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  • 101.
    Svensson, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Dreaming of electric sheep?: Exploring the functions of dream-like mechanisms in the development of mental imagery simulations2013In: Adaptive Behavior, ISSN 1059-7123, E-ISSN 1741-2633, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 222-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the simulation hypothesis, mental imagery can be explained in terms of predictive chains of simulated perceptions and actions, i.e., perceptions and actions are reactivated internally by our nervous system to be used in mental imagery and other cognitive phenomena. Our previous research shows that it is possible but not trivial to develop simulations in robots based on the simulation hypothesis. While there are several previous approaches to modelling mental imagery and related cognitive abilities, the origin of such internal simulations has hardly been addressed. The inception of simulation (InSim) hypothesis suggests that dreaming has a function in the development of simulations by forming associations between experienced, non-experienced but realistic, and even unrealistic perceptions. Here, we therefore develop an experimental set-up based on a simple simulated robot to test whether such dream-like mechanisms can be used to instruct research into the development of simulations and mental imagery-like abilities. Specifically, the hypothesis is that dreams' informing the construction of simulations lead to faster development of good simulations during waking behaviour. The paper presents initial results in favour of the hypothesis.

  • 102.
    Svensson, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Embodied representation: What are the issues2005In: Proceedings of the 27th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society: CogSci05 / [ed] Bruno G. Bara, Lawrence Barsalou, Monica Bucciarelli, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005, p. 2116-2121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common theme of many discussions among embodied cognition researchers is whether or not cognition is making use of epresentations. This debate has recently been called a “debate for the sake of appearance” because there is no agreed upon way of identifying what is a representation. Therefore, instead of elaborating our own position on whether embodied cognition uses representation, we structure the debate by (1) reviewing three types of mechanisms in models of embodied cognition that might be considered candidates for epresentationhood and (2) outlining criteria for what is or is not a representation in embodied cognition.

  • 103.
    Svensson, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Making sense of embodiment: simulation theories and the sharing of neural circuitry2005In: Proceedings of the twenty-sixth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society, August 4 - 7, 2004, Chicago, Illinois, USA / [ed] Kenneth Forbus, D. Gentner, T. Regier, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005, p. 1309-1314Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although an increasing number of cognitive scientists are convinced that cognition is embodied, there still is relatively little agreement on what exactly that means. Notions of what it actually means for a cognizer to be embodied range from simplistic ones such as ‘being physical’ or ‘interacting with an environment’ to more demanding ones that consider a particular morphology or a living body prerequisites for embodied cognition. Based on experimental evidence from a range of disciplines, we argue that one of the keys to understanding the embodiment of cognition is the sharing of neural mechanisms between sensorimotor processes and higher-level cognitive processes. The latter are argued to be embodied in the sense that they make use of (partial) simulations or emulations of sensorimotor processes through the re-activation of neural circuitry also active in bodily perception and action.

  • 104.
    Sørensen, Mikkel Holm
    et al.
    IT University of Copenhagen.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Agents without Agency?2007In: Cognitive Semiotics, ISSN 1662-1425, Vol. 0, no 1, p. 102-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of agency occupies a central position in several of the

    cognitive sciences, particularly artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics. However, the notion largely rests on folk psychology and is usually left more or less undefined. This paper examines different notions of agency and analyzes the concept with a special focus on its role in AI, where much recent research has been devoted to the construction of artificial agents. We highlight recent naturalist theories of agency and argue that even if agency is not merely a folk-psychological concept without ontological bearing or scientific value, the phenomenon is more complex than most theories acknowledge. We argue that, as the title implies, none of the so-called agents of contemporary AI and robotics can be attributed agency in the strong sense, although artificial agency is not impossible in principle.

