his.sePublikasjoner
Endre søk
Begrens søket
123 101 - 137 of 137
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 101.
    Pieslinger, Johan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Social threat processing and emotional arousal: Associations between the Late Positive Potential and aggressive tendencies2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Aggressive behaviour can be defined as actions that are believed and intended to cause harm to another individual that does not desire to be the target of such actions. Different situations can warrant aggressive behaviour, such as when an individual is posed with a threat. Aggressive behaviour is one of the ways individuals can deal with threats arising from their environments, and furthermore, aggressive behaviour can also be used to deal with social threats that arise from the interaction between two members of the same species. Aggressive behaviour is correlated with higher emotional arousal, and individuals that illustrate aggressive tendencies should be more sensitive to arousal when confronted with a social threat. This thesis acts upon this notion by hypothesizing that individuals who score higher on a tendency for aggression measurements should exhibit higher emotional arousal when exposed to a cue of social threat. Cues of social threats are thought to be induced by exposing the participant to either an angry face or a face with a high facial width to height ratio. The emotional response is measured with electroencephalography, more specifically looking at the late positive potential. No support for the hypothesis was found between high and low aggression groups. The facial width to height ratios proposed nature of being a cue of social threat becomes contested as the results were conflicting regarding the robustness of the facial width to height ratio’s effect. Even if there were no statistically significant differences found between the two groups, it might not be subject for dismissal as the sample population could be considered a low aggression population overall.

  • 102.
    Plan, Alexsandra
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Cultural Differences in Optimism, Pessimism and Eudaimonic Well-Being from a Neurobiological Perspective2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis provides a theoretical overview, including a neurobiological perspective, of well-being (WB), eudaimonic well-being (EWB), optimism, pessimism and cultural differences between Western and Eastern societies.  In addition, an empirical study investigated these concepts in Japanese and Swedish participants. Definitional problems and scarce neurobiological findings are two current problems to date within research on WB, EWB and cultural differences especially when looking at comparisons between Europe and East Asia. Interpretations and conclusions are therefore hard and tentative to make as more research is yet needed. This thesis empirical part therefore investigated the association between these concepts. In the best of the authors knowledge have this type of explorative study never been done before. 142 Swedish participants and 68 Japanese participants between the ages of 20 to 40 answered the self-reporting questionnaires; revised life orientation test (LOT-R), psychological well-being scale (SPWB) and the minimalist well-being scale (MWBS). The findings demonstrate that Swedish people report higher levels of optimism compared with Japanese people whom in turn report higher levels of pessimism when measured with LOT-R. Findings further demonstrate that Swedish people report higher levels of EWB when measured with SPWB. In comparison do Japanese people report higher levels of EWB when measured with MWBS. A difference was found in response pattern between MWBS and SPWB. And last did the findings suggest correlations in total scores of MWBS, SPWB and LOT-R but not within all sub-dimensions. Discussion of the results, limitations of the thesis and suggestions for future research concludes the thesis.

  • 103.
    Pålsson, Jonatan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neural Correlates of Lucid Dreams: The Role of Metacognition and Volition2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Dreams play an important role in consciousness studies, because of their ubiquitous presence but ambiguous nature. Dreams can be divided into two categories: non-lucid dreams and lucid dreams (i.e., dreams in which the dreamer knows he is dreaming). Lucid dreams are experiences with features of both waking and dreaming consciousness. In this essay, I review the differences in neural correlates between non-lucid dreams and lucid dreams. While both types of dreams share similar neural substrates, lucid dreams are especially accompanied by more activation in prefrontal areas. These areas are known to be involved in functions of secondary consciousness such as metacognition and volition. These findings are also echoed by verbal reports from lucid dreams. While the relationship metacognition and volition and lucid dreams is not yet fully clear, it seems that increased activation of metacognition and volition cause the dreamer to realize he is dreaming. Based on previous literature, I offer a conceptualization of dreams, in which a continuous variable, lucidity, can measure the degree to which metacognition and volition vary across dream types. I suggest that the transition between non-lucid and lucid dreams is a two-step process. The implications of this are discussed.

  • 104.
    Rahm, Olivia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Variations in Sex Differentiation: The Neurobiology of Gender Dysphoria2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this review paper was to investigate variations in sex differentiation, andalso, examine what neurobiological underpinnings there are to gender identity andgender dysphoria. In addition, the most extreme form of gender dysphoria,transsexuality, will be described from a neurobiological perspective but also discussedin terms of the classification from DSM-5. One theory considered on how genderidentity originates is the fact that the sexual differentiation of the brain and thedifferentiation of sexual organs develop during different time periods. Alterationswere displayed in a demonstration of male-to-female (MTF) and female-to-male(FTM) transsexuals that showed reversed results in cell number in a part of thehypothalamus, acronymized INAH-3 and reversal volume results in another region,acronymized BSTc. Likewise, differences in grey matter in the right putamendepended upon their natal gender. It can be concluded that there is biologicalevidence for sex differentiation and indications that lead science into consideringbiological components for gender dysphoria. This conclusion suggests for futureresearch questions focused more on the possible genetic factors of gender identity,also, consider larger sample sizes and more replications. There is still incompleteknowledge of what exactly constitutes an individual’s gender identity.

  • 105.
    Railo, Henry
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland / Brain and Mind Centre, University of Turku, Finland.
    Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence for fast emergence of visual consciousness2015Inngår i: Neuroscience of Consciousness, ISSN 2057-2107, Vol. 1, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental unsettled dispute concerns how fast the brain generates subjective visual experiences. Both early visual cortical activation and later activity in fronto-parietal global neuronal workspace correlate with conscious vision, but resolving which of the correlates causally triggers conscious vision has proved a methodological impasse. We show that participants can report whether or not they consciously perceived a stimulus in just over 200 ms. These fast consciousness reports were extremely reliable, and did not include reflexive, unconscious responses. The neural events that causally generate conscious vision must have occurred before these behavioral reports. Analyses on single-trial neural correlates of consciousness revealed that the late cortical processing in fronto-parietal global neuronal workspace (∼300 ms) started after the fastest consciousness reports, ruling out the possibility that this late activity directly reflects the emergence of visual consciousness. The consciousness reports were preceded by a negative amplitude difference (∼160–220 ms) that spread from occipital to frontal cortex, suggesting that this correlate underlies the emergence of conscious vision.

