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  • 1101.
    Berg, Lars-Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Photons of the human mind: the fiction of personal identity2015In: True lies worldwide: fictionality in global contexts, Walter de Gruyter, 2015, p. 95-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1102.
    Berg, Lars-Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    På nätet trivs det fiktiva jaget2008In: Tvärsnitt, ISSN 0348-7997, no 2, p. 14-17Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 1103.
    Berg, Lars-Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Socialisationsteorins neurologiska återkomst2017In: Modern Psykologi, ISSN 2000-4087Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens hjärnforskning har öppnat dörren på vid gavel för att kunna intensivstudera hur miljön påverkar och bygger om hjärnan.

    Socialpsykologen Lars-Erik Berg vill damma av socialisationsbegreppet.

  • 1104.
    Berg, Lars-Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Socialitetens psykologi: språket som människans livsform2018 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 1105.
    Berg, Lars-Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    The social responsiveness of lunch beat2015In: Contributions from European Symbolic Interactionists: Conflict and Cooperation / [ed] Thaddeus Müller, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2015, p. 137-157Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 1106.
    Berg, Lars-Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ängen vid stranden2012In: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, no 1, p. 52-57Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    om leken i det potentiella området hos Winnicot

  • 1107.
    Berg, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Nelson, Anders
    Sektionen för Hälsa och Samhälle, Högskolan i Halmstad.
    Identitet och genus i lek med dockor och figurer i förskolan2006In: Nordisk Pedagogik, ISSN 0901-8050, E-ISSN 1504-2995, no 2, p. 125-138Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna text handlar om lek med leksaker som traditionellt varit exkluderade i svensk förskola, t.ex. Barbie och Action Man. Förskolan präglas av värden som står i motsättning till de «genusifierade» värden som förknippas med dessa och liknande leksaker (Almqvist, 1994; Fredricson, 2003). Samtidigt är förskolan en del av samhället med dess stereotypa genusrepresentationer

  • 1108.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Emergent Learning: Peer collaboration and learning in user driven environments2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is to examine how collaboration in groups of children change from a face-to-face emergent environment to a computer mediated emergent environment. To examine this, a methodology was devised in order to track individual group members‟ contributions to exercises performed by the group. Groups of five children built structures out of LEGOs and in the game Minecraft, and through the devised tracking method, data from the different exercises were juxtaposed with each other and compared in order to determine how the collaborative patterns within the groups varied depending on what exercise they were partaking in. The results of this research is that the computer based emergent system was experienced as more engaging and immersive, and that it fostered continuous discovery and problem solving throughout the game session, which wasn‟t the case in the LEGO exercise.

  • 1109.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Flow i multiplayerspel2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete syftar till att undersöka hur Csikszentmihalyis teorier kring optimala upplevelser, eller flow-upplevelser, kan appliceras på praktisk speldesign. I arbetet kombineras Csikszentmihalyis definition av begreppet flow med Jenova Chens riktlinjer för flow-uppmuntrande design i singleplayerspel för att ge underlag för framtagandet av ett brädspel i vilket applicerbarheten hos deras teorier och riktlinjer på multiplayerspel undersökts. För att teorierna och riktlinjerna effektivt skulle kunna undersökas utvecklades det tre olika versioner av brädspelet som alla innehåller olika element som, enligt Csikszentmihaly och Chen, bör alstra flow. Ett flertal spelgrupper fick spela dessa tre versioner och via enkätundersökningar och intervjuer förmedla hur de upplevde de olika versionerna, både som individuella produkter och i jämförelse med varandra. De data som erhålldes från dessa undersökningar indikerade på att nivån av kontroll spelaren har över sin spelsituation spelar en väldigt avgörande roll i hur han eller hon upplever spelaktiviteten i sin helhet.

  • 1110.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Game Development, Education & Incubation: A brief overview of Scandinavian game development, markets, education, and support structures2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This brief inventory and analysis of the state of Swedish, Danish and Norwegian game development aim to highlight past and current trends within the regions’ industries and supporting structures. In a short period of time, the situation for game developers has been severely altered as a result of the closure of big players and the rapid evolution of the marketplace. The industry in each country has been able to adapt to these changes well, and we’ve seen a dramatic industry expansion in the past couple of years as the main turbulence has subsided and new companies are given space and opportunity to establish themselves.

  • 1111.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Games in Formal Educational Settings: Obstacles for the development and use of learning games2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From the perspective of educators, games are viewed as a medium in which the younger generation both thrive and excel. Students navigate game environments with ease and regularly solve problems, engage in advanced collaborative efforts, and communicate complex concepts and strategies to one another during their private gaming sessions at home. Games invite the player to form an understanding of intricate systems and mechanics based on participation and experimentation rather than mere observation, and on these merits games are often prophesized as a medium that will significantly change the face of education as we know it. However, while teacher interest in using games is increasing, wide-spread and successful examples of games being implemented in formal educational contexts (e.g. schools and university courses) remain rare.

    This thesis aims to examine why this is the case and identifies some of the more prevalent obstacles educators and developers both face when embarking on learning game projects as users and creators. In order to examine the situation from both of these perspectives, the research takes a mixed-method approach that entails extensive literature studies coupled with several studies with both educators and developers. Interviews were conducted in order to investigate attitudes and experiences, and more direct researcher participation and case studies were used to examine the processes of implementing and developing learning games as they were carried out. The studied cases and literature have revealed obstacles that indicate that “traditional” entertainment game development is incommensurable with learning game development, and that the use of games in formal educational settings introduces heavy demands on the recipient organization’s infrastructure, culture, and working processes.

    The conclusion of this research is that learning games embody a unique mixture of utility and game experience, and the formal context which they are to be used in significantly influence the process of developing and using them. Learning games can’t be understood if they’re solely seen as a teaching utility or solely as a game experience and to make them viable both educators and developers need to change their internal processes, their own perceptions of games and teaching, as well as the way they collaborate and communicate with each other. There are also several obstacles that are outside individual institutions and developers’ control, for example the practicalities of the economic constraints that both developers and educators work under that put the sustainability of pursuing learning games for formal education as a business into question. However, the continuous incremental improvements on the infrastructure of educational institutions (e.g. availability of technology and teachers’ familiarity with technology) can likely alleviate many of the obstacles currently inhibiting the impact learning games can potentially have in formal education.