  • 105.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Cognition & Interaction Lab, Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Cognition & Interaction Lab, Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Cognition & Interaction Lab, Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Folk-Psychological Interpretation of Human vs. Humanoid Robot Behavior: Exploring the Intentional Stance toward Robots2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 1962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People rely on shared folk-psychological theories when judging behavior. These theories guide people's social interactions and therefore need to be taken into consideration in the design of robots and other autonomous systems expected to interact socially with people. It is, however, not yet clear to what degree the mechanisms that underlie people's judgments of robot behavior overlap or differ from the case of human or animal behavior. To explore this issue, participants (N = 90) were exposed to images and verbal descriptions of eight different behaviors exhibited either by a person or a humanoid robot. Participants were asked to rate the intentionality, controllability and desirability of the behaviors, and to judge the plausibility of seven different types of explanations derived from a recently proposed psychological model of lay causal explanation of human behavior. Results indicate: substantially similar judgments of human and robot behavior, both in terms of (1a) ascriptions of intentionality/controllability/desirability and in terms of (1b) plausibility judgments of behavior explanations; (2a) high level of agreement in judgments of robot behavior -(2b) slightly lower but still largely similar to agreement over human behaviors; (3) systematic differences in judgments concerning the plausibility of goals and dispositions as explanations of human vs. humanoid behavior. Taken together, these results suggest that people's intentional stance toward the robot was in this case very similar to their stance toward the human.

  • 106.
    Thill, Serge
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Behr, Josef
    Institut für Kognitionswissenschaft, Neurokybernetik, University of Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Flexible sequence learning in a SOM model of the mirror system2012In: Building Bridges Across Cognitive Sciences Around the World: Proceedings of the 34th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Sapporo, Japan, August 1-4, 2012 / [ed] Naomi Miyake, David Peebles & Richard P. Cooper, Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society, Inc., 2012, p. 2423-2428Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present initial work on a biologically and cognitively inspired model that may allow embodied agents to autonomously learn sequences of action primitives (forming an overall behaviour). Specifically, we combine a flexible model of sequence generation with a model  of parietal mirror neuron activity. The main  purpose is to illustrate that the approach is viable. Although further work is needed to improve the results sketched out here, the concept is sound and relevant both to efforts in modelling mirror neuron activity and enabling artificial embodied agents to autonomously learn sequences of action primitives.

  • 107.
    Thill, Serge
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Caligiore, Daniele
    Laboratory of Computational Embodied Neuroscience, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (LOCEN-ISTC-CNR), 00185 Roma, Italy / Embodied Cognition Laboratory (EMCO-Lab), Dipartimento di Psicologia, Università di Bologna, 40127 Bologna, Italy.
    Borghi, Anna M.
    Embodied Cognition Laboratory (EMCO-Lab), Dipartimento di Psicologia, Università di Bologna, 40127 Bologna, Italy / Laboratory of Computational Embodied Neuroscience, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (LOCEN-ISTC-CNR), 00185 Roma, Italy.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Baldassarre, Gianluca
    Laboratory of Computational Embodied Neuroscience, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (LOCEN-ISTC-CNR), 00185 Roma, Italy.
    Theories and computational models of affordance and mirror systems: An integrative review2013In: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, ISSN 0149-7634, E-ISSN 1873-7528, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 491-521Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neuroscientific and psychological data suggest a close link between affordance and mirror systems in the brain. However, we still lack a full understanding of both the individual systems and their interactions. Here, we propose that the architecture and functioning of the two systems is best understood in terms of two challenges faced by complex organisms, namely: (a) the need to select among multiple affordances and possible actions dependent on context and high-level goals and (b) the exploitation of the advantages deriving from a hierarchical organisation of behaviour based on actions and action-goals. We first review and analyse the psychological and neuroscientific literature on the mechanisms and processes organisms use to deal with these challenges. We then analyse existing computational models thereof. Finally we present the design of a computational framework that integrates the reviewed knowledge. The framework can be used both as a theoretical guidance to interpret empirical data and design new experiments, and to design computational models addressing specific problems debated in the literature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 108.
    Thill, Serge
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Padó, Sebastian
    Institute for Natural Language Processing, University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    On the Importance of a Rich Embodiment in the Grounding of Concepts: Perspectives From Embodied Cognitive Science and Computational Linguistics2014In: Topics in Cognitive Science, ISSN 1756-8757, E-ISSN 1756-8765, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 545-558Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 109.
    Thill, Serge
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Pop, Cristina A.
    Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    Belpaeme, Tony
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Vanderborght, Bram
    School of Computing, Communications and Electronics, University of Plymouth, UK.
    Robot-assisted therapy for autism spectrum disorders with (partially) autonomous control: Challenges and outlook2012In: Paladyn - Journal of Behavioral Robotics, ISSN 2080-9778, E-ISSN 2081-4836, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 209-217Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 110.
    Thill, Serge
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Svensson, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Modeling the Development of Goal-Specificity in Mirror Neurons2011In: Cognitive Computation, ISSN 1866-9956, E-ISSN 1866-9964, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 525-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurophysiological studies have shown that parietal mirror neurons encode not only actions but also the goal of these actions. Although some mirror neurons will fire whenever a certain action is perceived (goal-independently), most will only fire if the motion is perceived as part of an action with a specific goal. This result is important for the action-understanding hypothesis as it provides a potential neurological basis for such a cognitive ability. It is also relevant for the design of artificial cognitive systems, in particular robotic systems that rely on computational models of the mirror system in their interaction with other agents. Yet, to date, no computational model has explicitly addressed the mechanisms that give rise to both goal-specific and goal-independent parietal mirror neurons. In the present paper, we present a computational model based on a self-organizing map, which receives artificial inputs representing information about both the observed or executed actions and the context in which they were executed. We show that the map develops a biologically plausible organization in which goal-specific mirror neurons emerge. We further show that the fundamental cause for both the appearance and the number of goal-specific neurons can be found in geometric relationships between the different inputs to the map. The results are important to the action-understanding hypothesis as they provide a mechanism for the emergence of goal-specific parietal mirror neurons and lead to a number of predictions: (1) Learning of new goals may mostly reassign existing goal-specific neurons rather than recruit new ones; (2) input differences between executed and observed actions can explain observed corresponding differences in the number of goal-specific neurons; and (3) the percentage of goal-specific neurons may differ between motion primitives.

