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  • 10451.
    Westerlund, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Holmberg, Carl Johan
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Gastric Bypass: Den postoperativa vägen mot hälsa2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity has been rapidly increasing and so has the number of Gastric Bypass (GBP) surgeries. Not only was the individuals’ physical health affected negatively, the perceived health took its toll as well. For some individuals GBP was a last resort to a healthy life.

    Aim: The aim of this study is to illustrate what patients perceive increase health in their daily life after Gastric Bypass.

    Method: Five autobiographies were analyzed using a qualitative analysis described by Dahlborg-Lyckhage.

    Result:  The analysis showed the importance of support after GBP. It consisted of three different types: acquaintances, support groups and religion. The surgery was considered a new beginning, with a new “you” and a new healthier lifestyle. Unfortunately the food urges didn’t always disappear. To satisfy the urges some turned to alcohol and drugs. To avoid this kind of behavior patients needed realistic goals to ensure a healthy recovery.

    Discussion: To ensure the patient well-being it was important to ensure the patient has proper support. The nurse should inform the patient about support groups as well as the risks of addiction.

    Conclusion: The result illustrated what GBP patients need in order to obtain health after surgery.

  • 10452.
    Westerlund, Johanna
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Uppfattningen av aktivitetsbaserade arbetsplatser: En kvantitativ studie om hur aktivitetsbaserade arbetsplatser uppfattas av anställda inom en kunskapsintensiv organisation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Technological development in combination with organizations becoming increasingly knowledge-intensive, has given rise to new ways of working that call for new ways of designing workplaces. The modern office concept activity-based workplaces means that all workplaces are designed according to the overall work tasks that occur within the organization. Earlier research and studies show several advantages with the concept, but few of them correspond to how the employees perceive it in practice. Hence, the purpose of the current study is to investigate how employees in a knowledge-intensive organization perceive an activity-based workplace. To generate an overall picture of how employees in a knowledge-intensive organization perceive an activity-based workplace, a quantitative method in the form of a web-based survey was used. Respondents consisted of employees in an audit firm and the result reinforces previous research on the subject, where benefits such as better communication and collaboration increases, while on the other hand creates concentration difficulties for many employees. It also turns out that employees adapt differently to the new concept depending on how involved they feel they have been in the design of the activity-based workplace. Furthermore, the result indicates that certain factors that are important for employees to appreciate their workplace, such as being able to regulate airing, light and noise levels where they work, disappear due to the implementation of the activity-based workplace. In sum, the study confirms previous research, showing that the activity-based workplace is not suitable for all employees and would need to be further developed and adapted in order to benefit all parts of an organization.

  • 10453.
    Westerlund, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Franzén, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Vad attraherar kvinnliga IT-studenter vid val av arbetsplats?: En kvantitativ jämförande studie mellan män och kvinnors preferenser vid val av arbetsplats2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's labor market, it is important for organizations growth to both recruit and keep talented people and the understanding of what is decisive for a person when choosing where to seek employment, is therefore more important than ever. Although Sweden is ranked as one of the world's leading countries in terms of gender equality and IT is one of the country's largest professions, women only account for one-fifth of all those working in the profession. One reason why there is a lack of women in the industry, according to previous studies, may be that men and women´s preferences in choosing a workplace differ. Previous studies show that men and women have different preferences in choosing a workplace and it may be one of the reasons why they choose to work in different industries. Basically, we chose to investigate whether there are differences between men and women's preferences, which could be the reason for the lack of women working in IT in the automotive industry. In order to find out, we have investigated the preferences of men and women in the choice of workplace as well as the differences between men and women's perceptions of the automotive industry. A quantitative survey in the form of an inquiry was conducted and the results showed that the discrepancy between men and women's preferences is low and that prejudices such as previous research on women's relation to IT show are not fully correct.

  • 10454.
    Westerlund, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Nieminen, Tapani
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Marknadskommunikation: Sinnesmarknadsföring inom klädbutiker beroende på om den är riktad mot män eller kvinnor2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom att tillämpa sinnesmarknadsföring i butikens marknadskommunikation så kan konsumenterna bli mottagliga för det budskapet som sänds ut till dem. Däremot är det få marknadsförare som idag arbetar aktivt med sinnesmarknadsföring. Detär en viktig del i att driva en butik då denna kommunikation kan vara en helt avgörande faktor i hur människan upplever butiken och produkterna. Syftet meduppsatsen är att analysera hur butikschefer tillsammans med medarbetarna arbetar med sinnesmarknadsföring samt hur konsumenterna påverkas av detta. Uppsatsens undersökning kommer att ge svar på hur olika marknadsföringssätt skiljer sig beroende på vem den riktar sig mot. Frågan som kommer att besvaras i uppsatsen är: Hur reagerar män och kvinnor på budskap som har till avsikt att påverkaderas sinnen?

  • 10455.
    Westerlund, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Magnusson, Ulrika
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Distriktssköterskors erfarenheter av att främja egenvårdsförmågan hos äldre patienter med diabetes typ 2: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Diabetes type 2 is a disease which is growing in the society and among elders. Many of these need care in the form of home healthcare. Home healthcare is a care form which is increasing as the hospitals have lesser hospital beds. This increases the demands of home healthcare and its resources. Self-care is a central part within the diabetes-care and when well-functioning it can reduce the risk of diabetes-related complications. Elderly though, have a more difficult time to maintain good self-care abilities due to the natural ageing and other possible diseases.Aim: The aim of this study was to illustrate district-nurses experiences of promoting self-care abilities among elderly patients with diabetes type 2 in home health-care settings. Method: Data were analyzed with an inductive approach by a qualitative content analysis. The data collection was made through interviews with ten district-nurses active in home health-careResults: From the analysis appeared a theme; the importance of enabling small diabetes-related lifestyle changes, and three categories; The elderlies limitations to self-care, Individualized self-care-guidance and Cooperation between different professions with seven subcategories.Conclusion: The study shows that the district-nurses have a supportive role in promoting patients self-care abilities. They cooperate with other professions to provide tools and measures needed for promoting their independency and opportunities for self-care.

  • 10456.
    Westerlund, Sara
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Söderlind, David
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Anhörigvårdares upplevelser vid palliativ hemsjukvård2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10457.
    Westher, Elina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Wester, Victoria
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Personers erfarenheter av dagligt liv efter en Gastric ByPass-operation: En narrativ analys av bloggar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity is a threat against public health and has grown rapidly the last decades. Many surgeries against obesity are done in Sweden which may reduce disease outcomes as well as providing an improved quality of life. There are different types of obesity surgery where gastric bypass is the most common. Health is connected to self-perception which is important for those who choose to undergo surgery. Self-treatment are used to maintain health in daily life.

    Objective: The aim of this study was to describe people´s experiences of everyday life after a gastric bypass surgery.

    Method: The method used was a narrative analysis of six blogs written by women.

    Result: Three categories emerged from the analysis; adjust to a new daily life, difficulties to live a normal life and co-actors in the continued planning with seven subcategories.

