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  • 101.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The Short Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and its Conjoined structure with the Common Five-Factor Model2017Ingår i: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 372-384Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 102.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg / Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Björkman, Therese
    Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Dark malevolent traits and everyday perceived stress2018Ingår i: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is a factor that greatly impacts our lives. Previous research has examined individual differences in relation to stress. However, research regarding malevolent personality traits in relation to how stress is perceived is limited. The purpose of thepresent study was to investigate relationships between dark malevolent personality traits; psychopathy (EPA), Machiavellianism(MACH-IV), vulnerable narcissism (HSNS), grandiose narcissism (NPI-13), and perceived stress (PSS-10) in a communitysample (N = 346). The results showed a strong positive relationship between vulnerable narcissism and perceived stress, whilegrandiose narcissism and psychopathy showed a small negative relationship with perceived stress. The discussion centers on thatnarcissism should be treated as two separate traits, and that psychopathy and Machiavellianism overlap in relation to theexperience of stress in everyday life.

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  • 103.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Björkman, Therese
    Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Sweden.
    Individuals with dark traits have the ability but not the disposition to empathize2020Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 155, artikel-id 109716Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Empathy is fundamental to social cognition and societal values. Empathy is theorized as having both the ability as well as the disposition to imagine the content of other peoples minds. We tested whether the notorious low empathy in dark personalities (Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism; the Dark Triad) is best characterized by a lack of capacity (ability) or lack of disposition (trait). Data was collected for 278 international participants through an anonymous online survey shared on the online platform LinkedIn, consisting of trait-based Dark Triad personality (SD3) and empathy (IRI), and cognitive ability (ICAR16) and ability-based empathy (MET). Dark personality traits had no relationship with ability-based empathy, but strongly so with trait-based empathy (beta = -0.47). Instead, cognitive ability explained ability-based empathy (beta = 0.31). The finding is that dark personalities in a community sample is normally cognizant to empathize but has a low disposition to do so. This finding may help shed further light on how personality is interlinked with ability.

  • 104.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Sweden.
    Carlander, Anders
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Centre for Finance, School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Who gets ahead in life?: Personality traits and childhood background in economic success2017Ingår i: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 59, s. 164-170Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In many societies around the world, the ideal is that anyone can achieve a successful lifeindependent of family background. An indication of such social mobility could be that personalitycharacteristics have stronger impact than childhood background on economic success.The present study investigated how much of life outcomes (i.e., educationalattainment, annual income, and life outcome satisfaction) were accounted for by adult personalitytraits (the Big Five), when controlled for childhood socio-economic status (SES).The results from a large, representative Swedish sample (N = 5280) showed that personalitytraits (especially neuroticism) were associated as much as or more than childhood SESto annual income and life outcome satisfaction, whereas childhood SES related more toeducational attainment. These results may help facilitate our understanding of the mechanismsbehind individual economic success.

  • 105.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dåderman, A. M.
    University West, Sweden.
    Conceptualizing the structure of FFM personality disorders with empathy2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The new section III in DSM-5 suggests pathological personality traits and impairments in personality functioning such as empathy to be used for identifying personality disorders (PDs). Previous research has also theoretically and empirically advocated that psychopathology is related to the general Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits. The objective of the present study was to investigate the hierarchical structure of the 10 DSM PD categories using the FFM count technique (Miller et al., 2008), and to conceptualize PDs with empathy dimensions. We measured PDs and 4 dimensions of empathy (emphatic concern, perspective-taking, fantasy, and distress) in a medium-sized community sample. The results showed that higher order factors such as externalizing and internalizing could be applied to PDs based on FFM scores. PD could furthermore be conceptualized using two of the empathy dimensions, low emphatic concern and high distress, and specific PD categories could be conceptualized by using distinct dimensions of empathy (e.g., histrionic PD with high fantasy, or dependent PD with high distress). The discussion concludes that PDs based on self-reported FFM show conceptual validity, and that the presence of symptoms of PDs potentially may be screened in the community population by using empathy measures.   

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  • 106.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    Department of Social and Behavioral Studies, University West, Sweden.
    Conceptualizations of Personality Disorders with the Five Factor Model-count and Empathy Traits2017Ingår i: International Journal of Testing, ISSN 1530-5058, E-ISSN 1532-7574, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 141-157Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has long advocated that emotional and behavioral disorders are related to general personality traits, such as the Five Factor Model (FFM). The addition of section III in the latest Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) recommends that extremity in personality traits together with maladaptive interpersonal functioning, such as lack of empathy, are used for identifying psychopathology and particularly personality disorders (PD). The objective of the present study was to measure dispositions for DSM categories based on normal personality continuums, and to conceptualize these with empathy traits. We used a validated FFM-count method based on the five personality factors (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), and related these to 4 empathy traits (emphatic concern, perspective-taking, fantasy, and personal distress). The results showed that FFM-based PD scores overall could be conceptualized using only two of the empathy traits, low emphatic concern and high personal distress. Further, specific dispositions for personality disorders were characterized with distinct empathy traits (e.g., histrionic with high fantasy, and paranoid with low perspective-taking). These findings may have both theoretical and practical implications in capturing potential for personality disorders with ease and efficiency.