  • 111.
    Thill, Serge
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Human-Centered Systems, Department of Computer & Information Science, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Interaction as a bridge between cognition and robotics2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 112.
    Thill, Serge
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Learning New Motion Primitives in the Mirror Neuron System: A Self-organising Computational Model2010In: From Animals to Animats 11: 11th International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, SAB 2010, Paris - Clos Lucé, France, August 25-28, 2010. Proceedings / [ed] Stéphane Doncieux, Benoît Girard, Agnès Guillot, John Hallam, Jean-Arcady Meyer, Jean-Baptiste Mouret, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, p. 413-423Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational models of the mirror (neuron) system are attractive in robotics as they may inspire novel approaches to implemente.g. action understanding. Here, we present a simple self-organising map which forms the first part of larger ongoing work in building such amodel. We show that minor modifications to the standard implementation of such a map allows it to continuously learn new motor concepts.We find that this learning is facilitated by an initial motor babbling phase, which is in line with an embodied view of cognition. Interestingly,we also find that the map is capable of reproducing neurophysiologicaldata on goal-encoding mirror neurons. Overall, our model thus fulfils the crucial requirement of being able to learn new information throughout its lifetime. Further, although conceptually simple, its behaviour has interesting parallels to both cognitive and neuroscientific evidence.

  • 113.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Nilsson, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Implications of a Weickian perspective on decision-making for information fusion research and practice2007In: 10th International Conference on Information Fusion, 2007, IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of information fusion is to support and improve decision making. However, theories of decision making differ significantly on their view of what a good decision actually is. Hence, depending on which decision making theory one (un)consciously adopts there are different requirements for information fusion as decision support Information fusion researchers and practitioners should therefore be more explicit about their assumptions regarding decision making by carefully describing their theoretical frameworks. To illustrate this point the 'theory of sensemaking' by Karl Weick is presented as one example of a decision making theory. Major differences between decision making assumptions in that theory and assumptions common in much information fusion research are highlighted. Implications and challenges for information fusion are discussed.