    Conclusion: The study’s results have generated information that can be advantageously used to understand how people who have undergone a gastric bypass surgery experiencing daily life. This knowledge can help nurses to get a deeper understanding of these people, be able to apply patient-centered care and therefore operate good care.

  • 10458.
    Westholm, Marianne
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    RESAN TILL E-HANDEL: en inventering av hinder i arrangörsdrivna e-handelsprojekt2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att definiera hinder i arrangörsdrivna e-handelsprojekt, dvs projekt som initieras och drivs av annan än den egentlige kunden.. Ett av de primära målen i många av de arrangörsdrivna e-handelsprojekten är att öka kunskapen om Internet och e-handel i det privata näringslivet.

    Inom ramen för denna rapport har två arrangörsdrivna e-handelsprojekt studerats med hjälp av intervjuer. Sammanlagt 14 stycken intervjuer har genomförts och respondenterna har representerat de tre aktörsroller (arrangör, leverantör, och medlemsföretag), som definierats i rapporten. Den efterföljande analysen har utförts med hjälp av en kvalitativ metod, och har tagit sin utgångspunkt i fyra definierade huvudkategorier av hinder:

    · tekniska

    · resursbetingade

    · organisatoriska

    · individrelaterade

    Dessa huvudkategorier har var och en förgrenats i ett antal underliggande nivåer tills en nivå nåtts där vidare förgreningar inte haft något ytterligare förklaringsvärde. Sammanlagt har ett drygt fyrtiotal specifika hinder kunnat definieras. Det största antalet faller under kategorierna organisatoriska och individrelaterade hinder.

  • 10459.
    Westin Kornblad, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Larm, Marita
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Pedagogers utsagor och resonemang om mötet med barn som är identifierade med språkstörning.2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important tasks of school is to teach all children to read. The aim of thisstudy is to elucidate and to analyze the statements and arguments, of the pedagogues,concerning meeting with children with identified language disorder. We want to spotwhat is said to be of significance in order to stimulate these students' readingdevelopment in the first to the third grade. In order to find answers, to the questions ofthe issues, we have used a qualitative method with unstructured interviews. In the studyfive pedagogues were interviewed, all of them with experience of working with studentswith language disorder. The result shows that the opinion of the respondents, aboutwhat is of significance in order to stimulate the reading development of these students isthe relationship to the student, to meet on the level of the student, organizationflexibility, amount experience, external help and parent collaboration. With support ofschedules the student’s individual reading development can be followed and the workaccordingly organized by the pedagogues. The difficulties influence their learningthrough the years and primary their reading development. Therefore, the strength of thestudent and the using of the five senses must be taken to heart in the education, in orderto better incorporate reading. Of great importance for reading development, of studentswith language disorder, is tailored, structured and joyful stimulus of the language, inways of variation and also the student’s motivation. Fundamental, as the pedagoguesstress in the statements, is the need of information before meeting with these students,the importance of linguistic awareness and the part taking of the parents.

  • 10460.
    Westin, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Encounters in nursing homes: Experiences from nurses, residents and relatives2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The care of residents in nursing homes (special housing) is a major challenge for the nursing profession, especially as the population of older people has increased in recent decades. One important aim of this care is to promote the wellbeing and security of the residents. Encounters between residents, nurses and relatives are one important and frequent activity in the daily care of the residents. Available knowledge shows that the outcome of these encounters can affect the quality of care both in positive and negative ways. The meaning of these encounters is still a fairly unknown topic. The reason for conducting research on the meaning of encounters in nursing homes is mainly due to the lack of research with this focus and a need to improve understanding and knowledge about nursing home care with an emphasis on the meaning of encounters.

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the experiences of encounters between nurses, residents, their relatives and other significant persons in order to reach a deeper understanding of the meaning of these encounters in nursing homes. A hermeneutic method was used for all four studies in this thesis (I–IV). The hermeneutic method was inspired by Hans George Gadamer and his philosophical hermeneutics. The hermeneutic method provides opportunities to interpret the meaning of human language. All data from participants in this thesis were collected through open-ended interviews with nurses, residents and relatives in four nursing homes in a municipality in Western Sweden in 2004-2005. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim.

    The main results of the original papers showed that the meaning of was interpreted and illuminated as the good encounter (I–IV) and the bad encounter (I–IV). In this thesis, encounters between people in nursing homes have been shown to be important for residents’ everyday life in terms of being visible and confirmed but also for nurses’ and relatives’ need to be visible and confirmed as significant persons in the care for the resident. Nurses play an important role in encounters with residents and their relatives in order to make the residents visible and to maintain his/her respect and dignity as a human being in the nursing home. It is therefore important for nurses to establish intentions for being able to contribute to the good encounter. Being present, attentive and open in the encounter with residents and their relatives and listening to their thoughts is the start of a caring action that will result in making the residents visible and confirmed.

     

    It is of great importance to realize that there are both good and bad encounters in a nursing home context, which makes certain demands on the nurses’ competence to be able to meet the resident with an open mind as an effort to achieve the good encounter, which means to see the resident as someone belonging somewhere. Accordingly, it is an urgent matter to implement knowledge about the meaning of encounters in this caring context, knowledge that can probably be transferred to nurses working in other forms of long-term care. This thesis can be seen as a contribution to generating knowledge and providing new understanding that can facilitate the development of such nursing competence; knowledge in the art of caring that gives a deeper understanding of how fundamental each encounter can be for making residents and relatives visible and confirmed as an effort to maintain good quality in the care of residents in nursing homes.

  • 10461.
    Westin, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Danielson, Ella
    Sahlgrens Acad, Inst Hlth & Care Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden / Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Hlth Serv, Östersund, Sweden.
    Encounters in Swedish nursing homes: a hermeneutic study of residents' experiences2007In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 172-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. This paper is a report of a study to illuminate and interpret the meaning of residents' experiences of encounters with nurses in nursing homes.

    Background. A large number of older people suffer from illness and become dependent on other people in their daily living. These people are often in need of care in nursing homes. It is assumed that encounters between nurses and residents are of importance in how residents experience care in nursing homes.

    Method. Twelve residents from three nursing homes in Sweden were interviewed in 2004–2005 about their experiences in encounters with nurses. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. A hermeneutic method was used to describe and interpret the meaning of residents' experiences.

    Findings. Three themes emerged: 'being somebody', 'being nobody' and 'being in a community'. The encounters had both positive and negative influences on residents, expressed as being somebody and belonging somewhere or being nobody and not being seen as a person or simply being left out of things. Encounters between residents and nurses have a mutual dependency where residents certainly have some influence on the relationship. The nurses have both an influence on the relationship and a professional responsibility for the outcome of encounters with residents.

    Conclusion. The insights gained from the study can guide nurses in their encounters with residents in nursing homes so that they feel respected as unique human beings and part of a community.

  • 10462.
    Westin, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Danielson, Ella
    Nurses’ experiences of caring encounters with older people living in Swedish nursing homes2006In: International Journal of Older People Nursing, ISSN 1748-3735, E-ISSN 1748-3743, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 3-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim of the study was to describe and interpret the meaning of nurses' experiences of caring encounters with residents in nursing homes.