  • 107.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Dåderman, Anna M.
    University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Exploring the Relationship Between Honesty-Humility, the Big Five, and Liberal Values in Swedish Students2014Ingår i: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 104-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on the Five-Factor model (Big Five) reports a relationship between personality traits and liberal values, and the trait Agreeableness has demonstrated the strongest relationship. The HEXACO model offers a complement to the Five-factor model with an additional sixth trait of Honesty-Humility. Previous research on the Honesty-Humility trait has reported mixed results with liberal values, and this study set out to resolve this. The work presented here explored the relationship between the Honesty-Humility trait on facet-level (Sincerity, Fairness, Greed-avoidance and Modesty) and liberal values (equality for women, minorities, and socio-economical groups). Data from Swedish students (N = 202), known for their individualistic and liberal mindset, were sampled. There was an overall positive correlation between Honesty-Humility and the strength of liberal values (r = .36), and Honesty-Humility predicted liberal values beyond Agreeableness. We discuss these results in terms of the significance of traits and values in a culture that promotes both individualism and equality.

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  • 108.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Older Persons’ Subjective Evaluations of Care Quality: Three studies Analyzing the National Survey of Swedish Elderly Care2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the proportion of older people in coming years is increasing, and as the organizations of home care and nursing homes grow to manage the expectations from the population, the debate on the quality of elderly care has gained a new momentum. Today, most decision-makers within elderly care in Sweden base their actions on the nation-wide annual quality report on elderly care from the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, Open Comparisons. This research presents findings from this national survey conducted in 2012, including a wide variety of indicators for elderly care services in all Swedish municipalities (N = 324) based on the responses from over 95,000 older persons. Study I presents that structural variables (i.e., budget resources and personnel training) overall did not correlate with older persons’ perceived quality of care, while processual variables (i.e., influence, respect, and access to information) showed moderate to strong correlations. Study II presents that overall satisfaction with care was strongly correlated with evaluation of relationship with care personnel and feelings of safeness. Study III presents an overall municipality quality-index with which comparisons between municipalities can be made, showing that the highest and the lowest ranked municipalities did not differ strongly on indicators of quality (d < 0.6). The conclusion is that there currently exists no reliable and valid measure which manages to tap quality of municipal elderly care, and that developing a new client-care centered climate scale should prove to be fruitful. Seeing how a person-centered theoretical approach is receiving support from this large national sample, implications for extending the theoretical frame of person-centeredness into psychological climate research in organizations is proposed. 

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  • 109.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Rankning av Sveriges kommuners äldreomsorg i Öppna jämförelser2014Ingår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 91, nr 4, s. 323-331Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med den ökande andelen äldre personer i Sverige har diskussionen om kvalitet i äldreomsorgen tagit ny fart. Idag är äldreomsorgsbeslut baserat på den omfattande årsrapporten, Öppna jämförelser, som rankar alla Sveriges kommuner utifrån ett antal kvalitetsindikatorer. Relevant för området sociala studier och hälsa, visar sekundäranalyser av dessa data att Öppna jämförelser gör en missvisande rankning som inte tar hänsyn till hur de äldre har svarat, och inte heller påtalar hur små skillnaderna mellan högst och lägst rankade kommuner är. Genom att använda effektstorleksmått presenteras i artikeln ett nytt och mer korrekt sätt att ranka kommuner. Vidare föreslås i denna artikel att Öppna jämförelser i sina framtida mätningar inkluderar reliabla och valida mått på brukarorienterad omsorg då detta har visat sig ha positiva effekter på äldres upplevelse av omsorgskvalitet.