  • 114.
    Vernon, David
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Hemeren, Paul
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Sweden.
    An Architecture-oriented Approach to System Integration in Collaborative Robotics Research Projects: An Experience Report2015In: Journal of Software Engineering for Robotics, ISSN 2035-3928, E-ISSN 2035-3928, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 15-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective system integration requires strict adherence to strong software engineering standards, a practice not much favoured in many collaborative research projects. We argue that component-based software engineering (CBSE) provides a way to overcome this problem because it provides flexibility for developers while requiring the adoption of only a modest number of software engineering practices. This focus on integration complements software re-use, the more usual motivation for adopting CBSE. We illustrate our argument by showing how a large-scale system architecture for an application in the domain of robot-enhanced therapy for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been implemented. We highlight the manner in which the integration process is facilitated by the architecture implementation of a set of placeholder components that comprise stubs for all functional primitives, as well as the complete implementation of all inter-component communications. We focus on the component-port-connector meta-model and show that the YARP robot platform is a well-matched middleware framework for the implementation of this model. To facilitate the validation of port-connector communication, we configure the initial placeholder implementation of the system architecture as a discrete event simulation and control the invocation of each component’s stub primitives probabilistically. This allows the system integrator to adjust the rate of inter-component communication while respecting its asynchronous and concurrent character. Also, individual ports and connectors can be periodically selected as the simulator cycles through each primitive in each sub-system component. This ability to control the rate of connector communication considerably eases the task of validating component-port-connector behaviour in a large system. Ultimately, over and above its well-accepted benefits for software re-use in robotics, CBSE strikes a good balance between software engineering best practice and the socio-technical problem of managing effective integration in collaborative robotics research projects. 

  • 115.
    Vernon, David
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Division of Cognition and Communication, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Embodied cognition and circular causality: On the role of constitutive autonomy in the reciprocal coupling of perception and action2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, article id 1660Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 116.
    Vernon, David
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The Role of Intention in Cognitive Robotics2016In: Toward Robotic Socially Believable Behaving Systems: Volume I / [ed] Anna Esposito & Lakhmi C. Jain, Switzerland: Springer, 2016, p. 15-27Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We argue that the development of robots that can interact effectively with people requires a special focus on building systems that can perceive and comprehend intentions in other agents. Such a capability is a prerequisite for all pro-social behaviour and in particular underpins the ability to engage in instrumental helping and mutual collaboration. We explore the prospective and intentional nature of action, highlighting the importance of joint action, shared goals, shared intentions, and joint attention in facilitating social interaction between two or more cognitive agents. We discuss the link between reading intentions and theory of mind, noting the role played by internal simulation, especially when inferring higher-level actionfocussed intentions. Finally, we highlight that pro-social behaviour in humans is the result of a developmental process and we note the implications of this for the challenge of creating cognitive robots that can read intentions.

  • 117.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Adaptive Behavior in Autonomous Agents1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives an overview of the bottom-up approach to artificial intelligence (AI), commonly referred to as behavior-oriented AI. The behavior-oriented approach, with its focus on the interaction between autonomous agents and their environments, is introduced by contrasting it with the traditional approach of knowledge-based AI. Different notions of autonomy are discussed, and key problems of generating adaptive and complex behavior are identified. A number of techniques for the generation of behavior are introduced and evaluated regarding their potential for realizing different aspects of autonomy as well as adaptivity and complexity of behavior. It is concluded that in order to realize truly autonomous and intelligent agents, the behavior-oriented approach will have to focus even more on life-like qualities in both agents and environments.

  • 118.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Adaptive behavior in autonomous agents1998In: Presence - Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, ISSN 1054-7460, E-ISSN 1531-3263, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 564-587Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an overview of the bottom-up approach to artificial intelligence (AI), commonly referred to as behavior-oriented AI. The behavior-oriented approach, with its focus on the interaction between autonomous agents and their environments, is introduced by contrasting it with the traditional approach of knowledge-based AI. Different notions of autonomy are discussed, and key problems of generating adaptive and complex behavior are identified. A number of techniques for the generation of behavior are introduced and evaluated regarding their potential for realizing different aspects of autonomy as well as adaptivity and complexity of behavior. It is concluded that, in order to realize truly autonomous and intelligent agents, the behavior-oriented approach will have to focus even more on lifelike qualities in both agents and environments.