  • 1112.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Novices Vs. Experts: Game-Based Learning and the Heterogeneous Classroom Audience2015In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Games Based Learning: Nord-Trondelag University College Steinkjer Norway / [ed] Robin Munkvold and Line Kolås, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2015, p. 664-671Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how the heterogeneity of K-12 students, as game audiences, affect the way games can beused as educational tools in formal education. When discussing the application of games in educational contexts, the realitiesof the formal educational environment are seldom brought to the fore. There has been a lot of discourse and studiessurrounding the theoretical viability of games as engaging educational tools and their properties as learning environments,but the practicalities of inserting games into classroom environments are comparatively rarely the subject of game-basedlearning research. This paper presents two five month long studies using participatory observation that details the processof putting a commercial of-the-shelf game to use in two different types of formal educational K-12 environments: a computerlab and a classroom. More specifically, this paper focuses on examining how students receive and work with a well-knowncommercial off-the-shelf game when it is introduced as a tool in their ordinary curriculum work. The study revealed severalchallenges that put many of the axiomatic assumptions practitioners and scholars frequently make regarding games’ virtuesas educational tools into question. The challenges relate to students’ perceptions of games and gaming, variations instudents’ efficacy while playing, and of exclusionary behaviour during collaborations. Commercial of-the-shelf games, whilethey might be more equipped than educational titles when it comes to living up to player expectations as far as productionvalues are concerned, can instil a certain set of faulty expectations of how the game will actually be used. If the used gameis widely recognisable by the classroom audience, the important distinction between gameplay intended for active directedlearning rather than unguided leisure activity can be difficult to establish, which can make it difficult for teachers to keepstudents in a reflexive and analytic mode of play. The classroom as a game audience also puts the educator in a tricky positiondue to the wide variation of preferences and gaming literacy among students, and creating engaging play-sessions that areinclusive to everyone in classroom environments can be an immense undertaking for teachers. While the study revealsseveral issues produced by the tension between games and the heterogeneous nature of the classroom as an audience, italso highlights the importance of managing students’ expectations, framing the play activity correctly, and fosteringcollaborative work where subject matter knowledge and gaming literacy are intertwined.

  • 1113.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Out of Context: Understanding the Practicalities of Learning Games2014In: DiGRA '14 - Proceedings of the 2014 DiGRA International Conference, Snowbird, UT: DiGRA , 2014, , p. 16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the lack of studies examining the contexts in which learning games are used. Learning game research tends to focus heavily on the game artefact by examining how different types of designs foster both engagement and learning and how well the axiomatic definitions of good game design correspond to sound learning principles. While the dissection of the anatomy of games is important, there is an overabundance of studies on learning games as isolated systems at the expense of examinations of the constraints, possibilities, and requirements imposed by their real-world context of use. Learning games that are intended to work in formal settings like K-12 classrooms constitute systems that significantly differ from the traditional game scenarios between game artefacts and their players. As of yet few researchers have set out to survey these systems in their entirety. This paper presents a small literature review of learning game research that highlight the absence of studies focused on understanding the practicalities of the development and use of learning games. The paper also juxtaposes the results of the review with outcomes of a study conducted “within” the identified gap to present arguments for why the current lack of practical research is problematic. 

  • 1114.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Swedish Game Education: 2001-2016: An overview of the past and present of Swedish, academic, game-related educations2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report is written as a part of the EU Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak funded project GameHub Scandinavia. The aim of the project is to provide resources and services to developers, educators, researchers, and supporting actors that are involved in the Scandinavian game industry. The report is intended to be a continuation of a series of reports written at the University of Skövde regarding the state of Swedish game educations. The inaugural report, Spelutbildarindex 2011, provided the first inventory of Swedish game educations on the tertiary level, and intended to discuss their rapid rate of expansion and the ways in which universities and vocational schools accommodated for changing demands in the industry. A second report, Game Development, Education & Incubation, delved deeper into incubation and industry, and provided a larger, but rather brief, overview of game educations in Denmark and Norway as a supplement to the Swedish statistics.

    This report will essentially describe Swedish game education as a tale of two different eras; the pre-2013 proliferation era, and the post-2013 plateau era. Previously produced reports on the topics were written during a period where game educations were rapidly proliferating, and when the games industry was in a more volatile state than it is currently. The state of both academia and industry differs immensely between this millennium’s two inaugural decades. Throughout the ‘00s, game educations grew at a rate that seemed to favour accommodation for student interests rather than processes of quality assurance, deliberation, and programme improvement. In the ‘10s, the amount of programmes have stopped increasing, and most of the statistics regarding student numbers have plateaued, and are in some cases even decreasing.

  • 1115.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Unpacking Digital Game-Based Learning: The complexities of developing and using educational games2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital game-based learning has traditionally been examined from an ‘artefact-centric’ perspective that focuses on understanding how game design and principles of learning are, or can be, intertwined. These types of examinations have resulted in many descriptions of games’ educational potential, which has subsequently led to many types of arguments for why games should be used more extensively in formal education. However, comparatively little research has been done to understand the educational settings in which many game-based learning processes and educational games are intended to be applied. The relative lack of research on formal education settings has resulted in a scenario where the educational potential of games is well detailed through theory and understood independently of their actual contexts of use, while successful examples of games “making good” on their promises as educational tools remain rare.

    This thesis explores and describes the various challenges that the realities of formal education present to developers and educators who attempt to work with educational games. In order to examine the multi-faceted nature of educational games, the research has used a qualitative mixed-method approach that entails extensive literature reviews coupled with several case studies that involve educators, students, and developers. Interviews were conducted in order to investigate these actors’ various attitudes towards, and experiences of, educational games and game-based learning. In addition, more in-depth researcher participation methods were employed during case studies to examine the processes involved in developing, integrating, and using educational games in formal settings. The research revealed obstacles which indicate that processes associated with “traditional” game development are incommensurable with educational game development. Furthermore, the research demonstrates that the use of games in formal education introduces heavy demands on the recipient organisations’ infrastructures, cultures, and working processes. So, while games created for “formal” and “informal” use are superficially similar, the different contexts in which they are used make them distinctly different from one another. 

    The conclusion of this research is that educational games manifest a unique mixture of utility, gameplay, and context-dependent meaning-making activities. Educational games cannot be understood if they are only seen as a teaching utility or only as a game experience. To make educational games viable, both educators and developers need to alter their working processes, their own perceptions of games and teaching, as well as the way they collaborate and communicate with each other and other actors within the educational game ‘system’. The thesis thus argues that a more systems-oriented understanding of educational games, where the game artefact is not treated separately from the context of use, is necessary for both research and practice in the field to progress. To contribute to such an understanding of educational games, a comprehensive model (dubbed the Utility, Gameplay, and Meaning Model) of the ‘educational game system’ is presented, as well as a series of recommendations and considerations to help developers and educators navigate the complex processes involved in creating and using educational games.

  • 1116.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Working with Educational Games: Fundamental guidelines for developers and educators2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This short guide to using and developing games for use in classrooms was written during the European Union Interreg IV A funded project Scandinavian Game Developers. Scandinavian Game Developers is a collaboration between researchers (the University of Skövde), educators (Århus Social- og Sundhedsskole), and developers (Arsenalet and The Ranch Game Incubator), and this guide is an abridged overview of some of the important conclusions our group has reached during our work in the project. Whether you’re a game developer, teacher, or principal interested in educational video games, we hope that this guide will serve as a good tool for you to improve your understanding of what educational games are. As an educator, you’ll get some insight into what a game might bring to a classroom environment as well as the different challenges you might face when trying to use games in your regular teaching environment. For developers, we’ve put together some guidelines that will hopefully make your first educational game projects flow smoother and properly prepare you for some of the more common challenges that many educational game projects encounter.