  • 106.
    Rantil, Claes
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Placebo Analgesia and the Role of Expectancy on Pain Perception2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Expectancy in placebo analgesia is proposed to be one of the major mechanisms influencing placebo analgesic responses. Still, little is known of how these effects mediate pain perception. The notion of strong belief in placebo efficacy, i.e. placebo expectancy, was investigated by reviewing placebo analgesia literature, and other relevant studies. Placebo suggestions seem to involve reduced averseness of the impending stimulus, and not cognitively demanding tasks such as executive attention. Converging evidence has shown that positive and negative mood changes can affect both pain intensity and pain unpleasantness, which are both elements of subjective pain. Positive mood mostly seem to affect pain unpleasantness, whereas negative mood changes affect both pain intensity and pain unpleasantness, suggesting that there are two different ways that placebo expectancies can influence pain. One problem with functional imaging research in the realm of placebo analgesia is that activity is not compared with expectancy ratings. Therefore, the neural correlates of placebo expectancies, i.e. placebo belief, are largely unknown. Some findings suggest that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in placebo analgesia. It is suggested that placebo analgesia is opioid dependent, seeing that expectancy induced analgesia is naloxone reversible. However, it probably acts through different mechanisms than administered opioids, seeing as placebo analgesia can be site-specific. 

  • 107.
    Redgård, Nicklas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    FOOD FOR BURNOUT PATIENTS: A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Dietary Polyphenols on Neurogenesis2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Stress-related psychological ill health has increased dramatically in Europe. A diagnosis equivalent to occupational burnout can be found in the Swedish version of the tenth edition of the “International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems" by the World Health Organization. The Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare lists treatment suggestions including a section of self-care that recommended something that could be translated to “a sensible diet” (“vettig kost”) without providing evidence for what could constitute a sensible diet. By using the hypothesis of burnout being a stress-mediated decrease in neurogenesis which in turn decrease the ability to cope with stress, this article systematically reviews the efficacy of dietary polyphenols on neurogenesis in rodents to evaluate if dietary polyphenols could constitute a part of a sensible diet for burnout patients. Dietary polyphenols significantly increased various parts of neurogenesis, in rodents subjected to stressors, in some cases demonstrating effect sizes comparable to antidepressants. Adverse effects have been observed in extremely high doses and young rodents not exposed to induced stressors with a putative high level of neurogenesis. 

  • 108.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Turku, Finland.
    Biological naturalism and biological realism2018Inngår i: The Routledge Handbook of Consciousness / [ed] Rocco J. Gennaro, New York: Taylor & Francis, 2018, 1, s. 188-201Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter summarizes the main principles of Biological Naturalism (BN) and Biological Realism (BR), and analyzes some of their similarities and differences. It contrasts the biological approach represented by BN and BR with another currently influential approach: information theories of consciousness, especially the Information Integration Theory. John Searle appears to accept the two main components of the supervenience relationship between consciousness and the brain: there can be no difference in conscious states without a corresponding difference in the underlying brain states (the covariance principle), and the conscious states owe their existence to the underlying brain states (the principle of ontological dependency). BN fails to offer a coherent account of how the first-person ontology of consciousness is related to the third-person ontology of neurophysiology. Searle suggests that BN solves (or dissolves) the philosophical mind-body problem, but this turns out to be a mere promissory note.

  • 109.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    The future of consciousness science: From empirical correlations to theoretical explanation2015Inngår i: The Constitution of Phenomenal Consciousness: Toward a science and theory / [ed] Steven M. Miller, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, s. 260-270Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 110.
    Rischer, Katharina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Can Frontal Alpha Asymmetry Predict the Perception of Emotions in Music?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Resting frontal alpha asymmetry was measured with an electroencephalogram in 28 volunteers to predict the evaluation of emotions in music. Sixteen music excerpts either expressing happiness, sadness, anger or fear were rated by the participants with regard to conveyed mood, pleasantness and arousal. In addition, various variables of music background were collected. The experiment started with the assessment of current mood, followed by the evaluation of the music excerpts, and finished with the assessment of the participants’ approach and withdrawal behaviour. The results showed that each music excerpt was specic for the intended mood except for music of the category anger which obtained also high ratings for fear. These music excerpts were also the only ones for which a difference in ratings between relatively more left-active and right-active participants could be observed. Partly against expectations, left-dominant volunteers perceived music excerpts of the category anger to express more fear and anger than right-active participants. Results are interpreted within the behavioural inhibitionand approach model of anterior brain asymmetry.

  • 111.
    Roos, Magnus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Speech Comprehension: Theoretical approaches and neural correlates2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This review has examined the spatial and temporal neural activation of speech comprehension. Six theories on speech comprehension were selected and reviewed. The most fundamental structures for speech comprehension are the superior temporal gyrus, the fusiform gyrus, the temporal pole, the temporoparietal junction, and the inferior frontal gyrus. Considering temporal aspects of processes, the N400 ERP effect indicates semantic violations, and the P600 indicates re-evaluation of a word due to ambiguity or syntax error. The dual-route processing model provides the most accurate account of neural correlates and streams of activation necessary for speech comprehension, while also being compatible with both the reviewed studies and the reviewed theories. The integrated theory of language production and comprehension provides a contemporary theory of speech production and comprehension with roots in computational neuroscience, which in conjunction with the dual-route processing model could drive the fields of language and neuroscience even further forward.