  • 110.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Safeness and Treatment Mitigate the Effect of Loneliness on Satisfaction with Elderly Care2016Ingår i: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 56, nr 5, s. 928-936Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Maximizing satisfaction among the older persons is the goal of modern individualized elderly care and how to best achieve this is of relevance for anyone planning and providing for elderly care services. Purpose of the study: What predicts satisfaction with care among older persons can be conceived as a function of process (how care is performed), and the older person. Inspired by the long-standing person versus situation debate, the present research investigated the interplay between person- and process aspects in predicting satisfaction with elderly care. Design and method: A representative nationwide sample was analyzed, based on a questionnaire sent out to 95,000 individuals using elderly care services. Results: The results showed that person-related factors (i.e., anxiety, health, and loneliness) were significant predictors of satisfaction with care, although less strongly than process-related factors (i.e., treatment, safeness, and perceived staff- and time availability). Among the person-related factors, loneliness was the strongest predictor of satisfaction among older persons in nursing homes. Interestingly, a path analysis revealed that safeness and treatment function as mediators in linking loneliness to satisfaction. Implications: The results based on a large national sample demonstrate that the individual aging condition to a significant degree can be countered by a well-functioning care process, resulting in higher satisfaction with care among older persons. 

  • 111.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Structure and Process Quality as Predictors of Satisfaction with Elderly Care2016Ingår i: Health & Social Care in the Community, ISSN 0966-0410, E-ISSN 1365-2524, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 699-707Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The structure versus process approach to quality of care presented by Donabedian is one of the most cited ever. However, there has been a paucity of research into the empirical validity of this framework, specifically concerning the relative effects of structure and process on satisfaction with elderly care as perceived by the older persons themselves. The current research presents findings from a national survey, including a wide range of quality indicators for elderly care services, conducted in 2012 at the request of the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare in which responses from 95,000 elderly people living in 324 municipalities and districts were obtained. The results revealed that the only structural variable which significantly predicted quality of care was staffing, measured in terms of the number of caregivers per older resident. More interestingly, process variables (e.g. respect and access to information) explained 40% and 48% of the variance in satisfaction with care, over and above the structural variables, in home care and nursing homes respectively. The findings from this large nationwide sample examining Donabedian's model suggest that quality in elderly care is primarily determined by factors pertaining to process, that is, how caregivers behave towards the older persons. This encourages a continued quality improvement in elderly care with a particular focus on process variables.

  • 112.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Dark Matter behind Values: The Dark Triad between the Big Five and Schwartz’ Value Types2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dark Triad offers measurement and predictive validity of egotistic and anti-social dispositions, including the factors Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism. Based on the well established link between personality traits and values, this study proposes that the Dark Triad can be used to understand individuals’ propensity towards including or excluding other people in their social relationships. A group of 80 human resource management students whose future comptence among other things will be to cooperate with others were measured on the Dark Triad, Schwartz’ ten Value Orientations, and two versions of the Big Five personality traits (FIPI, BFI44). The results showed consistent negative correlations between the Dark Triad and the value dimensions of concern for generalized others, as well as positive correlations between the Dark Triad and the value dimensions of concern for self. The study also concluded that the Dark Triad works as a moderator of the relationship between personality traits (Big Five) and values (Schwartz’), and substantially adds additional explained variance especially on values of exclusion. The etiology of social in-group and out-group processes in everyday life is suggested to be individuals’ dispositions for dark values, a path towards deviant and negative behaviors. 

  • 113.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn N.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Jonason, Peter K.
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Hedonism, Achievement, and Power: Universal Values that Characterize the Dark Triad2015Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 77, s. 173-178Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a sample of Swedes and Americans (N = 385), we attempted to understand the Dark Triad traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) in terms of the universal social values. The Dark Triad traits correlated significantly with all 10 value types, forming a sinusoid pattern corresponding to the value model circumplex. In regression analyses, Machiavellianism and narcissism were positively associated with the values Achievement and Power, while psychopathy was positively associated with the values Hedonism, and Power. In addition, the Dark Triad traits explained significant variance over the Big Five traits in accounting for individual differences in social values. Differences between the Swedish and the US sample in the social value Achievement was mediated by the Dark Triad traits, as well as age. Given the unique complex of values accounted for by the Dark Triad traits compared to the Big Five traits, we argue that the former account for a system of self-enhancing “dark values”, often hidden but constantly contributing in evaluations of others.

  • 114.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn N.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosenberg, Patricia
    Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Garcia, Danilo
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The (mis)measurement of the Dark Triad Dirty Dozen: exploitation at the core of the scale2016Ingår i: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, artikel-id e1748Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 115.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Johnson, John
    Department of Psychology, Pennsylvania State University, State College, USA.
    Assessing the Structure of the Five Factor Model of Personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the Public Domain2019Ingår i: Europe's Journal of Psychology, ISSN 1841-0413, E-ISSN 1841-0413, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 260-275Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of individual differences in personality traits is arguably one of the hallmarks of psychological research. Testing the structural validity of trait measurements is paramount in this endeavor. In the current study, we investigated 30 facet traits in one of the accessible and comprehensive public-domain Five Factor Model (FFM) personality inventories, IPIP-NEO-120 (Johnson, 2014), using one of the largest US samples to date (N = 320,128). We present structural loadings for all trait facets organized into respective FFM-trait domain (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness). Both hierarchical second-order and bi-factor models showed tolerable model fit indices, using confirmatory factor analysis in a structural equation modeling (SEM) framework. Some facet traits were substantially more representative than others for their respective trait domain, which facilitate further discussions on FFM-construct content. We conclude that IPIP-NEO is sufficiently structurally robust for future use, for the benefit of research and practice in personality assessment.

