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  • 101.
    Bagland, Véronique
    et al.
    Laboratoire de Mathématiques, Université Blaise Pascal, Campus Universitaire des Cézeaux, 63177 Aubière Cedex, France.
    Wennberg, Bengt
    Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers Tekniska Högskola, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden / Department of Mathematical Sciences, Göteborg University, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wondmagegne, Yosief
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Stationary states for the noncutoff Kac equation with a Gaussian thermostat2007Ingår i: Nonlinearity, ISSN 0951-7715, E-ISSN 1361-6544, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 583-604Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the stationary states of a Kac equation with a Gaussian thermostat in the case of a noncutoff cross section. We investigate the existence, smoothness and uniqueness of the stationary states. The theoretical results are illustrated by some numerical simulations.

  • 102.
    Banjac Vujic , Gordana
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Hellmark , Britt
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    När vårdcentralens läkartider inte räcker till: Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av telefonrådgivning när denvårdsökande inte kan beredas tid trots ett medicinskt behov2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Telefonen har under de senaste årtiondena blivit ett viktigt redskap i hälso- och sjukvårdens arbete med människor som söker hjälp och råd för medicinska problem. Telefonlinjer till Sveriges vårdcentraler inrättades allmänt på 1970-talet. En betydande del av sjuksköterskornas arbete på vårdcentral består av telefonrådgivning. Den vårdsökande prioriteras och hänvisas till rätt vårdnivå utifrån den bedömning som görs vid dessa samtal. Syftet med studien är att få kunskap om vad sjuksköterskorna upplever när den vårdsökande inte kan beredas tid trots ett medicinskt behov, då läkartiderna inte räcker till på grund av brist på allmänläkare. Tio sjuksköterskor som arbetar med telefonrådgivning på vårdcentral intervjuades. Studien utfördes med en kvalitativ metod med fenomenologisk ansats. I resultatet framkommer att informanterna har flera olika känslomässiga upplevelser. Informanterna upplever att de inte alltid kan uppfylla det vårdgarantin lovar, men att problemet är organisationsrelaterat och ligger utanför deras egen kontroll. Telefonarbetet kan kännas betungande och tanken på hur det går för den vårdsökande finns ibland kvar efter arbetsdagens slut. Erfarenhet och kunskap anses viktigt för att bättre kunna hantera situationen och göra rätt bedömning. Det kollegiala stödet framhålls som betydelsefullt. Det anses viktigt att noggrant dokumentera givna råd och vilka åtgärder som planerats.

  • 103.
    Bari, M. A.
    et al.
    University of Rajshahi.
    Islam, W.
    University of Rajshahi.
    Khan, A. R.
    University of Rajshahi.
    Mandal, Abul
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Solanum torvum (Solanaceae)2010Ingår i: International Journal of Agriculture & Biology, ISSN 1560-8530, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 386-390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Leaves, stem, roots and inflorescence of Solanum torvum Sw. were extracted in two different organic solvents (chloroform & methanol). Antibacterial and antifungal effects of the extracts were tested on fifteen (six Gram positive & nine Gram negative) human  pathogenic  bacteria  and  on  eight  pathogenic  fungi.  Methanolic  extracts  of  roots  of  S.  torvum  exhibited  promising antibacterial  and  antifungal  effects  on  all  organisms  tested  in  comparison  with  that  observed  in  the  leaves,  stems  and inflorescence extracts. The toxicity of the extracts was in the following order; root>stem>inflorescence>leaf. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of methanolic extract of roots of S. torvum were in the range between 64-128 µg mL -1 . Chloroform  extracts  of  roots  were  more  toxic  (LC 50  35.4629  ppm)  than  other  extracts  analyzed  in  Brine  shrimp  test.  In conclusion, S. torvum appears to be an attractive material for the development of antimicrobial drugs and environment friendly biopesticides.

  • 104.
    Basic, Anesa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Johnsson, Sofia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    BVC-SJUKSKÖTERSKORS ERFARENHETER AV ATT GE STÖD TILL NYBLIVNA FÖRÄLDRAR FÖR ATT FRÄMJA AMNINGEN2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 105.
    Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
    et al.
    University of California, Los Angeles.
    Medeiros, Sarah
    University of California, Los Angeles.
    Mohammadi, Reza
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lin, Johnny
    University of Los Angeles.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence: a study of female victims in Malawi2012Ingår i: Journal of Injury and Violence Research, ISSN 2008-2053, E-ISSN 2008-4072, Vol. 5, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The term “intimate partner violence” (IPV) encompasses physical, sexual and psychological violence, or any combination of these acts, and globally is the most common type of violence against women. This study aims to examine the lifetime prevalence of different types of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Malawi women ages 15 to 49, and its association with age, education, and living in rural versus urban areas. METHODS: Data was obtained from a cross-sectional study of data as part of the 2004 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey.  Women were eligible for the study if they met the following criteria: 1) lived in one of the 15,041 households randomly selected from 522 rural and urban clusters located in 10 large districts of Malawi; 2) were married or cohabitating; and 3) were between the ages of 15 and 49 years.  Consenting, eligible women responded to a comprehensive questionnaire covering demographic factors, health issues, as well as items related to physical, emotional and sexual IPV.  To assess bivariate associations, chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted. RESULTS: Among the 8291 respondents, 13% reported emotional violence; 20% reported being pushed, shaken, slapped or punched; 3% reported experiencing severe violence, such as being strangled or burned, threatened with a knife, gun or with another weapon; and 13% reported sexual violence.  Data showed women ages 15 to 19 were significantly less likely to report emotional IPV, women ages 25 to 29 were significantly more likely to report being pushed or shaken, slapped or punched (OR 1.35; CI: 1.05-1.73), and women ages 30 to 34 were significantly more likely to report sexual IPV, compared to women ages 45 to 49 (OR 1.40; CI: 1.03-1.90).  Finally, women who had no ability to read were less likely to report sexual IPV than their counterparts who could read a full sentence (OR 0.76; CI: 0.66-0.87). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of different types of IPV in Malawi appears slightly lower than that reported for other countries in sub-Saharan Africa.  Further studies are needed to assess the attitudes and behaviors of Malawi women towards acceptability and justification of IPV as well as their willingness to disclose it.

  • 106.
    Beetz, Andrea
    et al.
    Univ Rostock, Dept Special Educ, D-18055 Rostock, Germany .
    Kotrschalt, Kurt
    Univ Vienna, Dept Behav Biol, A-1010 Vienna, Austria .
    Turner, Dennis C.
    Univ Zurich Irchel, IEMT Switzerland & Anim Behav, Zurich, Switzerland .
    Hediger, Karin
    Univ Rostock, Dept Special Educ, D-18055 Rostock, Germany .
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Julius, Henri
    Univ Rostock, Dept Special Educ, D-18055 Rostock, Germany .
    The Effect of a Real Dog, Toy Dog and Friendly Person on Insecurely Attached Children During a Stressful Task: An Exploratory Study2011Ingår i: Anthrozoos, ISSN 0892-7936, E-ISSN 1753-0377, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 349-368Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The regulation of stress by an attachment figure is a key feature of attachment relationships. Previous research suggests that in some cases animal companionship may be regarded as an attachment relationship. This may be particularly important for persons with an insecure or disorganized attachment pattern who may find it more difficult than securely attached individuals to accept social support from humans. In our study, we investigated whether 31 boys (aged 7-12 years) with insecure/disorganized attachment would profit more from the presence of a dog (n = 11) than of a friendly human (n = 11) or a toy dog (n = 9) as support during a socially stressful situation (Trier Social Stress Test for Children, TSST-C). Stress levels were assessed via salivary cortisol recorded five times before, during, and after the TSST-C. The behavior of the children was coded from video recordings. Self-reported stress levels did not significantly differ between the groups before and after the TSST-C. Salivary cortisol, however, was significantly lower in the real dog condition than in the other two conditions (Kruskal-Wallis H test on area under the curve increase (AUCi): chi(2) = 15.17, df = 2, p = 0.001). Also, the more the children stroked the dog, the less pronounced was their stress reaction (r(s) = -0.818, p = 0.002). Our data suggest an important role of physical contact in the stress reducing effect. We conclude that the children investigated profited more from interacting with a friendly dog than with either a human or a toy dog in a stressful situation. We discuss the relevance of our findings for animal-assisted interventions.