    Background. Life for residents in nursing homes can be characterized as a process of decreased physical and psychological resources. Therefore, encounters with nurses are important activities for providing meaning and security for the residents. Research in this field has previously focused on communication, attitudes and job satisfaction, but gives limited knowledge about what the human encounters in this context mean for the nurses.

    Method. A hermeneutic method was used in this study. Interviews were conducted with 14 nurses from two nursing homes about their experiences of caring encounters. The transcribed interview texts were interpreted as a whole.

    Results. In the interpretation of the text concerning the meaning of nurses' experiences of encounters with resident's four themes and 11 subthemes emerged. The comprehensive interpretation mainly showed possible ways available being present, being significant and being aware of opportunities for the nurse to find meaning in the encounter with the resident, but impossible ways as being inadequately were also revealed.

    Conclusion. This study shows the importance of caring encounters between nurses and residents in nursing homes. The good encounters provide various possible ways for nurses to find meaning and a sense of communion with residents. However, bad encounters, described as being inadequate, were found to inhibit nurses from finding meaning in their encounters with residents.

    Relevance to clinical practice. Meeting the needs of older people in nursing homes requires special knowledge about the importance of the caring encounter. Therefore, nurses in this care context need supervision and continuous education in order to gain relevant knowledge about the meaning of caring encounters for themselves and residents.

  • 10463.
    Westin, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Sundler, Annelie Johansson
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalens University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Students' experiences of learning in relation to didactic strategies during the first year of a nursing programme: a qualitative study2015In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 15, article id 49Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In university undergraduate nursing programmes, didactic strategies that enable students to learn nursing skills, solve problems and develop reflective and critical thinking and practice are needed. The aim of this study was to explore how different didactic strategies support nursing students’ experiences of learning during the first year of a reconstructed nursing curriculum.

    Methods

    This study employed a qualitative approach. The data were gathered through written narratives that were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results

    Nursing students’ experiences of learning through different didactic strategies, were evident in the text. These perspectives were organised into the following themes: To focus on the patient perspective and paying more attention to others, Learning from discussions and reflections on one’s own learning, Training for the professional role and becoming more courage, and Gaining insights into nursing and increasing one’s self-awareness. The education increased the students’ self-awareness, which helped them to pay greater attention to patients and their relative. During the learning process, the students became more courageous, reflected and discovered their shortcomings.

    Conclusion

    Stated didactic strategies supported a broad base of knowledge on nursing and the professional role of nurses. Educators are challenged to strengthen meaningful learning in nursing and to facilitate the progression of nursing programmes.

  • 10464.
    Westin, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Öhrn, Ingbritt
    University of Gothenburg, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Sweden.
    Danielson, Ella
    Mid Sweden University.
    Residents' experiences of encounters with relatives and significant persons: A hermeneutic study2012In: Nursing and Health Sciences, ISSN 1441-0745, E-ISSN 1442-2018, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 495-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore and interpret the meaning of residents’ experiences of encounters with their relatives and other significant persons in nursing homes. Twelve residents in three different nursing homes in a western Sweden municipality were interviewed. The method used was hermeneutical text analysis. Three themes emerged in the interpretation of the text: being pleased, being someone, and being inconvenient. These themes were also described through seven subthemes: to be happy to have someone, to make someone else happy, going back in life, to be together in a community, not being alone, to be disconnected, and to be a burden.The study concludes that it is important for nurses in nursing homes to develop a deeper insight into what various social contacts can mean for residents. To develop this knowledge, it is important that nurses in nursing homes can be educated, and supported by clinical supervision, in relation to residents’ experiences of encounters with relatives and other significant persons.

  • 10465.
    Westin, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Öhrn, Ingbritt
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Danielson, Ella
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Visiting a nursing home: Relatives' experiences of encounters with nurses2009In: Nursing Inquiry, ISSN 1320-7881, E-ISSN 1440-1800, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 318-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to explore and interpret the meaning of relatives' experiences of encounters with nurses when visiting residents in nursing homes. Thirteen relatives of residents in three nursing homes in Sweden were interviewed. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The method used was hermeneutical text analysis. Four themes emerged in the analysis and interpretation of the whole text: 'being paid attention to', 'being ignored', 'being involved' and 'being safe and secure'. A further interpretation of the findings shows a deeper understanding of the meaning of relatives. This meaning was revealed as being invited into an encounter with nurses and gave a sense of community but the opposite was being ignored and left outside. This study gives a deeper understanding of the meaning of encounters between relatives and nurses in nursing homes; it also illuminates how these encounters also can affect the care of the residents. This new understanding can hopefully offer support for nurses during their encounters with relatives and optimise the ability to provide a positive outcome for residents in nursing homes.

  • 10466.
    Westin, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Activities to Support Sustainable Inclusive Game Design Processes2020In: EAI Endorsed Transactions on Creative Technologies, ISSN 2409-9708, Vol. 6, no 20, article id e4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The problem addressed in this work is the lack of knowledge of what inclusive game design would mean in practice within existing design processes of game companies. A pilot project was devised to involve both the game industry and disabled people.

    OBJECTIVES: The goal in this study was to identify activities that constitute the biggest obstacles to realising sustainable design processes for inclusive game design.

    METHODS: The study is mainly based on two full-day workshops with the game industry and three game studios, three organisations of disabled youth and authorities.

    RESULTS: Five activities were identified in the analysis of the workshops: 1) Find opportunities for inclusive game design; 2) Raise awareness about inclusive game design; 3) Handle integrity and security; 4) Recruit the right competence; and 5) Adapt workplaces and tools.

    CONCLUSION: The five main activities should be considered to achieve sustainable inclusive game design processes.

  • 10467.
    Westin, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Towards Sustainable Inclusive Game Design Processes2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While many studies have been done about creation of accessible games, they have mainly been conducted in an academic context and represents a gap between game research and the game industry. The pilot project presented in this paper (PowerUp) addresses inclusive design by involving both the game industry and disabled people. The goal is to identify activities that constitute the biggest obstacles to realising sustainable design processes for inclusive game de- sign (IGD). Four activities were identified through two full-day workshops with the game industry and game studios, disabled people and authorities: 1) Find op- portunities for IGD with disabled people; 2) Handle integrity and security of dis- abled people; 3) Recruit the right competence among disabled people; and 4) Adapt workplaces and tools for IGD processes. These activities are tentative and will hopefully be subject to discussion and further development to achieve sus- tainable inclusive game design.

  • 10468.
    Westlund, Kristina
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    The Mirror Neuron System and Its Role in Autism Spectrum Disorder2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The discovery of mirror neurons and the mirror neuron system is one of the most interesting breakthroughs in the field of neuroscience in recent years. The topic stretches over a wide spectrum of research fields but one of the more prominent areas is concerned with the role of mirror neurons in autism spectrum disorder. It is hypothesized that an impaired mirror neuron system may be one of the main causes underlying the deficits seen in autistic individuals. Parallel to the broken mirror theory of autism there are critical voices claiming there is not enough empirical evidence to support such a theory. Research carried out in the area seems to offer support for both contradictory approaches making it hard to conclude the definite role of mirror neurons in this developmental disorder. Future research may offer conclusive answers concerning the role of the mirror neuron system in autism spectrum disorder as well as other important questions regarding the functional properties of the brain areas under question.