  • 119.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Book Review: “Representation and Behavior”2003In: Connection science, ISSN 1360-0494, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 283-286Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 120.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Cybernetics and embodied cognition: on the construction of realities in organisms and robots.2005In: Kybernetes, ISSN 0368-492X, E-ISSN 1758-7883, Vol. 34, no 1-2, p. 118-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Purpose – To point out the relevance of Heinz von Foerster's work to modern embodied cognitive science and artifical intelligence research.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper discusses (a) von Foerster's contributions to understanding the limitations of the computer metaphor which has long dominated cognitive science, and (b) his theories concerning how reality is constructed in organizationally closed organisms, and what the underlying neural mechanisms are. The latter is exemplified with a simple neuro-robotic model that illustrates the constructive and anticipatory nature of memory.

    Findings – von Foerster's work on the integration of a radical constructivest philosophy of knowledge construction with models of the underlying neurophysiological and sensorimotor mechanisms is still highly relevant to the understanding of embodied cognition and robotic models thereof.

    Originality/value – This paper identifies conceptual contributions that von Foerster's constructivist cybernetics can make to cognitive science's still limited understanding of the embodiment of cognition and “representation”.

  • 121.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Embodied AI as Science: Embodied Models of Cognition, or Both?2004In: Embodied Artificial Intelligence: International Seminar, Dagstuhl Castle, Germany, July 7-11, 2003. Revised Papers / [ed] Fumiya Iida, Rolf Pfeifer, Luc Steels, Yasuo Kuniyoshi, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2004, p. 27-36Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the identity of embodied AI, i.e. it asks the question exactly what it is that makes AI research embodied. From an engineering perspective, it is fairly clear that embodied AI is about robotic, i.e. physically embodied systems. From the scientific perspective of AI as building models of natural cognition or intelligence, however, things are less clear. On the one hand embodied AI seems to be about physically embodied, i.e. robotic models of cognition. On the other hand the term lsquoembodiedrsquo seems to signify the type of intelligence modeled and/or the conception of (embodied) cognition that is underlying the modeling. In either case, it appears that embodied AI, as it currently stands, might be too narrowly conceived since each of these perspectives is addressed only partially.

  • 122.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    From Rats to Cognitive robots: Biological insipiration in cognitive systems research2009In: Public Service Review: European Union, ISSN 1472-3395, no 18, p. 330-331Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 123.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    From Rats to Robots2009In: The Parliament Magazine, ISSN 1372-7966, no 292, p. 62-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 124.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    On the role of emotion in biological and robotic autonomy2008In: Biosystems (Amsterdam. Print), ISSN 0303-2647, E-ISSN 1872-8324, Vol. 91, no 2, p. 401-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews some of the differences between notions of biological and robotic autonomy, and how these differences have been reflected in discussions of embodiment, grounding and other concepts in AI and autonomous robotics. Furthermore, the relations between homeostasis, emotion and embodied cognition are discussed as well as recent proposals to model their interplay in robots, which reflects a commitment to a multi-tiered affectively/emotionally embodied view of mind that takes organismic embodiment more serious than usually done in biologically inspired robotics.

  • 125.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    On the Role of Robot Simulations in Embodied Cognitive Science2003In: AISB Journal, ISSN 1476-3036, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 389-399Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 126.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Radar Image Segmentation using Recurrent Artificial Neural Networks1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the application of artificial neural networks to the segmentation of Doppler radar images, in particular the detection of oil spills within sea environments, based on a classification of radar backscatter signals. Best results have been achieved with recurrent backpropagation networks of an architecture similar to that of Elman's Simple Recurrent Network. The recurrent networks are shown to be very robust to variations in both sea state (weather conditions) as well as illumination distance, and their performance is analysed in further detail.

  • 127.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Radar Image Segmentation using Second-Order Recurrent Networks1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A second-order recurrent artificial neural network architecture for the segmentation and integration of radar images is introduced in this paper. This architecture consists of two sub-networks: a function network that classifies radar measurements into four different categories of objects in sea environments (water, oil spills, land and boats), and a context network that dynamically computes the function network's input weights. It is shown that this mechanism allows networks to learn to solve the task through a dynamic adaptation of their weighting of different radar measurements.behaviour.