  • 112.
    Rudén, Ludvig
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neurobiology of opioid addiction2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Since the use of opioids started to emerge for analgesic reasons in the 19th century with the synthetization of morphine, opioids have been studied rigorously to better understand its effects on the brain. This thesis shows that both the analgesic effects and the reinforcing effects of opioids are mediated by the same receptor, the mu opioid receptor (MOR). MOR activity has been correlated to both primary and secondary reinforcers and should be considered to cause positive reinforcement together with increases in dopamine transmission for all drugs of abuse, and not only in relation to opioids. Opioid tolerance, dependence and even addiction are to some extent thought to relate to opioids’ acute effect of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) superactivation. Based upon these findings, the allostasis theory of addiction is considered to be the most suitable in defining opioid addiction. The theory claims that the mesolimbic dopamine system becomes sensitized, increasing the attractiveness of opioids. This while counteradaptation increases the pleasurable tolerance of opioids, encouraging the user to increase its intake for the same initial reward. Furthermore the theory claims that cAMP superactivation is causing an unfolding effect of neurobiological and neurochemical expressions which leads to the disorder of addiction. cAMP superactivation is mediating the negatively reinforcing aspects of opioid addiction together with changes to corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the brain stress system, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the extended amygdala.

  • 113.
    Rydh, Mathias
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Using the Brain to Help Rehabilitate the Body: Factors which can Affect Injury Rehabilitation Outcome2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity can be beneficial to both physical and mental health, but can also lead to injuries. While injury rehabilitation through physical therapy is mostly focused on physical exercise, there are also other factors, which may influence rehabilitation outcome. The factorsreviewed are: rehabilitation adherence, mindfulness meditation, mental imagery, action observation, self-talk, goal-setting and social support. This essay investigates the neural correlates of these factors, as well as how they can affect rehabilitation outcome and wellbeing, to a lesser degree, during rehabilitation. Among the effects found are performance enhancement, increased self-efficacy, increased pain tolerance, increased motivation and reduced strength loss. Suggestions for future research is also provided.

  • 114.
    Saldjoughi Tivander, Victoria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Does weather affect mental well-being neurologically?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Research on well-being is in its infancy and the term lacks a clear definition, yet it is an increasingly popular matter. The neurology underlying well-being is important in such research in order to understand what brain mechanisms are correlated with mental health. Even though objective measures such as brain imaging are increasingly used assessments in well-being and neuroscience studies, self-reports are widely used. Articles viewing such research often state that self-reports could be biased because the subjects may be affected by the weather the day of the self-report. No further explanations are however provided as to why or how those individuals would be affected by the weather, or by which weather conditions. The aim of this thesis is thus to find neurological explanations for how weather can affect well-being. Constituents of well-being will be reviewed together with brain bases of mental health in an attempt to find neural correlations of weather and well-being. How humans are affected by the weather is a limited research area and the findings are diverse on all aspects but the solar influence over the brain and mind. Man-made light was however found to be a substitute for the effect of sunlight on the brain. No strong relationship between weather and well-being were found based on existing literature. No significant neural correlations between mental well-being and different weather conditions was found either. 

  • 115.
    Salinas Thunell, Nicole
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Exploring the Neural Basis of Tinnitus2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception characterized by a ringing sound in either one or both ears. It is a common disorder most often associated with hearing loss and can have a severe impact on a person's quality of life. There is currently no cure and no efficient therapeutic options. There is little known about the neural mechanisms underlying the generation of tinnitus but a better understanding of its neural basis could greatly benefit the development of efficient treatment methods. This literature study aims to explore the neural mechanisms of tinnitus in terms of generation, perpetuation, and perception. Cochlear dysfunction, changes in neuronal firing rates and oscillatory properties, hyperactivity, lack of inhibitory activity and plasticity in auditory-limbic structures have been associated with tinnitus and may be a part of a crossmodal network involved in generating, perpetuating and perceiving tinnitus, through maladaptive CNS plasticity. New developing treatment methods aim to modulate and re-route tinnitus-related plasticity, however, this leads to treatment difficulties due to the crossmodal nature of the tinnitus pathophysiology. These difficulties will be further examined in the discussion.

  • 116.
    Samrani, George
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute / Stockholm University.
    Marklund, Petter
    Stockholm University.
    Engström, Lisa
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Broman, Daniel
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Dalarna University.
    Persson, Jonas
    Karolinska Institute / Stockholm University.
    Behavioral facilitation and increased brain responses from a high interference working memory context2018Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikkel-id 15308Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many real-life situations require flexible behavior in changing environments. Evidence suggests that anticipation of conflict or task difficulty results in behavioral and neural allocation of task-relevant resources. Here we used a high- and low-interference version of an item-recognition task to examine the neurobehavioral underpinnings of context-sensitive adjustment in working memory (WM). We hypothesized that task environments that included high-interference trials would require participants to allocate neurocognitive resources to adjust to the more demanding task context. The results of two independent behavioral experiments showed enhanced WM performance in the high-interference context, which indicated that a high-interference context improves performance on non-interference trials. A third behavioral experiment showed that when WM load was increased, this effect was no longer significant. Neuroimaging results further showed greater engagement of inferior frontal gyrus, striatum, parietal cortex, hippocampus, and midbrain in participants performing the task in the high- than in the low-interference context. This effect could arise from an active or dormant mode of anticipation that seems to engage fronto-striatal and midbrain regions to flexibly adjust resources to task demands. Our results extend the model of conflict adaptation beyond trial-to-trial adjustments by showing that a high interference context affects both behavioral and biological aspects of cognition.

