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  • 101.
    Schredl, Michael
    et al.
    Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim/Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany.
    Schramm, Finnja
    Psychology Department, University of Marburg, Germany.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Mueller, Erik M.
    Psychology Department, University of Marburg, Germany.
    Sandman, Nils
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Social Psychology, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Nightmare Distress Questionnaire: associated factors2021Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine (JCSM), ISSN 1550-9389, E-ISSN 1550-9397, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 61-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of a nightmare disorder is based on clinically significant distress caused by the nightmares, eg, sleep or mood disturbances during the day. The question what factors might be associated with nightmare distress in addition to nightmares frequency is not well studied.

    METHODS: Overall, 1,474 persons (893 women, 581 men) completed an online survey. Nightmare distress was measured with the Nightmare Distress Questionnaire.

    RESULTS: The findings indicated that nightmare distress, measured by the Nightmare Distress Questionnaire, correlated with a variety of factors in addition to nightmare frequency: neuroticism, female sex, low education, extraversion, low agreeableness, and sensation seeking. Moreover, the percentage of replicative trauma-related nightmares was also associated with higher nightmare distress.

    CONCLUSIONS: A large variety of factors are associated with nightmare distress, a finding that is of clinical importance. The construct harm avoidance, however, was not helpful in explaining interindividual differences in nightmare distress. Furthermore, the relationship between nightmare distress and other factors, eg, education or agreeableness, is not yet understood.

  • 102.
    Seetharaman, Shyam
    et al.
    Department of Psychology. St. Petersburg College. St. Petersburg, Florida.
    Andel, Ross
    School of Aging Studies. University of South Florida. Tampa ; International Clinical Research Center, Brno, Czech Republic.
    McEvoy, Cathy
    School of Aging Studies. University of South Florida. Tampa.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; School of Health Sciences. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Finkel, Deborah
    Department of Psychology. Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, Indiana.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Department of Psychology. University of Southern California. Los Angeles, California.
    Blood glucose, diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging among dementia-free older adults2015Inngår i: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, ISSN 1079-5006, E-ISSN 1758-535X, Vol. 70, nr 4, s. 471-479Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although evidence indicates that Type II Diabetes is related to abnormal brain aging, the influence of elevated blood glucose on long-term cognitive change is unclear. In addition, the relationship between diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging has not been extensively studied. The focus of this study was to investigate the influence of diet-based glycemic load and blood glucose on cognitive aging in older adults followed for up to 16 years.

    METHODS: Eight-hundred and thirty-eight cognitively healthy adults aged ≥50 years (M = 63.1, SD = 8.3) from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging were studied. Mixed effects growth models were utilized to assess overall performance and change in general cognitive functioning, perceptual speed, memory, verbal ability, and spatial ability as a function of baseline blood glucose and diet-based glycemic load.

    RESULTS: High blood glucose was related to poorer overall performance on perceptual speed as well as greater rates of decline in general cognitive ability, perceptual speed, verbal ability, and spatial ability. Diet-based glycemic load was related to poorer overall performance in perceptual speed and spatial ability.

    CONCLUSION: Diet-based glycemic load and, in particular, elevated blood glucose appear important for cognitive performance/cognitive aging. Blood glucose control (perhaps through low glycemic load diets) may be an important target in the detection and prevention of age-related cognitive decline.

  • 103.
    Sellberg, Charlott
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    A comparative theoretical and empirical analysis of three methods for workplace studies2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Workplace studies in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is a research field that has expanded in an explosive way during the recent years. Today there is a wide range of theoretical approaches and methods to choose from, which makes it problematic to make methodological choices both in research and system design. While there have been several studies that assess the different approaches to workplace studies, there seems to be a lack of studies that explore the theoretical and methodological differences between more structured methods within the research field. In this thesis, a comparative theoretical and empirical analysis of three methods for workplace studies is being conducted to deal with the following research problem: What level of theoretical depth and methodological structure is appropriate when conducting methods for workplace studies to inform design of complex socio-technical systems? When using the two criterions descriptive power and application power, to assess Contextual Design (CD), Determining Information Flow Breakdown (DIB), and Capturing Semi-Automated Decision-Making (CASADEMA), important lessons are learned about which methods are acceptable and useful when the purpose is to inform system design.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 104.
    Siclari, Francesca
    et al.
    Center for Investigation and Research on Sleep and Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, and Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Perioperative Services, Intensive Care and Pain Medicine, Turku University Hospital, Finland.
    Arnulf, Isabelle
    Paris Brain Institute, France / Sorbonne University, Paris, France / Sleep Disorders Unit, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, France.
    Dreams and nightmares in healthy adults and in patients with sleep and neurological disorders2020Inngår i: Lancet Neurology, ISSN 1474-4422, E-ISSN 1474-4465, Vol. 19, nr 10, s. 849-859Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dreams are experiences that occur during sleep, while we are disconnected from the environment. Thanks to recent progress in neuroimaging techniques, it is now becoming possible to relate dream features to specific patterns of brain activity. Some conditions occurring in patients with neurological disorders, such as lucid dreams and parasomnias, not only have diagnostic value, but also offer a window into the dream process. They show that dreaming is reflected in physiological signals, behaviours, and brain activity patterns, and that the body can enact dream content. Yet, the dream body can also be distinct from the real body; in their dreams, patients with congenital paraplegia can walk, those with sleep apnoea rarely suffocate, and phantom limb pain can disappear. These conditions provide valuable models for future studies investigating the mechanisms that underlie oneiric experiences. 