  • 1117.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Educational Games in Practice: The Challenges Involved in Conducting a Game-Based Curriculum2016In: Electronic Journal of e-Learning, ISSN 1479-4403, E-ISSN 1479-4403, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 122-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The task of integrating games into an educational setting is a demanding one, and integrating games as a harmonious part of a bigger ecosystem of learning requires teachers to orchestrate a myriad of complex organizational resources. Historically, research on digital game‑based learning has focused heavily on the coupling between game designs, previously established learning principles, student engagement, and learning outcomes much to the expense of understanding how games function in their int ended educational contexts and how they impact the working processes of teachers. Given the significant investments of time and resources teachers need to make in order to conduct game‑based learning activities, the foci of past research is problematic as it obfuscates some of the pressing realities that highly affect games viability as tools for teaching and learning. This paper aims to highlight the demands that the implementation and use of an educational game in formal educational settings puts on te achers working processes and skillsets. The paper is based on two case studies in which a researcher collaborated with K‑12 teachers to use MinecraftEdu (TeacherGaming LLC, 2012) as a classroom activity over a five‑month long period. By documenting bot h the working processes involved in implementing the game into the classroom environment, as well as the execution of the actual game‑based classroom activities, the studies identified a wide variety roles that a teacher needs to take on if they are to ma ke games a central part of a school curriculum. Ultimately, the paper highlights the importance of understanding the constraints under which teachers work, and argues that a better understanding of the contexts in which games are to be used, and the roles teachers play during game‑based learning scenarios, is a necessary foundation for improving games viability as educational tools. 

  • 1118.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Teachers’ Many Roles in Game-Based Learning Projects2015In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Games Based Learning / [ed] Robin Munkvold and Line Kolås, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2015, p. 359-367Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines what roles teachers need to take on when attempting to integrate and use computer games in their educational environments. The task of integrating games into an educational setting is a demanding one, and integrating games as a harmonious part of a bigger ecosystem of learning requires teachers to orchestrate a myriad of complex organizational resources. Historically, the field of digital game-based learning research has had a tendency to focus heavily on the coupling between game designs, previously established learning principles, student engagement, and learning outcomes much to the expense of understanding how games impact the working processes of teachers. Given the significant investments of time and resources teachers need to make in order to conduct game-based learning activities, this research gap is problematic. Teachers needs to have a certain amount of gaming literacy in order to actively supervise, support, and guide their students before, during, and after the play sessions. The teacher also needs to be proficient in setting up play sessions in a limited amount of preparation time and tackle eventual technical difficulties. Beyond these demands, teachers also need to serve as a conduit between the learning context and the play context, and need to know how to continuously contextualize game activities and the content that students experience in the subject matter being taught.

    This paper describes the outcomes of two five month long studies where Swedish K-12 teachers were introduced to using MinecraftEdu as a classroom activity. The study identifies the different roles that a teacher takes on throughout game-based learning processes, such as technical administrator, game administrator, game tutor, subject matter expert, lecturer, debriefer, and classroom supervisor. Ultimately, the paper highlights the importance of understanding the constraints under which teachers work, and argues that a better understanding of the contexts in which games are to be used, and the roles teachers play during game-based learning scenarios, is a necessary foundation for improving games’ viability as educational tools.

  • 1119.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Dahlin, Carl-Johan
    ius information AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Game-Based Approach to Support Social Presence and Awareness in Distributed Project-Based Learning2014In: International Journal of Games Based Learning, ISSN 2155-6849, E-ISSN 2155-6857, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important factor for success in project-based learning (PBL) is that the involved project groups establish an atmosphere of social interaction in their working environment. In PBL-scenarios situated in distributed environments, most of a group's work-processes are mediated through the use of production-focused tools that are unconcerned with the important informal and social aspects of a project. On the other hand, there are plenty of tools and platforms that focus on doing the opposite and mainly support informal bonding (e.g., Facebook), but these types of environments can be obtrusive and contain distractions that can be detrimental to a group's productivity and are thus often excluded from working environments. The aim of this paper is to examine how a game-based multi-user environment (MUVE) can be designed to support project-based learning by bridging the gap between productivity-focused and social software. To explore this, the authors developed a game-based MUVE which was evaluated in a PBL-scenario. The result of the study revealed several crucial design elements that are needed to make such a MUVE work effectively, and that the acceptance towards game-based MUVEs is high, even with a rudimentary execution.

  • 1120.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The Practicalities of Educational Games: Challenges of taking games into formal educational settings2014In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games 2014) / [ed] Vanessa Camilleri, Alexiei Dingli & Matthew Montebello, University of Malta: IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 82-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of balancing educational purpose and engaging gameplay mechanics through appropriate design decisions has frequently been discussed in learning game literature. The discussion has primarily focused on highlighting connections between game design principles and learning principles and making guidelines for achieving engaging learning scenarios through game mechanics tailored to specific subject matters. Play, and the learning derived from it, is thus often studied as a phenomenon of the two disparate forces of education and gameplay colliding inside a closed system. The complexity of designing games for educational purposes is subsequently also seen as a product of the dichotomies between these two forces. However, the discussions on the design of learning games and their potential as learning tools seldom take the practicalities of formal educational environments into consideration. In this paper, learning game design principles are investigated alongside developers’ and educators’ working practices. In our analysis we identify and examine a set of issues that complicate learning game design and development. The primary conclusion of this research is that the contexts in which learning games are used significantly alter the way they can be played by introducing constraints as well as facilitating conditions to the play sessions. The paper concludes with an argument for a shift of attention from the product centric view of today to a view that takes pedagogical contexts and organizational values into better account.

  • 1121.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Children's collaboration in emergent game environments2013In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games (FDG 2013), Society for the Advancement of the Science of Digital Games , 2013, p. 306-313Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 1122.
    Berg Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Karolina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av hur arbetsmiljön påverkar omvårdnadsarbetet: En intervjustudie2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that nurses work environment can affect them in their nursing care. This study aimed to interview nurses about their perception of how their work environment affects nursing care. Interviews were conducted with seven registered nurses at a hospital in western Sweden. The interviews were analyzed and manifest content linked to the aim of the study was identified and then condensed. The results showed that there are many different aspects in nurses work environment that they feel affect them in their nursing care. Nurses experienced that a good social climate could help them in their nursing care. At the same time work related stress and lack of time for patients, mostly due to time consuming administrative work, had a negative impact on nursing care. The conclusion of this study is that nurses experience that their work environment can have both a positive and a negative effect on nursing care. Future research on nurses work environment is needed to better serve the needs of nursing care.

  • 1123.
    Berg, Markus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Privat molnlagring i arbetet: En fallstudie om hur ett IT-företaghanterar att anställda använder privatmolnlagring för arbetsrelateradinformation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a case study was made on one company that is working with IT. The study was made to see how an IT company mitigates and handles the problem that employees use their private cloud storage to store work related information. A survey was sent to three different departments at the company to examine what employees think about private cloud storage and work related information and how and if it differs between different departments. One interview was also made with one informant from the same company to compare with the results from the survey. A second interview with another company was also made to validate the result from the first interview.The results from the survey showed that employees do store or have stored work related information in their private cloud storage, despite that the company policies forbid it. One of the departments that the survey was sent to was the information security team. It can be assumed that employees that work with information security have better understanding about security regarding information and how it should be stored. Despite that did the results show that the information security team was the department that used private cloud storage the most, compared to the other departments. The results from the interviews shows that the companies at least have policies on how and where the employees are allowed to store work related information. One company in particular works really hard and continuously to educate and enlighten its employees to take great care when dealing with work related information.