  • 107.
    Behboudi, A.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Biomed, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nordlander, C.
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Cell & Mol Biol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Karlsson, S.
    Evidence for a tumor suppressor locus distal to Tp53 - a study in experimental endometrial adenocarcinoma2007Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer Supplements, ISSN 1359-6349, E-ISSN 1878-1217, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 62-62Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 108.
    Bender, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Sweber, Lina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Kommunikationens betydelse för omvårdnaden av patienter med afasi: -En litteraturöversikt 2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    To suffer from aphasia could mean that a most important ability of human nature is lost and could therefore restrict the patient's communication ability. Therefore a higher standard is of importance in the non-verbal communication. Health professionals describe difficulties in understanding this form of communication. This causes disturbance in the interaction and nursing care cannot be adapted to the unique human being. The purpose of this literature review is to highlight and summarize existing research, describing how the various non-verbal communication channels are integrated, in nursing care to patients affected by stroke and aphasia. In the method of this literature review searches were made from the databases Cinahl and Medline. The 12 articles that were included has been quality examined and analyzed according to Friberg (2006). The results describe how the speaking body, support for the unique human being, bodily contact and relationships are important for the understanding of the nonverbal communication. The discussion revolves around how this understanding is formed in the interaction, to be able to see the unique human being and create relationships that provide external support for the human needs here and now. The four categories that are presented in this study may increase the knowledge of the studied phenomena and could also be the ground for further studies in this area.

  • 109.
    Bender, Anna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Sweber, Lina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Kommunikationens betydelse för omvårdnaden av patienter med afasi: En litteraturöversikt2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att drabbas av afasi kan innebära att en högst mänsklig förmåga går förlorad, vilket kan begränsa patientens kommunikationsmöjligheter. Därmed ställs högre krav på den icke verbala kommunikationen. Vårdpersonal beskriver svårigheter att skapa förståelse i denna form av kommunikation. Till följd av detta blir samspelet lidande och omvårdnaden kan därför inte anpassas till den unika människan. Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt är att belysa och sammanställa befintlig forskning, som beskriver hur olika icke verbala kommunikationsvägar integreras, i omvårdnaden till patienter som drabbats av stroke med afasi som följd. I metoden genomfördes sökningar i databaserna Cinahl och Medline. De 12 artiklar som inkluderats har kvalitetsgranskats och analyserats enligt Friberg (2006). I resultatet beskrivs hur den talande kroppen, stödet till den unika människan, kroppslig beröring och relationen har betydelse för förståelsen i den icke verbala kommunikationen. Diskussionen kretsar kring hur denna förståelse kommer i samspelet, för att se den unika människan och skapa relationen som ger stöd utifrån människans förutsättningar här och nu. De fyra kategorier som framläggs i denna studie kan öka kunskapen inom det fenomen som studerats och lägga grunden för vidare studier på området.

  • 110.
    Bengtsson, Katarina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Broxe, Camilla
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Upplevelsen att vårda sin make/maka som genomgått en stroke2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Stroke är en av de vanligaste sjukdomarna i Sverige och omkring 30 000 individer insjuknar varje år. För dessa personer är det idag möjligt att fortsätta leva i sitt hem. Informella vårdgivare får då ofta ta över ansvaret över vården. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva make/makas upplevelser av att vara informell vårdgivare till en person som insjuknat i stroke. Metoden som använts i denna litteraturstudie är beskrivande syntes. Materialet består av nio vetenskapliga artiklar. Fem olika teman framkom ur analysen: Upplevelsen av förändring; Upplevelsen av förlust av frihet och fritid; Upplevelsen av tacksamhet, hopp och stöd; Upplevelsen av framtiden, oro och skuld samt Upplevelsen av ansvar och kontroll. Förebyggande arbete ingår i sjuksköterskans profession och resultatet i denna studie visar att det är viktigt att uppmärksamma makens/makans upplevelser för att förebygga så att dessa individer inte själva blir patienter.

  • 111.
    Bengtsson, Margareta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Gosende, Martina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Anhörigas upplevelser av att vårda en familjemedlem som insjuknat i demens: en analys av självbiografier2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    När en familjemedlem drabbas av demens förändras hela livssituationen för den anhörige. För att sjuksköterskan ska kunna stödja de anhöriga krävs det kunskap och ökad förståelse om de anhörigas vårdarroll i hemmet. Syftet med studien var att beskriva anhörigas upplevelser av att vårda en familjemedlem i hemmet som insjuknat i demens. Sex självbiografier analyserades för att ta del av anhörigas egna upplevelser av att vårda en demenssjuk familjemedlem. Till grund för analys av data låg Burnards (1991) innehållsanalys och Graneheims & Lundmans (2004) kvalitativa innehållsanalys. Resultatet utgörs av tre huvudkategorier och 10 kategorier. Huvudkategorierna var: Lidande, desperation och isolering. Det mest utmärkande hos anhörigvårdarna är den känslomässiga upplevelsen som beskrivs som mer betungande än vad det fysiska vårdandet gör. Det som även kännetecknar anhörigas upplevelser är att de blir mer och mer isolerade allt eftersom sjukdomen fortskrider.

  • 112.
    Beniamin, Armanos
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Establishment of an Expression and Purification System for Plasmodium falciparum Multi Drug Resistance (pfmdr) Transporter2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Malaria is a life threatening parasite disease caused and transmitted by infected female anopheles mosquito. However, the parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, has become resistant to most anti malarial drugs, such as chloroquine, which contributes to fever and anaemia because of its ability to digest the haemoglobin in the red blood cells. The aims of this project were to establish whether “Bac to Bac” Baculoviral Expression System is suitable for expression of pfmdr 1 gene and for purification of the pgh 1 protein. The pfmdr 1 gene encodes an ABC transporter protein, pgh 1, fixed in the cell membrane of the Plasmodium falciparuum gut, which assist in elimination of drug compounds. Furthermore, “Bac to Bac” Baculoviral Expression System uses vectors with histidine tags to clone the pfmdr 1 gene and subsequently transform these into DH10Bac cells to produce the recombinant bacmid DNA. Since pfmdr 1 gene is an AT-rich sequence, PCR was optimized, by lowering the annealing and extension temperature to 47Co and 66Co respectively. The results show that “Bac to Bac” Baculoviral Expression System can be used to express the pfmdr 1 gene, though further experiments has to be performed.