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  • 116.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. University West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johnson, John
    Pennsylvania State University, United States.
    Sex differences in 30 facets of the five factor model of personality in the large public (N = 320,128)2018Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 129, s. 126-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study reports on the scope and size of sex differences in 30 personality facet traits, using one of the largest US samples to date (N = 320,128). The study was one of the first to utilize the open access version of the Five-Factor Model of personality (IPIP-NEO-120) in the large public. Overall, across age-groups 19–69 years old, women scored notably higher than men in Agreeableness (d = 0.58) and Neuroticism (d = 0.40). Specifically, women scored d > 0.50 in facet traits Anxiety, Vulnerability, Openness to Emotions, Altruism, and Sympathy, while men only scored slightly higher (d > 0.20) than women in facet traits Excitement-seeking and Openness to Intellect. Sex gaps in the five trait domains were fairly constant across all age-groups, with the exception for age-group 19–29 years old. The discussion centers on how to interpret effects sizes in sex differences in personality traits, and tentative consequences. 

  • 117.
    Kajonius, Petri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Mac Giolla, Erik
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Personality traits across countries: Support for similarities rather than differences2017Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 6, s. 1-13, artikel-id e0179646Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current climate of migration and globalization, personality characteristics of individualsfrom different countries have received a growing interest. Previous research has establishedreliable differences in personality traits across countries. The present study extends thisresearch by examining 30 personality traits in 22 countries, based on an online survey inEnglish with large national samples (NTotal = 130,602). The instrument used was a comprehensive,open-source measure of the Five Factor Model (FFM) (IPIP-NEO-120). We postulatedthat differences in personality traits between countries would be small, labeling this aSimilarities Hypothesis. We found support for this in three stages. First, similarities acrosscountries were observed for model fits for each of the five personality trait structures. Second,within-country sex differences for the five personality traits showed similar patternsacross countries. Finally, the overall the contribution to personality traits from countries wasless than 2%. In other words, the relationship between a country and an individual's personalitytraits, however interesting, are small. We conclude that the most parsimonious explanationfor the current and past findings is a cross-country personality Similarities Hypothesis.

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  • 118.
    Karlsson, Doris
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Kan inställningen till en IT-artefakt förändras genom användarmedverkan i designprocessens tidigaste stadium?2001Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen)Studentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Ansatsen; Deltagande design inom MDI förespråkar att användare är med under hela designprocessen, även under det tidigaste skedet, före det har skissats på någon prototyp över huvudtaget. Medverkan innebär då att användarna får klargöra sina behov, åsikter och önskemål om en produkt. En speciell deltagarteknik har utvecklats för att göra detta möjligt och heter Contextual inquiry. I detta arbete har tekniken tillämpats på hyresgäster inom Skövdebostäder och har gällt produkten elektronisk anslagstavla. Hypotesen har varit att inställningen till en produkt är mer positiv när användare har deltagit i det tidigaste stadiet i designprocessen och skulle då förklaras med hjälp av ett psykologiskt "fenomen" som kallas Hawthorne-effekten. Resultatet från studien kunde inte ge stöd för hypotesen, det fanns med andra ord ingen signifikant skillnad mellan experimentgrupp och kontrollgrupp.

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  • 119.
    Karlsson, Louise
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Stress: From a biological, social, and psychological perspective2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years stress has been a term lacking one clear and specific definition. In general, the term stress has been used mostly as an explanation of a response or reaction to a stressor. A stressor can be of both physiological and behavioral character. The experience of stress can occur both due to a real or a perceived stressor. In this literature review, the concept of stress is viewed with insights from biological, psychological, and social perspectives. The stress response is described biologically with the central nervous system (CNS), the brain, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Social and psychological stress are concepts related to how stress is perceived by the mind and due to social surroundings which is described in relation to social support, self-efficacy, the locus of control and cognitive appraisal. Dealing with stress can be done through coping which refers to the individual capacity to handle a stressor and has generally been divided into two categories, active/passive coping and problem-focused/emotion-focused coping. Depending on the individual resources to cope with a stressor and the ability to decrease the stress response when needed, the long-term effects of stress can therefore vary between individuals. It has been found that positive coping (known as reducing stress) can increase the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volume and decrease anxiety and depression. The prefrontal cortex (PFC), the hippocampus, and the amygdala are closely linked to the ACC and affect emotions, learning, and memory related to the stress response.