  • 10469.
    Westman, Jolin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Skiftarbetes inverkan på sjuksköterskors hälsa: En litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Shift work affects the circadian rhythm. Working night shift can, for instance, result in a disrupted circadian rhythm, which can have adverse effects on health. Nurses are a particularly vulnerable group in health care since they often work shifts.

     

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore how nurses are affected by shift work and what effects of shift work can have on nurses' health.

     

    Method The work was carried out as a literature review with a systematic approach, in which 10 scientific articles were selected from the databases; Academic Search Elite, CINAHL and MEDLINE. The articles were examined, analyzed, results were summarized and conclusions were drawn.

     

    Results Many nurses, often regardless of the type of shift work they have, suffer from insomnia, fatigue and gastrointestinal problems. Short rest between shifts and workload is mentioned in several articles as cause to the problems.

     

    Discussion Short rest between shifts can be a major contributing factor to the problems, circadian rhythm and shift work itself may not affect health as much as short rest and too little time for recovery in between shifts.

  • 10470.
    Westrin, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Förtroendeingivande design2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet handlar om vilka aspekter, grafiska såväl som kringliggande faktorer, som användare anser inger förtroende för en e-handelswebbsida. Då mycket litteratur kring förtroendeingivande aspekter och designriktlinjer är tio till 20 år gamla, är syftet med detta arbete att tillhandahålla en grund för framtida forskning inom området att utgå ifrån då det är viktigt att designriktlinjer hålls uppdaterade och det därför krävs forskning inom området. Vilka aspekter som inger förtroende hos användarna undersöktes genom intervjuer och enkäter med studenter som deltagare för respektive datainsamlingsmetod. Resultaten från studien visar att det är många olika aspekter som påverkar förtroendet, däribland företagets rykte, vilken information som finns på sidan samt hur webbsidan ser ut. Dessa tre aspekter nämndes även av litteraturen som förtroendeingivande, vilket visar på en viss överensstämmelse mellan de gamla designriktlinjerna och svaren som studiens deltagare tillhandahöll. 

  • 10471.
    Westroth, Kria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Khessib, Merja
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Skolsköterskors erfarenheter av att stödja elever som upplever skoltrötthet inom grund- och gymnasieskola2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Skoltrötthet är ett symtom på att någonting inte står rätt till. Det finns orsaker som påverkar  och  ger  konsekvenser  vid  skoltrötthet.  Elever  själva  anger  att  hög  studietakt  och otillräckligt stöd kan vara anledning till skoltrötthet. Skolhälsovården har en viktig stödjande funktion. Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva skolsköterskors erfarenheter av att stödja elever som upplever skoltrötthet inom grund- och gymnasieskola. Metod:  Data  analyserades  med  kvalitativ  innehållsanalys  med  induktiv  ansats  beskriven  av Graneheim och Lundman. Åtta intervjuer genomfördes med skolsköterskor. Resultat: Ur analysen av datamaterialet framträdde fem kategorier såsom; kartlägger elevens svårigheter, engagerar föräldrarna, följer upp studiemiljön, har en respektfull  inställning och reflekterar över egna insatser, med 13 underkategorier. Konklusion:   Resultaten   av   denna   studie   kan   bidra   till   att   utveckla   och   förbättra skolsköterskor  möjlighet  att  ge  stöd  till  skoltrötta  elever.  De  kan  även  utgöra  grund  för riktlinjer vid hantering av skoltrötthet så att elever inte utelämnas från stödinsatser.

  • 10472.
    Wetterbrandt, Oskar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Förmedling av känslor genom animation på simplistisk modell: En studie med avsikt att utöka användningsområden för traditionell lära inom animation2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker ifall det är möjligt att illustrera känslor genom animation på en simplistisk modell, i detta fallet en kub. Animationerna som genomförs baseras i Disneys animationsprinciper samt Labans rörelseteori, två olika teorier angående hur högkvalitativ animation kan skapas och analyseras. Två animationer skapades, en som är tänkt att illustrera sorg och en som är tänkt att illustrera glädje. Dessa animationer tillsammans med en kort enkät nådde 84 respondenter och fick väntat resultat. Majoriteten av respondenterna läste in känslor i animationerna, men ett par av respondenterna som läste in känslor i animationerna läste in andra känslor än de som var tänkta att representeras. Slutsatsen är att det är möjligt att förmedla känslor genom animation på en simplistisk modell, men arbetet kan utökas ytterligare genom att nå ut till fler, basera animationerna på en bredare vetenskaplig grund samt att animationerna i sig recenseras och revideras av fler animatörer.

  • 10473.
    Wetterström Stålarm, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Jag nöjer mig med godkänt: En studie om elevers mål mot betyget A eller E2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on examining why some students “settle for E”. Why do some students choose to strive for the grade E and others for A in the context of theoretical exams? Four students at a vocational upper secondary school program have been interviewed in this qualitative study to understand which motivational aspects that can influence students in their studies. The results show that students value the ratings differently, one student has doubts about the ability to perform an A, and students are influenced by their classmates’ motivation to study. The discussion pointed out the value of feedback and that students rather should be encouraged for their efforts rather than for their personal characteristics.

  • 10474.
    White, Stuart
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Narcissistic chief executive officers and corporate acquisitions: An upper echelons perspective2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how chief executive officer narcissism impacts the organizations strategic decisions and outcomes. Rooted in the idea that the organization is a reflection of its top managers, I theorize that narcissistic chief executive officers may influence the decision process leading to corporate acquisitions. Furthermore, taking into account the Dotcom bubble and subprime-crash, research on merger waves is incorporated into the research framework as an outside of the organization effect impacting organizational outcomes. Using a sample of 116 acquisitions by 60 chief executive officers at public listed U.S. firms this is tested from 1994-2017. The results show little to no connection between chief executive officer narcissism and corporate acquisitions in total, international acquisitions or through truly large acquisitions. Though there is a positive connection between observable characteristics such as education and age influencing the decision to acquire firms. When comparing the sample of 116 acquisitions to a general market sample of 4379 acquisitions, a connection to merger wave theory is identified.

  • 10475.
    Wibeck, Eleonore
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Nydélius, Loui
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ljussättnings- och andra behovslösningar för applikation på dörrar2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a degree project for a bachelor in integrated product development. A work carried out during spring 2009 made by two design engineer students at the University of Skövde. The degree project has been done cooperating with a company that produces doors. The aim of the project has been to find a new way of implementing light and other need solutions to a door.

    One main part of the project involves finding and identifying the user’s needs which later were the foundation for the final outcome. With this as a start, a development phase began which consists of an iterative process with methods of creativity. This process has resulted in different conceptual ideas which has all been evaluated and finally reduced into four solutions. These have been visualized by Cad-software which have been chosen for its ability to show materials and constructions in an easy way.

    The final concepts has further on been developed in areas like abrasion resistance, choice of materials, calculation costs of components, control of existing patent and so on. This degree project define the design process from the first gathering of data to the final result and also a description of all the methods used in the project.