  • 113.
    Bennedsen, Svetlana
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Nilsson, Annlouise
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Att vara föräldrar till barn med Duchennes muskeldystrofi: Litteratutöversikt2011Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Varje år drabbas cirka tio pojkar i Sverige av en sjukdom vid namn Duchennes muskeldystrofi. Duchennes muskeldystrofi är en genetisk obotlig, progressiv neuromuskulär sjukdom som orsakar att ett barn blir funktionsförhindrat och dör tidig. Att ha ett handikappat barn som lider av en obotlig sjukdom medför till ett stort ansvar som innebär en stor förändring i familjens liv. Syftet med denna studie var att belysa föräldrars upplevelser av att leva med ett barn med Duchennes muskeldystrofi. Metoden var en litteraturöversikt som bygger på åtta kvalitativa och fyra kvantitativa artiklar som är granskade och analyserade. Resultatet redovisades i tre teman: Känslomässig kaos, Behov av stöd och  kunskap och Acceptans och planering för framtiden. Hela familjen upplevde känslor av sorg, känslomässig kaos och behov av stöd. Det är viktigt för sjuksköterskan att ha tillräcklig  kunskap om Duchennes muskeldystrofi. Genom att förstå hur familjen upplever sin situation kan sjuksköterskan möta förälderns behov och förväntningar.

  • 114.
    Bennet, Christian
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sjögren, Jörgen
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Philosophy and mathematics education2013Ingår i: Modus Tolland: En festskrift med anledning av Anders Tollands sextioårsdag / [ed] Filip Radovic & Susanna Radovic, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet , 2013, s. 9-23Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 115.
    Bennet, Christian
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Sjögren, Jörgen
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    The Viability of Social Constructivism as a Philosophy of Mathematics2013Ingår i: Croatian Journal of Philosophy, ISSN 1333-1108, E-ISSN 1847-6139, Vol. XIII, nr 39, s. 341-355Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Attempts have been made to analyse features in mathematics within a social constructivist context. In this paper we critically examine some of those attempts recently made with focus on problems of the objectivity, ontology, necessity, and atemporality of mathematics. Our conclusion is that these attempts fare no better than traditional alternatives, and that they, furthermore, create new problems of their own.

  • 116.
    Berg, Helena
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Hjortman, Ingela
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Omvårdnad vid bensår: En litteraturöversikt2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    BAKGRUND: Patienter med bensår återfinns inom hela sjukvården. Detta innebär att många sjuksköterskor kommer att möta dessa patienter i sitt arbete oberoende av var de arbetar. Distriktssköterskor kan ägna upp till hälften av sin arbetstid till bensårsbehandling. Patienter med bensår lider ofta av smärtor. Såren påverkar deras livskvalité och begränsar deras liv. SYFTE: Denna studies syfte var att belysa omvårdnaden vid smärtsamma bensår, ur såväl ett sjuksköterske- som patientperspektiv. METOD: En litteraturöversikt baserad på vetenskapliga artiklar. Resultatet grundas på 14 artiklar, med både kvalitativ och kvantitativ metod. RESULTAT: Fyra huvudtema framkom; Smärtkontroll, Interaktion mellan sjuksköterska och patient, Social gemenskap och Kunskapsutveckling. Många patienter med bensår hade smärtor som inte uppmärksammades av sjuksköterskan, då patienterna inte alltid påtalade detta. Sjuksköterskor har ett viktigt arbete i att kontinuerligt smärtskatta och följa upp smärtlindringen. Optimal sårbehandling förutsätter ett gott samarbete mellan patient och sjuksköterska. Den sociala gemenskapen är en viktig del i patientens välbefinnande och främjar sårläkning och minskar smärta. Både patienter och sjuksköterskor saknar tillräckliga kunskaper om bensår.

  • 117.
    Berg Marklund, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Rönnberg, Karolina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelse av hur arbetsmiljön påverkar omvårdnadsarbetet: En intervjustudie2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studier har visat att sjuksköterskors arbetsmiljö kan påverka dem i deras omvårdnadsarbete. Studien ämnade intervjua sjuksköterskor om hur de upplevde att deras arbetsmiljö påverkade deras omvårdnadsarbete. Intervjuer genomfördes med sju sjuksköterskor på ett sjukhus i Västsverige. Intervjuerna analyserades och manifesta meningsenheter, kopplade till studiens syfte, identifierades och kondenserades. Resultatet visade att det finns flera faktorer i sjuksköterskornas arbetsmiljö som de upplever påverkar dem i deras omvårdnadsarbete. Sjuksköterskorna upplevde att en god stämning i personalgruppen kunde hjälpa dem i omvårdnadsarbetet. Samtidigt kunde arbetsstress och tidsbrist, till stor del på grund av tidskrävande administrativa uppgifter, ha en negativ påverkan på omvårdnadsarbetet. Slutsatsen av studien är att sjuksköterskor upplever att deras arbetsmiljö kan ha en positiv och negativ påverkan på omvårdnadsarbetet. Framtida forskning kring sjuksköterskors arbetsmiljö behövs för att bättre kunna främja omvårdnadsarbetet.

  • 118.
    Berg, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. IFM Theory and Modelling, Div. of Theoretical Biology, Linköping Univ., Linköping, Sweden.
    Christianou, Maria
    IFM Theory and Modelling, Div. of Theoretical Biology, Linköping Univ., Linköping, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Ebenman, Bo
    IFM Theory and Modelling, Div. of Theoretical Biology, Linköping Univ., Linköping, Sweden.
    Using sensitivity analysis to identify keystone species and keystone links in size-based food webs2011Ingår i: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 120, nr 4, s. 510-519Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-induced alterations in the birth and mortality rates of species and in the strength of interactions within and between species can lead to changes in the structure and resilience of ecological communities. Recent research points to the importance of considering the distribution of body sizes of species when exploring the response of communities to such perturbations. Here, we present a new size-based approach for assessing the sensitivity and elasticity of community structure (species equilibrium abundances) and resilience (rate of return to equilibrium) to changes in the intrinsic growth rate of species and in the strengths of species interactions. We apply this approach on two natural systems, the pelagic communities of the Baltic Sea and Lake Vättern, to illustrate how it can be used to identify potential keystone species and keystone links. We find that the keystone status of a species is closely linked to its body size. The analysis also suggests that communities are structurally and dynamically more sensitive to changes in the effects of prey on their consumers than in the effects of consumers on their prey. Moreover, we discuss how community sensitivity analysis can be used to study and compare the fragility of communities with different body size distributions by measuring the mean sensitivity or elasticity over all species or all interaction links in a community. We believe that the community sensitivity analysis developed here holds some promise for identifying species and links that are critical for the structural and dynamic robustness of ecological communities.

  • 119.
    Bergelind, Sandra
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Mohamad, Rondik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Patienters upplevelser av sjuksköterskors bemötande: En litteraturöversikt2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    BAKGRUND: Att vara sjuksköterska innebär att ha kunskap om medicinska frågor såväl som om omvårdnadsvetenskap. Omvårdnad handlar bland annat om att bemöta patienter på ett korrekt sätt, för att undvika att ett vårdlidande uppstår för patienter. För att sjuksköterskor ska kunna bemöta patienter på ett sätt som av dem upplevs som bra behöver sjuksköterskor känna till hur patienter uppfattar deras bemötande.

    SYFTE: Att belysa patienters upplevelser av sjuksköterskors bemötande vid vård på sjukhus.

    METOD: Litteraturöversikt enligt Friberg (2006), där 14 artiklar har analyserats.

    RESULTAT: Resultatet indelas i fem teman: Bemötandets betydelse för patienter, Humorns betydelse för patienter, Patienters behov av kommunikation och information, Patienters behov av bekräftelse samt Faktorer som påverkar patienters förtroende för sjuksköterskor.