  • 128.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Radar Image Segmentation using Self-Adapting Recurrent Networks1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel approach to the segmentation and integration of (radar) images using a second-order recurrent artificial neural network architecture consisting of two sub- networks: a function network that classifies radar measurements into four different categories of objects in sea environments (water, oil spills, land and boats), and a context network that dynamically computes the function network's input weights. It is shown that in experiments (using simulated radar images) this mechanism outperforms conventional artificial neural networks since it allows the network to learn to solve the task through a dynamic adaptation of its classification function based on its internal state closely reflecting the current context.

  • 129.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Recurrent Artficial Neural Networks for the Detection of Oil Spills from Doppler Radar Imagery1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to the detection of oil spills in sea clutter environments from the classification of radar backscatter signals. A comparison and evaluation of different network architectures regarding reliability of dection and robustness to varying sea states/wind conditions shows that for this problem best results are achieved with a recurrent architecture similar to that of Elman's SRN.

  • 130.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Remembering how to behave: Recurrent neural networks for adaptive robot behavior.1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the use of recurrent neural networks for control of and learning in robots and autonomous agents. In particular the use of feedback in both first- and higher-order recurrent network architectures for the realization of adaptive robot behavior is investigated. Two experiments, in which controller network weights are evolved to solve tasks requiring robots to exhibit context- or state-dependent behavior, are used to demonstrate and analyze different recurrent control architectures.

  • 131.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science. Linköping University.
    Rethinking Grounding1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The grounding problem is, generally speaking, the problem of causally connecting an artificial agent with its environment such that the agent's (internal) mechanisms and behaviour can be intrinsic and meaningful to itself, rather than dependent on an external designer or observer. This paper briefly reviews Searle's and Harnad's analyses of the grounding problem are and evaluates cognitivist and enactivist approaches to solving it. It is argued that, although the two categories of grounding approaches differ in their nature and the problems they have to face, both, so far, fail to provide fully grounded systems. Further it is argued here that the reason the problem is somewhat underestimated lies in the notions of situatedness and embodiment in modern AI, which goes beyond purely computational systems, but fails to acknowledge the historically grounded nature of the relation between living systems and their environments.

  • 132.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Robosemiotics and embodied enactive cognition2003In: S.E.E.D. Journal: Semiotics, Evolution, Energy, and Development, ISSN 1492-3157, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 112-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much research in cognitive science and AI has recently been devoted to the study of adaptive autonomous agents, such as robots and artificial life systems. Such agents are typically said to ‘learn, ‘develop’ and ‘evolve’ in close interaction with their environments. It could be argued that these self-organizing properties solve the problem of representation grounding in AI research, and thus also place such ‘artificial organisms’ in a position of semiotic interest. This paper discusses the use of autonomous agents as models of sign processes and embodied enactive cognition. Furthermore, it addresses the question whether or to what extent such agents are themselves autonomous and capable of semiosis in that sense that living organisms are.

  • 133.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Cognition & Interaction Lab, Human-Centered Systems Division, Department of Computer & Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    The body of knowledge: On the role of the living body in grounding embodied cognition2016In: Biosystems (Amsterdam. Print), ISSN 0303-2647, E-ISSN 1872-8324, Vol. 148, p. 4-11Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embodied cognition is a hot topic in both cognitive science and Al, despite the fact that there still is relatively little consensus regarding what exactly constitutes 'embodiment'. While most embodied Al and cognitive robotics research views the body as the physical/sensorimotor interface that allows to ground computational cognitive processes in sensorimotor interactions with the environment, more biologically based notions of embodied cognition emphasize the fundamental role that the living body - and more specifically its homeostatic/allostatic self-regulation - plays in grounding both sensorimotor interactions and embodied cognitive processes. Adopting the latter position - a multi-tiered affectively embodied view of cognition in living systems - it is further argued that modeling organisms as layered networks of bodily self-regulation mechanisms can make significant contributions to our scientific understanding of embodied cognition. 

  • 134.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The Construction of Embodied Agency: The Other Side of the System-Environment Coin2012In: Constructivist Foundations, ISSN 1782-348X, E-ISSN 1782-348X, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 52-53Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    > Upshot . Complementary to Alroe and Noe's discussion of constructivist notions of environment, world, etc., this commentary addresses the closely-related notion of agency in constructivist theories - in particular, the question of what would be required for artificial agency - and identifies open questions and fundamental disagreements among constructivist theorists.