  • 1124.
    Berg, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. IFM Theory and Modelling, Div. of Theoretical Biology, Linköping Univ., Linköping, Sweden.
    Christianou, Maria
    IFM Theory and Modelling, Div. of Theoretical Biology, Linköping Univ., Linköping, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Ebenman, Bo
    IFM Theory and Modelling, Div. of Theoretical Biology, Linköping Univ., Linköping, Sweden.
    Using sensitivity analysis to identify keystone species and keystone links in size-based food webs2011In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 120, no 4, p. 510-519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-induced alterations in the birth and mortality rates of species and in the strength of interactions within and between species can lead to changes in the structure and resilience of ecological communities. Recent research points to the importance of considering the distribution of body sizes of species when exploring the response of communities to such perturbations. Here, we present a new size-based approach for assessing the sensitivity and elasticity of community structure (species equilibrium abundances) and resilience (rate of return to equilibrium) to changes in the intrinsic growth rate of species and in the strengths of species interactions. We apply this approach on two natural systems, the pelagic communities of the Baltic Sea and Lake Vättern, to illustrate how it can be used to identify potential keystone species and keystone links. We find that the keystone status of a species is closely linked to its body size. The analysis also suggests that communities are structurally and dynamically more sensitive to changes in the effects of prey on their consumers than in the effects of consumers on their prey. Moreover, we discuss how community sensitivity analysis can be used to study and compare the fragility of communities with different body size distributions by measuring the mean sensitivity or elasticity over all species or all interaction links in a community. We believe that the community sensitivity analysis developed here holds some promise for identifying species and links that are critical for the structural and dynamic robustness of ecological communities.

  • 1125.
    Berg, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Granath, Frida
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Härnqvist, Christine
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Att vara ung och utan arbete: Arbetslösa unga vuxnas subjektiva upplevelser2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva och ge djupare förståelse för hur unga vuxna arbetslösa i Västra Götalands län upplever sitt identitetsskapande och sin levnadssituation. I denna studie utfördes tio kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer med respondenter i åldrarna 18-29 år. Då vi anser att identiteten är social valde vi i vår studie att utgå från Symbolisk interaktionism, med underliggande teorier som definitionen av situationen (Charon, 2004; Svensson, 1992), den generaliserade andre (Mead, 1976), spegeljaget (Mortensen, 2003) och stämplingsteorin (Goffman, 1972; Becker, 1963). Att vara arbetslös påverkar många olika delar av livet och är av allra högsta grad avgörande för hur individen upplever sin levnadssituation och sitt identitetsskapande. Det som framkommit pekar främst på vikten av de sociala interaktionerna gällande arbetslöshet samt dess betydelse för individen. Slutsatsen är att vi inte kan förstå en individs upplevelser av sin levnadssituation och identitetsskapande utan att se till helheten. Vi har funnit att upplevelsen av sig själv och identitetsskapandet har förändrats i en situation av arbetslöshet.

  • 1126.
    Berg, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Dept of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Div. of Theoretical Biology, Linköping Univ., Linköping, Sweden.
    Pimenov, Aexander
    Weierstrass Inst., Berlin, Germany / Environmental Research Inst., Univ. College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Palmer, Catherine
    Weierstrass Inst., Berlin, Germany.
    Emmerson, Mark
    School of Biological Sciences, Queen's Univ. Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Dept of Ecology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ecological communities are vulnerable to realistic extinction sequences2015In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 486-496Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 1127.
    Bergdahl, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Användarens önskade upplevelse vid behandling av social fobi med virtual reality2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Social fobi är en ångeststörning som i stor utsträckning påverkar livet hos den som är diagnostiserad. Kärnan i social fobi ligger i rädslan att bli granskad och riskera att göra bort sig eller bli förlöjligad. Den behandlingsmetod som visats vara mest effektiv i behandling mot social fobi är kognitiv beteendeterapi (KBT). Det är en tidsbegränsad och nutidsorienterad psykoterapi där patienten lär sig både kognitiva och beteenderelaterade färdigheter som behövs för att denne adaptivt ska kunna fungera i både inter- och intrapersonella världar. I takt med att teknologin utvecklas blir det möjligt att flytta terapin till en virtuell miljö, där patienten kan exponeras för de stimuli som de anser vara ångestframkallande. Denna behandingsform kallas för Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy (VRET) och tar terorier inom KBT och förflyttar dem till en miljö i virtual reality. User experience-mål beskriver den önskade upplevelsen hos användaren när denne interagerar med interaktiva system. UX-mål delas upp i pragmatiska och hedoniska aspekter. Resultatet av studien blev två pragmatiska och två hedoniska UX-mål som beskriver den önskade upplevelsen hos användaren när denne behandlas med VRET mot social fobi. De framtagna målen visar att känslor av kontroll, realism, belöningar och utmaningar är det som användarna anser vara de viktigaste aspekterna när en mjukvara för behandling av social fobi ska designas.

  • 1128.
    Bergdahl, Philip
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Bodell, William
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Behålla personal genom utveckling2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundIn the last couple of years there has been an ongoing change in the Swedish labor marketwhere the view and the occurrence of long term employment is not as common as it oncewas. The most common way of career development is through change of employer. The costof employee turnover can be avoided or reduced by keeping current employees and anindividually shaped development for the employee may result in the employee staying loyalto the company.

    PurposeThe purpose of this study is to investigate how attractive employers, based on Randstad andUniversum, within a knowledge based environment in the area of Gothenburg providescompetence development, professional development and career opportunities in order toretain their employees.

    Method The study applies a qualitative research approach since the purpose of the study is to gain understanding in how companies provide development and not to compare different companies’ results to one another. The study is based on six semi-structured interviews held at each of the six companies. The selection of companies is based on the lists “Randstad Award 2016” and “Sveriges bästa arbetsgivare 2016” by Universum which are summaries of Sweden’s most attractive employers of the year 2016.

    Conclusion The study shows that all of the companies have an individually shaped development plan for the employee. This is managed through adjustment of duties, competence development through courses, seminars and workshops which are based on internal knowledge within the company. Last but not least development is supplied through the use of mentoring and networking, both internal and external.

  • 1129.
    Bergelind, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Mohamad, Rondik
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Patienters upplevelser av sjuksköterskors bemötande: En litteraturöversikt2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Being a nurse requires medical knowledge as well as knowledge about nursing science. Nursing is among other things about how to respond to patients in a proper manner to avoid unnecessary suffering in the care. For nurses to be able to respond to patients in a way that the patients experience as good the nurses have to know how the patients experience the approach.

    AIM: To illustrate how the patients who are receiving hospital treatment experience the care of nurses.

    METHOD: Literature overview as described by Friberg (2006), where 14 articles were analyzed.

    RESULT: The result is divided into five themes: The importance of the encounter for patients, The significance of humor, Patients´ need for communication and information, The need for acknowledgement/confirmation, and Factors that affect patients trust in nurses.

    CONCLUSION: The result shows how patients experience the nursing situation and what their notion of a good approach is. The result can be used as evidence of the importance of the quality of the nursing and is urgent knowledge to nurses who daily meet patients at work. The knowledge that the study has contributed with can be used to improve the care relationship between patients and nurses in practice.