    KONKLUSION: Resultatet visar hur patienter upplevde det att befinna sig i en omvårdnadssituation och vad de lägger i begreppet bemötande. Det kan användas som en upplysning och en påminnelse till sjuksköterskor som dagligen möter människor/patienter i arbetet. Kunskapen som studien bidragit med kan användas för att förbättra vårdrelationer mellan patienter och sjuksköterskor i praktiken vilket ger bättre omvårdnadskvalitet.

  • 120.
    Bergenius, Mikaela
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Cadigan, Noel
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.
    Gröhsler, Tomas
    Johann-Heinrich von Thünen-Institute, Germany .
    Holmgren, Noél
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Morgado, Cristina
    International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Denmark.
    Pönni, Jukka
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Finland.
    Raitaniemi, Jari
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Finland.
    Storr-Paulsen, Marie
    DTU Aqua - National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Denmark.
    Trenkel, Verena
    Ifremer Nantes Centre, France.
    Report of the Inter-Benchmark Protocol for Herring in Subdivision 30 (IBP Her30): 11–15 March 2013, By correspondence2013Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Inter-Benchmark Protocol for Herring in Subdivision 30 (IBP-Her30) worked by correspondence  between  February  28  and  March  28  2013. Verena Trenkel  (France) served as Chair with invited expert Noel Cadigan (Canada). There were six participants. The objectives of the groups were to review the work carried out in response to the benchmark working group WKPELA in 2012.

  • 121.
    Bergenius, Mikaela
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Coastal Research, Öregrund.
    Holmgren, Noél
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Comparison of methods and results for the estimation of a sustainable harvest rate for the Bothnian Sea herring2012Ingår i: Report of the Benchmark Workshop on Pelagic Stocks (WKPELA 2012): 13–17 February 2012, Copenhagen, Denmark, International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) , 2012Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 122.
    Berggren, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Daily life after Subarachnoid Haemorrhage: Identity construction, patients' and relatives' statements about patients' memory, emotional status and activities of living2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to describe patients’ experience and reconstruction regarding the onset of, and events surrounding being struck by a Subarachnoid Haemorrhage (SAH), and to describe patients’ and relatives’ views of patients’ memory ability, emotional status and activities of living, in a long-term perspective.

    Methods: Both inductive and deductive approaches were used. Nine open interviews were carried out in home settings, in average 1 year and 7 seven months after the patients’ onset, and discourse analysis was used to interpret the data. Eleven relatives and 11 patients, 11 years after the onset, and 15 relatives and 15 patients, 6 years after the onset, participated in two studies. Interviews using a questionnaire with structured questions and memory tests were used to collect data. Fischer’s exact test and Z-scores were used for the statistical analysis.

    Results: Patients with experience of a SAH were able to judge their own memory for what happened when they became ill. The reconstruction of the illness event may be interpreted as an identity creating process. The process of meaning-making is both a matter of understanding SAH as a pathological event and a social and communicative matter, where the SAH is construed into a meaningful life history, in order to make life complete (I). Memory problems, changes in emotional status and problems with activities of living were common (II-IV). There was correspondence between relatives’ and patients’ statements regarding the patients’ memory in general and long-term memory. Patients judged their own memory ability better than relatives, compared with results on memory tests. Relatives stated that some patients had meta-memory problems (II). The episodic memory seemed to be well  reserved, both concerning the onset and in the long-term perspective (I, II). There were more problems with social life than with P- and I-ADL (III), and social company habits had changed due to concentration difficulties, mental fatigue, and  patients’ sensitivity to noisy environments and uncertainty (IV). Relatives rated the patients’ ability concerning activities of living and emotional status, and in a similar manner to patients’ statements (III-IV).

    Conclusions: The reconstruction of the illness event can be used as a tool in nursing for understanding the patient’s identity-construction. Relatives and patients stated the patients’ memory, emotional status and activities of living in a similar manner, and therefore both patients’ and relatives’ statements can be used as a tool in nursing care, in order to support the patient. However, the results showed: meta-memory problems (relatives’ statements) and that the patients’ judged their own memory ability better than relatives in comparison with results on memory tests. Nevertheless, there was a high degree of concordance between relatives’ and patients’ evaluations concerning patients´ memory ability, emotional status, emotional problems, social company habits and activities of living. Therefore both relatives’ and patients’ statements can be considered to be reliable. However, sometimes the patients and the relatives judge the patients’ memory differently. Consequently, memory tests and formalized dialogues between the patient, the relative and a professional might be required, in order to improve the mutual family relationship in a positive way. Professionals however, must first assume that patients can judge their own memory, emotional status and ability in daily life.

  • 123.
    Berggren, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Identity construction and memory after Subarachnoid Haemorrhage: Patients' accounts and relatives' and patients' statements in relation to memory tests2010Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is a complex pathophysiological event and most patients have, before the onset, felt completely well. Being stricken by a SAH is a dramatic event, often followed by unconsciousness and memory problems. This may influence the adjustment to daily life. Supporting patients and relatives in nursing care therefore requires knowledge concerning patients' experience of the onset of the SAH event, and knowledge concerning patients' memory after a SAH.

    Aim: The general aim of this thesis was to study patients' experiences and reconstruction of the onset of, and events surrounding, a SAH and to study patients' and relatives' experience of patients' memory ability, in a long-term perspective.

    Specific aims:

    (I) The aim of this study was to analyse people's accounts of SAH, and to describe how they initiate and create meaning for the onset and events surrounding the SAH. The specific questions were : (i) What is highlighted in the accounts of SAH? (II) How is the illness reconstructed? (iii) How is meaning created through communicative interaction with others about SAH?

    (II) The aim was to describe memory after a SAH from the perspective of relatives and patients in two cohorts. In this study, the researchers also aimed to evaluate the application of relatives' statements as a tool in nursing care and rehabilitation, in order to support the patients. This was achieved by comparing: (i) Relatives' statements with patients' statements and (ii) Relatives' and patients' statements with the patients' memory test results.

    Methods: Both an inductive and a deductive approach were used. Nine open interviews were carried out in home settings, 1 year and 7 months (ranging 14-24 months) after the patients' onset and discourse analysis was used to interpret the data (I). Eleven relatives and 11 patients, 11 years and 15 relatives and 15 patients, 6 years after the onset participated in two studies. Interview questions and memory tests were used to collect data. Fischer's exact test was used for the statistical analysis (II).

    Findings:Patient with experience of a SAH were able to judge their own memory for what happened when they became ill. Both conscious irrational and rational actions were expressed in relation to experienced sensations. Critical events related to SAH were "existential insights" and "time as waiting and time as structuring meaning". The reconstruction of the illness event may be interpreted as an identity ceating process. The process of meaning-making is both a matter of understanding SAH as a pathological event, and a social and communicative matter, where the SAH is constructed into a meaningful life history, in order to make life complete (I). Memory problems were common according to relatives' and patients' statements and from memory test results. There was correspondence between relatives' and patients' statements regarding the patients' memory in general and long-term memory. Patients judged their own memory ability better than relatives, compared with results on memory tests. Both relatives and patients underestimated older patients' memory ability and underrated younger patients' memory problems, when compared with results on memory tests. Relatives stated that some patients had meta-memory problems (II). The episodic memory seemed to be well preserved, both concerning the onset (I) and in the long-term perspective (II).