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  • 120.
    Karlsson, Markus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Neuroscience of Decision Making: The Importance of Emotional Neural Circuits in Decision Making2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The neuroscience of decision making is laying the puzzle of how the brain computes decisions. It tries to sort out which factors are responsible for causing us to choose one way or the other. This thesis reviews to what extent emotional brain processes and their neural circuits impact decision making. The somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) provides a solid dual-system framework for decision making. Dissociating an impulsive system, in which the amygdala is central, and a reflective system mediated by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex(VMPFC). The SMH emphasizes the function of the VMPFC as necessary and crucial formaking favorable long-term decisions. Research on moral decision making also shows that similar systems as used by the SMH has a key role in how we think about moral dilemmas as well. Damage or maldevelopment of these neural circuits can cause myopia for the future and deeply immoral behavior. Abnormalities in emotional neuronal circuits can also be linked to addictive behavior and psychopathy. The findings on decision making and its neuralsubstrates dismantle the common sense notion of free will and moral responsibility. An explanation of how the feeling of free will arises is given using the Interpreter system theoryof consciousness. Moral responsibility without the need for a free will is defended by analternative approach with a framework of a brain in-control versus out-of-control.

  • 121.
    Kastrati, Granit
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Event-related potential correlates of visual consciousness: a review of theories and empirical studies2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Two influential theories of consciousness disagree about if consciousness initially arises along the occipitotemporal cortex to later engage frontoparietal regions and attentional mechanisms, or if it necessarily requires the latter. Consequently, different predictions are made about the temporal emergence of consciousness. The event-related potential (ERP) technique can be used to resolve the issue. It can temporally track neural activity of consciously perceived stimuli relative to stimuli bypassing consciousness. This essay describes the two theories and reviews ERP studies on visual consciousness and its relationship to attention. Three ERP correlates of consciousness have been proposed. The question is if they should be interpreted as supporting the one or the other theory. Most plausibly, visual consciousness arises along occipitotemporal regions and later incorporates frontal areas engaging higher cognitive functions. Importantly it seems that consciousness cannot arise without spatial attention/parietal regions. 

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  • 122.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Avslutande reflektioner kring socialpsykologiska aspekter på välbefinnande2009Ingår i: Välbefinnande i arbetslivet: socialpsykologiska perspektiv / [ed] Ali Kazemi, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, s. 195-200Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 123.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Conceptualizing and measuring occupational social well-being: a validation study2017Ingår i: International Journal of Organizational Analysis, ISSN 1934-8835, E-ISSN 1758-8561, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 45-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The current conceptualizations and measurements of well-being are inadequate in the context of work. Specifically, well-being research has neglected the social aspects of well-being. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the validity of a multi-dimensional view of occupational social well-being. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in an educational setting, i.e. six different schools in a Swedish municipality. A total of 314 teachers and other categories of school staff (239 females and 75 males) participated in a survey study. Findings: Results provided empirical support for a multi-dimensional view of occupational social well-being. The dimensions were integration, acceptance, contribution, actualization and coherence, and they were differentially correlated with previous measures of well-being. Furthermore, occupational social well-being accounted for additional variance in work tension, overall job satisfaction and organizational commitment over and above the variance accounted for by positive and negative affect and satisfaction with life, indicating the value of taking domain-specific social indicators of well-being into account in explaining various employee outcomes. Practical implications: Occupational social well-being is an umbrella term for describing the well-lived social life in the context of work. As such, this is a crucial part of a holistic view of well-being at work. Thus, effective employee well-being enhancement programs should not only focus on physical and mental health promotion or competence development but must also include measures of relational experience and functioning as discussed in the present study. Originality/value: This is the first study to measure and validate occupational social well-being as an attempt to complement existing measures of subjective and psychological well-being. Measures of social aspects of well-being are crucial to assess as it has been argued in previous research that context-free measures of well-being might render misleading results.

  • 124.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Examining the Interplay of Justice Perceptions, Motivation, and School Achievement among Secondary School Students2016Ingår i: Social Justice Research, ISSN 0885-7466, E-ISSN 1573-6725, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 103-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a paucity of empirical research on the social psychology of justice in educational settings. A few previous studies have predominantly focused on distributive and procedural justice concerns, and knowledge about the role of what have been called informational and interpersonal justice for school outcomes is very scarce. In the present study, data from 227 eighth- and ninth-grade students who participated in a survey study were analyzed to examine the interplay between relational justice concerns (decomposed into procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice), motivation to study, and school achievement. A comprehensive theoretically grounded multi-item measure of informational justice was developed and validated. The results showed that informational justice significantly predicts school grades, and that motivation to study fully mediates this effect. Neither procedural nor interpersonal justice was associated with school grades. The implications of these results for research and practice are discussed in detail.

  • 125.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Overtime2015Ingår i: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Economics and Society / [ed] Frederick F. Wherry & Juliet B. Schor, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2015, s. 1235-1236Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 126.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Promotion2015Ingår i: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Economics and Society / [ed] Frederick F. Wherry & Juliet B. Schor, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2015, s. 1336-1337Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 127.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Välbefinnande2009Ingår i: Välbefinnande i arbetslivet: socialpsykologiska perspektiv / [ed] Ali Kazemi, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, s. 23-33Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 128.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Välbefinnande i arbetslivet: socialpsykologiska perspektiv2009Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 129.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Eek, Daniel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Effects of Group Goal and Resource Valence on Allocation Preferences in Public Good Dilemmas2007Ingår i: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 35, nr 6, s. 803-818Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has not been conclusive as to whether people prefer different or identical allocation principles in distributions of positive and negative outcomes. Thus, in this study, the question of whether or not group goal accounts for preferred allocation of positive and negative outcomes was posed. As hypothesized for division of surpluses, the results showed that relationship-oriented goals predicted preferences for equality, whereas performance oriented goals predicted preferences for equity. Moreover, the results were the same for allocation of deficits. This suggests that people implicitly have different orientations, or goals, in mind in group situations that similarly influence the way they prefer to allocate positive and negative outcomes. The results also showed that participants allocating deficits deviated to a larger extent from the allocation principles than did participants allocating surpluses.

  • 130.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Eek, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Allocation of Public Goods: The Interplay of Self-Interest, Fairness, and Group Goal2016Ingår i: Social Psychology, ISSN 1864-9335, E-ISSN 2151-2590, Vol. 47, nr 4, s. 214-222Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Seventy-two undergraduates participating in a step-level asymmetric public good dilemma were requested to distribute the provided public good among the group members to achieve different group goals. In Line with the hypotheses, economic productivity resulted in equitable allocations, harmony in equal allocations, and social concern in need-based allocations. The results also supported the hypotheses that salience of group goal minimizes influences of self-interest on allocations and that perceived fairness accounts for why people pursuing different group goals differ in their preferences for allocation of public goods.

  • 131.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Eek, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Equity, Equal Shares or Equal Final Outcomes?: Group Goal Guides Allocations of Public Goods2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, s. 1-7, artikel-id 36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In an experiment we investigate preferences for allocation of a public good among group members who contributed unequally in providing the public good. Inducing the group goal of productivity resulted in preferences for equitable allocations, whereas inducing the group goals of harmony and social concern resulted in preferences for equal final outcomes. The study makes a contribution by simultaneously treating provision and allocation of a public good, thus viewing these as related processes. Another contribution is that a new paradigm is introduced that bears closer resemblance to real life public good dilemmas than previous research paradigms do.