  • 135.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The Embodied Self: Theories, Hunches and Robot Models2007In: Journal of consciousness studies, ISSN 1355-8250, E-ISSN 2051-2201, Vol. 14, no 7, p. 167-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many theories and models of machine consciousness emphasize the role of embodiment. However, there are different interpretations of exactly what kind of embodiment would be required for an artifact to be at least potentially conscious. This paper contrasts the sensorimotor approach, which holds that consciousness emerges from the mastery of sensorimotor knowledge resulting from the interaction between agent and environment, with the view that the living body's homeostatic regulation is crucial to self and consciousness.

  • 136.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    The `Environmental Puppeteer' Revisited: A Connectionist Perspective on Autonomy´.1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's `autonomous´robots only have very limited autonomy and are in fact very much under the control of the `environmental puppeteer', i.e their behaviour is

    determined, via virtual strings, by environmental conditions. Hence, it has been stated as the goal of modern scientific robotics to "cut the strings and give the robot its autonomy''. Different notions of autonomy in artefacts and living systems are examined in this paper, and different aspects/dimensions of autonomy are identified and illustrated with examples from connectionist robot control. A connectionist architecture is introduced that aims to increase robotic autonomy through integration of connectionist self-organisation/learning with the enactive view of structural coupling between environment and agent. In the resulting robot control architecture it is the environment that is pulling the strings, but the agent that develops them and dynamically decides which of them to use in a particular situation. Hence, the notion of autonomy advocated here is not `independence of environment' (a `freedom' most artefacts have), but rather an agent's capacity to actively embed itself in its environment and flexibly utilize it as a resource.

  • 137.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Towards Adaptive Behaviour System Integration using Connectionist Infinite State Automata1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A higher order recurrent connectionist architecture for adaptive control of autonomous robots is introduced in this paper. This architecture, inspired by Pollack's Sequential Cascaded Network, consists of two sub-networks: a function network for the coupling between sensory inputs and motor outputs, and a context network, which dynamically adapts the function network in order to allow a flexible mapping from percepts to actions. The approach taken here is compared to dynamics and algorithmic approach to autonomous robot control, and it is argued that the above architecture allows an integration of (a) the complex structure and control typical for the algorithmic approach, (b) the capacity to utilize systematically continuous state spaces, and (c) the self- organizing learning capacity of connectionist systems with a simple, but powerful mechanism for context-dependent adaptation of behaviour.

  • 138.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Towards Adaptive Perception in Autonomous Robots using Second-Order Recurrent Networks1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a higher-order recurrent connectionist architecture is used for learning adaptive behaviour in an autonomous robot. This architecture consists of two sub-networks in a master-slave relationship: a function network for the coupling between sensory inputs and motor outputs, and a context network, which dynamically adapts the sensory input weights in order to allow a flexible, context-dependent mapping from percepts to actions. The capabilities of this architecture are demonstrated in a number of action selection experiments with a simulated Khepera robot, and it is argued that the general approach of generically dividing the overall control task between sequentially cascaded context and function learning offers a powerful mechanism for autonomous long- and short-term adaptation of behaviour.

  • 139.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Towards Autonomous Robot Control via Self-Adapting Recurrent Networks1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a higher-order recurrent connectionist architecture is used for learning adaptive behaviour in an autonomous robot. This architecture consists of two sub-networks in a master-slave relationship: a function network for the coupling between sensory inputs and motor outputs, and a context network, which dynamically adapts the sensory input weights in order to allow a flexible, context-dependent mapping from percepts to actions. The capabilities of this architecture are demonstrated in a number of action selection experiments with a simulated Khepera robot, and it is argued that the general approach of generically dividing the overall control task between sequentially cascaded context and function learning offers a powerful mechanism for autonomous long- and short-term adaptation of behaviour