    Conclusions: The reconstruction of the illness is a tool in nursing for understanding the patient's self-positioning and identity-construction. (I) Relatives' and patients' statements regarding patients' memory can also be used as tools in nursing care. However, the results showed: meta-memory problems (relatives' statements); that patients' judged their own memory ability better than relatives in comparison with results on memory tests. Consequently, memory tests and formalized dialogues, between the patient, the relative and a professional are required in order to prevent complications in the patient's mutual family relationships. However, professionals must assume that patients can judge their own memory (II). Dialogues between the patient, the relative and a professional, with focus on how to manage daily life in patients' home context, due to the patient's experience of the onset of the SAH and possible memory problems after the SAH, will probably improve the mutual family relationship in a positive way (I,II).

  • 124.
    Berggren, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Sidenvall, Birgitta
    Jönköping University.
    Hellström Muhli, Ulla
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Identity construction and meaning-making after subarachnoid haemorrhage2010Ingår i: British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, ISSN 1747-0307, E-ISSN 2052-2800, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 86-93Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim was to analyse people's accounts of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and to describe how they initiate and create meaning for the onset and events surrounding the SAH.

    Background: Being struck by a SAH is a dramatic event, often followed by unconsciousness. There is therefore a special need for a patient to try to create some kind of meaning for the event during recovery and afterwards.

    Method: Nine interviews were carried out in home settings and discourse analysis was used to interpret the data.

    Findings: People stricken by SAH seem to be able to judge from memory for when they were becoming ill. Critical events related to SAH were existential threats and existential insights; and time as 'waiting' and time as 'structuring meaning'. The reconstruction of the illness event may be interpreted as an identity-creating process.

    Conclusion: The reconstruction of the illness is a tool that can be used by nurses and other health professionals to understand a patient's self-positioning and identity-construction.

  • 125.
    Berggren, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Sidenvall, Birgitta
    Jönköping University.
    Larsson, Dennis
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Subarachnoid haemorrhage has long-term effects on social life2011Ingår i: British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, ISSN 1747-0307, E-ISSN 2052-2800, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 429-435Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe memory after a subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) from the perspective of relatives and patients in two cohorts and also to evaluate the application of relatives' statements as a tool in nursing care and rehabilitation, in order to support the patient. Background: Cognitive sequelae due to SAH are a large disability and may influence the adjustment to daily life. Supporting patients and relatives requires knowledge concerning the patients' memory both from the perspective of patients and relatives. Method: Eleven relatives and 11 patients (Cohort 1), 11 years after the onset of an SAH and 15 relatives and 15 patients (Cohort 2) 6 years after the onset of an SAH, participated in the study. Interview questions and memory tests were used to collect data. Findings: Problems with memory, including meta-memory problems regarding relatives' statements, were common. Relatives and patients stated patients' menory in a similar manner. However, patients' statements concerning their memory corresponded in higher degree with memory test results, in comparison with relatives' statements. Conclusions: Relatives' and patients' statements are useful as tools in nursing care and rehabilitation. However, from results showing meta-memory problems and that patients' statements concerning their memory corresponded better with memory test results (in comparison with relatives' statements), it is vital to offer patients memory tests in order to prevent complications in mutual family relationships.

  • 126.
    Berggren, Emma
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Lundin, Sabina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Barn och ungas psykosomatiska besvär: Hur tar de sig uttryck och vilka är de bakomliggande orsakerna? - en litteraturstudie2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att belysa psykosomatiska symptom hos barn och ungdomar i åldrarna 0-18 år samt tydliggöra bakomliggande orsaker.Metod: Litteraturstudie baserat på 10 stycken vetenskapliga artiklar.Resultat: Barn i Europa, främst Skandinavien, upplevde olika psykosomatiska symptom till följd av stressande händelser och dessa symptom varierade även mellan ålder och kön. Skolmiljön var en stor utlösande faktor, likväl som hemförhållanden, socioekonomisk situation och osämja med lärare, jämnåriga och familjemedlemmar. Symptomen var allt från huvudvärk, mag- tarmproblem och sömnsvårigheter till nedstämdhet, ätstörningar och hjärtklappning.Slutsats: Barns framtida psykosomatiska hälsa är beroende av insatser på alla nivåer i samhället, då de påverkas av allt från skolmiljöerna de befinner sig i och hemförhållanden, till arbetslöshet och lågkonjunktur. 

  • 127.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Pain in the elderly: rating scales, prevalence and verbal expression of pain and pain relief2003Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 128.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Björk, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Sense of coherence over time for parents with a child diagnosed with cancer2012Ingår i: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 12, s. Article number 79-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When a child is diagnosed with childhood cancer this creates severe stress in the parents. The aim of the study was to describe the sense of coherence and its change over time in a sample of parents of children diagnosed with cancer.

    Methods: The Swedish version of SOC (29 items) was used to measure the parents’ (n = 29) sense of coherence. Data were collected at four time-points: Time-point 1 at the time of diagnosis; time-point 2 during the treatment; time-point 3 after the child had completed their treatment and time-point 4 when the child had been off treatment for some years or had died.

    Results: The results showed that SOC in the investigated population is not stable over time. The parents decreased in total SOC between time-points 1, 2 and 3. Mothers had significantlyweaker total SOC score including the components Manageability and Meaningfulness at time-points 1 as well time-point 2 compared to the fathers. However, for the component Comprehensibility no significant differences were shown between mothers and fathers. This study indicates that mothers’ and fathers’ SOC scores change over time during the child’s cancer trajectory. However, the pattern in these changes varies between mothers and fathers.

    Conclusions: This study indicates that mothers and fathers may have different support needs during their child’s cancer trajectory.

  • 129.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Gunnarsson, Magnus
    Department of Linguistics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Allwood, Jens
    Department of Linguistics, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Odén, Anders
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sjöström, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Steen, Bertil
    Department of Geriatric Medicine, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Descriptions of pain in elderly patients following orthopaedic surgery2005Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 110-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to investigate what words elderly patients, who had undergone hip surgery, used to describe their experience of pain in spoken language and to compare these words with those used in the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and Pain-O-Meter (POM). The study was carried out at two orthopaedic and two geriatric clinical departments at a large university hospital in Sweden. Altogether, 60 patients (mean age =77) who had undergone orthopaedic surgery took part in the study. A face-to-face interview was conducted with each patient on the second day after the operation. This was divided into two parts, one tape-recorded and semi-structured in character and one structured interview. The results show that a majority of the elderly patients who participated in this study verbally stated pain and spontaneously used a majority of the words found in the SF-MPQ and in the POM. The patients also used a number of additional words not found in the SF-MPQ or the POM. Among those patients who did not use any of the words in the SF-MPQ and the POM, the use of the three additional words 'stel' (stiff), 'hemsk' (awful) and 'räd(d)(sla)' (afraid/fear) were especially marked. The patients also combined the words with a negation to describe what pain was not. To achieve a more balanced and nuanced description of the patient's pain and to make it easier for the patients to talk about their pain, there is a need for access to a set of predefined words that describe pain from a more multidimensional perspective than just intensity. If the elderly patient is allowed, and finds it necessary, to use his/her own words to describe what pain is but also to describe what pain is not, by combining the words with a negation, then the risk of the patient being forced to choose words that do not fully correspond to their pain can be reduced. If so, pain scales such as the SF-MPQ and the POM can create a communicative bridge between the elderly patient and health care professionals in the pain evaluation process.