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  • 132.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kajonius, Petri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Variations in user-oriented elderly care: a multilevel approach2017Ingår i: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 9, nr 2, s. 138-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
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  • 133.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Division of Gerontology, Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    User-oriented elderly care: A validation study in two different settings using observational data2015Ingår i: Quality in Ageing and Older Adults, ISSN 1471-7794, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 140-152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - User-oriented care, defined as individualized assisting behaviors, is the dominant approach within elderly care today. Yet, there is little known about its conceptual structure. This paper proposes that user-oriented care has a bi-partite structure which may be decomposed into the two dimensions of task and relation. Design/methodology/approach - Care workers were "shadowed" (i.e. observed) at their work (n=391 rated interactions). User-oriented care was assessed along ten process quality indicators targeting the acts of caregiving (i.e. task focus, relation focus, involvement, time-use, body language, autonomy, respect, warmth, encouragement, and information) in two elderly care settings, i.e. home care and nursing home. Observations added up to 45 hours. Findings - Principal component analyses confirmed the proposed two-factor structure of user-oriented care. Specifically, the user-oriented care indicators loaded on two distinct factors, i.e. task and relation. The underlying structure of user-oriented care revealed to be invariant across the two settings. However, the results revealed interesting structural differences in terms of explained variance and the magnitude of factor loadings in the home care and nursing home settings. Differences also emerged specifically pertaining to the indicators of autonomy and time-use. These findings suggest that user-oriented behavior may to some extent denote different acts of caregiving and what may be called task- and relation-orientation may be loaded with different meanings in these two care settings. Originality/value - This is the first study investigating user-oriented behavior in the context of elderly care using a quantitative observational approach. The authors propose that the observed differences between the two care settings are primarily not due to better elderly care work in home care, but due to some inherent differences between these two contexts of care (e.g. better health and living at home). © Ali Kazemi and Petri J. Kajonius. Published by Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 134.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Pilotstudie om psykisk ohälsa och utanförskap bland unga vuxna: Personliga berättelser och reflektioner kring vägar som bär till förändring2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 135.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Stark Ekman, Diana
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande.
    Differing attitudes toward health and sickness2014Ingår i: Encyclopedia of human services and diversity / [ed] Linwood H. Cousins, Sage Publications, 2014, s. 616-618Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 136.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Rättvist ledarskap2009Ingår i: Välbefinnande i arbetslivet: socialpsykologiska perspektiv / [ed] Ali Kazemi, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, s. 37-63Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 137.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 138.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 139.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 140.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 141.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Mikula, Gerold
    University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Justice: Social Psychological Perspectives2015Ingår i: International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences / [ed] James D. Wright, Oxford: Elsevier, 2015, 2, s. 949-955Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the concept of justice from a social psychological perspective. The authors begin by briefly outlining some theoretical precursors of current social psychological research on justice. Another part is devoted to an overview of theories and empirical research in the areas of distributive and procedural justice. The article furthermore addresses interactional justice, why people care about justice, and reactions to injustice in the context of which individual differences in conceptions of justice are briefly discussed. The article ends by discussing some current trends, social applications, and some future challenges in social psychological inquiries of social justice.

  • 142.
    Klarén, Anton
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Dispositional optimism and attentional bias to happy facial expressions2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that the human attentional system is biased towards emotional events in the environment. This attentional bias is believed to be an adaptive function that can provide survival benefits for the organisms that possess it. Dispositional optimism is a trait defined as a general expectation that good things will happen in the future. This trait has received interest as an adaptive trait that has a multitude of psychological and physical benefits for the individuals who exhibit it. The aim of this study is to examine whether there is a difference in the attentional bias towards happy and angry facial expressions based on level of dispositional optimism using the dot-probe paradigm. Thirty-two psychologically and neurologically healthy females (mean age = 26.5, SD = 5.8) participated in the study. They completed a questionnaire measuring dispositional optimism and performed the dot-probe task in a laboratory setting in the University of Skövde. In the dot- probe task a short exposure (100 ms) of photographs depicting happy, angry and neutral facial expressions was used as emotional cues. A general bias towards happy faces across all participants was detected. Also, a clear trend towards an interaction between DO and AB to emotional faces was found in the group high in DO displaying and AB towards happy facial expressions. This study implies that for the psychologically and neurologically healthy population, a fast operating and automatic AB for positive stimuli exists, moreover, this AB may be modulated by individual differences in DO.

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  • 143.
    Koivisto, Mika
    et al.
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Grassini, Simone
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina
    University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Different Electrophysiological Correlates of Visual Awareness for Detection and Identification2017Ingår i: Journal of cognitive neuroscience, ISSN 0898-929X, E-ISSN 1530-8898, Vol. 29, nr 9, s. 1621-1631Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Detecting the presence of an object is a different process than identifying the object as a particular object. This difference has not been taken into account in designing experiments on the neural correlates of consciousness. We compared the electrophysiological correlates of conscious detection and identification directly by measuring ERPs while participants performed either a task only requiring the conscious detection of the stimulus or a higher-level task requiring its conscious identification. Behavioral results showed that, even if the stimulus was consciously detected, it was not necessarily identified. A posterior electrophysiological signature 200-300 msec after stimulus onset was sensitive for conscious detection but not for conscious identification, which correlated with a later widespread activity. Thus, we found behavioral and neural evidence for elementary visual experiences, which are not yet enriched with higher-level knowledge. The search for the mechanisms of consciousness should focus on the early elementary phenomenal experiences to avoid the confounding effects of higher-level processes.