  • 117.
    Savallampi, Mattias
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Role of Vision in Attributing the Sense of Part- and Full-Body Ownership During Anomalous Conditions2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Our bodies are arguably one of the most intimate things we will ever know. But the comfort of our own physical boundaries can be altered in various ways. In this analysis, we will look at how vision contributes to the sense of owning a body by analysing six abnormal conditions: the rubber hand illusion, phantom limbs, somatoparaphrenia, the body-swap illusion, out-of-body experiences, and heautoscopy. Examinations of these experimental or pathological conditions has granted a greater understanding of body-ownership. It was discovered that vision plays different modulatory roles, being more intricately involved in full-body ownership than in part-body ownership. Vision appears to be highly connected to self-location and first-person perspective, which both are contributing factors in projecting the sense of ownership to an external location. In part-body ownership, however, vision can be overruled by other senses, such as proprioception. Though it is still able to contribute to the illusion of projecting ownership and proprioceptive displacement to a rubber hand.

  • 118.
    Sedghi, Maryam
    et al.
    Medical Genetics Laboratory, Alzahra University Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Moslemi, Ali-Reza
    Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Olive, Montse
    Institute of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology, Institut Investigacio Biomedica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL)-Hospital de Bellvitge, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain / Neuromuscular Unit, Department of Neurology, Institut Investigacio Biomedica de Bellvitge-(IDIBELL)-Hospital de Bellvitge, Hospitalet de Llobregat, Spain.
    Etemadifar, Masoud
    Department of Functional Neursurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Ansari, Behnaz
    Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Nasiri, Jafar
    Department of Pediatric Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Emrahi, Leila
    Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Mianesaz, Hamid-Reza
    Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
    Laing, Nigel G.
    Centre for Medical Research, The University of Western Australia and the Harry Perkins Institute for Medical Research, Nedlands, Australia.
    Tajsharghi, Homa
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Centre for Medical Research, The University of Western Australia and the Harry Perkins Institute for Medical Research, Nedlands, Australia.
    Motor neuron diseases caused by a novel VRK1 variant - A genotype/phenotype study2019Inngår i: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology, E-ISSN 2328-9503, Vol. 6, nr 11, s. 2197-2204Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Motor neuron disorders involving upper and lower neurons are a genetically and clinically heterogenous group of rare neuromuscular disorders with overlap among spinal muscular atrophies (SMAs) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Classical SMA caused by recessive mutations in SMN1 is one of the most common genetic causes of mortality in infants. It is characterized by degeneration of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord, leading to progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. Non-SMN1-related spinal muscular atrophies are caused by variants in a number of genes, including VRK1, encoding the vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1). VRK1 variants have been segregated with motor neuron diseases including SMA phenotypes or hereditary complex motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (HMSN), with or without pontocerebellar hypoplasia or microcephaly. Results Here, we report an association of a novel homozygous splice variant in VRK1 (c.1159 + 1G>A) with childhood-onset SMA or juvenile lower motor disease with brisk tendon reflexes without pontocerebellar hypoplasia and normal intellectual ability in a family with five affected individuals. We show that the VRK1 splice variant in patients causes decreased splicing efficiency and a mRNA frameshift that escapes the nonsense-mediated decay machinery and results in a premature termination codon. Conclusions Our findings unveil the impact of the variant on the VRK1 transcript and further support the implication of VRK1 in the pathogenesis of lower motor neuron diseases.

  • 119.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology and Speech-Language Pathology, Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Pesonen, Henri
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Department of Computer Science, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Finland.
    Peace of mind and anxiety in the waking state are related to the affective content of dreams2018Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 12762Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Waking mental well-being is assumed to be tightly linked to sleep and the affective content of dreams. However, empirical research is scant and has mostly focused on ill-being by studying the dreams of people with psychopathology. We explored the relationship between waking well-being and dream affect by measuring not only symptoms of ill-being but also different types and components of well-being. Importantly, this is the first time peace of mind was investigated as a distinct aspect of well-being in a Western sample and in relation to dream content. Healthy participants completed a well-being questionnaire, followed by a three-week daily dream diary and ratings of dream affect. Multilevel analyses showed that peace of mind was related to positive dream affect, whereas symptoms of anxiety were related to negative dream affect. Moreover, waking measures were better related to affect expressed in dream reports rather than participants’ self-ratings of dream affect. We propose that whereas anxiety may reflect affect dysregulation in waking and dreaming, peace of mind reflects enhanced affect regulation in both states of consciousness. Therefore, dream reports may possibly serve as markers of mental health. Finally, our study shows that peace of mind complements existing conceptualizations and measures of well-being.

  • 120.
    Stenson, Camilla
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Cognitive deficits in spina bifida2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) is the most common and severe type of spina bifida which is a neural tube defect (NTD). Additionally to the defect of the spinal cord most cases of SBM develop an Arnold-Chiari-II malformation, which is the main reason behind the common development of hydrocephalus. Children with SBM have a rather different cognitive profile than typically developing children. Hence, this thesis reviews the neurological impact on the cognitive profile and its relation to the social impairments found for this population. The Arnold-Chiari-II malformation is a malformation of the hindbrain which affects structures of the hindbrain, midbrain, ventricular system and subcortical gray matter. These deficits lead to impairments in the cognitive domains of executive functioning, visual-spatial working memory, intelligence, language, and learning. The consequences of these cognitive deficits are often on the social aspects of life. Two aspects affected are education and work, projecting in less academic success and a higher rate of unemployment. By clarifying the relationship between all of these aspects there is hope to improve the life of these individuals, especially on an educational basis.

  • 121.
    Sterner, Elin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Behavioural and Neuroscientific Sex Differences in Empathy2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Empathy is a multidimensional phenomenon that consists of both emotional and cognitive components. This paper gives an overview of behavioural and neuroscientific sex differences in empathy, as well as potential explanations to those results. Research indicates existence of sex differences in both emotional and cognitive empathy, although inconsistent findings suggest both female superiority as well as male superiority. Gender roles, social desirability, as well deficiencies in measurement and imprecise conceptualizations of empathy is argued as contributors to found sex differences. With a restricted amount of research on sex differences in empathy, inconsistent findings as well as a great proportion of critique towards both the research field of empathy as well as towards focus on sex differences; the authors argue that presented sex differences in empathy must be interpreted with a great caution.