  • 1130.
    Bergendahl, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Östman, Evelina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ortorexia nervosa: Hälsa som blir ohälsa2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Title: Orthorexia Nervosa- Healthy turning unhealthy

    Department: School of Life Sciences, University of Skövde

    Course: University Diploma Project in Public Health Science,15 ECTS

    Author: Bergendahl, Jessica; Östman, Evelina

    Supervisor: Ekberg, Joakim

    Pages: 23

    Month and year: 06/2014

    Keywords: Orthorexia Nervosa, Health, Mental illness, Media influences

    Background: A healthier way of life often starts out with good intentions, but sometimes people take their healthy lifestyle too far. Orthorexia nervosa was meant to be a description for a group of people with similar problems, until it was clear that there might be more behind it. A person with orthorexia is obsessed with healthy dieting and takes it to the extreme.

    Aim: To investigate what orthorexia is and if there are clear guidelines about treatment.

    Method: We have studied literature, scientific articles, and completed interviews with people qualified in the fields of orthorexia. A qualitative study based on a content analysis was performed.

    Results: Orthorexia nervosa has no status of diagnosis. It is difficult to determine exactly what triggers orthorexia, however, it is likely that it is a need of control. Using an extremely healthy diet creates the feeling of being in control. Media seems to influence this.

    Conclusion: The conclusion was that more research is needed in order to decide what orthorexia nervosa actually stands for. Orthorexia nervosa is considered when a person tries to live as healthy as possible but by strictly controlling their diet illness occurs.

  • 1131.
    Bergendahl, Karl
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    NOISE OCH MINNE2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete handlar om noise och hur det påverkar människans arbetsminne. Den litterära bakgrunden presenterar vad noise är, hur noise fungerar som musik samt en generell överblick över minne och arbetsminnet. Problemet som undersöktes var om noise kunde påverka förmågan att tillgodogöra sig visuell information mer än vad vitt brus gjorde. För att få ett svar på frågan skapades två versioner av ett enkelt spelmoment där testpersonerna, indelade i två grupper, fick se en siffersekvens som sedan skulle skrivas ner. Samtidigt spelades i spelmomentet antingen noise eller vitt brus upp. Resultatet av undersökningen visar att noise gör det något svårare att ta till sig visuell information än vad vitt brus gör. Detta sätts bland annat i relation till forskningsetiska aspekter. Framtida arbeten som bygger på detta föreslås framförallt inkludera fler testpersoner men även att på lång sikt ta resultatet och applicera det på ljuddesign i spel.

  • 1132.
    Bergenholtz, Sanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Wall, Fanny
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Utomhuspedagogikens påverkan på barn med koncentrationssvårigheter: En intervjustudie ur förskollärarperspektiv2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children with concentration difficulties are to a great extent a problem in schools and therefore it becomes interesting to see how possibilities around these children can appear in pre-school. From a pre-school teacher’s perspective, the study aims to provide a deeper understanding of how outdoor education can influence children with concentration difficulties. The method of the study is a qualitative research run-up with interviews that intends to describe pre-school teachers’ views. What we applied for requires experience-based answers, and therefore, pre-school teachers with at least a couple of years experience of daily pre-school activity were selected. The result shows, among other things, how outdoor education is an important part of daily activities. Specific for children with concentration difficulties, outdoor education gives increased  possibilities for movement, fresh air and recovery. The concept of concentration difficulties is not used in pre-school in order to describe these children. In connection with outdoor education there should be rich variations of outdoor environment. In conclusion reflected outdoor environment that provides both free play and planned activities gives children with concentration difficulties possibilities to increase their power of concentration.

  • 1133.
    Bergenius, Mikaela
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Boje, Jesper
    The National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Casini, Michele
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Degel, Henrik
    The National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Eero, Margit
    The National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Management Systems, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Florin, Ann-Britt
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Coastal Research, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Gasyukov, Pavel
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Grygiel, Wlodzimierz
    Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Gröhsler, Tomas
    Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries (TI-OF), Rostock, Germany.
    Hjelm, Joakim
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Marine Research, Sweden.
    Horbowy, Jan
    Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Norrström, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Kaljuste, Olavi
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Coastal Research, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Karpushevskiy, Igor
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Karpushevskaia, Anastasiia
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Kornilovs, Georgs
    Latvian Fish Resources Agency, Riga, Latvia.
    Krumme, Uwe
    Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries (TI-OF), Rostock, Germany.
    Luzenczyk, Anna
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Lövgren, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Pönni, Jukka
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research, Institute Kotka Unit, Kotka, Finland.
    Oeberst, Rainer
    Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries (TI-OF), Rostock, Germany.
    Raid, Tiit
    Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Raitaniemi, Jari
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute Turku Game and Fisheries Research, Turku, Finland.
    Statkus, Romas
    Division of fishery research and science, Fishery service under Ministry of Agriculture, Klaipeda, Lithuania.
    Stoetera, Sven
    Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries (TI-OF), Rostock, Germany.
    Storr-Paulsen, Marie
    DTU Aqua - National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Ustups, Didzis
    Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment (BIOR), Fish Resources Research Department, Riga, Latvia.
    Walther, Yvonne
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Marine Research, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS): 14-21 April 2015, ICES HQ, Copenhagen, Denmark2015Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ICES Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS) met 14-21 April 2015 (Chair: Mare Storr-Paulsen, Denmark), with 28 participants and 9 countries represented. The objective of WGBFAS was to assess the status of the following stocks:

    1 ) Sole in Division IIIa, SDs 20-22

    2 ) Cod in Kattegat, Cod in SD 22-24, Cod in SD 25-32

    3 ) Herring in SD 25-27, 28.2, 29 and 32, Herring in SD 28.1 (Gulf of Riga), Herring in SD 30, Herring SD 31.

    4 ) Sprat in SD 22-32

    5 ) Plaice 21-23, Plaice 2425

    6 ) Flounder 22-23; 24-25; 26+28 and 27+29-32, Brill 2232, Dab 2232, and Turbot 2232 (survey trends)

    WGBFAS also identified the data needed, for next year’s data call with some suggestions for improvements in the data call as well as in InterCatch. The report contains an introduction with the summary of other WGs relevant for the WGBFAS, country specific fishery description, the methods used, and ecosystem considerations. The results of the analytical stock assessment or survey trends for the species listed above are then presented with all the stocks with the same species in the same sections. The report ends with references, list of Working Documents, recommendations and Stock Annexes. In first quarter 2015 the Baltic cod stocks and the plaice stocks were benchmarked. As a result the Baltic cod stocks now have to apply a splitting key in SD 24 were both stocks are present. This has changed the assessment from being an area based assessment to now being a stock based assessments and has implications for the advice. The principle analytical models used for the stock assessments were XSA and SAM. For most flatfishes, CPUE trends from bottom trawl surveys were presented (except plaice 2425 and her31 using relative SSB from SAM and XSA, respectively). Ecosystem changes have been analytically considered in the following stock assessments: Herring in SD 25-27, 28.2, 29 and 32, and Sprat in SD 22-32, in form of cod predation mortality. Last year a very large retrospective pattern in the Eastern Baltic cod stock caused that the WG rejected the analytic assessment. Several uncertainties in the data lead to this conclusion i.a age reading problems with large inconsistency between and within nations as well as a change in growth and natural mortality. However, even though a data compilation workshop and a benchmark have been conducted in the intermediate time it was not possible to solve the main issue on growth. The lack of knowledge on growth caused to that even the length based data required in the data call was very uncertain for the models and in the end the WG was not able to produce a better model than was presented last year which is based on survey trends. The Her-30 (Herring in the Botnian Sea) was by the working group down scaled from a category 1 stock to a category 3 stock due to the commercial tuning fleet used in the assessment having very uncertain estimates in the last couples of years. However, during the Baltic ADG an alternative assessment was suggested were the stock is still considered a category 1 stock but the last 8 years of the commercial tuning fleet was terminated. This assessment was conducted after the working group but has been included in the report.