  • 144.
    Koukoura, Angeliki
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Is Telling the Truth a New Index for Deception?: An Electrophysiological Approach2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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  • 145.
    Kralj, Andrea
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The neurobiology underlying personality traits and conflict behavior: Examining the similarities in brain regions between agreeableness, aggression and dominating conflict style2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Conflicts are part of our everyday life and the field of psychology describes how specific personality traits relate to specific conflict styles. However, the question remaining is why these relations exist? Recently, personality neuroscience has begun pinning down the neurobiology of personality traits, providing a deeper understanding of the human behavior. The present thesis utilizes the Five Factor Model (FFM; Costa & McCrae, 1990) of personality to investigate the neurobiology underlying the inverse relation between the specific personality trait of Agreeableness and dominating conflict style (a conflict management style characterized by aggressiveness, authoritarianism and/or need for dominance). Agreeableness overlaps both empathy and aggression which can work as each other’s opposites in explaining conflict behaviors. The goal of the thesis was to investigate whether the inverse relation between Agreeableness and dominating conflict style can be explained by brain regions. Brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex and regions involving anterior cingulate appear to be the most prominent neurobiology describing the relation. Serotonin is the neural substance involved in most cortical and subcortical brain structures and it also regulates the suppression of aggression, making it an important substance both within Agreeableness and the preference for dominating conflict style. The thesis will sum up with a discussion including some limitations within the research and further aspects such the consequences of the findings will be discussed.

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  • 146.
    Labbé, Daniel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Measures of Working Memory, Motivation, and Time Perception2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have indicated a further need to investigate the role of motivation in workingmemory (WM) training and that time perception affects motivation. We addressed whethersubjectively perceived time on task in reference to objective time on task could serve as animplicit measure of motivation, while controlling for individual differences in timeperception. Here, the relationship between different measures of time perception, WM, andmotivation was explored in healthy children. Fifty children in three natural groups (ages: 6-7,8-9, 10-11) at a Swedish school participated. WM scores changed with age as expected.However, the absence of correlations between WM performance and intrinsic motivationwere inconsistent with previous findings, presumably due to the low statistical sensitivity.Nevertheless, time perception accuracy (r=0.318, p=0.043) and state motivation (r=0.434,p=0.005) correlated with performance on task interference, but not WM. With somereservations due to low sensitivity, time perception accuracy appears to be linked tocoordinative capacity required for shifting attention, but to a lesser degree sequential working memory capacity.

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    Labbe - Measures of Working Memory, Motivation, and Time Perception
  • 147.
    Labbé, Daniel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    The Feeling of Anxiety: Phenomenology and neural correlates2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    The feeling of anxiety, a conscious experience, is associated with uneasiness, painfulness, or disturbing suspense. The current paper presents the phenomenology of anxiety disorders based on diagnostic criteria and reviews neuroimaging studies on anxiety including dissociation studies. Activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, insula, temporal poles and amygdala suggest neural correlates of anxiety. The relevance of the neural correlates, how the feeling of anxiety differs from fear and worry, and the construct validity of anxiety are addressed. Anxiety and pain correlate with activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, which warrants further studies on the painfulness–anxiety relationship.

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  • 148.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Thill, Serge
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Perception of Agent Properties in Humans and Machines2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 149.
    Lamb, Maurice J.
    et al.
    Department of Philosophy, University of Cincinnati, United States.
    Chemero, Anthony P.
    Department of Philosophy and Psychology, University of Cincinnati, United States.
    Interaction-dominant dynamics and extended embodiment2013Ingår i: Constructivist Foundations, ISSN 1782-348X, E-ISSN 1782-348X, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 88-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 150.
    Lamb, Maurice
    et al.
    Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States.
    Kallen, Rachel W.
    Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States.
    Harrison, Steven J.
    Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Connecticut, CT, United States.
    Di Bernardo, Mario
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy / Department of Engineering Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Minai, Ali A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computing Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States.
    Richardson, Michael J.
    Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States.
    To Pass or Not to Pass: Modeling the Movement and Affordance Dynamics of a Pick and Place Task2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, artikel-id 1061Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans commonly engage in tasks that require or are made more efficient by coordinating with other humans. In this paper we introduce a task dynamics approach for modeling multi-agent interaction and decision making in a pick and place task where an agent must move an object from one location to another and decide whether to act alone or with a partner. Our aims were to identify and model (1) the affordance related dynamics that define an actor’s choice to move an object alone or to pass it to their co-actor and (2) the trajectory dynamics of an actor’s hand movements when moving to grasp, relocate, or pass the object. Using a virtual reality pick and place task, we demonstrate that both the decision to pass or not pass an object and the movement trajectories of the participants can be characterized in terms of behavioral dynamics model. Simulations suggest that the proposed behavioral dynamics model exhibits features observed in human participants including hysteresis in decision making, non-straight trajectories, and non-constant velocity profiles. The proposed model highlights how the same low-dimensional behavioral dynamics can operate to constrain multiple (and often nested) levels of human activity and suggests that knowledge of what, when, where and how to move or act during pick and place behavior may be defined by these low dimensional task dynamics and, thus, can emerge spontaneously and in real-time with little a priori planning.

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    fulltext
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