  • 105.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Methodological Issues in Measuring Dream Emotions2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions are central in dreams, specifically in rapid eye movement sleep dreams. Despite a wealth of research on the emotional content of dreams, there is little consensus about the overall emotionality and predominant valence of dreams or about the prevailing specific emotions in dreams. Previous contradictory findings are arguably due to unresolved methodological issues. However, studies that have directly investigated these methodological issues are scarce. In this presentation three studies that investigated the effect of study methodology on the frequency, valence and phenomenological content of dream emotions are discussed. The studies demonstrate that the use of different methods for rating dream emotions (participants who experience the dream vs external judges who analysed the respective dream report) and for collecting dream reports (home vs laboratory setting) leads to very different results and conclusions about the emotional content of dreams. As such, these studies highlight the importance of carefully considering study methodology when conducting and interpreting dream (emotional) content studies.

  • 106.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, Stanford University, USA ; Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland ; Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland ; Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Ezquerro Nassar, Alejandro
    Consciousness and Cognition Lab, Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, UK.
    Kirberg, Manuela
    Department of Philosophy, Monash University, Australia.
    Loukola, Ville
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland ; Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland ; Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Windt, Jennifer
    Department of Philosophy, Monash University, Australia ; Monash Centre for Consciousness and Contemplative Studies, Monash University, Australia.
    Bekinschtein, Tristan A.
    Consciousness and Cognition Lab, Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, UK.
    Noreika, Valdas
    Department of Biological and Experimental Psychology, School of Biological and Behavioural Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, UK.
    COVID-19 on mind: Daily worry about the coronavirus is linked to negative affect experienced during mind-wandering and dreaming2024Inngår i: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 177-195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a surge of studies on the effects of COVID-19 on our well-being, we know little about how the pandemic is reflected in people's spontaneous thoughts and experiences, such as mind-wandering (or daydreaming) during wakefulness and dreaming during sleep. We investigated whether and how COVID-19-related general concern, anxiety, and daily worry are associated with the daily fluctuation of the affective quality of mind-wandering and dreaming, and to what extent these associations can be explained by poor sleep quality. We used ecological momentary assessment by asking participants to rate the affect they experienced during mind-wandering and dreaming in daily logs over a 2-week period. Our preregistered analyses based on 1,755 dream logs from 172 individuals and 1,496 mind-wandering logs from 152 individuals showed that, on days when people reported higher levels of negative affect and lower levels of positive affect during mind-wandering, they experienced more worry. Only daily sleep quality was associated with affect experienced during dreaming at the within-person level: on nights with poorer sleep quality people reported experiencing more negative and less positive affect in dreams and were more likely to experience nightmares. However, at the between-person level, individuals who experienced more daily COVID-19 worry during the study period also reported experiencing more negative affect during mind-wandering and during dreaming. As such, the continuity between daily and nightly experiences seems to rely more on stable trait-like individual differences in affective processing. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2023 APA, all rights reserved).