  • 130.
    Bergh, Ingrid H. E.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Ek, Kristina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Mårtensson, Lena B.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Midwifery students attribute different quantitative meanings to "hurt", "ache" and "pain": A cross-sectional survey2013Ingår i: Women and Birth, ISSN 1871-5192, E-ISSN 1878-1799, Vol. 26, nr 2, s. 143-146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Assessment of women's labor pain is seldom acknowledged in clinical practice or research. The words "aching" and "hurting" are frequently used by women to describe childbirth pain. The aim of this study was to determine the quantitative meanings midwifery students attribute to the terms "hurt", "ache" and "pain". Data was collected by self-administered questionnaire from students at seven Swedish midwifery programs. A total of 230 filled out and returned a completed questionnaire requesting them to rate, on a visual analog scale, the intensity of "hurt", "ache" or "pain" in the back, as reported by a fictitious parturient. Results: The midwifery students attributed, with substantial individual variation, different quantitative meanings to the studied pain descriptors. Conclusions: To be able to communicate about pain with a woman in labor, it is essential that the midwife be familiar with the value of different words and what they mean to her as this may affect her assessment when the woman describes her pain. © 2012.

  • 131.
    Bergh, Ingrid H. E.
    et al.
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Stener-Victorin, Elisabet
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology/Endocrinology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Wallin, Gunnar
    Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Mårtensson, Lena
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Comparison of the PainMatcher and the Visual Analogue Scale for assessment of labour pain following administered pain relief treatment2011Ingår i: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. E134-E139Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: during childbirth, it is necessary to assess and monitor experienced pain and to evaluate the effect of pain relief treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the PainMatcher® (PM) with the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for the assessment of labour pain and the effect of pain relief treatment.Design: randomised controlled trial.Setting: labour ward with approximately 2500 childbirths per year in western Sweden.Participants: 57 women with labour pain treated with acupuncture or sterile water injections scored their electrical pain threshold and pain intensity with the PM. Pain intensity was also assessed with the VAS. Electrical pain threshold and pain intensity were assessed immediately after a uterine contraction before and 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 minutes after treatment.Measurements and findings: the results showed a weak correlation (r=0.13, p<0.05) between the pain intensity scores on the PM and the VAS. The PM detected changes (decrease) in pain intensity to a lower degree than the VAS. Surprisingly, in over 10% of sessions, women scored their pain intensity during a uterine contraction lower than their electrical pain threshold with the PM. However, electrical pain thresholds with the PM correlated well throughout all measurements.Conclusions: the PM is a reliable tool for the assessment of electrical pain threshold; however, the VAS is more sensitive than the PM for recording changes in pain intensity when assessing the effects of treatment on labour pain.Implications for practice: the PM and the VAS are not interchangeable in the case of labour pain, and there is still a need for research in this area to find a more suitable assessment instrument for the evaluation of labour pain.

  • 132.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Jakobsson, Eva
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Sjöström, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Worst experiences of pain and conceptions of worst pain imaginable among nursing students2008Ingår i: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 61, nr 5, s. 484-491Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a report of a study to explore nursing students' own worst experiences of pain as well as their conceptions of the worst pain imaginable. Background.

    Pain is a personal experience, often assessed using a visual analogue scale. The endpoints of this scale are labelled with the extremes for pain experience (e.g. no pain to worst pain imaginable). People may understand the meaning of `no pain', but it is unclear what meaning they assign to `worst pain imaginable'. This indicates that a rating along the Visual Analogue Scale-line is dependent on the individual's previous experiences. Methods. Data were collected during the autumn of 2002. In total, 549 nursing students completed a questionnaire focusing on two main questions: `What is the worst experience of hurt, ache or pain you have had?' and `What is the worst pain imaginable for you?' Content analysis was used for data analysis. Results. The students' worst experience of pain was mostly related to acute or traumatic painful conditions, pain associated with female physiology, inflicted pain, psychological suffering and chronic painful conditions. The worst pain imaginable was described as condition-related pain, overwhelming pain, experiences of losses, deliberately inflicted pain, psychological suffering and as vicarious pain. Conclusion. The findings imply that nursing students, when they are imagining pain, include dimensions such as hope of relief, grief, control over the situation, powerlessness and empathy for and suffer with other people's pain. Further research is needed to explore why professional experience as a nurse diminishes the ability to imagine patients' pain.

  • 133.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Jakobsson, Eva
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Sjöström, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Steen, Bertil
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Ways of talking about experiences of pain among older patients following orthopaedic surgery2005Ingår i: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 52, nr 4, s. 351-359Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim of this study was to examine how older patients who had undergone hip surgery described their experience of pain.

    Background. A verbal report of pain is considered to be the single most reliable indicator of a person's pain experience. When assessing pain, healthcare professionals must be able to interpret the content of pain reports in order to understand older patient's pain experiences.

    Methods. The study was carried out in two orthopaedic and two elder care wards in a large university hospital in Sweden in 2000. Altogether, 38 patients with hip replacement (mean age = 75) and 22 patients with hip fracture (mean age = 81) took part. A face-to-face interview was conducted with each patient on the second day after operation. Data were transcribed and analysed using descriptive qualitative content analysis.

    Findings. Participants expressed their pain in a nuanced and detailed way in everyday language. Four main themes with sub-themes emerged: (a) objectification (localizing; quantifying; characterizing; temporalizing); (b) compensating (substitution; picturing); (c) explaining (functionalizing pain and its relief; externalizing pain and its relief); (d) existentializing (present pain orientation; future pain orientation).

    Conclusions. Exploring the ways older patients talk about pain is expected to result in a better understanding of the older patient's need of empathic individualized care and in the optimization of pain management.

  • 134.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Sjöström, Björn
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Quantification of the pain terms hurt, ache and pain among nursing students2007Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 163-168Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine the quantitative meaning nursing students ascribe to the pain terms hurt (ont), ache (värk) and pain (smärta). In total, 549 nursing students filled in a questionnaire including questions about age, gender, and health care work experience. The students were also requested to rate response using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) rating for different statements about hurt, ache and pain. The results show that there were significant differences (p < 0.001) between rated intensity of the statements of hurt, ache and pain. There were, however, large variations in the students’ ratings of the pain terms; hurt ranged from 3 to 97 mm, ache from 7 to 97 mm and pain from 27 to 100 mm. There were no significant differences between male and female students regarding their ratings of hurt and ache when they were used to describe the worst self-experienced pain. Female students rated their experience of pain significantly higher (p < 0.001) on the VAS compared with male students. There was no significant correlation between previous experience of health care work and rated intensity of hurt, ache and pain. In conclusion, this study shows that there exist significant differences between the pain terms hurt, ache and pain according to a rating on a VAS. However, the results also demonstrate that there are large individual variations in how the students quantify the fictitious patient statements of hurt, ache and pain.

  • 135.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Söderlund, Tina
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Skaraborg Hospital, SE-541 85 Skövde, Sweden.
    Vinterskog, Linda
    Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Skaraborg Hospital, SE-541 85 Skövde, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Lena B.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Reliability and validity of the Acceptance Symptom Assessment Scale in assessing labour pain2012Ingår i: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 28, nr 5, s. e684-e688Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: to investigate the reliability and validity of the Acceptance Symptom Assessment Scale (ASAS) in assessing labour pain.

    Design: a test-retest approach was used to assess reliability and validity.

    Setting: labour ward with approximately 2,400 deliveries annually in western part of Sweden.

    Participants: forty-seven pregnant women in the latent or active phase of labour.