  • 1134.
    Bergenius, Mikaela
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Cadigan, Noel
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.
    Gröhsler, Tomas
    Johann-Heinrich von Thünen-Institute, Germany .
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Morgado, Cristina
    International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Denmark.
    Pönni, Jukka
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Finland.
    Raitaniemi, Jari
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Finland.
    Storr-Paulsen, Marie
    DTU Aqua - National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Denmark.
    Trenkel, Verena
    Ifremer Nantes Centre, France.
    Report of the Inter-Benchmark Protocol for Herring in Subdivision 30 (IBP Her30): 11–15 March 2013, By correspondence2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Inter-Benchmark Protocol for Herring in Subdivision 30 (IBP-Her30) worked by correspondence  between  February  28  and  March  28  2013. Verena Trenkel  (France) served as Chair with invited expert Noel Cadigan (Canada). There were six participants. The objectives of the groups were to review the work carried out in response to the benchmark working group WKPELA in 2012.

  • 1135.
    Bergenius, Mikaela
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Coastal Research, Öregrund.
    Holmgren, Noél
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Comparison of methods and results for the estimation of a sustainable harvest rate for the Bothnian Sea herring2012In: Report of the Benchmark Workshop on Pelagic Stocks (WKPELA 2012): 13–17 February 2012, Copenhagen, Denmark, International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) , 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 1136.
    Berger, Jesper B.
    et al.
    University of Siegen, Siegen, Germany.
    Rose, Jeremy
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark / Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Nine Challenges for e-Government Action Researchers2015In: International Journal of Electronic Government Research, ISSN 1548-3886, E-ISSN 1548-3894, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 57-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Action research is widespread in many of the background disciplines that underpin the e-Government field andis beginning to take root as a legitimate e-Government research method. Canonical Action Research (CAR)is the most widely used form of action research; however it relies on premises that can be problematic in thee-Government context. This article details some of those underlying assumptions, and shows the difficulties that result when applied to a relatively typical e-Government case study: the implementation of an advanced email system in Danish public administration. The empirical experience calls many of the standard premises into question, and these are categorised. The authors summarize the resulting experience as nine challenges for action researchers working in the e-Government field, and investigate some possible responses.

  • 1137.
    Bergfeldt André, Frans
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Från abstraktion till hyperrealism: En historisk exposé av stridsvagnsanimationer i elektroniska spel2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats presenterar en historisk exposé kring den visuella och tekniska utvecklingen av stridsvagnsanimationer. Detta med fokus på perception och kognition utifrån definitionerna abstraktion, realism och hyperrealism. Uppsatsen ämnar förklara i bild, text och rörlig media hur utvecklingen sett ut och hur långt den har nått. För att åstadkomma detta har en analysmatris tagits fram, ur vilken valda beståndsdelar i spelen Battlezone, Battle Tank och Battlefield 1942 dissekeras. För att ytterligare påvisa kontrasten i utvecklingskurvan, har jag haft Craft Animations och deras verktyg till min hjälp. Verktyget och resultaten detta genererar, analyseras med hjälp av samma analysmatris som för spelen.

    Resultatet visar en tydlig kontrast i utvecklingen, där Craft Animations verktyg representerar vad vi idag kan kalla för hyperrealism.

  • 1138.
    Bergfeldt, Ellinor
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. ellinor.bergfeldt@gmail.com.
    Bikinirustning för män?: En studie av normöverskridande klädsel för manliga och kvinnliga spelkaraktärer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete fokuserar på de normer som förekommer gällande mäns och kvinnors klädsel i spel. Hur upplevs normöverskridande klädsel, och hur styr normer upplevelsen av klädseln baserad på karaktärens könstillhörighet? Resultaten av undersökningen visade att könsöverskridande klädsel upplevdes olika beroende på om den bars av en manlig eller kvinnlig karaktär. När den kvinnliga karaktären bar könsöverskridande klädsel identifierade de allra flesta att den var just könsöverskridande. Trots detta var det ingen som upplevde att klädslarna inte passade på kvinnan. När det däremot gällde de könsöverskridande klädslarna för den manliga karaktären var det få som ansåg att klädseln passade på mannen, den kunde även ses som humoristisk.

  • 1139.
    Bergfeldt, Niclas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Hansson, Andreas
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Evolutionary pressure on developing simple languages2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest for studying the origin and development of language has increased greatly in the last decades. For a language to be developed the production and understanding of it must co evolve, otherwise the users will not be able to understand each other. Here, we show that the co-evolution of language production and understanding promotes the development of an efficient language, where the efficiency is measured in terms of number of symbols needed to transmit a message and distinguish it from other possible messages. We also show how agents evolve a very simple language in order to solve the task at hand, even though the simplicity is never enforced in any way.

  • 1140.
    Bergfeldt, Niklas
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Cooperative Robotics: A Survey2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation aims to present a structured overview of the state-of-the-art in cooperative robotics research. As we illustrate in this dissertation, there are several interesting aspects that draws attention to the field, among which 'Life Sciences' and 'Applied AI' are emphasized. We analyse the key concepts and main research issues within the field, and discuss its relations to other disciplines, including cognitive science, biology, artificial life and engineering. In particular it can be noted that the study of collective robot behaviour has drawn much inspiration from studies of animal behaviour. In this dissertation we also analyse one of the most attractive research areas within cooperative robotics today, namely RoboCup. Finally, we present a hierarchy of levels and mechanisms of cooperation in robots and animals, which we illustrate with examples and discussions.

  • 1141.
    Bergfeldt, Niklas
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Överföring av program från värddator till målmiljö1999Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete tar upp olika överföringstekniker för att uppdatera ett program på en målmiljö. De tre överföringstekniker som analyseras är moduluppdelning, patchning och komprimering. En litteraturstudie har genomförts för att ta fram för- och nackdelar med de olika teknikerna och för att beskriva hur de fungerar. En praktisk applicering av överföringsteknikerna har även gjorts på ett specifikt PLC-system för att se vad dessa kan göra för uppdateringstiden i denna miljö. Resultatet av arbetet visade att moduluppdelning är att föredra i de fall där uppdelning av programmet är möjlig. Patchning är däremot mest lämpad då varje uppdatering av programmet är mycket liten och det således inte skiljer mycket mellan de olika versionerna av programmet. Komprimering är att föredra då det ofta är frågan om stora modifieringar i programmet eftersom komprimering ger en näst intill konstant vinst sett ur procentuell synvinkel, även om denna vinst endast är runt 50%.