  • 10476.
    Wiberg, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Motivation: Definitioner, neurala mekanismer och nucleus accumbens roll i motivation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om människans drivkrafter och vad som ligger bakom våra handlingar har en lång historia och ju mer man har försökt att förklara och definiera begreppet motivation desto mer komplext tycks det ha blivit. Den här uppsatsens syfte är att ge en förståelse till komplexiteten kring problematiken om begreppet motivation. Detta görs genom att belysa dess djupa rötter i filosofins och psykologins värld samt lyfta fram några av motivationsteorierna ur den omfattande breda litteraturen som skrivits om ämnet. Vidare genom att belysa vad den moderna neurovetenskapliga forskningen har tillfört i studierna om motivation. Resultatet visar på att de gamla klassiska motivationsteorierna än idag influerar på ämnet. Självbestämmandeteorin (SDT) visar på att det finns olika typer av motivation och att vi föds med tre psykologiska behov som ligger till grund för en individs intrinsiska och extrinsiska motivation. Den affektiva neurovetenskapen visar på att det finns en ömsesidig interaktion mellan kognition, affektion och beteende som baseras på djupa evolutionära emotionella rötter djupt in i det limbiska systemet. Bevis finns för att nucleus accumbens (NAc) spelar en viktig roll i val av handlingsalternativ som underlättar och effektiviserar målorienterat beteende samt har både exciterande och inhiberande funktion på beteende.

  • 10477.
    Wiberg, Gustav
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Open Source, Pedagogik och Teknik: rekommendation av pedagogisk OS-programvara2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning är att erhålla relevanta frågeställningar som ska utgöra engrund för att ge en rekommendation på en pedagogisk Open Source-programvara som stödjere-learning. En utvärderingsmodell skapas för att få fram ett relevant resultat baseras på svarenpå dessa frågeställningar. Utvärderingsmodellen tillämpas i en fallstudie för att visa enpraktisk användning av modellen. Det framgår vad som är relevant att tänka på vidinförskaffande av en Open Source-programvara som ska vara så pedagogisk som möjligt.

  • 10478.
    Wiberg, Olivia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Smedman, Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Kvalitativ jämställdhet på ledande positioner: En studie om kvinnliga chefers ledarskap2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problem: The background of this study is that there still exists a qualitative inequality in senior positions. Although women both have the ability and willingness to act as managers, they constitute a minority in these positions. Consequently, there is a problem when companies do not take advantage of female managers and their skills to the same extent as with male managers. Therefore, the problem investigated in this study is: Why are women still in a minority among managers in senior positions?

    Purpose and Method: The purpose of this study is to create a deeper understanding of the characteristics female managers ́ leadership from an employee perspective. This understanding will lead to suggestions on how a business can work to promote qualitative equality in management positions. The method used for the study was a qualitative method in which data was collected through semi-structured interviews with female managerial employees at different branches in Western Sweden.

    Empiricism: The empirical result has shown indications of how employees perceive their managers as well as the properties that mirror their leadership. The results have shown that the properties could be divided into three areas of skills that managers should possess in order to implement a leadership that is considered beneficial to employees and make them satisfied at work. These properties are: personal-, interpersonal- and group-oriented skills that consist of a variety of properties.

    Analysis: The analysis have shown that there are both similarities and differences between this study and the results of earlier studies. Where these differences and similarities have enabled that the purpose and the problem for this study has been answered.

    Conclusion: The conclusion of this study’s results have shown that it is important to work for qualitative equality within the company, as the results showed that female managers apply effective leadership that consists of a combination of both male and female leadership, a so-called "double combination". This thereby indicates that women can be effective managers just as well as men. 

  • 10479.
    Wiberg, Tommy
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Effektivisering av lagringsstrukturer i RDB21997Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    RDB2 är en relationsdatabashanterare som har utvecklats på Högskolan i Skövde för att användas i undervisningssyfte. Åtkomsten av data i den nuvarande versionen av RDB2, version 0.93, anses vara ineffektiv. Lagringsstrukturen är uppbyggd med hjälp av en lagringsteknik som kallas hashing. Hashingen påverkar hur datan lagras fysiskt. När hashing inte kan användas måste åtkomsten ske sekvensiellt vilket leder till att åtkomsttiden blir dålig. Genom att införa ytterligare lagringsstrukturer kan åtkomsten av data även ske med hjälp av dessa strukturer.

    Syftet med examensarbetet är att visa att ett införande av en logisk lagringsstruktur kommer att leda till att åtkomsten av data kommer att bli effektivare med avseende på snabbheten jämfört med den nuvarande versionen av RDB2.

    Tre olika metoder på hur tuppelstrukturen kan se ut för ett index över attribut som innehåller icke-unika värden har behandlats. Dessa tre metoder är täta index, index med variabelt stora indextuppler och index som använder indirekta indexblock. För strukturen på indexet har en-nivå index, fler-nivå index och balanserade träd granskats.

    Den metod som har valts att införa i RDB2 är ett logiskt en-nivå index med indirekta indexblock. Ett logiskt index för att underlätta rehashing och ett en-nivå index för att det är den enklaste av metoderna och kan relativt enkelt byggas ut till ett fler-nivå index. Anledningen till valet av att använda indirekta indexblock var att denna metod leder till enkel lagring och radering av tuppler samt lider varken av redundans eller ett behov av att införa nya läsfunktioner.

    Hypotesen att åtkomsten skulle förbättras om en logisk lagringsstruktur infördes i RDB2 har genom teoretiska tester visat sig vara sann. Att det finns specialfall där den sekvensiella sökningen är snabbare än en sökning via index ändrar inte det faktum att det nästan undantagslöst äreffektivare att söka via index än sekvensiellt.

  • 10480.
    Wiberger, Maja
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth Epidemiol & Community Med, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth Epidemiol & Community Med, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lisner, Lauren
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth Epidemiol & Community Med, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mehlig, Kirsten
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth Epidemiol & Community Med, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Papoutsou, Stalo
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Hunsberger, Monica
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth Epidemiol & Community Med, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Children consuming milk cereal drink are at increased risk for overweight: The IDEFICS Sweden study, on behalf of the IDEFICS Consortium2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 518-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aims of this study were to characterize milk cereal drink (MCD) consumption among Swedish children and to investigate the association between MCD and overweight in a longitudinally followed cohort of children over 2 years of age. Methods: In the Swedish cohort from IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary-and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) we examined early feeding practices and weight status when children were aged 2-9 years (2007/2008) and at 2-year follow-up. Weight and height were measured at both time points in 1077 children. Characteristics of MCD consumers were explored with logistic regression. Body mass index (BMI) z-scores at both time points and weight status at follow-up were regressed on explanatory factors using mixed linear and logistic regression, respectively. Results: Nearly 69% of children had consumed MCD. The MCD consumers were more likely than never-consumers to have two native Swedish parents, parents with less than 2 years of post-secondary education, and a shorter period of breastfeeding. MCD consumers had a higher BMI z-score at follow-up compared with baseline (difference in BMI z-score=0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI)= 0.07, 0.17), while the average BMI z-score in non-consumers remained stable over time (0.00, 95% CI= -0.07, 0.07). MCD consumers were nearly five times more likely than non-consumers to become overweight during the follow-up (odds ratio (OR)= 4.78, 95% CI= 1.68, 13.59), independent of breastfeeding. Conclusions: MCD was consumed by the majority of children in this study. MCD consumption is associated with an increased risk for overweight and less exposure to breastfeeding. Our findings motivate future research aimed at investigating how MCD should be recommended.

  • 10481.
    Wiborg, Per
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Jämförelse av olika presentationsteknikers inverkan på precisionsbedömningar gällande avstånd i virtuella och verkliga miljöer2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport behandlar skillnader i bland annat visuell information (som olika djupledtrådar) vilka kan ha betydelse för den visuella upplevelsen och inverkan på till exempel precisionsbedömningar gällande avstånd i både virtuella och verkliga miljöer.

    Rapporten lyfter fram tre olika presentationstekniker som presenterar visuell information i olika utsträckning. Två av presentationsteknikerna, Desktop och CUBE, presenterar två virtuella miljöer. Den tredje presentationstekniken, Verklig, presenterar en verklig miljö. De tre presentationsteknikerna ställs mot varandra i en undersökning gällande eventuella skillnader i precisionsbedömningar (avståndsbedömningar mellan och på olika objekt). Resultatet visar att det föreligger signifikanta skillnader vad gäller precisionsbedömningar mellan den virtuella presentationstekniken Desktop och Verklig samt mellan den virtuella presentationstekniken CUBE och Verklig. Däremot föreligger ingen signifikant skillnad vad gäller precisionsbedömningar mellan de båda virtuella presentationsteknikerna Desktop och CUBE.

  • 10482.
    Wickelgren, Mikael
    Centrum för konsumtionsvetenskap, Handelshögskolan vid Göteborgs universitet.
    Bilen, lågkonjunkturen och morgondagens möjligheter2009In: Konsumtionsrapporten 2009, Göteborg: Centrum för konsumtionsvetenskap, Handelshögskolan vid Göteborgs universitet , 2009, p. 24-26Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10483.
    Wickelgren, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. GRI, Handelshögskolan vid Göteborgs universitet.
    Biltransporter – vår käraste utgift?2011In: Konsumtionsrapporten 2011, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2011, p. 22-25Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10484.
    Wickelgren, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    En skiss över Volvos historia2011In: Volvo i våra hjärtan - hur skall det gå?: En närdiskussion om "nationalklenoden" Volvo / [ed] Sten Jönsson & Mikael Wickelgren, Malmö: Liber, 2011, p. 30-62Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10485.
    Wickelgren, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Requirements for change in consumer car buying practices - observations from Sweden2009In: Paper for the ECEEE (European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy) 2009 Summer Study, 1–6 June 2009, La Colle sur Loup, Côte d'Azur, France, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10486.
    Wickelgren, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Varumärket Volvo2011In: Volvo i våra hjärtan - hur skall det gå?: En närdiskussion om "nationalklenoden" Volvo / [ed] Sten Jönsson & Mikael Wickelgren, Malmö: Liber, 2011, p. 86-114Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10487.
    Wickelgren, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Cäker, Mikael
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Trondheim Business School, Norway.
    How incentive systems arrived in Sweden: a tale of travelling ideas and ghost myths in action2018In: International Journal of Management Concepts and Philosophy, ISSN 1478-1484, E-ISSN 1741-8135, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 67-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and explains how and why incentive systems began spreading in Sweden, despite the differences between the dominating business values in the USA (where incentive systems originated) and Sweden. A ghost myth in Sweden’s national business system explains why it happened when it did. Theories on travelling ideas underemphasise the fact that organisations/countries hold varying and competing ideas of suitable practices at the same time. Ghost myths are important alternative concepts which are activated when contextual circumstances arise for a shift in practices. This research is based on a hermeneutic and qualitative approach using texts and interviews and it highlights the role of ghost myths in terms of how ideas travel and how they are translated in different contexts.

  • 10488.
    Wickelgren, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Cäker, Mikael
    School of business, economics and law, University of Gothenburg.
    The infusion of incentive systems in Sweden - translating ideas from one context to another2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10489.
    Wickelgren, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Tengblad, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Personalledning i detaljhandeln: Ledarskap och medarbetarskap i svenska butiker2012Report (Refereed)
  • 10490.
    Wickerath, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Definitions of an intangible asset: in context with HGB, IFRS and US-GAAP2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

     

    This Bachelor thesis deals with the definition of Intangible Assets in the context of

    financial reporting. The purpose is to integrate intangible assets into the balance

    sheet. After a thorough analysis of the ongoing research shows that there is general

    consensus concerning intellectual property, and general confusion concerning

    knowledge, information and organization capital. Some have what it takes to enter

    balance sheets, while others still lack a holistic concept that is generally accepted

    and fulfils the demand of accounting. Neither of them is reported according to the

    presently available and established knowledge. This thesis shows that a prerequisite

    for an improved reporting is the consequential extension of accounting principles for

    intangible assets. The fact that the term “intangible asset” became a gathering of all

    possible intangible phenomena demands counter-actions. One of its reasons is the

    demand for the measurement of relative performances of intangible assets. This

    thesis shows that reporting absolute figures for intangible assets does not stand in

    contrast with this, but can deliver the necessary data set for a holistic analysis that

    also deals with intangible assets.

     

     

  • 10491.
    Wickerts, L.
    et al.
    Danderyds Univ Hosp, Dept Anaesthesia & Intens Care, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Warrén Stomberg, Margareta
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Brattwall, Metha
    Mölndals Univ Hosp, Dept Anaesthesia, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Jakobsson, Jan
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Physiol & Pharmacol, Sect Anaesthesia & Intens Care, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Coxibs: is there a benefit when compared to traditional non-selective NSAIDs in postoperative pain management?2011In: Minerva Anestesiologica, ISSN 0375-9393, E-ISSN 1827-1596, Vol. 77, no 11, p. 1084-1098Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-modal approach for the management of postoperative pain has become increasingly popular. Strategies to avoid the use of opioids and thus any opioid analgesic related side-effect is an important part of the expansion of ambulatory surgery Combining long acting local anesthesia in the wound area and non-opioid analgesics are today a basic concept in management of day care, short stay patients. Paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is often sufficient to provide satisfactory pain relief after minor and intermediate procedures. The use of multimodal or balanced analgesia has since long been shown to facilitate resumption of activities of daily living. The opioid sparing effects of the addition of NSAIDs to morphine patient-controlled analgesic (PCA) after major surgery has also shown repeatedly. The development and introduction of the most selective cyclo-oxygenase-2-inhibitors (Coxibs) was primarily indicated to reduce the risk and severity of gastrointestinal bleeding. The Coxibs have become an interesting option in postoperative pain management. The less pronounced effect on platelet function and subsequent lower risk for impaired hemeostasis makes them, in theory, a preferred option to the nonselective traditional NSAIDs. The benefit versus risk for a more generalized use of Coxibs must, however, be based on a thorough evaluation of the overall benefits and risks for the use of NSAIDs and a further evaluation on whether the specific therapeutic features of the Coxibs provide benefits outweighing their increased cost. This review aims at providing a background and an overview of the benefits versus risks for the use of Coxibs as part of a multimodal postoperative pain management. (Minerva Anestesiol 2011;77:1084-98)

  • 10492.
    Wickström Ene, Kerstin
    et al.
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden / Departments of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Gunnar
    Departments of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    The Sahlgrenska Academy at Gothenburg University, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gaston Johansson, Fannie
    Johns Hopkins University School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD, USA.
    Sjöström, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Postoperative pain management - the influence of surgical ward nurses2008In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 17, no 15, p. 2042-2050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. To compare pain levels reported by patients with those documented by ward nurses and to find out to what extent the amount of opioids given correlated with the pain level. Secondly, to study if pain management and nurses' approaches to this task had improved during a two-year period, including an educational pain treatment program for ward staff. Background. The management of postoperative pain continues to remain problematic and unsatisfactory and ward nurses play an important role for this task. Design. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive, two-part study based on survey data from both patients and nurses on two urology surgical wards. Methods. Part I of the study included 77 patients and 19 nurses. Part II took place approximately two years later and included 141 patients and 22 nurses. Data were collected the day after surgery by asking patients about 'worst pain' experienced. The pain scores given by the patients were compared with those documented in the patients' records and with the doses of opioids administered. Nurses' approaches to pain management were sought after, by using a categorical questionnaire. Results. The nurses' ability to assess pain in accordance with the patients' reports had increased slightly after two years even if and the number of documented pain scores had decreased. Forty per cent of the nurses reported that they did not use visual analogue scale and that they did not assess pain at both rest and activity, neither did one fourth evaluate the effect of given analgesics. Conclusion. The study showed a discrepancy in pain scoring between nurses and patients, where active treatment was related to nurses' documentation rather than to patients' scoring. Relevance to clinical practice. The study shows a need for more accurate pain assessment, since the patient experiences and suffers pain and the nurse determines upon treatment.

  • 10493.
    Wickström Ene, Kerstin
    et al.
    The Sahlgrenska Acedemy at Göteborg University, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden / Departments of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Gunnar
    Departments of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    The Sahlgrenska Acedemy at Göteborg University, Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Prediction of postoperative pain after radical prostatectomy2008In: BMC Nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 7, no 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a belief that the amount of pain perceived is merely directly proportional to the extent of injury. The intensity of postoperative pain is however influenced by multiple factors aside from the extent of trauma.The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relationship between preoperative factors that have been shown to predict postoperative pain and the self- reports of pain intensity in a population of 155 men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP), and also to investigate if previous pain score could predict the subsequent pain score.Methods: The correlation between potential pain predictors and the postoperative pain experiences during three postoperative days was tested (Pitmans´ test). By use of a logistic regression analysis the probability that a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score at one occasion would exceed 30mm or 70mm was studied, depending on previous VAS score, age, depression and pain treatment method.Results: Age was found to be a predictor of VAS >30mm, with younger patients at higher risk for pain, and preoperative depression predicted VAS >70mm. The probability that VAS would exceed 30mm and 70mm was predicted only by previous VAS value. Day two however, patients with epidural analgesia were at higher risk for experiencing pain than patients with intrathecal or systemic opioid analgesia.Conclusion: The results show that it would be meaningful to identify RP patients at high risk for severe postoperative pain; i.e. younger and/or depressive patients who might benefit from a more aggressive therapy instituted in the very early postoperative period.

     

     

     

     

     

  • 10494.
    Wickström-Ene, Kerstin
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Institution of Health and Care Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden / Departments of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Gunnar
    Departments of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gaston-johansson, Fannie
    Johns Hopkins University, School of Nursing, Baltimore, MD, United States.
    Sjöström, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Pain, psychological distress and health-related quality of life at baseline and 3 months after radical prostatectomy2006In: BMC Nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, E-ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 5, p. Article number 8-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Inadequate management of postoperative pain is common, and postoperative pain is a risk factor for prolonged pain. In addition to medical and technical factors, psychological factors may also influence the experience of postoperative pain.

    Methods

    Pain was measured postoperatively at 24, 48, and 72 hr in hospital and after 3 months at home in 140 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients answered questionnaires about anxiety and depression (HAD scale) and health-related quality of life (SF-36) at baseline and 3 months after surgery.

    Results

    In the first 3 postoperative days, mild pain was reported by 45 patients (32%), moderate pain by 64 (45%), and severe pain by 31 (22%) on one or more days. High postoperative pain scores were correlated with length of hospital stay and with high pain scores at home. Forty patients (29%) reported moderate (n = 35) or severe (n = 5) pain after discharge from hospital. Patients who experienced anxiety and depression preoperatively had higher postoperative pain scores and remained anxious and depressed 3 months after surgery. The scores for the physical domains in the SF-36 were decreased, while the mental health scores were increased at 3 months. Anxiety and depression were negatively correlated with all domains of the SF-36.

    Conclusion

    There is a need for nurses to be aware of the psychological status of RP patients and its impact upon patients' experience of postoperative pain and recovery. The ability to identify patients with psychological distress and to target interventions is an important goal for future research.

  • 10495.
    Widegren, Emma
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Oncol, Inst Clin & Expt Med, SE-58185 Linkoping, Sweden .
    Onnesjo, Sofia
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Oncol, Inst Clin & Expt Med, SE-58185 Linkoping, Sweden .
    Arbman, Gunnar
    Vrinnevi Univ Hosp, Dept Surg, Norrkoping, Sweden .
    Kayed, Hany
    Univ Heidelberg, Inst Clin Radiol & Nucl Med, Univ Hosp Mannheim, Heidelberg, Germany .
    Zentgraf, Hanswalter
    German Canc Res Ctr, D-6900 Heidelberg, Germany .
    Kleeff, Joerg
    Tech Univ Munich, Dept Surg, Munich, Germany.
    Zhang, Hong
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sun, Xiao-Feng
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Oncol, Inst Clin & Expt Med, SE-58185 Linkoping, Sweden .
    Expression of FXYD3 Protein in Relation to Biological and Clinicopathological Variables in Colorectal Cancers2009In: Chemotherapy, ISSN 0009-3157, E-ISSN 1421-9794, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 407-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: FXYD3 is up-/down-regulated in different types of cancers. We examined FXYD3 expression in colorectal cancers and its relationship to biological and clinicopathological variables. Patients and Methods: Expression of FXYD3 protein was immunohistochemically examined in distant normal mucosa (n = 34), adjacent normal mucosa (n = 72), primary tumour (n = 150) and lymph node metastasis (n = 35) from colorectal cancer patients. Results: FXYD3 was highly expressed in primary tumour compared to adjacent normal mucosa (p = 0.02). FXYD3 was or tended to be positively related to the expression of ras (p = 0.02), p53 (p = 0.06), legumain (p = 0.02) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (p = 0.03). Moreover, there was a higher frequency of strong FXYD3 expression in Dukes A-C tumours than in D tumours (p = 0.04). The strong FXYD3 expression tended to predict worse survival in the patients with Dukes A + B tumour (p = 0.07), while there was no such tendency in the patients with Dukes C + D tumour (p = 0.94). The tumours located in the colon had a higher degree of FXYD3 expression than the tumours located in the rectum (p = 0.05). Conclusion: The FXYD3 was associated with certain biological variables and may be involved in the development of the relative earlier stages of colorectal cancers. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 10496.
    Widell, Karin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Hanna, Tornblad
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    "Education is the key of life": A Minor Field Study about the discourses of parental involvement in two Tanzanian primary schools2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Tanzania, the enrolment in school is high but the students’ performance is in general low. Parents are seen as important agents to provide students with opportunities to succeed in school. It is therefore of interest to investigate what is being said about parental involvement (PI) in the Tanzanian school. The aim with this study is to identify and analyse common assumptions about PI in the context of the Tanzanian primary school. We had the opportunity to travel to Tanzania for eight weeks to investigate this. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with eight parents and two teachers about PI were carried out in two rural villages. Questions to the parents about their perception of education were furthermore asked in order to achieve a background for their statements about PI. The study is based on a discourse analytical approach, meaning that the result was obtained through identifying discourses by analysing the respondents’ statements. The analysis resulted in five discourses: Education for the future, PI as a resource, PI as pressures from teachers, PI as a lack of education and PI as paying attention to children’s education. The contents which fill the discourses are discussed in relation to the context of the study as well as perception of the relationship between home and school. The parents in this study value education highly and their involvement is mostly about contributing with financial support. Yet, the teachers are demanding a higher involvement from parents. The low socioeconomic background is a barrier for many parents to become involved. A conscious effort, aimed at getting parents more involved, is needed in order to increase the children’s academic performance.