    Keywords: empathy, sex, gender difference, behaviour, neuroscience 

  • 122.
    Svennersjö, Emilia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Thinking things over: The electrophysiology and temporal dynamics of self- and situation-focused reappraisal2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive reappraisal is an emotion regulation strategy that has been shown effective in down-regulating negative emotions in both psychological and electrophysiological measures. Although there are many studies on cognitive reappraisal, only recently have there been studies differentiating between various ways of employing the strategy. This event-related potential (ERP) study sets out to compare the efficiency and temporal dynamics of three cognitive reappraisal techniques – situation-focused reappraisal, social distancing, and temporal distancing – by measuring their effects on emotional responses to aversive pictures, as indexed by the affective ERP component the late positive potential (LPP). EEG data was recorded from 17 participants. The results revealed no significant differences between emotion regulation strategies and baseline for the total ERP epoch (3,000 ms). When differentiating between early (400-800 ms), mid (800-1,500 ms), and late (1,500-3,000) periods of the epoch, significance was found in some conditions, but since no significant overall LPP activity was found, these numbers are difficult to interpret.

  • 123.
    Svensson, Beatrice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Sense of Touch: Physiology and Neural Correlates of Affective Touch and its Role in Subjective Wellbeing2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The somatosensory system concerns the sense of touch. It is sectioned into various kinds of touch, such as the proprioceptive sense, providing information of sense of self and position of limbs, and the cutaneous sense, informing of the modalities of touching or being touched. The cutaneous sense is further divided into discriminative touch and affective touch. Discriminative touch is an exteroceptive sense of touch that responds to stimuli of pressure and vibration, and affective touch is an interoceptive sense of touch that corresponds to e.g. pleasant and painful stimuli, communicating information to the brain through A-delta and C-fibers. Recent studies investigates affective touch to have emotional affect on the subjective experience of touch, affecting subjective wellbeing. The aim of this thesis is to examine the sense of touch and its relevant neural correlates, focusing on affective touch and its role in subjective wellbeing and social relations. A presentation of physiological and neural aspects of touch will be held as well as a description of subjective wellbeing. The conclusion for this thesis is that affective touch appears to activate brain areas of orbitofrontal cortex, frontal polar cortice, prefrontal cortex and insula cortex, which are brain areas processing subjective wellbeing, e.g. evaluating positive and negative effect and processing emotional information and behavior. Examining correlations between affective touch and positive affect, negative affect, oxytocin release, social relations and affiliative behavior shows influence from affective touch on subjective wellbeing. A discussion of the current findings is provided, including directions for future research.

  • 124.
    Svensson, Beatrice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Sense of Touch: Physiology and Neural Correlates of Affective Touch and its Role in Subjective Wellbeing2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The somatosensory system concerns the sense of touch. It is sectioned into various kinds of touch, such as the proprioceptive sense, providing information of sense of self and position of limbs, and the cutaneous sense, informing of the modalities of touching or being touched. The cutaneous sense is further divided into discriminative touch and affective touch. Discriminative touch is an exteroceptive sense of touch that responds to stimuli of pressure and vibration, and affective touch is an interoceptive sense of touch that corresponds to e.g. pleasant and painful stimuli, communicating information to the brain through A-delta and C-fibers. Recent studies investigates affective touch to have emotional affect on the subjective experience of touch, affecting subjective wellbeing. The aim of this thesis is to examine the sense of touch and its relevant neural correlates, focusing on affective touch and its role in subjective wellbeing and social relations. A presentation of physiological and neural aspects of touch will be held as well as a description of subjective wellbeing. The conclusion for this thesis is that affective touch appears to activate brain areas of orbitofrontal cortex, frontal polar cortice, prefrontal cortex and insula cortex, which are brain areas processing subjective wellbeing, e.g. evaluating positive and negative effect and processing emotional information and behavior. Examining correlations between affective touch and positive affect, negative affect, oxytocin release, social relations and affiliative behavior shows influence from affective touch on subjective wellbeing. A discussion of the current findings is provided, including directions for future research.

  • 125.
    Svensson, Karl-Johan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    The Relation Between Physical Exercise and Sleep Physiology in Non-Clinical Individuals: A Review2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay reviews scientific literature regarding the possible effect of exercise on sleep physiology in non-clinical individuals. Exercise and sleep as research phenomena in the literature is examined, documented experimental evidence and theories on the possible mechanisms of a sleep-exercise relationship is reviewed, and suggestions for future research is made. Exercise and sleep are wide-ranging phenomena with a multitude of variables and aspects, making them difficult to research. Although exercise having historically and popularly being favorably associated with sleep, the objective scientific evidence for such a relationship is conflicting.This possibly due to studies using differing methods of various quality and focusing on different aspects of the object of research. There are several theories regarding how an exercise-sleep connection could function, none has yet to be substantiated by existing evidence.