  • 1142.
    Berggren, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Hultman, Veronica
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att vårda patienter med HIV i utvecklingsländer: En litteraturöversikt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: HIV är en kronisk sjukdom som innebär att immunförsvaret försvagas. Symtom som förekommer kan liknas vanliga infektionssjukdomar, exempelvis feber och halsont. Idag lever 30–50 miljoner människor i världen med sjukdomen. Sjukdomen är en av de ledande orsakerna till mortalitet i utvecklingsländer. Syfte: Att undersöka sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att vårda patienter med HIV i utvecklingsländer. Metod: En litteraturöversikt som baseras på kvalitativa (n=10) och kvantitativa artiklar (n=1) samt kombinerat kvalitativ och kvantitativt (n=2). Resultat: Ur analysen framkom två kategorier; Bygga ömsesidig tillit och Brister i organisationen med fem underkategorier. Konklusion: Sjuksköterskor i utvecklingsländer upplever en utmanande arbetsmiljö kring patienter med HIV. De upplever känslor av stress, otillräcklighet och maktlöshet. Trots mycket negativitet upplevdes glädje i att vårda patienter med HIV.

  • 1143.
    Berggren, Christoffer
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Larsson, Staffan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kan man skapa en världsportfölj baserad på inhemska aktier2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har undersökt hur globaliseringen påverkar aktiemarknaden. Ett sätt att ta reda globaliseringens effekter kan vara att jämföra avkastning och risk för olika marknader. För att kunna göra en jämförelse har vi skapat aktieportföljer baserade på olika marknader och jämfört dessa med ett index som motsvarar världen.

    Genom några enkla urvalskriterier har vi skapat fyra portföljer med börsnoterade aktier från Norden, Europa, Japan och USA.

    Portföljerna har vi jämfört med ett världsindex för att se vilka samband som finns och hur de utvecklar sig över tiden. Sambanden vi fann var att korrelationen mellan några av portföljerna och världsindexet är relativt starka samt ökar med tiden. Att korrelationen ökar kan tyda på att företagen blir mer internationellt verksamma med tiden. Det verkar som ländernas ekonomier knyts samman och att deras konjunkturer blir mer och mer lika.

    Ur ett nordiskt perspektiv kan en investerare få en bra riskspridning internationellt genom att bara vända sig mot den nordiska marknaden. De företag som vi har använt i den nordiska portföljen är multinationella storföretag som har verksamhet i flera länder utanför Norden. Investerare i Europa och USA får också bra riskspridning internationellt, och även här ökar sambandet med tiden.

    Av de undersökta marknaderna är Japan den enda marknaden som avviker. I ett japanskt perspektiv har det varit fördelaktigt att investera internationellt under den undersökta perioden.

  • 1144.
    Berggren, Elisabeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Daily life after Subarachnoid Haemorrhage: Identity construction, patients' and relatives' statements about patients' memory, emotional status and activities of living2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to describe patients’ experience and reconstruction regarding the onset of, and events surrounding being struck by a Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (SAH), and to describe patients’ and relatives’ views of patients’ memory ability, emotional status and activities of living, in a long-term perspective.

    Methods: Both inductive and deductive approaches were used. Nine open interviews were carried out in home settings, in average 1 year and 7 seven months after the patients’ onset, and discourse analysis was used to interpret the data. Eleven relatives and 11 patients, 11 years after the onset, and 15 relatives and 15 patients, 6 years after the onset, participated in two studies. Interviews using a questionnaire with structured questions and memory tests were used to collect data. Fischer’s exact test and Z-scores were used for the statistical analysis.

    Results: Patients with experience of a SAH were able to judge their own memory for what happened when they became ill. The reconstruction of the illness event may be interpreted as an identity creating process. The process of meaning-making is both a matter of understanding SAH as a pathological event and a social and communicative matter, where the SAH is construed into a meaningful life history, in order to make life complete (I). Memory problems, changes in emotional status and problems with activities of living were common (II-IV). There was correspondence between relatives’ and patients’ statements regarding the patients’ memory in general and long-term memory. Patients judged their own memory ability better than relatives, compared with results on memory tests. Relatives stated that some patients had meta-memory problems (II). The episodic memory seemed to be well  reserved, both concerning the onset and in the long-term perspective (I, II). There were more problems with social life than with P- and I-ADL (III), and social company habits had changed due to concentration difficulties, mental fatigue, and  patients’ sensitivity to noisy environments and uncertainty (IV). Relatives rated the patients’ ability concerning activities of living and emotional status, and in a similar manner to patients’ statements (III-IV).

    Conclusions: The reconstruction of the illness event can be used as a tool in nursing for understanding the patient’s identity-construction. Relatives and patients stated the patients’ memory, emotional status and activities of living in a similar manner, and therefore both patients’ and relatives’ statements can be used as a tool in nursing care, in order to support the patient. However, the results showed: meta-memory problems (relatives’ statements) and that the patients’ judged their own memory ability better than relatives in comparison with results on memory tests. Nevertheless, there was a high degree of concordance between relatives’ and patients’ evaluations concerning patients´ memory ability, emotional status, emotional problems, social company habits and activities of living. Therefore both relatives’ and patients’ statements can be considered to be reliable. However, sometimes the patients and the relatives judge the patients’ memory differently. Consequently, memory tests and formalized dialogues between the patient, the relative and a professional might be required, in order to improve the mutual family relationship in a positive way. Professionals however, must first assume that patients can judge their own memory, emotional status and ability in daily life.

  • 1145.
    Berggren, Elisabeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Identity construction and memory after Subarachnoid Haemorrhage: Patients' accounts and relatives' and patients' statements in relation to memory tests2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a complex pathophysiological event and most patients have, before the onset, felt completely well. Being stricken by a SAH is a dramatic event, often followed by unconsciousness and memory problems. This may influence the adjustment to daily life. Supporting patients and relatives in nursing care therefore requires knowledge concerning patients' experience of the onset of the SAH event, and knowledge concerning patients' memory after a SAH.

    Aim: The general aim of this thesis was to study patients' experiences and reconstruction of the onset of, and events surrounding, a SAH and to study patients' and relatives' experience of patients' memory ability, in a long-term perspective.

    Specific aims:

    (I) The aim of this study was to analyse people's accounts of SAH, and to describe how they initiate and create meaning for the onset and events surrounding the SAH. The specific questions were : (i) What is highlighted in the accounts of SAH? (II) How is the illness reconstructed? (iii) How is meaning created through communicative interaction with others about SAH?

    (II) The aim was to describe memory after a SAH from the perspective of relatives and patients in two cohorts. In this study, the researchers also aimed to evaluate the application of relatives' statements as a tool in nursing care and rehabilitation, in order to support the patients. This was achieved by comparing: (i) Relatives' statements with patients' statements and (ii) Relatives' and patients' statements with the patients' memory test results.

    Methods: Both an inductive and a deductive approach were used. Nine open interviews were carried out in home settings, 1 year and 7 months (ranging 14-24 months) after the patients' onset and discourse analysis was used to interpret the data (I). Eleven relatives and 11 patients, 11 years and 15 relatives and 15 patients, 6 years after the onset participated in two studies. Interview questions and memory tests were used to collect data. Fischer's exact test was used for the statistical analysis (II).

