecting stress and boredom of players in games2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Questionnaires and physiological measurements are the most common approach used to obtain data for emotion estimation in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) and games research. Both approaches interfere with the natural behavior of users. Initiatives based on computer vision and the remote extraction of user signals for emotion estimation exist, however they are limited. Experiments of such initiatives have been performed under extremely controlled situations with few game-related stimuli. Users had a passive role with limited possibilities for interaction or emotional involvement, instead of game-based emotion stimuli, where users take an active role in the process, making decisions and directly interacting with the media. Previous works also focus on predictive models based on a group perspective. As a consequence, a model is usually trained from the data of several users, which in practice describes the average behavior of the group, excluding or diluting key individualities of each user. In that light, there is a lack of initiatives focusing on non-obtrusive, user-tailored emotion detection models, in particular regarding stress and boredom, within the context of games research that is based on emotion data generated from game stimuli. This research aims to fill that gap, providing the HCI and the games research community with an emotion detection process that can be used to remotely study user's emotions in a non-obtrusive way within the context of games.

    The main knowledge contribution of this research is a novel process for emotion detection that is non-obtrusive, user-tailored and game-based. It uses remotely acquired signals, namely, heart rate (HR) and facial actions (FA), to create a user-tailored model, i.e. trained neural network, able to detect the emotional states of boredom and stress of a given subject. The process is automated and relies on computer vision and remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) to acquire user signals, so that specialized equipment, e.g. HR sensors, is not required and only an ordinary camera is needed. The approach comprises two phases: training (or calibration) and testing. In the training phase, a model is trained using a user-tailored approach, i.e. data from a given subject playing calibration games is used to create a model for that given subject. Calibration games are a novel emotion elicitation material introduced by this research. These games are carefully designed to present a difficulty level that constantly and linearly progresses over time without a pre-defined stopping point. They induce emotional states of boredom and stress, accounting for particularities at an individual level. Finally, the testing phase occurs in a game session involving a subject playing any ordinary, non-calibration game, e.g. Super Mario. During the testing phase, the subject's signals are remotely acquired and fed into the model previously trained for that particular subject. The model subsequently outputs the estimated emotional state of that given subject for that particular testing game.

    The method for emotion detection proposed in this thesis has been conceived on the basis of established theories and it has been carefully evaluated in experimental setups. Results show a statistical significance classification of emotional states with a mean accuracy of 61.6\%. Finally, this thesis presents a series of systematic evaluations conducted in order to understand the relation between psychophysiological signals and emotions. Facial behavior and physiological signals, i.e. HR, are analyzed and discussed as indicators of emotional states. This research reveals that individualities can be detected regarding facial activity, e.g. an increased number of facial actions during the stressful part of games. Regarding physiological signals, findings are aligned with and reinforce previous research that indicates higher HR mean during stressful situations in a gaming context. Results also suggest that changes in HR during gaming sessions are a promising indicator of stress. The method for the remote detection of emotions, presented in this thesis, is feasible, but does contain limitations. Nevertheless, it is a solid initiative to move away from questionnaires and physical sensors into a non-obtrusive, remote-based solution for the evaluation of user emotions.

  • 189.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, Brazil.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proposal for Non-contact Analysis of Multimodal Inputs to Measure Stress Level in Serious Games2015In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications / [ed] Per Backlund, Henrik Engström & Fotis Liarokapis, Red Hook, NY: IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 171-174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of monitoring user emotions in serious games or human-computer interaction is usually obtrusive. The work-flow is typically based on sensors that are physically attached to the user. Sometimes those sensors completely disturb the user experience, such as finger sensors that prevent the use of keyboard/mouse. This short paper presents techniques used to remotely measure different signals produced by a person, e.g. heart rate, through the use of a camera and computer vision techniques. The analysis of a combination of such signals (multimodal input) can be used in a variety of applications such as emotion assessment and measurement of cognitive stress. We present a research proposal for measurement of player’s stress level based on a non-contact analysis of multimodal user inputs. Our main contribution is a survey of commonly used methods to remotely measure user input signals related to stress assessment.

  • 190.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Variations of Facial Actions While Playing Games with Inducing Boredom and Stress2016In: 2016 8th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games), IEEE, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experiment aimed at empirically exploring the variations of facial actions (FA) during gaming sessions with induced boredom and stress. Twenty adults with different ages and gaming experiences played three games while being recorded by a video camera and monitored by a heart rate sensor. The games were carefully designed to have a linear progression from a boring to a stressful state. Self-reported answers indicate participants perceived the games as being boring at the beginning and stressful at the end. The 6 hours of recordings of all subjects were manually analyzed and FA were annotated. We annotated FA that appeared in the recordings at least twice; annotations were categorized by the period when they happened (boring/stressful part of the games) and analysed on a group and on an individual level. Group level analysis revealed that FA patterns were related to no more than 25% of the subjects. The individual level analysis revealed particular patterns for 50% of the subjects. More FA annotations were made during the stressful part of the games. We conclude that, for the context of our experiment, FA provide an unclear foundation for detection of boredom/stressful states when observed from a group level perspective, while the individual level perspective might produce more information.