    Methods: a total of five pain assessments with both the ASAS and the VAS were conducted in three sessions.

    Main outcome measures: correlation between ASAS and VAS.

    Findings: both scales demonstrated high and significant test–retest correlations (r=0.83–0.92; p<0.001). High and significant alternative-form reliability correlations (r=0.76–0.93, p<0.001) were found between ASAS and VAS ratings at all five assessments. Construct validity was established when both the ASAS and the VAS identified a pain reduction(p<0.001) 2 hrs after birth, compared to the previous assessment. Over two-thirds of the women preferred the ASAS to the VAS ,mainly(n=30) because the ASAS provided more choices relating to the pain experience, making it possible to label pain acceptable/unacceptable.

    Conclusions: the ASAS is interchangeable with the VAS for assessing labour pain. Over two-thirds of the women preferred it to the VAS.

  • 136.
    Bergkvist, Krister
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Lundberg, Pär
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Icke-farmakologiska Smärtlindrande Omvårdnadsåtgärder Inom Prehospital Akutsjukvård: En Kvalitativ Beskrivning av olika tillvägagångssätt2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett av de vanligaste bekymren hos patienter som kommer i kontakt med ambulanssjukvården är smärta i någon form. Sedan den första november 2005 tillåts inte samtlig ambulanspersonal att administrera läkemedel. Det är därför rimligt att anta att ambulanspersonalen också har andra, icke-farmakologiska, sätt att lindra patienters smärta. Författarna såg därför ett intresse i att utforska hur ambulanspersonalen ser på begreppet smärta och behandlingen av densamma.

    Syftet med studien var att, med fokus på icke-farmakologiska åtgärder, beskriva hur svensk ambulanspersonal omhändertar patienter med smärta.

    Studien genomfördes med hjälp av fem intervjuer med olika kategorier av ambulanspersonal. Intervjuerna transkriberades ordagrant och analyserades. Fyra övergripande teman med subteman växte fram ur texten. I temat åsikter om smärta beskrev informanterna sin uppfattning om smärta som ett individuellt fenomen samt vad de ansåg påverkar patientens smärta. Bemötande och förhållningssätt vid omhändertagande beskrev informanternas åsikter att de med ett lugnt bemötande ansåg sig kunna skapa en relation till patienten samt försöka avleda dennes tankar på smärtan på olika sätt. Bedömning och behandling beskriver informanternas åsikter att bedömning och behandling av smärta kräver individanpassning. Kombinationsterapi är vinnande beskriver informanternas uppfattning att behandlingen av smärta blir allra bäst då icke-farmakologiska åtgärder kombineras med de farmakologiska.

  • 137.
    Berglund, Mia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Att ta rodret i livet med långvarig sjukdom2011Ingår i: CF-bladet - Medlemsblad för Riksförbundet Cystisk Fibros i Sverige, nr 3, s. 18-19Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 138.
    Berglund, Mia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Att ta rodret i livet med långvarig sjukdom: Lärande utmaningar vid långvarig sjukdom2011Ingår i: Dialäsen, ISSN 1104-4616, nr 5, s. 37-40Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 139.
    Berglund, Mia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Att ta rodret i sitt liv: Lärande utmaningar vid långvarig sjukdom2011Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A starting point for this thesis is that patients’ learning has not received sufficient attention and thus has not featured in the study programmes in the field of caring. Focus has instead been placed on patients being given information and advice about their illness and treatment, advice that they are then expected to comply with. Too little attention has been paid to the individual who lives with his/her illness and who should be considered to have significant experiences. The overall aim has been to analyze and describe the phenomenon of learning to live with long-term illness as well as to develop a didactic model that can help carers to support patients’ learning processes.

    The theoretical perspective in the thesis is lifeworld theory, which permeates ontological, epistemological and methodological standpoints and also the view on learning. The design and carrying out of the research is based on a reflective lifeworld approach. The empirical study consists of interviews with people who live with different types of long-term illnesses.

    The learning that follows life with a long-term illness is generated in such a way as to respond to the will to live the well-known everyday life. A greater understanding of the empirical results has been achieved by a lifeworld philosophical elucidation, with a particular focus on learning turning points and the importance of reflection. Based on the empirical results, the lifeworld philosophical elucidation and the caring science lifeworld didactics a didactic model has been formulated. This model is entitled: The challenge – to take charge of one’s life with long-term illness. The model contains four theses: 1) Confronting one’s life situation and challenging to make a change, 2) Positioning oneself at a distance when creating a new whole, 3) Developing self-consciousness and taking responsibility, 4) Making learning visible with the aim of providing development and balance in life.

    The results in the thesis show that a genuine learning is something that differs from the learning of information and that the learning must be supported at an existential level based on the sufferer’s situation and for a long period of time.

  • 140.
    Berglund, Mia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Lärande vid långvarig sjukdom: Utmaningar för patient och vårdare2012 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 141.
    Berglund, Mia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Nu satsar Högskolan i Skövde på omvårdnadshandledning2010Ingår i: Medlemsbladet, Handledning i omvårdnad, nr 1, s. 10-11Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 142.
    Berglund, Mia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Senaste nytt från Skövde2011Ingår i: Medlemsbladet, Handledning i omvårdnad, nr 2, s. 7-7Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 143.
    Berglund, Mia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Utmaningen - att ta rodret i livet med långvarig sjukdom2012Ingår i: Njurfunk, ISSN 0347-1365, Vol. 1, nr 39, s. 36-38Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 144.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Källerwald, Susanne
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    The Movement to a New Understanding: A Life-World-Based Study about How People Learn to Live with Long-Term Illness2012Ingår i: Journal of Nursing & Care, ISSN 2167-1168, Vol. 1, nr 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to analyze and describe the phenomenon of learning to live with long-term illness.

    Method: The design and implementation of the research was based on a reflective lifeworld approach. The study consisted of interviews with people who live with different types of long-term illness.

    Results: Learning to live with a long-term illness happens in such a way as to respond to the will to live everyday life. The essential meaning of learning to live with long-term illness is constituted by the following elements: learning to know and live with a stranger, the driving forces of learning, learning methods are a balancing act, making the illness visible, as well as seeking knowledge and understanding. The result of the learning process can be understood as movement to a new understanding that is shown in the way the person with the illness acts and gives herself with the illness more space in life.

    Conclusion: The results show that genuine learning is something that differs from learning information and that the learning must be supported by the sufferer’s situation for a long period of time at an existential level.

  • 145.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Sjögren, Reet
    School of Health Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås/Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Reflect and learn together - when two supervisors interact in the learning support process of nurse education2012Ingår i: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 152-158Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim  To describe the importance of supervisors working together in supporting the learning process of nurse students through reflective caring science supervision.

    Background  A supervision model has been developed in order to meet the need for interweaving theory and practice. The model is characterized by learning reflection in caring science. A unique aspect of the present project was that the student groups were led by a teacher and a nurse.

    Method  Data were collected through interviews with the supervisors. The analysis was performed with a phenomenological approach.

    Results  The results showed that theory and practice can be made more tangible and interwoven by using two supervisors in a dual supervision. The essential structure is built on the constituents ‘Reflection as Learning Support’, ‘Interweaving Caring Science with the Patient’s Narrative’, ‘The Student as a Learning Subject’ and ‘The Learning Environment of Supervision’.

    Conclusion  The study concludes that supervision in pairs provides unique possibilities for interweaving and developing theory and practice.