  • 107.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Virta, Tiina
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    I know how you felt last night, or do I?: Self- and external ratings of emotions in REM dreams2014Inngår i: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 25, s. 51-66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether inconsistencies in previous studies regarding emotional experiencesin dreams derive from whether dream emotions are self-rated or externally evaluated.Seventeen subjects were monitored with polysomnography in the sleep laboratoryand awakened from every rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage 5 min after the onsetof the stage. Upon awakening, participants gave an oral dream report and rated their dreamemotions using the modified Differential Emotions Scale, whereas external judges rated theparticipants’ emotions expressed in the dream reports, using the same scale. The twoapproaches produced diverging results. Self-ratings, as compared to external ratings,resulted in greater estimates of (a) emotional dreams; (b) positively valenced dreams;(c) positive and negative emotions per dream; and (d) various discrete emotions representedin dreams. The results suggest that this is mostly due to the underrepresentationof positive emotions in dream reports. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  • 108.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Virta, Tiina
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Subjective and objective measures of affective states in REM sleep dreams2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 109.
    Silventoinen, Karri
    et al.
    Department of Social Research, University of Helsinki, Finland ; Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Japan.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Institute of Gerontology and Aging Research Network–Jönköping (ARN-J), School of Health and Welfare Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland ; Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM, Helsinki, Finland.
    Educational attainment of same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins: An individual-level pooled study of 19 twin cohorts2021Inngår i: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 136, artikkel-id 105054Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparing twins from same- and opposite-sex pairs can provide information on potential sex differences in a variety of outcomes, including socioeconomic-related outcomes such as educational attainment. It has been suggested that this design can be applied to examine the putative role of intrauterine exposure to testosterone for educational attainment, but the evidence is still disputed. Thus, we established an international database of twin data from 11 countries with 88,290 individual dizygotic twins born over 100 years and tested for differences between twins from same- and opposite-sex dizygotic pairs in educational attainment. Effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by linear regression models after adjusting for birth year and twin study cohort. In contrast to the hypothesis, no difference was found in women (β = −0.05 educational years, 95% CI −0.11, 0.02). However, men with a same-sex co-twin were slightly more educated than men having an opposite-sex co-twin (β = 0.14 educational years, 95% CI 0.07, 0.21). No consistent differences in effect sizes were found between individual twin study cohorts representing Europe, the USA, and Australia or over the cohorts born during the 20th century, during which period the sex differences in education reversed favoring women in the latest birth cohorts. Further, no interaction was found with maternal or paternal education. Our results contradict the hypothesis that there would be differences in the intrauterine testosterone levels between same-sex and opposite-sex female twins affecting education. Our findings in men may point to social dynamics within same-sex twin pairs that may benefit men in their educational careers. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 110.
    Sternäng, Ola
    et al.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Sweden ; Stockholm Brain Institute, Sweden.
    Reynolds, Chandra A.
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, USA.
    Finkel, Deborah
    Department of Psychology, Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, USA.
    Ernsth-Bravell, Marie
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden ; Department of Psychology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, USA.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Institute of Gerontology, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Sweden ; Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Grip Strength and Cognitive Abilities: Associations in Old Age2016Inngår i: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 71, nr 5, s. 841-848Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Both physical functioning and cognitive abilities are important for well-being, not least in old age. Grip strength is often considered an indicator of general vitality and, as such, may predict cognitive functioning. Few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between grip strength and cognition, especially where specific cognitive abilities have been targeted.

    METHOD: Participants (n = 708, age range: 40-86 years at baseline) came from the population-based longitudinal Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging. We used a longitudinal follow-up of 6 waves during 20 years. For the analyses, we used latent growth modeling, where latent growth trajectories were fitted to the cognitive traits (verbal ability, spatial ability, processing speed, and memory) or to the grip strength values and each, respectively, treated as time-varying covariates of the other trait.

    RESULTS: Results supported a longitudinal influence of grip strength on changes in cognitive function. Grip strength performance was associated with change in the 4 cognitive abilities after age 65 years.

    DISCUSSION: A rather stable connection was found between grip strength and cognitive abilities starting around 65 years of age. The starting period suggests that the association may be due to lifestyle changes, such as retirement, or to acceleration of the aging processes.

  • 111.
    Susi, Tarja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Tools and artefacts: the effect of knowing 'where-from' on their present use2006Inngår i: 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society in Cooperation with the 5th International Conference of the Cognitive Science Society: CogSci/ICCS 2006, Cognitive Science Society, Inc., 2006, s. 2241-2246Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on how past knowledge of tools/artefacts affect their present use. The discussion is based on Wartofsky’s (1979) primary, secondary, and tertiary artefacts, and Engeström’s (1990) subsequent activity theoretical elaboration. While Engeström identifies two different kinds of internal (mental) secondary artefacts, this paper identifies an additional kind of tertiary artefact – ‘where-from’ artefact – that consists of experience based knowledge of the past. The conception of where-from, contributes to understanding, for instance, why people handle objects the way they do. This artefact, identified in a workplace study, also plays an important role in the process of learning through apprenticeship, since what novices are provided, in terms of instructions etc., partly depends on the more knowledgeable person’s past experiences.