  • 191.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, Brazil.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Accuracy Evaluation of Remote Photoplethysmography Estimations of Heart Rate in Gaming Sessions with Natural Behavior2018In: Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology: 14th International Conference, ACE 2017, London, UK, December 14-16, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Adrian David Cheok, Masahiko Inami, Teresa Romão, Springer, 2018, 1, p. 508-530Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote photoplethysmography (rPPG) can be used to remotely estimate heart rate (HR) of users to infer their emotional state. However natural body movement and facial actions of users significantly impact such techniques, so their reliability within contexts involving natural behavior must be checked. We present an experiment focused on the accuracy evaluation of an established rPPG technique in a gaming context. The technique was applied to estimate the HR of subjects behaving naturally in gaming sessions whose games were carefully designed to be casual-themed, similar to off-the-shelf games and have a difficulty level that linearly progresses from a boring to a stressful state. Estimations presented mean error of 2.99 bpm and Pearson correlationr = 0.43, p < 0.001, however with significant variations among subjects. Our experiment is the first to measure the accuracy of an rPPG techniqueusing boredom/stress-inducing casual games with subjects behaving naturally.

  • 192.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, Brazil.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential method for differentiating stress and boredom of players in games2018In: International Journal of Computer Games Technology, ISSN 1687-7047, E-ISSN 1687-7055, article id 8734540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Facial analysis is a promising approach to detect emotions of players unobtrusively, however approaches are commonly evaluated in contexts not related to games, or facial cues are derived from models not designed for analysis of emotions during interactions with games. We present a method for automated analysis of facial cues from videos as a potential tool for detecting stress and boredom of players behaving naturally while playing games. Computer vision is used to automatically and unobtrusively extract 7 facial features aimed to detect the activity of a set of facial muscles. Features are mainly based on the Euclidean distance of facial landmarks and do not rely on pre-dened facial expressions, training of a model or the use of facial standards. An empirical evaluation was conducted on video recordings of an experiment involving games as emotion elicitation sources. Results show statistically signicant dierences in the values of facial features during boring and stressful periods of gameplay for 5 of the 7 features. We believe our approach is more user-tailored, convenient and better suited for contexts involving games.

  • 193.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, Brazil.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Changes in heart rate and facial actions during a gaming session with provoked boredom and stress2018In: Entertainment Computing, ISSN 1875-9521, E-ISSN 1875-953X, Vol. 24, p. 10-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experiment aimed at exploring the relation between facial actions (FA), heart rate (HR) and emotional states, particularly stress and boredom, during the interaction with games. Subjects played three custom-made games with a linear and constant progression from a boring to a stressful state, without pre-defined levels, modes or stopping conditions. Such configuration gives our experiment a novel approach for the exploration of FA and HR regarding their connection to emotional states, since we can categorize information according to the induced (and theoretically known) emotional states on a user level. The HR data was divided into segments, whose HR mean was calculated and compared in periods (boring/stressful part of the games). Additionally the 6 h of recordings were manually analyzed and FA were annotated and categorized in the same periods. Findings show that variations of HR and FA on a group and on an individual level are different when comparing boring and stressful parts of the gaming sessions. This paper contributes information regarding variations of HR and FA in the context of games, which can potentially be used as input candidates to create user-tailored models for emotion detection with game-based emotion elicitation sources.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-02-01 00:01
  • 194.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    Computer Science, Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó 89802 112, Brazil.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Game-Calibrated and User-Tailored Remote Detection of Stress and Boredom in Games2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 13, p. 1-43, article id 2877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotion detection based on computer vision and remote extraction of user signals commonly rely on stimuli where users have a passive role with limited possibilities for interaction or emotional involvement, e.g., images and videos. Predictive models are also trained on a group level, which potentially excludes or dilutes key individualities of users. We present a non-obtrusive, multifactorial, user-tailored emotion detection method based on remotely estimated psychophysiological signals. A neural network learns the emotional profile of a user during the interaction with calibration games, a novel game-based emotion elicitation material designed to induce emotions while accounting for particularities of individuals. We evaluate our method in two experiments (n = 20 and n = 62) with mean classification accuracy of 61.6%, which is statistically significantly better than chance-level classification. Our approach and its evaluation present unique circumstances: our model is trained on one dataset (calibration games) and tested on another (evaluation game), while preserving the natural behavior of subjects and using remote acquisition of signals. Results of this study suggest our method is feasible and an initiative to move away from questionnaires and physical sensors into a non-obtrusive, remote-based solution for detecting emotions in a context involving more naturalistic user behavior and games.