  • 126.
    Sánchez, Stella M.
    et al.
    Grupo de Investigación en Neurociencias Aplicadas a las Alteraciones de la Conducta, Instituto de Neurociencias FLENI-CONICET, Argentina / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina / Departamento de Física, Facultad de Cs. Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Duarte-Abritta, Bárbara
    Grupo de Investigación en Neurociencias Aplicadas a las Alteraciones de la Conducta, Instituto de Neurociencias FLENI-CONICET, Argentina.
    Abulafia, Carolina
    Grupo de Investigación en Neurociencias Aplicadas a las Alteraciones de la Conducta, Instituto de Neurociencias FLENI-CONICET, Argentina / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina / Institute for Biomedical Research (BIOMED), Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina, Argentina.
    De Pino, Gabriela
    Grupo de Investigación en Neurociencias Aplicadas a las Alteraciones de la Conducta, Instituto de Neurociencias FLENI-CONICET, Argentina / Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Argentina / Laboratorio de Neuroimágenes, Departamento de Imágenes, Fundación FLENI, Argentina.
    Bocaccio, Hernan
    Grupo de Investigación en Neurociencias Aplicadas a las Alteraciones de la Conducta, Instituto de Neurociencias FLENI-CONICET, Argentina / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina / Departamento de Física, Facultad de Cs. Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Castro, Mariana N.
    Grupo de Investigación en Neurociencias Aplicadas a las Alteraciones de la Conducta, Instituto de Neurociencias FLENI-CONICET, Argentina / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina / Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina / Departamento de Salud Mental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Sevlever, Gustavo E.
    Departamento de Neuropatología y Biología Molecular, Fundación FLENI, Argentina.
    Fonzo, Greg A.
    Institute of Early Life Adversity Research, Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas at Austin, United States.
    Nemeroff, Charles B.
    Institute of Early Life Adversity Research, Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas at Austin, United States.
    Gustafson, Deborah R.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för hälsa och lärande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande. Department of Neurology, State University of New York University Downstate Medical Center, United States.
    Guinjoan, Salvador M.
    Grupo de Investigación en Neurociencias Aplicadas a las Alteraciones de la Conducta, Instituto de Neurociencias FLENI-CONICET, Argentina / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina / Departamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina / Departamento de Salud Mental, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina / Servicio de Psiquiatría, Fundación FLENI, Argentina / Neurofisiología I, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Villarreal, Mirta F.
    Grupo de Investigación en Neurociencias Aplicadas a las Alteraciones de la Conducta, Instituto de Neurociencias FLENI-CONICET, Argentina / Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina / Departamento de Física, Facultad de Cs. Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    White matter fiber density abnormalities in cognitively normal adults at risk for late-onset Alzheimer´s disease2020Inngår i: Journal of Psychiatric Research, ISSN 0022-3956, E-ISSN 1879-1379, Vol. 122, s. 79-87Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tau accumulation affecting white matter tracts is an early neuropathological feature of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD). There is a need to ascertain methods for the detection of early LOAD features to help with disease prevention efforts. The microstructure of these tracts and anatomical brain connectivity can be assessed by analyzing diffusion MRI (dMRI) data. Considering that family history increases the risk of developing LOAD, we explored the microstructure of white matter through dMRI in 23 cognitively normal adults who are offspring of patients with Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease (O-LOAD) and 22 control subjects (CS) without family history of AD. We also evaluated the relation of white matter microstructure metrics with cortical thickness, volumetry, in vivo amyloid deposition (with the help of PiB positron emission tomography -PiB-PET) and regional brain metabolism (as FDG-PET) measures. Finally we studied the association between cognitive performance and white matter microstructure metrics. O-LOAD exhibited lower fiber density and fractional anisotropy in the posterior portion of the corpus callosum and right fornix when compared to CS. Among O-LOAD, reduced fiber density was associated with lower amyloid deposition in the right hippocampus, and greater cortical thickness in the left precuneus, while higher mean diffusivity was related with greater cortical thickness of the right superior temporal gyrus. Additionally, compromised white matter microstructure was associated with poorer semantic fluency. In conclusion, white matter microstructure metrics may reveal early differences in O-LOAD by virtue of parental history of the disorder, when compared to CS without a family history of LOAD. We demonstrate that these differences are associated with lower fiber density in the posterior portion of the corpus callosum and the right fornix.

  • 127.
    Södergren, Henric
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neurotheology: Discovering the Neural Substrates of Religious Experiences2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    What are the neural substrates of religious experiences? This essay attempts to answer the question by identifying key studies in the field of neurotheology. Topics include: neuroimaging studies of prayer, the neural substrates of drug-induced mystical states and the neural underpinnings of religious experiences during epileptic seizures. The results of the aforementioned studies are explained and compared to each other. Additionally, leading theories on the neural substrates of religious experiences are discussed. The research suggests that several brain areas are involved in religious experiences. Areas include: the temporal lobe, the prefrontal cortex and the posterior superior parietal lobe. However, the essay also concludes that neuroscientific research has reached rather inconclusive results on the neural substrates of religious experiences, both empirically and theoretically. Consequently, the discussion chapter examines whether methodological problems could account for that incongruence. Another possibility is that religious experiences lack a common neural substrate, since it is a very complex phenomenon. 

  • 128.
    Temnerud, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. lars.temnerud@gmail.com.
    The key role of dopamine as the neural correlate of intrinsic motivation and trait plasticity2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Self-determination theory (SDT), a motivation theory, consists of motivation types: intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation, where the social environment is important. SDT’s motivation orientations are about individual differences in people’s tendencies to orient towards environments. The five factor model (FFM), a personality theory, consists of five factors and can be grouped into two metatraits; plasticity: extraversion and openness; and stability: agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism. Studies show that SDT’s motivation orientations and the factors of FFM significantly covary. Intrinsic motivation and trait plasticity have similar features; the desire for exploration, engagement, well-being, and dopamine as neural correlate. The thesis reviews the role of dopamine as the neural correlate of intrinsic motivation and trait plasticity – a relation between motivation and personality. Dopamine and trait plasticity function to attain rewards of uncertainty and explore, but uncertainty is threatening. Salience coding neurons, value coding neurons and a combination of both are related, respectively, to rewards of information, specific rewards and the value of any uncertainty. Intrinsic motivation is related to the value coding neurons, flow via D2 receptors, the salience network, and the seeking system. Conclusions: there are many appealing similarities and rational that relate constructs/mechanisms – motivation is related to personality; can there even be a common construct? However; results based on proposed theories, neuroscientific quality issues, early inconsistent findings of intrinsic motivation mechanisms, and trait stability are speculated to, also, be needed to model intrinsic motivation. Unifying cross-disciplinary work and proposed theories of neural correlates are encouraged.