  • 112.
    Svenning, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Impetuous Voice of Reason: Emotion versus reason in moral decision-making2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This is a review of what the currently dominant theories of moral decision-making are and where they derive from. While the introduction serves as a common ground to explain what moral decision-making is, the earlier parts of the thesis describe older traditionalist theories within the field,  theories of emotional decision-making, in the form of the somatic marker hypothesis, as well as critique of the older traditionalist theories through the social intuitionist model. Both of these two theories are explained as the foundation of the current theories of moral decision-making and after establishing a clear basis on what the currently dominant theories of moral decision-making are built on, said theories are introduced in the form of the dual-processing theory and the event-feature-emotion complexes which are thoroughly reviewed, explained in detail and serves as the core of the text. This is afterward followed by criticism as well as arguments in favor of both theories as well as criticisms from other researchers who disagree with the methodology which the theories of moral decision-making are conducted on. The essay reviews the current state of the field of moral decision-making which has been split up into two different approaches, the locationist approach and the constructionist approach. The essay concludes that there are terms which needs to be clarified in order for the field to move forward and studies to be made regarding the social implications of gut reactions in moral decision-making.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 113.
    Thill, Serge
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Twomey, Katherine E.
    Department of Psychology, Lancaster University, United Kingdom.
    What's on the inside counts: A grounded account of concept acquisition and development2016Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, s. 1-11, artikkel-id 402Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 114.
    Thorner, Annika
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Mot en ökad förståelse för datorstödets inverkan på den psykosociala arbetsmiljön: UDIPA - ett nytt utvärderingsverktyg2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Användningen av datorer i arbetet har blivit en allt vanligare företeelse på arbetsplatsen, och för anställda på till exempel callcenter är datorer ett oumbärligt inslag i arbetssituationen. Med tekniken följer dock inte enbart fördelar; användningen av datorstöd kan även leda till kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem och stress och ha en märkbart negativ inverkan på den psykosociala arbetsmiljön. Genom teoretisk genomgång och kvalitativa intervjuer med arbetsmiljökunniga konstateras dock att det saknas bra utvärderingsverktyg för att uppmärksamma denna typ avproblem. En arbetsplatsstudie på ett callcenter används för att visa på hur användningen av datorstöd kan inverka negativt på den psykosociala arbetsmiljön, och dess resultat ligger till grund för ett helt nytt utvärderingsverktyg. Detta syftar till att hjälpa organisationer och företagshälsovård att uppmärksamma kognitiva och psykosociala arbetsmiljöproblem relaterade till användningen av datorstöd, med hjälp av termer som kognitiva krav, kontroll och socialt stöd. Förhoppningen är att verktyget ska bidra till att öka medvetenheten om kognitiva arbetsmiljöproblem och teknikstress, och att i längden medverka till att förbättra datoranvändarens psykosociala arbetsmiljö.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 115.
    Thyberg, Joel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Dehumanization in the brain2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Dehumanization is a process whereby people fail to view others as human beings. Instead, the others are perceived as nonhuman animals or objects, unworthy of the same moral treatment. Dehumanization has previously been studied in a variety of different scholarly domains without adhering to a uniform theoretical framework. This literature review contrasts research on fully humanized perception, with research on dehumanized perception, and proposes neural areas which are likely to be involved. Not every aspect of dehumanization can be understood at the neurological level. To understand what factors lead up to, and modulates dehumanization, other perspectives might also be necessary. Dehumanized perception is coupled with reduced activity in the social cognitive brain network, a wide network which encompasses several cortical and subcortical areas. This disengages prosocial abilities and allows for other people to be treated like objects and means to an end. One area of special interest is the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). It functions as an integration center in the person perception network and is also active when we make moral judgments, empathize, or take the perspective of someone else. For this reason, the MPFC is sometimes used as an index of dehumanized perception.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 116.
    Torre, Ilaria
    et al.
    Interaction Design and Software Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Can a gender ambiguous robot voice reduce gender stereotypes?2023Inngår i: Proceedings of the 18th SweCog Conference / [ed] Pierre Gander; Linus Holm; Erik Billing, Skövde: Högskolan i Skövde , 2023, , s. 90s. 79-82Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 117.
    Torstensson, Niklas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Judging the Immigrant: Accents and Attitudes2010Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Spoken language as a means of communication contains huge amounts of information apart from the linguistic message that is conveyed. It is often the first channel of interaction between people and based on the speaker’s manner of talk, we create a mental image of the speaker as a person, of the speaker’s background, origin and personal qualities. Through five case studies, this dissertation investigates how immigrants to Sweden are judged based on their foreign accents (Cases 1—3) and how the use of an interpreter in court can affect the legal process and the judging of the immigrant (Cases 4—5). Case 1 investigated Swedish students’ attitudes towards immigration and immigrants through a survey-based study and revealed that Swedish students hold predominantly positive attitudes towards immigrations and immigrants. Case 2, using accent imitation, asked if Swedish speakers have a cognitive prototype for British English accented Swedish and found that this was the case. This demonstrated that Swedes have models of accented Swedish accents. Case 3 asked Swedish students to rate their impressions of speakers of nine foreign accented Swedish voices on 18 six-point semantic differential scales. They also rated their impressions of each voice for five social factors. The results suggest that the listeners evaluated the voices based on perceived social desirability, or perceived cultural distance between the listener and the voice’s country of origin. Juxtaposing these findings with those of Case 1 suggests that even among a group who are positive to immigrants and immigration some groups of immigrants are more welcome than others. Case 4 examined discourse disfluencies in a bilingual court hearing and a Swedish-Polish bilingual court hearing in detail. The case showed that most of the dialogue-related difficulties have other sources than the interpreter, even if the interpreter at first glance often appeared to be part of the problem rather than part of the solution. Case 5 examined the interpreter’s role in courtroom dialogue situations through interviews with a court interpreter and a lay judge. The study found that the picture of the interpreter’s role differs between the various actors in the court setting. This, in combination with a lack of knowledge about cultural differences in dialogue strategies, creates complications, can have an impact on the perception of the witness and, ultimately, affect the legal rights of the accused. Furthermore, as the interpreter most frequently speaks foreign accented Swedish, the perception and evaluation of their foreign accented Swedish can further place some immigrant groups at a double legal disadvantage when being judged.

  • 118.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Peltola, Karoliina
    Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Saaresranta, Tarja
    Division of Medicine, Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland / Sleep Research Centre, Department of Pulmonary Diseases and Clinical Allergology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland /Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sleep Parameter Assessment Accuracy of a Consumer Home Sleep Monitoring Ballistocardiograph Beddit Sleep Tracker: A Validation Study2019Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine (JCSM), ISSN 1550-9389, E-ISSN 1550-9397, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 483-487, artikkel-id PII jc-18-00561Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objectives: Growing interest in monitoring sleep and well-being has created a market for consumer home sleep monitoring devices. Additionally, sleep disorder diagnostics, and sleep and dream research would benefit from reliable and valid home sleep monitoring devices. Yet, majority of currently available home sleep monitoring devices lack validation. In this study, the sleep parameter assessment accuracy of Beddit Sleep Tracker (BST), an unobtrusive and non-wearable sleep monitoring device based on ballistocardiography, was evaluated by comparing it with polysomnography (PSG) measures. We measured total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep efficiency (SE). Additionally, we examined whether BST can differentiate sleep stages. Methods: We performed sleep studies simultaneously with PSG and BST in ten healthy young adults (5 female/5 male) during two non-consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory. Results: BST was able to distinguish SOL with some accuracy. However, it underestimated WASO and thus overestimated TST and SE. Also, it failed to discriminate between non-rapid eye movement sleep stages and did not detect the rapid eye movement sleep stage. Conclusions: These findings indicate that BST is not a valid device to monitor sleep. Consumers should be careful in interpreting the conclusions on sleep quality and efficiency provided by the device.

  • 119.
    Tuominen, Jarno
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Stenberg, Tuula
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Social contents in dreams: An empirical test of the Social Simulation Theory2019Inngår i: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 69, s. 133-145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social Simulation Theory (SST) considers the function of dreaming to be the simulation of social events. The Sociality Bias and the Strengthening hypotheses of SST were tested. Social Content Scale (SCS) was developed to quantify social events. Additionally, we attempted to replicate a previous finding (McNamara et al., 2005, Psychological Science) of REM dreams as predisposed to aggressive, and NREM dreams to prosocial interactions. Further, we investigated the frequency and quality of interactions in late vs early REM and NREM dreams. Data consisted of wake, REM and NREM home dream reports (N = 232, 116, 116, respectively) from 15 students. Dreams overrepresented social events compared to wake reports, supporting the Sociality Bias hypothesis. However, the Strengthening Hypothesis was not supported. We weren't able to replicate the McNamara et al. finding, and no time of night effect was found. While SST gained partial support, further research on social contents in dreams is required. © 2019 Elsevier Inc.

  • 120.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    ETH Zürich, Department of Environmental Systems Science, USYS TdLab, Switzerland.
    Kazemi, Ali
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Distributive Justice: Revisiting Past Statements and Reflecting on Future Prospects2015Inngår i: The Oxford Handbook of Justice in the Workplace / [ed] Russell S. Cropanzano & Maureen L. Ambrose, New York: Oxford University Press, 2015, s. 15-50Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter starts with brief discussions of the whens and whys of justice reasoning and acting, after which descriptions of several distributive justice theories are provided. These are analyzed on the basis of four dimensions: type of justice motivation, orientation of justice behavior, the source of justice behavior initiation, and the source of justice behavior direction. We suggest that the overemphasis in the distributive justice literature on the three principles of equity, equality, and need, ought to be tempered by finer distinctions among the varieties of each and increased attention to additional principles and combinations of principles. The chapter ends by outlining suggestions for future research. Four issues are featured: the nature of the object (social resource) that is distributed and the focus of justice judgments, how the way the resource was produced may affect its allocation and justice judgment, how justice relates to various types of conflict, and why people sometimes do not react to perceived injustices.

  • 121.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Julius, Henri
    Department of Special Education and Rehabilitation, University of Rostock, Germany.
    Handlin, Linda
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering.
    Petersson, Maria
    Endocrine and Diabetes Unit, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sensory Stimulation and Oxytocin: Their Roles in Social Interaction and Health Promotion2022Inngår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, artikkel-id 929741Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this call was to collect papers describing how oxytocin may be released by different kinds of sensory stimulation to induce wellbeing and restorative processes and to inhibit pain, stress and inflammation. A large number of interesting articles of very high quality were received and 19 papers were accepted for publication. All the included articles have contributed to expand the knowledge about oxytocin in a very substantial way both regarding its effect spectrum and regarding its association with sensory, somatosensory stimulation, in particular. In fact, the obtained data contribute to prove the hypothesis that the oxytocinergic system is a widespread integrative system, which is linked to social interaction, wellbeing, reduction of stress and pain as well as to reproductive, growth promoting and restorative effects. The activity of this archaic oxytocin system is under control of hormones and sensory nerves, which convey information regarding the state of the internal and the external environment. The oxytocin linked effects may be induced in the short-term as well as in the long-term perspective. All of the articles which were accepted and included in this issue, in their own unique way, contribute to describe oxytocin beyond its classical role in birth and milk ejection in accordance with the concept described above. We describe and discuss the data after having categorized the results presented in the articles according to certain subjects. 

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  • 122.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Dreams2016Inngår i: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Psychology / [ed] Harold L. Miller, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2016Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 123.
    Valli, Katja
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Behavioral Sciences and Philosophy, University of Turku, Finland.
    Frauscher, Birgit
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, Austria.
    Gschliesser, Viola
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, Austria.
    Wolf, Elisabeth
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, Austria.
    Falkenstetter, Tina
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, Austria.
    Schönwald, Suzana V.
    Hosp Clin Porto Alegre, Dept Neurol, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Ehrmann, Laura
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, Austria.
    Zangerl, Anja
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, Austria.
    Marti, Isabelle
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, Austria.
    Boesch, Sylvia M.
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, Austria.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Poewe, Werner
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, Austria.
    Högl, Birgit
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, Austria.
    Can observers link dream content to behaviours in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder?: A cross-sectional experimental pilot study2012Inngår i: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 21-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Motor activity in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) has been linked to dream content. Systematic and controlled sleep laboratory studies directly assessing the relation between RBD behaviours and experienced dream content are, however, largely lacking. We aimed to investigate whether a link can be established between RBD behaviours and dream content when both are systematically sampled in a controlled setting. We investigated six patients with Parkinson syndrome and RBD who underwent 23 nights of videopolysomnographic recording during which they were awakened from REM sleep (10 min after the onset of the second and successive REM periods). Spontaneous free-worded dream reports and a structured dream questionnaire were obtained. Video recordings of motor manifestations were each combined with four dream reports, and seven judges had to match the video clip with the correctly reported dream content from a choice of four possibilities. Of the 35 REM sleep awakenings performed, a total of 17 (48.6%) motor-behavioural episodes with recalled dream content were obtained. The mean of correctly identified video-dream pairs was 39.5% (range 0100%). Our data showed that reported dream content can be linked to motor behaviours above chance level. Matching accuracy was affected mainly by the clarity of dream reports and the specific nature of movements manifest in video recordings.

  • 124.
    Valli, Katja
    et al.
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Departments of Philosophy and Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Recurrent dreams: Recurring threat simulations?2006Inngår i: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 464-469Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Zadra, Desjardins, and Marcotte (2006) have made a valuable contribution to the empirical testing of the Threat Simulation Theory (TST) (Revonsuo, 2000a) in recurrent dreams. For the most part, their results are in accordance with the theory, while some findings seem to conflict with the predictions of TST. In our commentary, we consider some alternative ways to interpret the results, and we conclude that many prominent features of most recurrent dreams seem to be manifestations of a threat simulation function, leading to repeated rehearsal of threat perception and avoidance, but a minority of recurrent dreams seem to have origins unrelated to threat simulation.

  • 125.
    Valli, Katja
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Turku, Finland.
    The threat simulation theory in light of recent empirical evidence: a review2009Inngår i: American Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0002-9556, E-ISSN 1939-8298, Vol. 122, nr 1, s. 17-38Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The recently proposed threat simulation theory (TST) states that dreaming about threatening events has a biological function. In the past few years, the TST has led to several dream content analysis studies that empirically test the theory. The predictions of the TST have been investigated mainly with a new content analysis system, the Dream Threat Scale (DTS), a method developed for identifying and classifying threatening events in dreams. In this article we review the studies that have tested the TST with the DTS. We summarize and reevaluate the results based on the dreams of Finnish and Swedish university students, traumatized and nontraumatized Kurdish, Palestinian, and Finnish children, and special dream samples, namely recurrent dreams and nightmares collected from Canadian participants. We sum up other recent research that has relevance for the TST and discuss the extent to which empirical evidence supports or conflicts with the TST. New evidence and new direct tests of the predictions of the TST yield strong support for the theory, and the TST's strengths seem to outweigh its weaknesses.

  • 126.
    Valli, Katja
    et al.
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Department of Philosophy, Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland.
    Pälkäs, Outi
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Ismail, Kamaran Hassan
    Erbil Teaching Hospital and College of Medicine, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Iraq.
    Ali, Karzan Jalal
    Erbil Teaching Hospital and College of Medicine, University of Salahaddin, Erbil, Iraq.
    Punamäki, Raija-Leena
    Department of Psychology, University of Tampere, Finland.
    The threat simulation theory of the evolutionary function of dreaming: Evidence from dreams of traumatized children2005Inngår i: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 188-218Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The threat simulation theory of dreaming (TST) () states that dream consciousness is essentially an ancient biological defence mechanism, evolutionarily selected for its capacity to repeatedly simulate threatening events. Threat simulation during dreaming rehearses the cognitive mechanisms required for efficient threat perception and threat avoidance, leading to increased probability of reproductive success during human evolution. One hypothesis drawn from TST is that real threatening events encountered by the individual during wakefulness should lead to an increased activation of the system, a threat simulation response, and therefore, to an increased frequency and severity of threatening events in dreams. Consequently, children who live in an environment in which their physical and psychological well-being is constantly threatened should have a highly activated dream production and threat simulation system, whereas children living in a safe environment that is relatively free of such threat cues should have a weakly activated system. We tested this hypothesis by analysing the content of dream reports from severely traumatized and less traumatized Kurdish children and ordinary, non-traumatized Finnish children. Our results give support for most of the predictions drawn from TST. The severely traumatized children reported a significantly greater number of dreams and their dreams included a higher number of threatening dream events. The dream threats of traumatized children were also more severe in nature than the threats of less traumatized or non-traumatized children.

  • 127.
    van Meer, Floor
    et al.
    University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    van der Laan, Laura N.
    Tilburg University, the Netherlands.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Lissner, Lauren
    Göteborg University, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg.
    Wolters, Maike
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology, Bremen, Germany.
    Rach, Stefan
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology, Bremen, Germany.
    Herrmann, Manfred
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Erhard, Peter
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Molnár, Dénés
    University Medical School of Pécs, Hungary.
    Orsi, Gergely
    University Medical School of Pécs, Hungary / MTA-PTE Clinical Neuroscience MR Research Group, Pécs, Hungary.
    Viergever, Max A.
    University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Adan, Roger A.H.
    University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands.
    Smeets, Paul A.M.
    University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands / Division of Human Nutrition & Health, Wageningen University & Research, the Netherlands.
    Development and body mass inversely affect children's brain activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during food choice2019Inngår i: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 201, s. 1-10, artikkel-id 116016Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood obesity is a rising problem caused in part by unhealthy food choices. Food choices are based on a neural value signal encoded in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and self-control involves modulation of this signal by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). We determined the effects of development, body mass (BMI Cole score) and body mass history on the neural correlates of healthy food choice in children. 141 children (aged 10-17y) from Germany, Hungary and Sweden were scanned with fMRI while performing a food choice task. Afterwards health and taste ratings of the foods were collected. In the food choice task children were asked to consider the healthiness or tastiness of the food or to choose naturally. Overall, children made healthier choices when asked to consider healthiness. However, children who had a higher weight gain per year chose less healthy foods when considering healthiness but not when choosing naturally. Pubertal development stage correlated positively while current body mass correlated negatively with dlPFC activation when accepting foods. Pubertal development negatively and current body mass positively influenced the effect of considering healthiness on activation of brain areas involved in salience and motivation. In conclusion, children in earlier stages of pubertal development and children with a higher body weight exhibited less activation in the dlPFC, which has been implicated in self-control during food choice. Furthermore, pubertal development and body mass influenced neural responses to a health cue in areas involved in salience and motivation. Thus, these findings suggest that children in earlier stages of pubertal development, children with a higher body mass gain and children with overweight may possibly be less susceptible to healthy eating interventions that rely on self-control or that highlight health aspects of food. 

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  • 128.
    Vo, Tina T.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA , USA.
    Pahlen, Shandell
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA , USA.
    Kremen, William S.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA.
    McGue, Matt
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
    Dahl Aslan, Anna K.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön hälsa, hållbarhet och digitalisering. Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nygaard, Marianne
    The Danish Twin Registry, Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Christensen, Kaare
    The Danish Twin Registry, Department of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Reynolds, Chandra A.
    Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA.
    Does sleep duration moderate genetic and environmental contributions to cognitive performance?2022Inngår i: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 45, nr 10, artikkel-id zsac140Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    While prior research has demonstrated a relationship between sleep and cognitive performance, how sleep relates to underlying genetic and environmental etiologies contributing to cognitive functioning, regardless of the level of cognitive function, is unclear. The present study assessed whether the importance of genetic and environmental contributions to cognition vary depending on an individual’s aging-related sleep characteristics. The large sample consisted of twins from six studies within the Interplay of Genes and Environment across Multiple Studies (IGEMS) consortium spanning mid- to late-life (Average age [Mage] = 57.6, range = 27–91 years, N = 7052, Female = 43.70%, 1525 complete monozygotic [MZ] pairs, 2001 complete dizygotic [DZ] pairs). Quantitative genetic twin models considered sleep duration as a primary moderator of genetic and environmental contributions to cognitive performance in four cognitive abilities (Semantic Fluency, Spatial-Visual Reasoning, Processing Speed, and Episodic Memory), while accounting for age moderation. Results suggested genetic and both shared and nonshared environmental contributions for Semantic Fluency and genetic and shared environmental contributions for Episodic Memory vary by sleep duration, while no significant moderation was observed for Spatial-Visual Reasoning or Processing Speed. Results for Semantic Fluency and Episodic Memory illustrated patterns of higher genetic influences on cognitive function at shorter sleep durations (i.e. 4 hours) and higher shared environmental contributions to cognitive function at longer sleep durations (i.e. 10 hours). Overall, these findings may align with associations of upregulation of neuroinflammatory processes and ineffective beta-amyloid clearance in short sleep contexts and common reporting of mental fatigue in long sleep contexts, both associated with poorer cognitive functioning.

  • 129.
    Wiens, Stefan
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Annika
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Gravenfors, Josef
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Systembiologi.
    Neural electrophysiological correlates of detection and identification awareness2023Inngår i: Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, ISSN 1530-7026, E-ISSN 1531-135X, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 1303-1321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans have conscious experiences of the events in their environment. Previous research from electroencephalography (EEG) has shown visual awareness negativity (VAN) at about 200 ms to be a neural correlate of consciousness (NCC). However, when considering VAN as an NCC, it is important to explore which particular experiences are associated with VAN. Recent research proposes that VAN is an NCC of lower-level experiences (detection) rather than higher-level experiences (identification). However, previous results are mixed and have several limitations. In the present study, the stimulus was a ring with a Gabor patch tilting either left or right. On each trial, subjects rated their awareness on a three-level perceptual awareness scale that captured both detection (something vs. nothing) and identification (identification vs. something). Separate staircases were used to adjust stimulus opacity to the detection threshold and the identification threshold. Bayesian linear mixed models provided extreme evidence (BF10 = 131) that VAN was stronger at the detection threshold than at the identification threshold. Mean VAN decreased from - 2.12 microV [- 2.86, - 1.42] at detection to - 0.46 microV [- 0.79, - 0.11] at identification. These results strongly support the claim that VAN is an NCC of lower-level experiences of seeing something rather than of higher-level experiences of specific properties of the stimuli. Thus, results are consistent with recurrent processing theory in that phenomenal visual consciousness is reflected by VAN. Further, results emphasize that it is important to consider the level of experience when searching for NCC. 

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  • 130.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Arvola, MattiasLinköpings Universitet, Sweden.Dahlbäck, NilsLinköpings Universitet, Sweden.Billing, ErikHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Proceedings of the 14th SweCog Conference2018Konferanseproceedings (Fagfellevurdert)
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