    Implications for nursing management  The supervision model offers unique opportunities for cooperation, for the development of theory and practice and for the development of the professional roll of nurses and teachers.

  • 146.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Westin, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Svanström, Rune
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Johansson Sundler, Annelie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Suffering caused by care - Patients' experiences from hospital settings2012Ingår i: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 7, artikel-id 18688Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Suffering and well-being are significant aspects of human existence; in particular, suffering and well-being are important aspects of patients’ experiences following diseases. Increased knowledge about existential dimensions of illness and healthcare experiences may be needed in order to improve care and reduce unnecessary suffering. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to illuminate the phenomenon of suffering experienced in relation to healthcare needs among patients in hospital settings in Sweden. In this study, we used a reflective lifeworld approach. The data were analysed with a focus on meanings. The results describe the essential meaning of the phenomenon of suffering in relation to healthcare needs. The patients were suffering during care-giving when they felt distrusted or mistreated and when their perspective on illness and health was overlooked. Suffering was found to arise due to healthcare actions that neglected a holistic and patient-centred approach to care. Unfortunately, healthcare experiences that cause patients to suffer seem to be something one needs to endure without being critical. The phenomenon can be described as having four constituents: to be mistreated; to struggle for one’s healthcare needs and autonomy; to feel powerless; and to feel fragmented and objectified. The study concludes that there are problems associated with patients experiencing suffering at the hands of healthcare providers, even if this suffering may not have been caused deliberately to the patient. Consequently, conscious improvements are needed to lessen the suffering caused by care-giving, as are strategies that promote more patient-centred care and patient participation.

  • 147.
    Bergman, A.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Capio Diagnostik AB, Kärnsjukhuset, Skövde.
    Fernandez, V.
    Department of Parasitology, Mycology and Environmental Microbiology, Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, Solna.
    Holmström, Kjell-Ove
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Claesson, B. E. B.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Capio Diagnostik AB, Kärnsjukhuset, Skövde.
    Enroth, H.
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Capio Diagnostik AB, Kärnsjukhuset, Skövde.
    Rapid identification of pathogenic yeast isolates bt real-time PCR and two-dimensional melting-point analysis2007Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 26, nr 11, s. 813-818Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need in the clinical microbiological laboratory for rapid and reliable methods for the universal identification of fungal pathogens. Two different regions of the rDNA gene complex, the highly polymorphic ITS1 and ITS2, were amplified using primers targeting conserved regions of the 18S, 5.8S and 28S genes. After melting-point analysis of the amplified products, the Tm of the two PCR-products were plotted into a spot diagram where all the 14 tested, clinically relevant yeasts separated with good resolution. Real-time amplification of two separate genes, melting-point analysis and two-dimensional plotting of Tm data can be used as a broad-range method for the identification of clinical isolates of pathogenic yeast such as Candida and Cryptococcus spp.

  • 148.
    Bergman, Jimmy
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Cellulär automat simulerar utbredning av Taraxacum2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete undersöks vilken grad av inomartskonkurrens som ger upphov till ett observerat utbredningsmönster av maskrosor (Taraxacum sect. Ruderalia). Maskrosor har både fröspridning och vegetativ förökning. Studien hypotiserar att utbredningen kan beskrivas utifrån enkla regler för spridning och konkurrens. Dessa används i simuleringar med en binär cellulär automat där utveckling sker i deterministiska tidssteg. Modellen består av ett rutnät där en tom cell antingen kan förbli tom eller koloniseras, medan en upptagen cell antingen kan överleva eller dö ut. Reglerna efterliknar situationer med hög respektive låg känslighet för inomartskonkurrens. De mått på jämförelse mellan observation och simulering som används är mönstrets fraktala dimension, mönstrets tendens att aggregera och storleken på den enklaste algoritm som beskriver datan. Två olika initialvillkor används för att testa modellens robusthet. Den observerade utbredningen kontrolleras även mot slumpmässig fördelning. Resultaten visar att den observerade utbredningen är klusterartad. Simulering med en högre inomartskonkurrens beskriver utbredningen väl sett till aggregering och fraktal dimension. Lägre inomartskonkurrens beskriver dock maskrosornas verkliga utbredning sett till algoritmisk komplexitet, vilket tolkas som att individer kan leva närmare inpå varandra än vad regeln om högre inomartskonkurrens förutsätter. För vald klusterstorlek är simuleringarna ej känsliga för initialvillkoren, men då hela fördelningen av antal celler per klusterstorlek i stickprov på ett tidssteg analyseras har initialvillkoren fakstiskt betydelse. Sett till fördelningen av cell per klusterstorlek liknar ingen simulering den observerade utbredningen. Därmed kan modellen tänkas inrymma den vegetativa förökningen medan fröspridningen, som är stokastisk, ej inryms på samma vis.

  • 149.
    Bergman, Karin
    et al.
    Skaraborg Primary Health Care, Skövde, Sweden.
    Perhed, Ulla
    Skaraborg Primary Health Care, Skövde, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Irene
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    Lindblad, Ulf
    Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fagerström, Lisbeth
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Buskerud University College, Drammen, Norway.
    Patients' satisfaction with the care offered by advanced practice nurses: A new role in Swedish primary care2013Ingår i: International Journal of Nursing Practice, ISSN 1322-7114, E-ISSN 1440-172X, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 326-333Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to describe patients' satisfaction with the new role of advanced practice nurses (APNs) in Swedish primary care. A questionnaire pertaining to patient satisfaction with the care offered by APNs was sent to respondents. Descriptive statistics, a chi-squared test and manifest qualitative content analysis were used during analysis. Although the results show an overall high level of patient satisfaction as regards APN-led care, those patients informed of the APN role prior to a consultation were significantly more satisfied. Respondents' comments indicate that professional treatment and competence are characteristic of the care offered by APNs and also relate the concepts of increased availability of and continuity in health care to the APN role. In order to guarantee the positive development of the APN role in Sweden, continued research is needed from patient, organizational and interprofessional perspectives, including intervention studies of cost effectiveness and the quality of care.

  • 150.
    Bergsten, Niklas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för vård och natur.
    1,25(OH)2D3 and Prostate Cancer: The Effects on cAMP/PKA-dependent Gene Expression in LnCaP cells2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Prostate cancer is the leading male cancer form i Sweden and maybe worldwide as well. Vitamin D is synthesized in the skin following the exposure to sunlight. Researcers have long been aware of the positive effect that vitamin D3 has on prostate tumour growth. 1,25(OH)2D3 have for a long time been the target of these studies and have shown good results. The steroid hormone induces cAMP accumulation and activiates the cAMP dependent protein kinaseA (PKA). PKA is then able to activate a transcription regulating protein. 1,25(OH)2D3 is known to cause LNCaP cells to accumulate in the G1 phase ofthe cell cycle. It has also been shown that 1,25(OH)2D3 is under negativefeedback control via 24-hydroxylase. In this study, PKA activity was observed by transfecting LNCaP cells with a viral vector carrying firefly and Renillaluciferase genes. The successfully transfected LNCaP cells would then express luciferase as a response to PKA gene expression. The LNCaP cells were then treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 and GDP-β-S (100μM), a G-protein coupled receptorinhibitor, in order to examine if 1,25(OH)2D3 regulate PKA dependent gene expression through a G-protein coupled receptor. The study could show that 1,25(OH)2D3 regulate gene expression in LNCaP cells through a PKAdependent pathway. Furthermore, the PKA dependent gene expression was demonstrated to be independent of G-protein coupled recpetor activation.

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