    Findings:Patient with experience of a SAH were able to judge their own memory for what happened when they became ill. Both conscious irrational and rational actions were expressed in relation to experienced sensations. Critical events related to SAH were "existential insights" and "time as waiting and time as structuring meaning". The reconstruction of the illness event may be interpreted as an identity ceating process. The process of meaning-making is both a matter of understanding SAH as a pathological event, and a social and communicative matter, where the SAH is constructed into a meaningful life history, in order to make life complete (I). Memory problems were common according to relatives' and patients' statements and from memory test results. There was correspondence between relatives' and patients' statements regarding the patients' memory in general and long-term memory. Patients judged their own memory ability better than relatives, compared with results on memory tests. Both relatives and patients underestimated older patients' memory ability and underrated younger patients' memory problems, when compared with results on memory tests. Relatives stated that some patients had meta-memory problems (II). The episodic memory seemed to be well preserved, both concerning the onset (I) and in the long-term perspective (II).

    Conclusions: The reconstruction of the illness is a tool in nursing for understanding the patient's self-positioning and identity-construction. (I) Relatives' and patients' statements regarding patients' memory can also be used as tools in nursing care. However, the results showed: meta-memory problems (relatives' statements); that patients' judged their own memory ability better than relatives in comparison with results on memory tests. Consequently, memory tests and formalized dialogues, between the patient, the relative and a professional are required in order to prevent complications in the patient's mutual family relationships. However, professionals must assume that patients can judge their own memory (II). Dialogues between the patient, the relative and a professional, with focus on how to manage daily life in patients' home context, due to the patient's experience of the onset of the SAH and possible memory problems after the SAH, will probably improve the mutual family relationship in a positive way (I,II).

  • 1146.
    Berggren, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sidenvall, Birgitta
    Jönköping University.
    Hellström Muhli, Ulla
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Identity construction and meaning-making after subarachnoid haemorrhage2010In: British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, ISSN 1747-0307, E-ISSN 2052-2800, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 86-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to analyse people's accounts of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and to describe how they initiate and create meaning for the onset and events surrounding the SAH.

    Background: Being struck by a SAH is a dramatic event, often followed by unconsciousness. There is therefore a special need for a patient to try to create some kind of meaning for the event during recovery and afterwards.

    Method: Nine interviews were carried out in home settings and discourse analysis was used to interpret the data.

    Findings: People stricken by SAH seem to be able to judge from memory for when they were becoming ill. Critical events related to SAH were existential threats and existential insights; and time as 'waiting' and time as 'structuring meaning'. The reconstruction of the illness event may be interpreted as an identity-creating process.

    Conclusion: The reconstruction of the illness is a tool that can be used by nurses and other health professionals to understand a patient's self-positioning and identity-construction.

  • 1147.
    Berggren, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sidenvall, Birgitta
    Jönköping University.
    Larsson, Dennis
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Subarachnoid haemorrhage has long-term effects on social life2011In: British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, ISSN 1747-0307, E-ISSN 2052-2800, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 429-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe memory after a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) from the perspective of relatives and patients in two cohorts and also to evaluate the application of relatives' statements as a tool in nursing care and rehabilitation, in order to support the patient. Background: Cognitive sequelae due to SAH are a large disability and may influence the adjustment to daily life. Supporting patients and relatives requires knowledge concerning the patients' memory both from the perspective of patients and relatives. Method: Eleven relatives and 11 patients (Cohort 1), 11 years after the onset of an SAH and 15 relatives and 15 patients (Cohort 2) 6 years after the onset of an SAH, participated in the study. Interview questions and memory tests were used to collect data. Findings: Problems with memory, including meta-memory problems regarding relatives' statements, were common. Relatives and patients stated patients' menory in a similar manner. However, patients' statements concerning their memory corresponded in higher degree with memory test results, in comparison with relatives' statements. Conclusions: Relatives' and patients' statements are useful as tools in nursing care and rehabilitation. However, from results showing meta-memory problems and that patients' statements concerning their memory corresponded better with memory test results (in comparison with relatives' statements), it is vital to offer patients memory tests in order to prevent complications in mutual family relationships.

  • 1148.
    Berggren, Emma
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Lundin, Sabina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Barn och ungas psykosomatiska besvär: Hur tar de sig uttryck och vilka är de bakomliggande orsakerna? - en litteraturstudie2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine psychosomaticsymptomsissuesamongst children and adolescents between the ages of 0-18 years and to clarify the underlying factors.Method: Literature study based on 10 scientific articles.Results: Psychosomatic issues amongst children and adolescents, due to stress, were common in Europe and Scandinavia. The symptoms varied between gender and age. The underlying factors were mainly school environmental issues, home conditions, socio-economic situations and disputes with teachers and peers. The symptoms varied from headache, gastro intestinal problems and insomnia to eating disorders, depression and pounding heart.               Conclusion: The future of children’s psychosomatic health depends on interventions on all levels of society since they are affected by everything from school environment and home conditions to unemployment and recession.

  • 1149.
    Berggren, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Eskilsson, Emeli
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Anställdas upplevelser av psykosocial arbetsmiljö med inriktning stress: En undersökning av undersköterskor inom sektor vård och omsorg i en mellanstor kommun i Västra Götaland2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this study is the increasing sick leave in Sweden due to mental illness. The problem derives from issues related to work environment and the fact that work-related stress causes more than 50 per cent of all sick leave in the European Union. Stress is not only an individual health problem but also an economic burden to society. Increased workload and stress haves been observed to be main reasons behind sick leave in the health- and social sector.

    This study examines nurses’ experiences in old age care. The focus is on demand, control and support in relation to psychosocial work environment and stress. The analysis draws on the model made by Karasek and Theorell (1990). The examination was performed on a municipality in Västra Götaland. A quantitative method based on questionnaires has been used to collect data.

    The empirical result shows that nurses experience high demands, low control and high social support. The nurses experience high strain which is mentally exhausting for the individual who cannot encounter the high demands because of the low acting space.

    The finding of high social support however separates from several previous studies and has led to the conclusion that social support cannot be analyzed detached from the other factors if the aim is to understand the full context of a work situation. Previous research has proved that social support works as an insurance against work-related stress; this study presents that work-related stress can arise regardless of nurses’ experience of high social support. Therefore the study demonstrates that a combination of demand, control and support is essential to the understanding of an organization’s psychosocial work environment.

  • 1150.
    Berggren, Johan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Palmqvist, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter vid vård av vuxna i livets slutskede: En litteraturbaserad studie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sjuksköterskan arbetar nära vuxna patienter i livets slutskede där försök till läkande behandling gått över till en palliativ behandling. Många av dessa patienter har en komplicerad symtombild som kräver kunskaper i symtomhantering och de har också ofta oro, ångest och funderingar kring existentiella frågor som sjuksköterskan kan behöva hantera.Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att vårda vuxna patienter i livets slutskedeMetod: Metoden som valdes var en litteraturbaserad studie grundat på kvalitativ forskning, baserat på tolv vetenskapliga artiklar. 

    Resultat: Ur analysen framträdde tre kategorier såsom Frustration, skicklig kommunikatör, få till ett nära samarbete med åtta underkategorier.

    Slutsats: Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter vid vård i livets slutskede påvisar betydelsen av att relationer mellan patienten, anhöriga och vårdpersonal skapas. 

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