  • 195.
    Bigestans, Elof
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Real-time Full Duplex Communication Over the Web: A performance comparison between different web technologies2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the web browser becomes an increasingly powerful tool for the average web user, with more features and capabilities being developed constantly, the necessity to determine which features perform better than others in the same area becomes more important. This thesis investigates the performance of three separate technologies used to achieve full-duplex real time communication over the web: short polling using Ajax, server-sent events and the WebSocket protocol. An experiment was conducted measuring the performance over three custom-built web applications (one per technology being tested), comparing latency and number of HTTP requests over 100 messages being sent through the application. Additionally, the latency measurements were made over three separate network conditions. The experiment results suggest the WebSocket protocol outperforms both short polling using Ajax and server-sent events by large margins, varying slightly depending on network conditions.

  • 196.
    Bigestans, Elof
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Real-Time Full Duplex Communication Over the Web: A performance comparison between different web technologies2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the web browser becomes an increasingly powerful tool for the average web user, with more features and capabilities being developed constantly, the necessity to determine which features perform better than others in the same area becomes more important. This thesis investigates the performance of three separate technologies used to achieve full-duplex real time communication over the web: short polling using Ajax, server-sent events and the WebSocket protocol. An experiment was conducted measuring the performance over three custom-built web applications (one per technology being tested), comparing latency and number of HTTP requests over 100 messages being sent through the application. Additionally, the latency measurements were made over three separate network conditions. The experiment results suggest the WebSocket protocol outperforms both short polling using Ajax and server-sent events by large margins, varying slightly depending on network conditions. 

  • 197.
    Bilberg, Dennis
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Comparing performance between react native and natively developed smartphone applications in swift: A comparative analysis and evaluation of the React Native framework2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's society, smartphones are so widely established that corporations have even changed their cooperate culture when it comes to bringing your own personal device to work. Sales graphs prove that smartphones are more established today than ever before, which creates pressure for companies big, as small to extend and provide their services from the pocket of the user in the form of a smartphone mobile application.

    This paper focuses on the development of smartphone applications. Looking into the native development way for iOS and the code fragmentation that characterizes the long and costly development in order to provide the application on the big mobile operating systems by evaluating the cross-platform solution React Native that bypasses the fragmentation. 


    The experiment presents the collected data and its solutions, with an evaluation of the React Native framework. Finally, thoughts and future work to further extend the category is presented.

  • 198.
    Bilger, Mattias
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    En jämförelse av skyddsmetoder vid en TCP SYN-Flood-attack2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur processor-, minnesanvändning och responstid påverkas vid en Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack av typen TCP SYN-Flood. För att testa detta används metoderna Baseline (utan SYN-Cookies), Mod_Evasive, Suricata samt SYN-Cookies. Delar av resultatet går att jämföra med tidigare forskning vad beträffar metoden SYN-Cookies med processoranvändning och responstid, för övriga metoder har det ej gått att hitta någon forskning som påvisar resursanvändning och responstid över tid.

    Studien kan hjälpa organisationer och myndigheter att göra ett informerat val av skydd mot en TCP SYN-Flood-attack beträffande processor-, minnesanvändning och responstid.

    Resultaten av studien visar att Mod_Evasive använder lägst processor-, minnesanvändning och har lägst responstid av skyddsmetoderna.

  • 199.
    Billgren, Isabella
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Att skrämma effektivt: En jämförelse mellan chock och spänning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har emotionen rädsla undersökts i relation till effektiviteten i skräckgenrens mest frekventa spelmoment, d.v.s. chock och spänning. Ingen tidigare forskning om skräckspel tycks ha undersökt momenten och evaluerat deras effektivitet i att skrämma spelaren. Därmed har denna studie utförts med målet att besvara hur effektiva chock respektive spänning är på att framkalla rädsla hos spelaren. Undersökningen utfördes på ett spel som utvecklades i två versioner innehållande både chock- och spänningsmoment. Version 1 börjar med chock och version 2 börjar med spänning. Dataanalysen byggde på att jämföra undersökningens kvantitativa data som samlats in i tre typer, demografisk-, puls- och skalningsdata. Resultatet visade att den klassiska designen av skräckscener, spänning före chock, inte var effektivast på att framkalla rädsla. Därpå läggs ett forskningsförslag fram i denna rapport vars syfte är att fortsätta undersöka chock och spänning, för att förhoppningsvis främja skräckgenrens utveckling inom spelmediet.

  • 200.
    Billgren, Isabella
    et al.
    University of Skövde.
    Bjarnehed, Mathilda
    University of Skövde.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Donna - inclusive game development by example2014In: Making Change: Nordic Examples of Working Towards Gender Equality in the Media / [ed] Maria Edström & Ragnhild Mølster, Göteborg: Nordicom, 2014, p. 85-87Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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