  • 140.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    What’s life got to do with it?2007In: Artificial consciousness / [ed] Antonio Chella, Riccardo Manzotti, Imprint Academic, 2007, p. 48-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 141.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    What's that thing called embodiment?2003In: Proceedings of the 25th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embodiment has become an important concept in many areas of cognitive science. There are, however, very different notions of exactly what embodiment is and what kind of body is required for what type of embodied cognition. Hence, while many nowadays would agree that humans are embodied cognizers, there is much less agreement on what kind of artifact could be considered embodied. This paper identifies and contrasts six different notions of embodiment which can roughly be characterized as (1) structural coupling between agent and environment, (2) historical embodiment as the result of a history of struct ural coupling, (3) physical embodiment, (4) organismoid embodiment, i.e. organismlike bodily form (e.g., humanoid robots), (5) organismic embodiment of autopoietic, living systems, and (6)social embodiment.

  • 142.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Arvola, MattiasLinköpings Universitet, Sweden.Dahlbäck, NilsLinköpings Universitet, Sweden.Billing, ErikUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proceedings of the 14th SweCog Conference2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 143.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Athley, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Oil Spill Detection from Doppler Radar Imagery using Artificial Neural Networks1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on results of an ongoing project investigating the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) to the classification/ cartography of sea clutter environments, and in particular the detection of oil spills, on the basis of their radar backscatter signals.

  • 144.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Atley, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Connectionist Models for the Detection of Oil Spills from Doppler Radar Imagery1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the results of a project investigating the potential of applying artificial neural networks to the problem of detecting oil spills on basis of the radar backscatter signals from a sea clutter environment illuminated by a Doppler radar. Recurrent backpropagation models which were found to exhibit satisfactory performance, superior to that of feed-forward networks, are discussed and analysed in particular.

  • 145.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Balkenius, ChristianLund University, Cognitive Science, Sweden.Hallam, JohnUniversity of Southern Denmark, Mærsk McKinney Møller Institute, Odense, Denmark.
    From Animals to Animats 12: 12th International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behaviour, SAB 2012, Odense, Denmark, August 27-30, 20122012Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 146.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Bergfeldt, Nicklas
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Buason, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Susi, Tarja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Svensson, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Evolving Cognitive Scaffolding and Environment Adaptation: A New Research Direction for Evolutionary Robotics2004In: Connection Science, ISSN 0954-0091, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 339-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many researchers in embodied cognitive science and artificial intelligence, and evolutionary robotics in particular, emphasize the interaction of brain, body and environment as crucial to the emergence of intelligent, adaptive behaviour. Accordingly, the interaction between agent and environment, as well as the co-adaptation of artificial brains and bodies, has been the focus of much research in evolutionary robotics. Hence, there are plenty of studies of robotic agents/species adapting to a given environment. Many animals, on the other hand, in particular humans, to some extent can choose to adapt the environment to their own needs instead of adapting (only) themselves. That alternative has been studied relatively little in robot experiments. This paper, therefore, presents some simple initial simulation experiments, in a delayed response task setting, that illustrate how the evolution of environment adaptation can serve to provide cognitive scaffolding that reduces the requirements for individual agents. Furthermore, theoretical implications, open questions and future research directions for evolutionary robotics are discussed.

  • 147.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Bickhard, Mark
    Department of Philosophy, Lehigh University, 15 University Drive, Bethlehem, PA 18015, United States.
    Cognitive robotics: Introduction to the special issue2011In: New ideas in psychology, ISSN 0732-118X, E-ISSN 1873-3522, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 201-202Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 148.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Bickhard, Mark
    Cognitive Robotics: Special issue of the journal New Ideas in Psychology2011Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 149.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Bodén, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Oil Spill Detection: A Case Study of Recurrent Artificial Neural Networks1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes and analyzes the results of a case study of artificial neural networks for the detection of oil spills from radar imagery, which has been carried as a joint project between the Connectionist Research Group, University of Skövde, and Ericsson Microwave Systems AB, Mölndal, Sweden.

  • 150.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Frank, R M
    Introduction: The Body Electic2007In: Body, Language and Mind, Vol. 1: Embodiment / [ed] Tom Ziemke, Jordan Zlatev, Roslyn M. Frank, Mouton de Gruyter, 2007, p. 1-13Chapter in book (Other academic)
1234 101 - 150 of 161
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