  • 129.
    Thelander, Jenny
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neural Mechanisms Underlying Self-Localization in Rodents2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to self-localize and navigate in both stable and changing environments is crucial for the survival of many species. Research conducted on the non-human mammalian hippocampus and surrounding brain structures has uncovered several classes of spatial related cells. These cells provide the rest of the brain with knowledge of the animal’s location and direction—knowledge that is subsequently used in spatial navigation. This thesis provides an overview of three types of cells underlying this ability in rodents. First, place cells located in the hippocampus encode the animal’s specific location in the environment. Second, head direction cells found throughout the Papez circuit convey the angular direction of the animal’s head. Last, grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex generate a regular triangular grid spanning the entire explored setting. The focus of this review lies on the most salient features of these types of cells. It is also considered how the cells respond to manipulations of external and internal information, as well as how different lesions affect their activity. 

  • 130.
    Thill, Serge
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Svensson, Henrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Modeling the Development of Goal-Specificity in Mirror Neurons2011Inngår i: Cognitive Computation, ISSN 1866-9956, E-ISSN 1866-9964, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 525-538Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurophysiological studies have shown that parietal mirror neurons encode not only actions but also the goal of these actions. Although some mirror neurons will fire whenever a certain action is perceived (goal-independently), most will only fire if the motion is perceived as part of an action with a specific goal. This result is important for the action-understanding hypothesis as it provides a potential neurological basis for such a cognitive ability. It is also relevant for the design of artificial cognitive systems, in particular robotic systems that rely on computational models of the mirror system in their interaction with other agents. Yet, to date, no computational model has explicitly addressed the mechanisms that give rise to both goal-specific and goal-independent parietal mirror neurons. In the present paper, we present a computational model based on a self-organizing map, which receives artificial inputs representing information about both the observed or executed actions and the context in which they were executed. We show that the map develops a biologically plausible organization in which goal-specific mirror neurons emerge. We further show that the fundamental cause for both the appearance and the number of goal-specific neurons can be found in geometric relationships between the different inputs to the map. The results are important to the action-understanding hypothesis as they provide a mechanism for the emergence of goal-specific parietal mirror neurons and lead to a number of predictions: (1) Learning of new goals may mostly reassign existing goal-specific neurons rather than recruit new ones; (2) input differences between executed and observed actions can explain observed corresponding differences in the number of goal-specific neurons; and (3) the percentage of goal-specific neurons may differ between motion primitives.

  • 131.
    Thulin Nilsson, Linnea
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Role of Primary Visual Cortex in Visual Awareness2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its great complexity, a great deal is known about the organization and information-processing properties of the visual system. However, the neural correlates of visual awareness are not yet understood. By studying patients with blindsight, the primary visual cortex (V1) has attracted a lot of attention recently. Although this brain area appears to be important for visual awareness, its exact role is still a matter of debate. Interactive models propose a direct role for V1 in generating visual awareness through recurrent processing. Hierarchal models instead propose that awareness is generated in later visual areas and that the role of V1 is limited to transmitting the necessary information to these areas. Interactive and hierarchical models make different predictions and the aim of this thesis is to review the evidence from lesions, perceptual suppression, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), along with data from internally generated visual awareness in dreams, hallucinations and imagery, this in order to see whether current evidence favor one type of model over the other. A review of the evidence suggests that feedback projections to V1 appear to be important in most cases for visual awareness to arise but it can arise even when V1 is absent. 

  • 132.
    Torberger, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    MIND-WANDERING – A Human Condition2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Mind-wandering was until recently not a mainstream topic of research. The aim of this literature review is to present current views on the definition of mind-wandering and how the phenomenon is experienced. Furthermore, it gives an account of the implications of mind-wandering on cognitive performance, as well as its neurological correlates. In addition, the methods used to study mind-wandering are reviewed.The study of mind-wandering reveals a highly frequent phenomenon with practical consequences on a broad scale, both disruptive and supportive to goal-related behaviour and wellbeing in general. Originating from the default network, and its regions related to representations of self, memory, Theory of Mind, empathy and creativity, mind-wandering is hypothesized to be a function for planning one’s future life. Suggested further research concerns how mind-wandering can be countered, detected from the outside and whether it alters the physical feature of the brain.

  • 133.
    Valli, Katja
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Frauscher, Birgit
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Peltomaa, Taina
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Gschliesser, Viola
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Högl, Birgit
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Dreaming furiously?: A sleep laboratory study on the dream content of people with Parkinson's disease and with or without rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder2015Inngår i: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 419-427Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) has been related to altered, action-filled, vivid, and aggressive dream content, but research comparing the possible differences in dreams of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with and without RBD is scarce. The dream content of PD patients with and without RBD was analyzed with specific focus on action-filledness, vividness, emotional valence, and threats.

    METHODS: A total of 69 REM and NREM dream reports were collected in the sleep laboratory, 37 from nine PD patients with RBD and 32 from six PD patients without RBD. A content analysis of (1) action-filledness (actions and environmental events); (2) vividness (emotions and cognitive activity); (3) intensity of actions, events and emotions; (4) emotional valence, and (5) threatening events was performed on the transcripts.

    RESULTS: Altogether 563 dream elements expressing action-filledness and vividness were found. There were no significant between-group differences in the number or distribution of elements reflecting action-filledness or vividness, emotional valence or threats. In within-group analyses, PD patients with RBD had significantly more negative compared to positive dreams (p = 0.012) and compared to PD patients without RBD, a tendency to have more intense actions in their dreams (p = 0.066).