  • 10497.
    Widhja, Anders
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Svenska företag och Internet1999Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete undersöker jag frågan om hur svenska företags Internetanvändning ser ut samt hur de upplever att de påverkas av Internet. Jag har även gjort en jämförelse i denna fråga mellan företag inom IT-området och företag inom andra områden.

    Rapporten inleds med en genomgång av de användningsområden för Internet som litteraturen anger vara de vanligaste för företag. Vidare presenteras vilka vinster och kostnader som kan härledas från en Internetsatsning, hur det dagliga arbetet kan förändras vid införandet av Internet samt hur företagen sköter arbetet med deras Internetsatsning.

    För att kunna besvara frågan har jag använt mig av telefonintervjuer som metod för att samla in material. 24 svenska företag fick frågor om deras Internetsatsning, 12 företag från IT-området och 12 företag från andra områden.

    Resultatet visar på en relativt stor kunskap om Internet inom svenska företag samt att IT-företagen ligger en bit före företagen med verksamhet inom andra områden än IT vad gäller användandet av Internet.

  • 10498.
    Widsing, Veronica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Grundell, Åsa
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Pedagogers användning av verktyget pekplattan i förskolan: Pekplattan som stöd för barns språkutveckling2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Technology is a big part of every child living in the community, this gives us a responsibility to give children the opportunity to explore and experiment with IT tool touchpad in order to stimulate children's language development in their early years. In the kindergarten curriculum (Lpfö 98 /2010) , it is written that preschool should promote children's development in the simple technology of everyday life (a.a.).

    IT development is constantly moving forward, constantly discovered new amazing applications on the computer tools we use today. The technology is here to stay! How can we communicate our knowledge to the children within the area of ​​use the touchpad when it comes to children's language development?

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the touchpad used in the preschool activities to promote children's language development. The study highlights the authors how educators use the touchpad as a tool for promoting language development of children from a didactic perspective.

    This study is qualitative as the authors have done their own analyzes and interpretations based on observations, and that the authors highlight educators' views and ideas how to use the touchpad interviews. Eleven teachers at three different departments were interviewed and six observations have been carried out.

    The result shows how teachers use the touchpad to promote children's language development. The issues that are important in the study answered by respondents' interview responses and the observations don. The discussion includes the authors ' thoughts on teachers' attitudes to IT tool touchpad. The developed theory in the study are discussed and linked to the purpose of the study and issues.

  • 10499.
    Widström, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Department of Woman's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Retzius väg 13 A, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lilja, Gunilla
    Division Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Karolinska Institutet, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aaltomaa-Michalias, P.
    Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahllöf, A.
    Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lintula, M.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Newborn behaviour to locate the breast when skin-to-skin: a possible method for enabling early self-regulation2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 1, p. 79-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to provide a more detailed analysis of the infant’s behavioural sequence that begins immediately after birth and terminates with grasping the nipple, suckling and then falling asleep. Method:Twenty-eight full-term infants were videotaped immediately after birth. A video protocol was developed to examine infant behaviours identified from five random videotapes. Results:When birth crying had stopped, the babies showed a short period of relaxation and then successively became alert. They went through an ‘awakening phase’, an ‘active phase’ with movements of limbs, rooting activity and looking at the mother’s face, a ‘crawling phase’ with soliciting sounds, a ‘familiarization phase’ with licking of the areola, and a ‘suckling phase’ and last a ‘sleeping phase’. Five factors related to the time spent to locate the breast: more number of looks at the breast 10–20 min after birth (p < 0.0001); and exposure to meperidine (p = 0.0006) related to increased time. Early start of crawling (p = 0,0040); increased number of ‘soliciting sounds’ (p = 0.0022); and performing hand–breast–mouth movements (p = 0.0105) related to shorter time. Conclusion:  Inborn breastfeeding reflexes were depressed at birth, possibly because of a depressed sensory system. It is hypothesized that when the infant is given the option to peacefully go through the nine behavioural phases birth cry, relaxation, awakening, activity, crawling, resting, familiarization, suckling and sleeping when skin-to-skin with its mother this results in early optimalself-regulation.

  • 10500.
    Widéll, Maja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lundberg, Linda
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Konflikter i arbetslag: En studie kring hinder och möjligheter i förhållande till lärarrollen2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study describes, through a qualitative method, the expressions teachers have about conflicts in work groups as a possibility or an obstacle for the teacher role. Furthermore the study aims to give an understanding of the consequence of conflicts for the teacher role. Qualitative interviews were individually conducted with teachers from three different schools teaching children aged between 10-12.

     

    The concept of conflict has during the teacher education mainly discussed through a student perspective. By being in school, the study authors noted that conflicts are also common among teachers, where the effects on various affected professional. In this context, formed an interest around the area, on the basis of whether the conflicts appears as a possibility, and an obstacle to the teacher role.

     

    The result of the study shows that conflicts in teacher teams are described as a possibility, respectively an obstacle in the role as teacher. The managing of a conflict is described as decisive in how the conflicts are considered. The teachers' experience, attitude and knowledge of conflicts in working groups are essential for the results of the conflicts. The teachers express conflicts in working groups mainly as a negative occurrence for the teacher role. Difficulties that can appear concerns cooperation, deficient commitment, the teacher's health and deficient development. In the context the study's results also show the possibilities gained from a conflict in a working group, it encourages increased creativity, improved cooperation and a more successful development work.

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