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of this study, there are no major between-group differences in the action-filledness, vividness, or threat content of dreams of PD patients with and without RBD. However, within-group analyses revealed that dreams were more often negatively than positively toned in PD patients with RBD.

  • 134.
    Vestin, Amanda
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Is There a You in Your Brain?: The Neuroscientific Support for the Bundle-Theory View of the Nature of the Self2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Why do you experience yourself as a continuous self? This is a central question when regarding the self and it has two kinds of answers: either there is something like an ego inside you which is the entity perceiving all your experiences (the ego theory-view), or there is no such thing as a self or an ego and you are just a collection of different perceptions (the bundle theory-view). There are many different components all contributing to the concept of self as a whole leading to different neuroscientific ways of measuring it and some researchers are arguing for the nonexistence of a unified self-system within the brain. The aim of this thesis is to review how neuroscientific findings might contribute to the philosophical debate about the nature of self. The thesis starts off by reviewing the different concepts and components with which the self is typically described, both in philosophy and in the empirical research field of neuroscience. Then follows a presentation of three important aspects of self-awareness – first-person perspective, self-reflection, and interoception – and their specific associated brain areas (namely, the medial prefrontal cortex, the posterior and anterior cingulate cortices, and insula). The purpose here is to examine how the self is approached in these studies. After this the thesis explores to what extent neuroscience supports the bundle theory-view, with a focus on reviewing the different brain networks involved in the processing of self. In conclusion, the thesis suggests that the literature reviewed provides neuroscientific support for the bundle theory-view that there is no unified self located in the brain, mostly because of the dissimilar neural activations associated with different self-related processes. In other words, the bundle theory seems to be correct despite the experienced feeling you have of being a continuous and unified self. 

  • 135.
    Viking, Jenny
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Stress: Kognitiv Påverkan och Åtgärder för Återhämtning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Stress är i sig inte farlig om den inte blir långvarig och konstant, den här rapporten har tittat på vilka effekter och eventuella konsekvenser stress har på de fysiologiska och kognitiva systemen hos människan. En långvarig aktivering av HPA-axeln, vilken kan kallas prestations/stressaxeln, leder bland annat till kroniskt förhöjda kortisolnivåer vilket har negativa effekter för hälsan. Strukturer i hjärnan vilka ofta kopplas till stressrelaterade sjukdomar är hippocampus och prefrontala kortex. De konsekvenserna som kan följa på långvarig stress är kognitiva nedsättningar och skador på bland annat hippocampus, brister i immunförsvaret, hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar, ångest, kroniskt utmattningssyndrom, mag- och tarmbesvär samt depression. I rapporten visas att stress har stora negativa konsekvenser på individnivå både gällande kognitiva funktioner, så som minne, och även på det fysiologiska systemet. Det finns åtgärder att använda för att reducera upplevelsen av stress samt de negativa effekterna av stress, så som fysisk aktivitet, mindfulness meditation och muskulär avslappning. 

  • 136.
    Wiberg, Anders
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Motivation: Definitioner, neurala mekanismer och nucleus accumbens roll i motivation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågan om människans drivkrafter och vad som ligger bakom våra handlingar har en lång historia och ju mer man har försökt att förklara och definiera begreppet motivation desto mer komplext tycks det ha blivit. Den här uppsatsens syfte är att ge en förståelse till komplexiteten kring problematiken om begreppet motivation. Detta görs genom att belysa dess djupa rötter i filosofins och psykologins värld samt lyfta fram några av motivationsteorierna ur den omfattande breda litteraturen som skrivits om ämnet. Vidare genom att belysa vad den moderna neurovetenskapliga forskningen har tillfört i studierna om motivation. Resultatet visar på att de gamla klassiska motivationsteorierna än idag influerar på ämnet. Självbestämmandeteorin (SDT) visar på att det finns olika typer av motivation och att vi föds med tre psykologiska behov som ligger till grund för en individs intrinsiska och extrinsiska motivation. Den affektiva neurovetenskapen visar på att det finns en ömsesidig interaktion mellan kognition, affektion och beteende som baseras på djupa evolutionära emotionella rötter djupt in i det limbiska systemet. Bevis finns för att nucleus accumbens (NAc) spelar en viktig roll i val av handlingsalternativ som underlättar och effektiviserar målorienterat beteende samt har både exciterande och inhiberande funktion på beteende.

  • 137.
    Wiklund, Liselotte
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: A Review of Neural and Cognitive Changes in Women with PMDD2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Around 3-8% of all women in reproductive age suffer from premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) which disenables them to live an ordinary life during the luteal phase (premenstrual phase) of the menstrual cycle. Throughout the premenstrual phase these women experience emotional, cognitive and physiological changes. Hitherto, the etiology of this disorder is unknown. Some consider the source of this state as non-biological, claiming that PMDD is a social construction imbedded in gender roles, that suggests that women should not show aggressive behavior or depressive mood unless it is during the premenstrual stage. Contradictory, research made in cognitive neuroscience claim that the origin is biological. It is assumed that the increased symptoms in women with PMDD is a result from dysfunctional sensitivity for the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone that has a receptor in the GABAA system, hence, producing an anxious effect from high levels of allopregnanolone instead of the expected sedative, soothing effects. Research suggest that structural and functional changes occur in brain areas such as the hippocampus, parahippocampus, amygdala, cerebellum as well as in brainderived neurotrophic factor which is important for brain plasticity, growth and survival of neurons. Cognitive behaviors such as anticipation for negative stimuli, working memory and lack of cognitive control also seem to be affected by PMDD. Nonetheless, the evidence is inconsistent, the area of research face multiple issues in regards to study designs, hence making generalization at this point difficult. In sum, this essay reviews recent studies conducted in neuroscience of cognitive changes in women with PMDD, with focus on functional, structural and behavioral changes between the phases of the cycle.

123 101 - 137 of 137
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf