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  • 101.
    Fehrenbach, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    A modular approach to identify differentially expressed genes between men and women for inflammatory diseases2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Inflammatory diseases show large differences in susceptibility between men and women. In previous study, genes that showed different expression patterns between patients and healthy controls in males and females were identified using modules in disease-gene interaction networks. In this work, genes were identified using different methods based on gene expressions in public available data sets. By counting the occurrences of genes identified in the interaction network in our results, we showed that they greatly overlap with genes identified by our methods and that the disease gene-interaction networks are able to identify genes that can be identified in a gene expression based analysis as well. Gene expression analysis was implemented in an automatic pipeline, which was designed for a general use. Thereby, future research with similar problems can be simplified. The Rpackages limma and WGCNA were used to identify genes that showed differences in males and females and GO terms and KEGG pathways were used to search for enriched functions of those genes. Further, a difference between males and females was found for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren’s syndrome data sets in the expression of genes belonging to interferon signaling. Interferons are currently examined as drug targets for SLE and a difference between men and women could lead to different results of such a medication. However, the identified genes showed changes in expressions between patients and controls for both men and women. This supports a beneficial effect of such drugs in men and women.

  • 102.
    Feilhauer, Diana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Measuring Emotions in Dreams: Methodological Challenges2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although emotions are a natural component of dream experiences, a lack of consensus prevails in research literature concerning the specific characteristics of emotional dream experiences. The aim of this study was to investigate if and to what extent this lack of convergence among studies stems from whether dream emotions are self- or externally rated - forty-four healthy participants (16 males and 28 females; mean age = 26.93, range = 19 - 40) kept a home dream diary for three consecutive weeks, and daily rated their emotional experiences in dreams with the Swedish modified Differential Emotions Scale (smDES; Fredrickson, 2013). Two external judges rated emotions in the same 552 home dream reports using the same scale. Results obtained with the two methods differed in that the self-ratings, compared to external ratings, revealed: (a) more emotional dreams; (b) more positive than negative emotions per dream (with the ratio being relatively balanced); (c) a relatively more balanced proportion of positive and negative emotions, while the external ratings revealed more negative than positive emotions per dream. The results suggest that this is mostly due to the underrepresentation of positive emotions with external ratings. Thus, the results continue to question the extent of convergence between self- and external ratings when investigating emotional dream contents, and bring to attention the importance of methodological aspects when investigating dream emotions.

  • 103.
    Fernandes, Ricardo A.
    et al.
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, United Kingdom / Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, United Kingdom / Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Department of Structural Biology, Stanford University, United States.
    Ganzinger, Kristina A.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom / Living Matter Department, Physics of Cellular Interactions Group, AMOLF, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Tzou, Justin C.
    Department of Applied and Computational Mathematics and Statistics, University of Notre Dame, United States.
    Jönsson, Peter
    Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom / Department of Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden.
    Lee, Steven F.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Palayret, Matthieu
    Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Santos, Ana Mafalda
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, United Kingdom / Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Carr, Alexander R.
    Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Ponjavic, Aleks
    Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Chang, Veronica T.
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, United Kingdom / Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, United Kingdom / Neurobiology Division, Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Macleod, Charlotte
    Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    Lagerholm, B. Christoffer
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Lindsay, Alan E.
    Mathematics Department, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Dushek, Omer
    Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom / Wolfson Centre for Mathematical Biology, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Tilevik, Andreas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. School of Bioscience, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Davis, Simon J.
    Radcliffe Department of Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, United Kingdom / Medical Research Council Human Immunology Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.
    Klenerman, David
    Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom.
    A cell topography-based mechanism for ligand discrimination by the T cell receptor2019In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 116, no 28, p. 14002-14010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The T cell receptor (TCR) initiates the elimination of pathogens and tumors by T cells. To avoid damage to the host, the receptor must be capable of discriminating between wild-type and mutated self and nonself peptide ligands presented by host cells. Exactly how the TCR does this is unknown. In resting T cells, the TCR is largely unphosphorylated due to the dominance of phosphatases over the kinases expressed at the cell surface. However, when agonist peptides are presented to the TCR by major histocompatibility complex proteins expressed by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), very fast receptor triggering, i.e., TCR phosphorylation, occurs. Recent work suggests that this depends on the local exclusion of the phosphatases from regions of contact of the T cells with the APCs. Here, we developed and tested a quantitative treatment of receptor triggering reliant only on TCR dwell time in phosphatase-depleted cell contacts constrained in area by cell topography. Using the model and experimentally derived parameters, we found that ligand discrimination likely depends crucially on individual contacts being ∼200 nm in radius, matching the dimensions of the surface protrusions used by T cells to interrogate their targets. The model not only correctly predicted the relative signaling potencies of known agonists and nonagonists but also achieved this in the absence of kinetic proofreading. Our work provides a simple, quantitative, and predictive molecular framework for understanding why TCR triggering is so selective and fast and reveals that, for some receptors, cell topography likely influences signaling outcomes. 

  • 104.
    Fioretto, Paola
    et al.
    Department of Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
    Del Prato, Stefano
    Department of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    Buse, John B.
    Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
    Goldenberg, Ronald
    LMC Diabetes & Endocrinology, Thornhill, Canada.
    Giorgino, Francesco
    Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.
    Reyner, Daniel
    AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA.
    Langkilde, Anna Maria
    AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjöstrom, C. David
    AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate renal impairment (chronic kidney disease stage 3A): The DERIVE Study2018In: Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, ISSN 1462-8902, E-ISSN 1463-1326, Vol. 20, no 11, p. 2532-2540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Dapagliflozin is a selective inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2). This study assessed the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin 10 mg vs placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and moderate renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], 45-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2); chronic kidney disease [CKD] stage 3A). Materials and methods: In this double-blind, parallel group, Phase 3 study (NCT02413398, ) patients with inadequately controlled T2D (HbA1c 7.0%-11.0%) were randomized (1:1) to dapagliflozin 10 mg once daily (N = 160) or matching placebo (N = 161) for 24 weeks. Randomization was stratified by pre-enrolment glucose-lowering therapy. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in HbA1c at Week 24. Results: At Week 24, compared with placebo, dapagliflozin significantly decreased HbA1c (difference [95% CI], -0.34% [-0.53, -0.15]; P < 0.001), body weight (difference [95% CI], -1.25 kg [-1.90, -0.59]; P < 0.001), fasting plasma glucose (difference [95% CI], -0.9 mmol/L [-1.5, -0.4]; P = 0.001) and systolic blood pressure (difference [95% CI], -3.1 mmHg [-6.3, 0.0]; P < 0.05). Decreases from baseline in eGFR were greater with dapagliflozin than placebo at Week 24 (-2.49 mL/min/1.73 m(2) [-4.96, -0.02]), however, eGFR returned to baseline levels at Week 27 (3 weeks post-treatment) (0.61 mL/min/1.73 m(2) [-1.59, 2.81]). No increase in adverse events (AEs; 41.9% vs 47.8%) or serious AEs (5.6% vs 8.7%) were reported with dapagliflozin versus placebo. No AEs of bone fractures, amputations or DKA were reported. Conclusions: The findings of this study (NCT02413398, ) support the positive benefit/risk profile of dapagliflozin for the treatment of patients with T2D and CKD 3A.

  • 105.
    Fors, John
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Effectiveness of reduced-dose efavirenz in hiv therapy considering patient adherence2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Antiretroviral drugs have revolutionized HIV care and enabled better management of the infection thus allowing patients survive for many years. One proposed approach to increase access to such drugs in sub-Saharan Africa is to use of a reduced-dose alternative of the drug efavirenz, with 400 mg rather than regular 600 mg dose. This effectively would provide medication for 50 percent more persons with the same amount of active ingredient. However, antiretroviral drugs require high patient adherence to achieve intended therapeutic effect, and it is unclear if a reduced-dose therapy would have sufficient efficacy, and if it would lead to an increased risk of viral resistance.

    The time profile of drug plasma concentration and corresponding long-term viral load was estimated using integrated population PK/PD simulations, with model parameters based on selected research studies. The results suggest a reduced dose 400 mg, rather than 600 mg regular dose, efavirenz in HIV therapy would place strict demands on patients to maintain very high adherence levels, at least 80-90 percent, to maintain sufficient drug concentration in blood plasma, and to minimize risk of viral failure. However, it is relatively rare for HIV therapy programs in sub-Saharan Africa to consistently achieve such high adherence levels. In addition, if patients are co-administered rifampin, a drug widely used in TB care, this increases hepatic metabolism and plasma clearance rate, resulting in further reduced average drug plasma concentration. These findings suggest a reduced dose efavirenz treatment alternative may be most (only) relevant for patient categories expected to maintain high adherence; and in particular among persons who have been confirmed to have CYP2B6 genotype consistent with inherently lower drug metabolism. At usual adherence levels it is estimated a reduced dose alternative may increase the share of patients at risk of viral failure by 5 to 15 percent vs. regular dose of 600 mg.

  • 106.
    Freij, Mathilda
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Restaureringens roll gällande Hornborgasjöns förmåga till kväve- och fosforretention2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today Lake Hornborga is one of Europe’s most important bird lakes but that has not always been the case. Before natural and cultural conservation interests were given credit the lake was drained in favor of agricultural purposes and left to overgrow. The lake was restored in the early 90’s which meant an increased area and higher water levels in the lake.

     

    The water quality of the lake has been regularly tested in both the inlets and the outlet. This report sought to use some of this data to examine the retention of nitrogen and phosphorus in the lake, as well as the changes in retention due to the restauration. This was made by using the mean differences between the inlets and the outlet. The mean difference will indicate if less content is pouring out of the lake than in to the lake.

     

    The analysis shows that the mean differences in total nitrogen between the inlets and the outlet have increased after the restauration. No distinction can be shown in most of the tests regarding the mean differences in total phosphorus. In fact one of the tests shows that the mean differences in total phosphorus between the inlets and the outlet have significantly decreased. These results indicates that the restauration of Lake Hornborga have increased its ability to reduce contents of nitrogen but not phosphorus. However, more comprehensive studies with more accurate methods are needed to prove these results.

  • 107.
    Frisk, Mikael
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Annie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Sellman, Stefan
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Flisberg, Patrik
    The Forestry Research Institute of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rönnqvist, Mikael
    Département de génie mécanique, Université Laval, Québec, Canada.
    Wennergren, Uno
    Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Route optimization as an instrument to improve animal welfare and economics in pre-slaughter logistics2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 3, article id e0193223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Each year, more than three million animals are transported from farms to abattoirs in Sweden. Animal transport is related to economic and environmental costs and a negative impact on animal welfare. Time and the number of pick-up stops between farms and abattoirs are two key parameters for animal welfare. Both are highly dependent on efficient and qualitative transportation planning, which may be difficult if done manually. We have examined the benefits of using route optimization in cattle transportation planning. To simulate the effects of various planning time windows and transportation time regulations and number of pick-up stops along each route, we have used data that represent one year of cattle transport. Our optimization model is a development of a model used in forestry transport that solves a general pick-up and delivery vehicle routing problem. The objective is to minimize transportation costs. We have shown that the length of the planning time window has a significant impact on the animal transport time, the total driving time and the total distance driven; these parameters that will not only affect animal welfare but also affect the economy and environment in the pre-slaughter logistic chain. In addition, we have shown that changes in animal transportation regulations, such as minimizing the number of allowed pick-up stops on each route or minimizing animal transportation time, will have positive effects on animal welfare measured in transportation hours and number of pick-up stops. However, this leads to an increase in working time and driven distances, leading to higher transportation costs for the transport and negative environmental impact.

  • 108.
    Frost, Morgan
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Social perception in Autism: An eye tracking and pupillometric study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Typically developing humans innately place subjective value on social information and orient attention to it. This can be shown through eye tracking and pupillometry, a method used to show attentional engagement. Social brain development and social preference is present from infancy, and is thought to rely on a carefully balanced network of neurotransmitters and neural connections. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) presents altered neural systems which cause individuals to perceive and process social information differently, but the neurophysiology of this difference remains unclear. Previous research shows atypical gaze patterns, hyperarousal, and lack of orienting to social stimuli in ASD. Since autism is highly comorbid and shares traits with other neurodevelopmental disorders, it is difficult to distinguish aspects of these social processing differences. This study used a group of 35 neuropsychiatric patients to investigate how individuals with autism process social and non-social scenes. Eye tracking and pupillometry measures were collected while participants observed images of natural scenes with or without a person. Participants with autism did not show a pupillary response to social images and were slower to fixate on the face  region than the other participants. Additionally there were correlations between clinical measures of social functioning and the length of time it took to fixate to faces. The results highlight important distinctions of social processing in autism. This thesis proposes a new perspective of looking at the social deficits present in autism spectrum disorder. It suggests reframing the current discussion from two leading hypotheses to a unified approach and formally considering the limitations of differing types of stimuli.

  • 109.
    Frost, Morgan
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre.
    Social Perception in Autism: An eye-tracking and pupillometric study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Typically developing humans innately place subjective value on social informa- tion and orient attention to it. This can be shown through eye tracking and pupillometry, a method used to show attentional engagement. Social brain de- velopment and social preference is present from infancy, and is thought to rely on a carefully balanced network of neurotransmitters and neural connections. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) presents altered neural systems which cause individuals to perceive and process social information di↵erently, but the neuro- physiology of this di↵erence remains unclear. Previous research shows atypical gaze patterns, hyperarousal, and lack of orienting to social stimuli in ASD. Since autism is highly comorbid and shares traits with other neurodevelopmental dis- orders, it is dicult to distinguish aspects of these social processing di↵erences. This study used a group of 35 neuropsychiatric patients to investigate how in- dividuals with autism process social and non-social scenes. Eye tracking and pupillometry measures were collected while participants observed images of nat- ural scenes with or without a person. Participants with autism did not show a pupillary response to social images and were slower to fixate on the face re- gion than the other participants. Additionally there were correlations between clinical measures of social functioning and the length of time it took to fixate to faces. The results highlight important distinctions of social processing in autism. This thesis proposes a new perspective of looking at the social deficits present in autism spectrum disorder. It suggests reframing the current discus- sion from two leading hypotheses to a unified approach and formally considering the limitations of di↵ering types of stimuli.

  • 110.
    Frändén, Philip
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neural Correlates of Heart Rate Variability: Threat and Safety Perception2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The connection between the heart and the brain was coined 150 years ago by Claude Bernard and has since then been an interesting topic of research. Scientists have for many years searched for biomarkers of stress and health to map the current status of the organism. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been presented as an emerging objective and promising marker to achieve just this. HRV refers to the beat-to-beat variations in heart rate (HR) and is thought to be a useful signal in understanding and providing valuable information of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). HRV has also been proposed as a marker of stress and health by sharing neural correlates and functions with several executive functions. This thesis identified several regions, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the amygdala, in which significant associations across several studies were found between threat and safety perception, emotional regulation and HRV. This suggest that HRV may function as an index of the brain mechanism and structures that guide and govern adaptive functions and thus, provide researchers with valuable information regarding the stress and health of an organism. Two major theoretical frameworks, which articulate and explain the role of HRV as an indicator of individuals ability to adapt to environmental changes and cope under stress is presented. HRV can also be used in practice in several ways and a growing and promising field of application is HRV biofeedback.

  • 111.
    Förster, Jona
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    ERP and MEG Correlates of Visual Consciousness: An Update2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Two decades of event-related potential (ERP) research have established that the most consistent correlates of the onset of visual consciousness are the early visual awareness negativity (VAN), a negative component in the N2 time range over posterior electrode sites, and the late positivity (LP), a positive component in the P3 time range over fronto-parietal electrode sites. A review by Koivisto & Revonsuo (2010) had looked at 39 studies and concluded that the VAN is the earliest and most reliable correlate of visual phenomenal consciousness, whereas the LP probably reflects later processes associated with reflective/access consciousness. However, an “early” vs. “late” debate still persists. This thesis provides an update to that earlier review. All ERP and MEG studies that have appeared since 2010 and directly compared ERPs of aware and unaware conditions are considered. The result corroborates the view that VAN is the earliest and most consistent signature of visual phenomenal consciousness, and casts further doubt on the LP as an ERP correlate of consciousness. Important new methodological, empirical, and theoretical developments in the field are described, and the empirical results are related to the theoretical background debates.

  • 112.
    Garcia, Danilo
    et al.
    Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Al Nima, Ali
    Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Gruneau Brulin, Joel
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rapp-Ricciardia, Max
    Blekinge Center of Competence, Blekinge County Council, Karlskrona, Sweden / Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Network for Empowerment and Well-Being, Sweden / Department of Behavioral Sciences, University West, Sweden.
    IRT analyses of the Swedish Dark Triad Dirty Dozen2018In: Heliyon, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 4, no 3, article id e00569Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 113.
    Gerafi, Joel
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Long-term functional outcome after ischemic stroke: Prognostic value of early identification of neglect and aphasia2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 114.
    Gerafi, Joel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / The Skaraborg Institute for Research and Development, Skövde, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, H.
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Viken, J. I.
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blomgren, C.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Claesson, L.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kallio, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jern, C.
    Institute of Biomedicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blomstrand, C.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jood, K.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Neurology, The Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Neglect and aphasia in the acute phase as predictors of functional outcome 7 years after ischemic stroke2017In: European Journal of Neurology, ISSN 1351-5101, E-ISSN 1468-1331, Vol. 24, no 11, p. 1407-1415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: Visuospatial inattention (VSI) and languageimpairment (LI) are often present early after stroke and associations with an unfavorable short-term functional outcome have been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a screening of VSI and LI as indicators of cortical symptoms early after stroke could predict long-term functional outcomes. Methods: A consecutive cohort of 375 patients with ischemic stroke was assessed for the occurrence of VSI at a median of 7 days after admission (interquartile range, 1–5 days) using the Star Cancellation Test and for LI (within the first 7 days) with the language item in the Scandinavian StrokeScale. Seven years later, functional outcomes were assessed by the modified Rankin scale and Frenchay Activities Index in 235 survivors without recurrent stroke. Relationships between baseline predictors and functional outcome at 7 years were analyzed with bivariate correlations and multiple categorical regressions with optimal scaling. Results: The regression model significantly explained variance in the modified Rankin scale (R2= 0.435, P < 0.001) and identified VSI (P=0.001) and neurological deficits (P < 0.001; Scandinavian Stroke Scale score without the language item) as the significant independent predictors. The model for FrenchayActivities Index was also significant (R2= 0.269, P < 0.001) with VSI(P = 0.035) and neurological deficits (P < 0.001) as significant independent predictors. Conclusions: Visuospatial inattention at acute stroke has an independent impact on long-term functional outcomes. Early recognition may enable targeted rehabilitative interventions.

  • 115.
    Ghannoum, Salim
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Characterizing sub-populations of myxoid liposarcoma cells using a multi-algorithmic pipeline for analyzing single-cell RNA sequencing data2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    All tumors are characterized by intratumor heterogeneity at varying degrees. Cancer stem cells have been put forward to be an essential element that promotes heterogeneity. Myxoid liposarcoma, which is a lipogenic cancer that develops in deep soft connective tissues, is characterized by intermediate intratumor heterogeneity. Despite recent therapeutic advances, the post-treatment recurrence rate remains relatively high. Identifying sub-populations of myxoid liposarcoma tumors can help in characterizing their molecular signatures and tumorigenic capabilities leading to developing better therapeutics. Single-cell transcriptomic approaches can highlight deviations in gene expression patterns among different subpopulations within the tumor. In this study, a multi-algorithmic pipeline was developed to make a fast, simple and efficient process for characterizing cellular sub-populations of cancer cells and gain insight about the molecular signature of the cancer stem sub-population. This pipeline consists of four successive steps, read counts’ pre-processing, cellular clustering and pseudotemporal ordering, defining differential expressed genes and defining biomarker genes. The results showed a harmonic integration between the algorithms that constitute the backbone of the proposed pipeline leading to a reduction in the limitations of some of these algorithms. The outcome of this study is a panel of 33 genes nominated as possible biomarkers for stemness and aggressiveness. To optimize and validate these biomarker candidates, further investigations are required. Moreover, additional functional coupling analysis is necessary to nominate biomarkers for each of the sub-populations based on the defined differential expressed genes.

  • 116.
    Ghosheh, Nidal
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    Takara Bio Europe Aktiebolaget, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Asplund, Annika
    Takara Bio Europe Aktiebolaget, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Edsbagge, Josefina
    Takara Bio Europe Aktiebolaget, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ulfenborg, Benjamin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Andersson, Tommy B.
    Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, Innovative Medicines and Early Development Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Mölndal, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacogenetics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björquist, Petter
    NovaHep Aktiebolaget, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Christian X.
    Takara Bio Europe Aktiebolaget, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carén, Helena
    Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Stina
    Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. AstraZeneca Research and Development, Global Medicines Development Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Global Medicines Development Unit, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Comparative transcriptomics of hepatic differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells and adult human liver tissue2017In: Physiological Genomics, ISSN 1094-8341, E-ISSN 1531-2267, Vol. 49, no 8, p. 430-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hepatocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-HEP) have the potential to replace presently used hepatocyte sources applied in liver disease treatment and models of drug discovery and development. Established hepatocyte differentiation protocols are effective and generate hepatocytes, which recapitulate some key features of their in vivo counterparts. However, generating mature hPSC-HEP remains a challenge. In this study, we applied transcriptomics to investigate the progress of in vitro hepatic differentiation of hPSCs at the developmental stages, definitive endoderm, hepatoblasts, early hPSC-HEP, and mature hPSC-HEP, to identify functional targets that enhance efficient hepatocyte differentiation. Using functional annotation, pathway and protein interaction network analyses, we observed the grouping of differentially expressed genes in specific clusters representing typical developmental stages of hepatic differentiation. In addition, we identified hub proteins and modules that were involved in the cell cycle process at early differentiation stages. We also identified hub proteins that differed in expression levels between hPSC-HEP and the liver tissue controls. Moreover, we identified a module of genes that were expressed at higher levels in the liver tissue samples than in the hPSC-HEP. Considering that hub proteins and modules generally are essential and have important roles in the protein-protein interactions, further investigation of these genes and their regulators may contribute to a better understanding of the differentiation process. This may suggest novel target pathways and molecules for improvement of hPSC-HEP functionality, having the potential to finally bring this technology to a wider use.

  • 117.
    Ghosheh, Nidal
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Edsbagge, Josefina
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Van Giezen, Mariska
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Asplund, Annika
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Andersson, Tommy B.
    AstraZeneca R&D, CVMD DMPK, Mölndal, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Section of Pharmacogenetics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björquist, Petter
    NovaHep AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carén, Helena
    Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Stina
    Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. AstraZeneca R&D, GMD CVMD GMed, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Highly Synchronized Expression of Lineage-Specific Genes during In Vitro Hepatic Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines2016In: Stem Cells International, ISSN 1687-9678, Vol. 2016, article id 8648356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human pluripotent stem cells- (hPSCs-) derived hepatocytes have the potential to replace many hepatic models in drug discovery and provide a cell source for regenerative medicine applications. However, the generation of fully functional hPSC-derived hepatocytes is still a challenge. Towards gaining better understanding of the differentiation and maturation process, we employed a standardized protocol to differentiate six hPSC lines into hepatocytes and investigated the synchronicity of the hPSC lines by applying RT-qPCR to assess the expression of lineage-specific genes (OCT4, NANOG, T, SOX17, CXCR4, CER1, HHEX, TBX3, PROX1, HNF6, AFP, HNF4a, KRT18, ALB, AAT, and CYP3A4) which serve as markers for different stages during liver development. The data was evaluated using correlation and clustering analysis, demonstrating that the expression of these markers is highly synchronized and correlated well across all cell lines. The analysis also revealed a distribution of the markers in groups reflecting the developmental stages of hepatocytes. Functional analysis of the differentiated cells further confirmed their hepatic phenotype. Taken together, these results demonstrate, on the molecular level, the highly synchronized differentiation pattern across multiple hPSC lines. Moreover, this study provides additional understanding for future efforts to improve the functionality of hPSC-derived hepatocytes and thereby increase the value of related models.

  • 118.
    Godoy, Patricio
    et al.
    IfADo-Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors at the Technical University Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany / Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepción, Chile.
    Schmidt-Heck, Wolfgang
    Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology eV-Hans-Knöll Institute, Jena, Germany.
    Natarajan, Karthick
    University of Cologne, Institute of Neurophysiology and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne (CMMC), Cologne, Germany.
    Lucendo-Villarin, Baltasar
    MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Szkolnicka, Dagmara
    MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Asplund, Annika
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Björquist, Petter
    NovaHep AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Widera, Agata
    IfADo-Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors at the Technical University Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany.
    Stöber, Regina
    IfADo-Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors at the Technical University Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany.
    Campos, Gisela
    IfADo-Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors at the Technical University Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany.
    Hammad, Seddik
    IfADo-Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors at the Technical University Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany.
    Sachinidis, Agapios
    University of Cologne, Institute of Neurophysiology and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne (CMMC), Cologne, Germany.
    Chaudhari, Umesh
    University of Cologne, Institute of Neurophysiology and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne (CMMC), Cologne, Germany.
    Damm, Georg
    Charité University Medicine Berlin, Department of General-, Visceral- and Transplantation Surgery, Berlin, Germany.
    Weiss, Thomas S.
    Center for Liver Cell Research, Department of Pediatrics and Juvenile Medicine, University of Regensburg Hospital, Regensburg, Germany.
    Nüssler, Andreas
    Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, BG Trauma Center, Siegfried Weller Institut, Tübingen, Germany.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Edlund, Karolina
    IfADo-Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors at the Technical University Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hay, David C.
    MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Hengstler, Jan G.
    IfADo-Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors at the Technical University Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany.
    Gene networks and transcription factor motifs defining the differentiation of stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells2015In: Journal of Hepatology, ISSN 0168-8278, E-ISSN 1600-0641, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 934-942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The differentiation of stem cells to hepatocyte-like cells (HLC) offers the perspective of unlimited supply of human hepatocytes. However, the degree of differentiation of HLC remains controversial. To obtain an unbiased characterization, we performed a transcriptomic study with HLC derived from human embryonic and induced stem cells (ESC, hiPSC) from three different laboratories.

    METHODS: Genome-wide gene expression profiles of ESC and HLC were compared to freshly isolated and up to 14days cultivated primary human hepatocytes. Gene networks representing successful and failed hepatocyte differentiation, and the transcription factors involved in their regulation were identified.

    RESULTS: Gene regulatory network analysis demonstrated that HLC represent a mixed cell type with features of liver, intestine, fibroblast and stem cells. The "unwanted" intestinal features were associated with KLF5 and CDX2 transcriptional networks. Cluster analysis identified highly correlated groups of genes associated with mature liver functions (n=1057) and downregulated proliferation associated genes (n=1562) that approach levels of primary hepatocytes. However, three further clusters containing 447, 101, and 505 genes failed to reach levels of hepatocytes. Key TF of two of these clusters include SOX11, FOXQ1, and YBX3. The third unsuccessful cluster, controlled by HNF1, CAR, FXR, and PXR, strongly overlaps with genes repressed in cultivated hepatocytes compared to freshly isolated hepatocytes, suggesting that current in vitro conditions lack stimuli required to maintain gene expression in hepatocytes, which consequently also explains a corresponding deficiency of HLC.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present gene regulatory network approach identifies key transcription factors which require modulation to improve HLC differentiation.

  • 119.
    Gopalan Nair, Rekha
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Cloning and functional analysis of an arsB gene responsible for arsenic sequestration in Lysinibacillus sphaericus2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 120.
    Grankvist, Gunne
    et al.
    Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri
    Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Persson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    The Relationship between Mind-Body Dualism and Personal Values2016In: International Journal of Psychological Studies, ISSN 1918-7211, E-ISSN 1918-722X, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 126-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dualists view the mind and the body as two fundamental different “things”, equally real and independent of each other. Cartesian thought, or substance dualism, maintains that the mind and body are two different substances, the non-physical and the physical, and a causal relationship is assumed to exist between them. Physicalism, on the other hand, is the idea that everything that exists is either physical or totally dependent of and determined by physical items. Hence, all mental states are fundamentally physical states. In the current study we investigated to what degree Swedish university students’ beliefs in mind-body dualism is explained by the importance they attach to personal values. A self-report inventory was used to measure their beliefs and values. Students who held stronger dualistic beliefs attach less importance to the power value (i.e., the effort to achieve social status, prestige, and control or dominance over people and resources). This finding shows that the strength in laypeople’s beliefs in dualism is partially explained by the importance they attach to personal values

  • 121.
    Granéli, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Hicks, Ryan
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Brolén, Gabriella
    Discovery Sciences, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Global Medicines Development, CVRM, AstraZeneca Gothenburg, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Diabetic Cardiomyopathy Modelling Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes: Recent Advances and Emerging Models2019In: Stem Cell Reviews, ISSN 1550-8943, E-ISSN 1558-6804, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 13-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global burden of diabetes has drastically increased over the past decades and in 2017 approximately 4 million deaths were caused by diabetes and cardiovascular complications. Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a common complication of diabetes with early manifestations of diastolic dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy with subsequent progression to systolic dysfunction and ultimately heart failure. An in vitro model accurately recapitulating key processes of diabetic cardiomyopathy would provide a useful tool for investigations of underlying disease mechanisms to further our understanding of the disease and thereby potentially advance treatment strategies for patients. With their proliferative capacity and differentiation potential, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) represent an appealing cell source for such a model system and cardiomyocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells have been used to establish other cardiovascular related disease models. Here we review recently made advances and discuss challenges still to be overcome with regard to diabetic cardiomyopathy models, with a special focus on iPSC-based systems. Recent publications as well as preliminary data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of generating cardiomyocytes with a diabetic phenotype, displaying insulin resistance, impaired calcium handling and hypertrophy. However, capturing the full metabolic- and functional phenotype of the diabetic cardiomyocyte remains to be accomplished. 

  • 122.
    Grassini, Simone
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Railo, Henry
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Visual features and perceptual context modulate attention towards evolutionarily relevant threatening stimuli: Electrophysiological evidence2019In: Emotion, ISSN 1528-3542, E-ISSN 1931-1516, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 348-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The snake detection hypothesis claims that predatory pressure from snakes has shaped the primate visual system, but we still know very little about how the brain processes evolutionarily important visual cues, and which factors are crucial for quick detection of snakes. We investigated how visual features modulate the electrophysiological markers of early attentional processes. In Experiment 1, we compared snake, rope, gun, and bird images to isolate the effects due to curvilinearity of the stimuli. The results showed that both snake and rope images elicited enhanced P1 and N1 event-related potential components as well as early posterior negativity (EPN). In Experiment 2, we studied whether nonthreatening curvilinear images (i.e., ropes) still elicit the enhanced electrophysiological responses when snake images are not presented as stimuli, and therefore the context does not provoke top-down attention to curvilinear shapes. Rope images still evoked an enhanced EPN, suggesting that curvilinear shapes are preferably captured by attentional processes. However, this effect was smaller than in Experiment 1, in which snake images were present. Thus, our results hint to the possibility that the perceptual context may interact with processing of shape information, drawing attention to curvilinear shapes when the presence of snakes is expectable. Furthermore, we observed that spatial frequency of the visual stimuli modulated especially the early electrophysiological responses, and decreased the differences between stimulus categories in EPN without completely eliminating them. The findings suggest that low-level and high-level mechanisms interact to give an attentional priority to potentially threatening stimuli.

  • 123.
    Grassini, Simone
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Castellotti, Serena
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Florence, Italy.
    Petrizzo, Irene
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Florence, Italy.
    Benedetti, Viola
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Florence, Italy.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Processing of natural scenery is associated with lower attentional and cognitive load compared with urban ones2019In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 62, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental psychology has provided evidence for psychologically favorable effects of exposure to natural settings, by means of controlled laboratory experiments as well as outdoor field studies. Most of these studies have employed subjective rating scales to assess processes and outcomes of exposure to nature, while only few of them have used physiological measures to assess the neural correlates of these benefits. The present study used electroencephalography (EEG) to explore how the brain engages in processing of images of natural vs. urban scenery. During EEG recording, the participants (n = 32) were presented with a series of photos depicting urban or natural scenery. Participants rated the sceneries for their subjective relaxing value. Images of natural scenery were rated as more relaxing compared to the images of urban scenery. Event related potentials suggested a lower attentional demand for images of natural scenery compared to urban ones. Signal spectral analyses revealed differences in brain activity level and cognitive demand between natural and urban scenery. Our data suggest that the visual perception of natural environments calls for less attentional and cognitive processing, compared with urban ones. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 124.
    Grassini, Simone
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland /Turku Brain and Mind Center, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Souchet, Jérémie
    Station D'Ecologie Théorique et Expérimentale Du CNRS, France.
    Aubret, Fabien
    Station D'Ecologie Théorique et Expérimentale Du CNRS, France.
    Segurini, Giulia V.
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Pattern matters: Snakes exhibiting triangular and diamond-shaped skin patterns modulate electrophysiological activity in human visual cortex2019In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 131, p. 62-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neural and perceptual mechanisms that support the efficient visual detection of snakes in humans are still not fully understood. According to the Snake Detection Theory, selection pressures posed by snakes on early primates have shaped the development of the visual system. Previous studies in humans have investigated early visual electrophysiological activity in response to snake images vs. various alternative dangerous or non-dangerous stimuli. These studies have shown that the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN) component is selectively elicited by snake or snake-like images. Recent findings yielded the complementary/alternative hypothesis that early humans (and possibly other primates) evolved an aversion especially for potentially harmful triangular shapes, such as teeth, claws or spikes. In the present study we investigated the effect of triangular and diamond-shaped patterns in snake skins on the ERP correlates of visual processing in humans. In the first experiment, we employed pictures of snakes displaying either triangular/diamond-shaped patterns or no particular pattern on their skins, and pictures of frogs as control. Participants observed a random visual presentation of these pictures. Consistent with previous studies, snakes elicited an enhanced negativity between 225 and 300 ms (EPN) compared to frogs. However, snakes featuring triangular/diamond-shaped patterns on their skin produced an enhanced EPN compared to the snakes that did not display such patterns. In a second experiment we used pictures displaying only skin patterns of snakes and frogs. Results from the second experiment confirmed the results of the first experiment, suggesting that triangular snake-skin patterns modulate the activity in human visual cortex. Taken together, our results constitute an important contribution to the snake detection theory. 

  • 125.
    Grundkvist, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Tillväxt av alger i Vänern: Abiotiska faktorers inverkan på algtillväxt i Vänern2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 126.
    Gusevac, Stela
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Emotion Regulation: Functional neuroimaging studies of cognitive reappraisal2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of investigating Emotion Regulation (ER) may be self-evident, given that emotions have a substantial impact on our daily lives. ER encompasses set of processes that people go through in order to cultivate their feelings that arise at the moment and produce some response. Brain-imaging studies of ER have broadly focused on examining cognitive strategies, such as reappraisal, in order to understand underlying variables that contribute to the development of this particular process of emotions. The main focus in this paper was to summarize some of the observation done by functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) on neural processes underlying cognitive reappraisal. Furthermore, the paper will discuss some of these experiments that have been made through the last 15 years in the field where indications have been somewhat confusing when it comes to certain aspects of presented data, especially in comparison with other studies. Finally, a brief overview and some of the significant contributions, such as a process model of ER, to the field of ER have been presented and discussed. Cognitive reappraisal has been shown to effectively down-regulate subjective emotional experience. Even though many studies have been performed in measuring brain-activity when engaging in cognitive reappraisal, a unified and accepted agreement has yet not been found. In broader terms, brain-responses when engaging in cognitive reappraisal seem to operate in a particular manner where different parts of prefrontal and parietal cortex execute control over subcortical regions, such as amygdala.

  • 127.
    Haglund, Cecilia
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    The relationships of empathy, oxytocin, and depression2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Empathy, oxytocin, and depression are three subjects that are widely researched. Empathy means experiencing or understanding the emotions of an individual who is being observed. Oxytocin has frequently been shown to have a connection to lactation and labor. Depression is a common sickness that results in malfunctioning, suffering, and a shorter life. The mutual relationship and connection of all three has received limited research. The aim of this essay is to explore how they all relate to one another, to see what neural areas of involvement they have in common, and finally to see if there is a potential to administer oxytocin in order to alter empathy and/or depression. The sources used are published literature on the topics, found in for example Google Scholar and Worldcat. What was found was that both emotional and cognitive empathy have a positive relationship with oxytocin. Emotional empathy has in most research a positive relationship with depression while cognitive empathy seems to have a negative relationship with depression.Depression has a negative correlation with oxytocin. The neural areas of common involvement were amygdala, hippocampus, and cingulate cortex. Future research should look at how empathy, oxytocin, and depression affect each other, and why this happens. It is also important to look at the possibilities of affecting a neural area involved in empathy, oxytocin, and/or depression in order to make an impact on any of these factors.

  • 128.
    Hamdi, Cassandra
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Clostridium difficile: Rapid typing Clostridium difficile using MALDI-TOF MS analysis2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 129.
    Hammarberg, Maxine
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Kognitiv kontroll, självreglering och impulsivitet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kognitiv kontroll är förmågan att flexibelt anpassa sitt beteende till en eller flera specifika inre motiverande handlingar. Kognitiv kontroll möjliggör denna fokusering för de krav som informationsprocessen kräver. Kognitiv kontroll samt självreglering handlar bland annat om en så kallad top-down informationsprocess i ett globalt neuralt nätverk som pågår i den mänskliga hjärnan. Vi människor utövar denna kognitiva kontroll varje dag i vårat vardagliga liv utan vidare reflektioner. Detta sker genom flera informationsprocesser samtidigt och det är därför svårt att finna en enhetlig integrerad förklaring till de underliggande neurala mekanismerna. Syftet med arbetet är att förklara vad kognitiv kontroll, självreglering och impulsivitet innebär. Kopplingen mellan dessa två kognitiva kapaciteter föreskrivs i denna uppsats gällande de neurala mekanismerna och även kopplingen mellan kognitiv kontroll och självreglering i form av prestationer av både kontrollerade experiment och det vardagliga livet. Medan impulsivitet kopplat till kognitiv kontroll och självreglering är konsekvensen av när de neurala och kognitiva processerna brister i någon mening. Studier relaterat till kognitiv kontroll, inhibering och impulsbeteende använder sig bland annat av functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) för att studera och undersöka detta kognitiva fenomen. Idag beskrivs impulsivitet samt bristande kontroll möjligen som ett maladaptivt beteende med hjälp av bland annat fMRI. Ytterligare fMRI studier har även visat på att kognitiv kontroll samt bristande kognitiv kontroll möjligen kan handla om en minskad eller ökad aktivering i nucleus accumbens, insulan och anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Forskare inom ämnet har försökt att grundligt undersöka detta neurala nätverk genom flera olika perspektiv och därav presenterar uppsatsen några olika exempel av dessa ingångar för att möjliggöra ett brett perspektiv av denna komplexa mentala kapacitet. Resultaten inom ämnet visar än idag på en komplex multifaciterad natur av de underliggande neurala korrelaten.

  • 130.
    Hammarsten Yder, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Sex Differences in Adolescent Depression2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At the age of 13, the 2:1 ratio becomes evident. It entails the fact that after puberty, twice as many females as compared to males suffer from depressive episodes. Much research has been conducted to highlight key contributing factors that aid in the onset and the timing of the 2:1 ratio. Many researchers emphasize hormonal influences and the onset of puberty as key contributors, with theories such as the gonadic theory andthe interactional hypothesis both highlighting the role of hormones in the existence and the emergence of the 2:1 ratio during adolescence. Furthermore, a large variety of researchers emphasize females increased stress sensitivity and stress reactivity as key contributors to the 2:1 ratio. Critically, research concerning hormonal- and stress-related factors will be included. However, an additional focus will be on neurodevelopmental sex differences. This, as brain-based sex differences have been paid too little attention in theories and models concerning the emergence of the 2:1 ratio during adolescence. Results from research conducted to unravel the mystery of sex differences within the adolescent brain emphasize the impact of sex hormones on the maturational sexual differentiation occurring within the adolescent brain. It has been hypothesized that increases in female adolescent depression might occur in accordance with upsurges in peripheral estrogen levels, during puberty. This seems to suggest that there is an interaction between the effects of circulating ovarian hormones in relation to both sexual differentiation in brain organization and depression susceptibility. Hence, the point of this essay is to delineate key contributing factors that potentially govern the existence and onset of the 2:1 ratio during adolescence by emphasizing the areas of (a) sex-based neurodevelopmental factors, (b) hormonal factors and (c) stress-related factors.

  • 131.
    Handlin, Linda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Hydbring-Sandberg, Eva
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anat Physiol & Biochem, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Nilsson, Anne
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Environm & Hlth, Skara, Sweden .
    Ejdebäck, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Göteborgs universitet.
    Jansson, Anna
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Nutr & Management, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Short-Term Interaction between Dogs and Their Owners: Effects on Oxytocin, Cortisol, Insulin and Heart Rate-An Exploratory Study2011In: Anthrozoos, ISSN 0892-7936, E-ISSN 1753-0377, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 301-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this exploratory study was to determine heart rate and the levels of oxytocin, cortisol, and insulin in dogs and their owners in response to a short-term interaction. In addition, the dogs' behavior was studied. The owners' responses were compared with those obtained from a control group. Ten female volunteers and their own male Labrador dogs participated in an experiment during which the owner stroked, petted, and talked with her dog during the first 3 minutes. Blood samples were collected from both dog and owner before (0) and at 1, 3, 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the start of the interaction. Blood samples were analyzed by EIA. Heart rate was monitored telemetrically. The data were analyzed using linear mixed models and paired t-tests. The dogs' oxytocin levels were significantly increased 3 minutes after the start of the interaction (p = 0.027). Cortisol levels were significantly increased after 15 and 30 minutes (p = 0.004 and p = 0.022, respectively), and heart rate was significantly decreased after 55 minutes (p = 0.008). The dogs displayed normal behaviors during the experiment. The owners' oxylocin levels peaked between 1 and 5 minutes after interaction (p = 0.026). No such effect was seen in the controls. Cortisol levels displayed a significant decrease at 15 or 30 minutes in both owners and controls, and insulin levels did so at 60 minutes (p = 0.030, p = 0.002 and p = 0.002, p < 0.0001, respectively). Heart rate decreased significantly in the owners at 55 and 60 minutes (p = 0.0008) but not in the controls. In conclusion, short-term sensory interaction between dogs and their owners influences hormonal levels and heart rate. However, further studies need to be performed in order to better understand the effects of interaction between dogs and their owners.

  • 132.
    Handlin, Linda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Nilsson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Ejdebäck, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Hydbring-Sandberg, Eva
    University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Associations between the Psychological Characteristics of the Human-Dog Relationship and Oxytocin and Cortisol Levels2012In: Anthrozoos, ISSN 0892-7936, E-ISSN 1753-0377, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 215-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to explore possible correlations between dog owners' relationships with their dogs, as measured with the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS), and oxytocin and cortisol levels in both the owners and their dogs. Ten female owners of male Labrador Retrievers completed the MDORS. The scores obtained from the single items, subscales, and total score of the MDORS were calculated. Ten blood samples were collected from each dog owner and her dog during a 60-minute interaction. Blood samples were analyzed for oxytocin and cortisol by Enzyme Immuno Assay (EIA) and mean values of oxytocin and cortisol were calculated in both owners and dogs. The MDORS scores obtained were correlated with basal and mean oxytocin and cortisol levels. The correlation analysis revealed some relationships between the scores of items in the MDORS that reflect the character of the dog-owner-relationship and the owners' hormone levels. For example, higher oxytocin levels in the owners were associated with greater frequency in kissing their dogs (rs = 0.864, p = 0.001). Lower cortisol levels in the owners were associated with their perception that it will be more traumatic when their dog dies (rs = -0.730, p = 0.025). The correlation analysis also revealed some relationships between the scores of items in the MDORS and the dogs' hormone levels. For example, greater frequency in owners kissing their dogs was associated with higher oxytocin levels in the dogs (rs = 0.753, p = 0.029). Six items in the subscale Perceived Costs, as well as the subscale itself, correlated significantly with the dogs' oxytocin levels (rs = 0.820, p = 0.007), that is, the lower the perceived cost, the higher the dogs' oxytocin levels. In addition, significant correlations between the oxytocin levels of the owners and the dogs were demonstrated. Possible mechanisms behind these correlations are discussed. In conclusion, the scores of some items and the subscales of the MDORS correlated with oxytocin, and to a lesser extent cortisol, levels in both the owners and dogs.

  • 133.
    Hedberg Oldfors, Carola
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Garcia Dios, Diego
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Linder, Anna
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Visuttijai, Kittichate
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Samuelson, Emma
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Karlsson, Sandra
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Behboudi, Afrouz
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Analysis of an independent tumor suppressor locus telomeric to Tp53 suggested Inpp5k and Myo1c as novel tumor suppressor gene candidates in this region2015In: BMC Genetics, ISSN 1471-2156, E-ISSN 1471-2156, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several reports indicate a commonly deleted chromosomal region independent from, and distal to the TP53 locus in a variety of human tumors. In a previous study, we reported a similar finding in a rat tumor model for endometrial carcinoma (EC) and through developing a deletion map, narrowed the candidate region to 700 kb, harboring 19 genes. In the present work real-time qPCR analysis, Western blot, semi-quantitative qPCR, sequencing, promoter methylation analysis, and epigenetic gene expression restoration analyses (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or trichostatin A treatments) were used to analyze the 19 genes located within the candidate region in a panel of experimental tumors compared to control samples.

    RESULTS:

    Real-time qPCR analysis suggested Hic1 (hypermethylated in cancer 1), Inpp5k (inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase K; a.k.a. Skip, skeletal muscle and kidney enriched inositol phosphatase) and Myo1c (myosin 1c) as the best targets for the observed deletions. No mutation in coding sequences of these genes was detected, hence the observed low expression levels suggest a haploinsufficient mode of function for these potential tumor suppressor genes. Both Inpp5k and Myo1c were down regulated at mRNA and/or protein levels, which could be rescued in gene expression restoration assays. This could not be shown for Hic1.

    CONCLUSION:

    Innp5k and Myo1c were identified as the best targets for the deletions in the region. INPP5K and MYO1C are located adjacent to each other within the reported independent region of tumor suppressor activity located at chromosome arm 17p distal to TP53 in human tumors. There is no earlier report on the potential tumor suppressor activity of INPP5K and MYO1C, however, overlapping roles in phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase/Akt signaling, known to be vital for the cell growth and survival, are reported for both. Moreover, there are reports on tumor suppressor activity of other members of the gene families that INPP5K and MYO1C belong to. Functional significance of these two candidate tumor suppressor genes in cancerogenesis pathways remains to be investigated.

  • 134.
    Hedblom, Carolina
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Sense and Sensibility: Three Components of Moral Sensitivity and Their Underlying Neural Mechanisms2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A phenomenon explored in the field of the cognitive neuroscience of morality is moral sensitivity, which is a collective name for a subjective experience related to the ability to detect and respond to morally relevant cues in a given social situation. This thesis will review the underlying neural mechanisms of moral sensitivity and three key components: Empathy, moral disgust and moral intuition, also called moral “gut-feeling.” Initially, the thesis provides a basic explanation of what moral sensitivity entails and the primary observations of which brain regions are often associated with moral sensitivity. Studies show that emotion and cognition seem to be essential to the experience of moral sensitivity, which will be further emphasized by reviewing the chosen key components. Research on morality and empathy suggests that the affective and the cognitive components of empathy each are essential to moral sensitivity. The second key component, moral disgust, describes how moral sensitive people react to violations to society by being motivated to keep away from social interactions with poor moral influence. Research on the third key component explains how moral sensitivity can be affected by moral intuitions, here moral “gut-feelings,” depending on the closeness and emotional salience in a given situation.

  • 135.
    Hedin, Adam
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Memory distortion and source amnesia: A review of why our memories can be badly mistaken2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our memory is prone to distortions which in everyday life can lead to mistaken memories. This thesis investigates memory distortion. In addition, one might recall (e.g. an event) correctly but misremember the source of the event (e.g. place or time of the event); this particular type of memory distortion is called source amnesia. Here, an overview of cognitive theories of memory distortion as well as the neuroscience behind memory distortion is provided. In addition, the particular memory distortion of source amnesia where one is unable to acquire when or where a fact was learned is further investigated. Results indicate that an overlap of qualities related to the information being learned causes information to be linked to wrong sources, thus creating distorted memories. Misinformation is also indicated to produce impairment in memory. In memory distortions, memory impairments are representative in various areas of the brain, including the hippocampus and the amygdala in the medial temporal lobes as well as in the frontal cortex and in the visual cortex. These key areas are also closely related to brain aging in Alzheimer´s disease and in schizophrenia, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in drug and alcohol abuse. Individuals inflicted with these disease symptoms seem to be more prone to source amnesia compared to controls. The limitations and future directions of what we can study regarding memory distortion and source amnesia are also presented in this thesis.

  • 136.
    Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Sjöström, C. David
    AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Inzucchi, Silvio E.
    Section of Endocrinology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States.
    Hallow, Melissa K.
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Georgia School of Public Health, Athens, GA, United States.
    Cain, Valerie A.
    Bogier Clinical and IT Solutions, Inc., Raleigh, NC, United States.
    Rossing, Peter
    Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark / Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Stefansson, Bergur V.
    AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reduction in albuminuria with dapagliflozin cannot be predicted by baseline clinical characteristics or changes in most other risk markers2019In: Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, ISSN 1462-8902, E-ISSN 1463-1326, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 720-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor dapagliflozin has been shown to decrease urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). This effect, however, varies among individual patients. In this study, we assessed the baseline characteristics and concurrent changes in other cardiovascular risk markers that might be associated with UACR response to dapagliflozin. A pooled analysis of 11 phase 3 randomized, controlled clinical trials was performed. UACR change from baseline after 24 weeks treatment with dapagliflozin 10 mg/d in 531 patients with type 2 diabetes and UACR ≥30 mg/g at baseline was determined. UACR response was defined as >30% reduction from baseline at 24 weeks, whereas UACR non-response was defined as ≤30% reduction at 24 weeks. A total of 288 (54%) patients were classified as responders and 243 (46%) as non-responders. At 24 weeks, the UACR-adjusted mean change from baseline was −71.2% and 25.9% in responders and non-responders, respectively. Baseline characteristics were similar between both groups. Changes in HbA1c and body weight were comparable across groups. Responders showed a numerically larger reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate and systolic blood pressure versus non-responders. UACR reduction to dapagliflozin is an individual characteristic that cannot be predicted by baseline clinical features or changes in metabolic variables. Whether UACR response would improve long-term renal and cardiovascular outcomes remains to be determined. 

  • 137.
    Heikura, Emelie
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Resilience in cognitive neuroscience: The 'Ordinary Magic' of human recovery2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience is a dynamic process that reflect individual ability to successfully recover and positively adapt to severe circumstances. In this essay, attachment, social support, self- regulation and affective processing, taken from the "shortlist of resilience" provided by Masten, are further analyzed and connected to findings within neuroscience. The result suggest that brain areas originated from the prefrontal cortex, such as orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex, are two major neural correlates to attachment and stress- and self- regulation. The amygdala is also an area of interest, because of its’ connection to emotions and affective memories. Research on affective style suggest that the functions associated with the prefrontal cortex are dampening the effect of the amygdala, which later supports resilience and recovery. The area of resilience is suffering from a lacking general definition, measurement and operationalization, which is argued to be the major challenge of this research area. Prominent researchers prospect that resilience research will continue to flourish within the area of neuroscience, and that further discoveries will be made concerning how this cognitive ability is related to structural and functional differences in the brain.

  • 138.
    Helldin, Tove
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Pernestig, Anna-Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Tilevik, Diana
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Towards a Clinical Support System for the Early Diagnosis of Sepsis2017In: Digital Human Modeling - Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics, and Risk Management: Health and Safety: 8th International Conference, DHM 2017 Held as Part of HCI International 2017 Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 9–14, 2017, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Vincent G. Duffy, Springer, 2017, p. 23-35Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early and accurate diagnosis of sepsis is critical for patientsafety. However, this is a challenging task due to the very general symptomsassociated with sepsis, the immaturity of the tools used by theclinicians as well as the time-delays associated with the diagnostic methodsused today. This paper explores current literature regarding guidelinesfor clinical decision support, and support for sepsis diagnosis inparticular, together with guidelines extracted from interviews with fourclinicians and one biomedical analyst working at a hospital and clinicallaboratory in Sweden. The results indicate the need for the developmentof visual and interactive aids for enabling early and accurate diagnosisof sepsis.

  • 139.
    Hemeren, Paul
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ekman, Kristoffer
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Veto, Peter
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    The Use of Visual Cues to Determine the Intent of Cyclists in Traffic2014In: 2014 IEEE International Inter-Disciplinary Conference on Cognitive Methods in Situation Awareness and Decision Support (CogSIMA), IEEE Press, 2014, p. 47-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research was to answer the following central questions: 1) How accurate are human observers at predicting the behavior of cyclists as the cyclists approached a crossing? 2) If the accuracy is reliably better than chance, what cues were used to make the predictions? 3) At what distance from the crossing did the most critical cues occur? 4) Can the cues be used in a model that can reliably predict cyclist intent? We present results that show a number of indicators that can be used in to predict the intention of a cyclist, i.e., future actions of a cyclist, e.g., “left turn” or “continue forward” etc.

    Results of empirical studies show that humans are reasonably good at this type of prediction for a majority of the situations studied. However, some situations seem to contain conflicting information. The results also suggested that human prediction of intention is to a large extent relying on a single “strong” indicator, e.g., that the cyclist makes a clear “head movement”. Several “weaker" indicators that together could be a strong “combined indicator”, or equivalently strong evidence, is likely to be missed or too complex to be handled by humans in real-time. We suggest this line of research can be used to create decision support systems that predict the behavior of cyclists in traffic.

  • 140.
    Hillerton, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Predicting adverse drug reactions in cancer treatment using a neural network based approach2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 141.
    Hiltunen, Seppo
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Virta, Maarit
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Kallio, Sakari
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Turku, Finland.
    Paavilainen, Petri
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    The effects of hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions on the mismatch negativity in highly hypnotizable subjects2019In: International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis, ISSN 0020-7144, E-ISSN 1744-5183, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 192-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The neural mechanisms associated with hypnosis were investigated in a group of 9 high hypnotizable subjects by measuring the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory eventrelated potential (ERP). ERPs were recorded using a passive oddball paradigm to sinusoidal standard and deviant tone stimuli of 500 and 520 Hz, respectively, in four conditions: prehypnosis, neutral hypnosis, hypnotic suggestion for altering the tone perception, and posthypnotic conditions. Earlier studies have indicated that hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions might have an effect on MMN, but the results of our study contradict these results: No statistically significant differences were found between the conditions in the MMN amplitudes.

  • 142.
    Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald
    et al.
    Dept. Evolutionary Ecology, Kiel, Germany.
    Large, Scott
    International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Möllmann, Christian
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Müller-Karulis, Bärbel
    Stockholm University, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Neuenfeldt, Stefan
    Technical University of Denmark, National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Section for Marine Ecology and Oceanography, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Norrström, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Schmidt, Jörn
    Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Department of Economics, Kiel, Germany.
    Sguotti, Camilla
    Institute for Hydrobiology and Fisheries Science, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Tomczak, Maciej
    Stockholm University, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Voss, Rudi
    Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Department of Economics, Kiel, Germany.
    Hamrén, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Report of the Workshop on DEveloping Integrated AdviCE for Baltic Sea ecosystem-based fisheries management (WKDEICE): 18-21 April 2016 Helsinki, Finland2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first ICES Workshop on DEveloping Integrated AdviCE for Baltic Sea ecosystem-based fisheries management (WKDEICE) had the aim to start identifying and devel-oping ways to include environmental and economic considerations into ICES advice on Baltic Sea fish stocks. The WKDEICE meeting was held in Helsinki, Finland, on18–21 April 2016, with 12 participants from three countries and was chaired by Chris-tian Möllmann (Germany), Rudi Voss (Germany), and Maciej T. Tomczak (Sweden). Focusing on Eastern Baltic cod (subdivisions 25-32), WKDEICE addressed five main topics:

    1)developing a strategy for integrating environmental and economic infor-mation in fish stock advice;

    2)conducting an integrated environmental assessment;

    3)conducting a socio-economic assessment;

    4)conducting short-term projections informed by environmental and economic conditions; and

    5)communicating the approach and the results.

    Eastern Baltic cod has been selected as a case study. The exercise will likely be ex-tended to the baltic clupeid stocks of herring and sprat.

    A central point of the meeting was to discuss and design a concept of operationalized Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (IEA) including short-term predictions, to be used in advice on the main Baltic Sea fish stocks. The group developed an operational strategy, and started to quantify potentially useful environmental indicators, focusing on hydrographic conditions influencing cod recruitment. Economic short-term fore-casts were established to include the human dimension, and to provide additional quantitative information on fishing options. The suggested integrated advice frame-work will be further developed using simulation modelling during a next meeting in 2017. This meeting will be coordinated with the ICES/HELCOM Working Group on Integrated Assessments of the Baltic Sea (WGIAB) and the Baltic Fisheries Assess-ment Working Group (WGBFAS) to test concepts, apply Management Strategy Eval-uation (MSE) models, and have direct feedback for relevant ICES bodies. 

  • 143.
    Holmberg, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Den döda vedens betydelse för artrikedom: Sambandet mellan volymen död ved och artrikedom i skyddade och ej skyddade skogar.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Död ved i skogen har en viktig betydelse för den biologiska mångfalden. I Sverige är över 6000 arter knutna till död ved. När skogen utsätts för många störningar av oss människor påverkas artrikedomen relaterad till död ved. Volymen död ved har minskat och dess komposition förändrats, till följd av ett intensivt skogsbruk. Mängden död ved i framförallt brukade skogar är väsentligt mindre än vad som är hållbart för den biologiska mångfalden. Denna studie har inventerat död ved och vedlevande signalarter i barrdominerade skogar ägda av Skövde kommun. Detta för att visa på hur sambandet mellan volymen död ved och artrikedom ser ut inom och mellan naturreservat och brukade skogar.

    Resultatet visade att mängden död ved är större i naturreservat än i brukade skogar. Genomsnittet av volymen död ved i brukade skogar ägda av Skövde kommun är större jämfört med genomsnittet för Västra Götaland och landet som helhet. Ett starkt samband hittades mellan volymen död ved och artrikedom för mycket nedbruten ved men inte för hård ved eller mindre nedbruten ved. Detta kan delvis förklaras av de arter som användes för mått på artrikedom, mossor och lavar, främst prefererar ved i senare nedbrytningsstadie. Denna studie visar på att tillförsel av väl nedbruten ved är ger ett starkt utslag för artrikedomen i brukade skogar och framförallt i naturreservat. Det styrker vikten av att kontinuerligt tillföra död ved och låta den brytas ned, då olika arter är beroende av olika nedbrytningstadier. 

  • 144.
    Holmgren, Gustav
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ghosheh, Nidal
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Clinical Chemistry/Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zeng, Xianmin
    Buck Institute for Research on Aging, Buck Institute, Novato, California, USA.
    Bogestål, Yalda
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. AstraZeneca Research and Development, Global Medicines Development, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Global Medicines Development Unit, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Identification of stable reference genes in differentiating human pluripotent stem cells2015In: Physiological Genomics, ISSN 1094-8341, E-ISSN 1531-2267, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 232-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reference genes, often referred to as housekeeping genes (HKGs), are frequently used to normalize gene expression data based on the assumption that they are expressed at a constant level in the cells. However, several studies have shown that there may be a large variability in the gene expression levels of HKGs in various cell types. In a previous study, employing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) subjected to spontaneous differentiation, we observed that the expression of commonly used HKG varied to a degree that rendered them inappropriate to use as reference genes under those experimental settings. Here we present a substantially extended study of the HKG signature in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), including nine global gene expression datasets from both hESC and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), obtained during directed differentiation towards endoderm-, mesoderm-, and ectoderm derivatives. Sets of stably expressed genes were compiled and a handful of genes (e.g., EID2, ZNF324B, CAPN10, and RABEP2) were identified as generally applicable reference genes in hPSCs across all cell lines and experimental conditions. The stability in gene expression profiles was confirmed by quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis. Taken together, the current results suggest that differentiating hPSCs have a distinct HKG signature, which in some aspects is different from somatic cell types, and underscore the necessity to validate the stability of reference genes under the actual experimental setup used. In addition, the novel putative HKGs identified in this study can preferentially be used for normalization of gene expression data obtained from differentiating hPSCs.

  • 145.
    Holmgren, Gustav
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden / Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. AstraZeneca Gothenburg, CVMD GMed, GMD, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Andersson, Christian X.
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Anders
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Expression profiling of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes exposed to doxorubicin - integration and visualization of multi omics data2018In: Toxicological Sciences, ISSN 1096-6080, E-ISSN 1096-0929, Vol. 163, no 1, p. 182-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin, are highly efficient chemotherapeutic agents against a variety of cancers. However, anthracyclines are also among the most cardiotoxic therapeutic drugs presently on the market. Chemotherapeutic-induced cardiomyopathy is one of the leading causes of disease and mortality in cancer survivors. The exact mechanisms responsible for doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy are not completely known, but the fact that the cardiotoxicity is dose-dependent and that there is a variation in time-to-onset of toxicity, and gender- and age differences suggests that several mechanisms may be involved.In the present study, we investigated doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes using proteomics. In addition, different sources of omics data (protein, mRNA, and microRNA) from the same experimental setup were further combined and analyzed using newly developed methods to identify differential expression in data of various origin and types. Subsequently, the results were integrated in order to generate a combined visualization of the findings.In our experimental model system, we exposed cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells to doxorubicin for up to two days, followed by a wash-out period of additionally 12 days. Besides an effect on the cell morphology and cardiomyocyte functionality, the data show a strong effect of doxorubicin on all molecular levels investigated. Differential expression patterns that show a linkage between the proteome, transcriptome, and the regulatory microRNA network, were identified. These findings help to increase the understanding of the mechanisms behind anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity and suggest putative biomarkers for this condition.

  • 146.
    Holmgren, Gustav
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Anna-Karin
    Department of Discovery Safety, Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca RandD, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Barragan, Isabel
    Section of Pharmacogenetics, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sabirsh, Alan
    Department of Bioscience, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases, AstraZeneca RandD, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Cellectis AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Björquist, Petter
    NovaHep AB, Gothenburg, Sweden / Cellectis AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus
    Section of Pharmacogenetics, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Tommy B.
    Section of Pharmacogenetics, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, AstraZeneca RandD, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Edsbagge, Josefina
    Cellectis AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Long-term chronic toxicity testing using human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes2014In: Drug Metabolism And Disposition, ISSN 0090-9556, E-ISSN 1521-009X, Vol. 42, no 9, p. 1401-1406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) have the potential to become important tools for the establishment of new models for in vitro drug testing of, for example, toxicity and pharmacological effects. Late-stage attrition in the pharmaceutical industry is to a large extent caused by selection of drug candidates using nonpredictive preclinical models that are not clinically relevant. The current hepatic in vivo and in vitro models show clear limitations, especially for studies of chronic hepatotoxicity. For these reasons, we evaluated the potential of using hPSC-derived hepatocytes for long-term exposure to toxic drugs. The differentiated hepatocytes were incubated with hepatotoxic compounds for up to 14 days, using a repeated-dose approach. The hPSC-derived hepatocytes became more sensitive to the toxic compounds after extended exposures and, in addition to conventional cytotoxicity, evidence of phospholipidosis and steatosis was also observed in the cells. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of a long-term toxicity study using hPSC-derived hepatocytes, and the observations support further development and validation of hPSC-based toxicity models for evaluating novel drugs, chemicals, and cosmetics.

  • 147.
    Holmgren, Gustav
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Andersson, Christian X.
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Anders
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. AstraZeneca Gothenburg, CVMD GMed, GMD, Mölndal, Sweden.
    MicroRNAs as potential biomarkers for doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity2016In: Toxicology in Vitro, ISSN 0887-2333, E-ISSN 1879-3177, Vol. 34, p. 26-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthracyclines, such as doxorubicin, are well-established, highly efficient anti-neoplastic drugs used for treatment of a variety of cancers, including solid tumors, leukemia, lymphomas, and breast cancer. The successful use of doxorubicin has, however, been hampered by severe cardiotoxic side-effects. In order to prevent or reverse negative side-effects of doxorubicin, it is important to find early biomarkers of heart injury and drug-induced cardiotoxicity. The high stability under extreme conditions, presence in various body fluids, and tissue-specificity, makes microRNAs very suitable as clinical biomarkers. The present study aimed towards evaluating the early and late effects of doxorubicin on the microRNA expression in cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells. We report on several microRNAs, including miR-34a, miR-34b, miR-187, miR-199a, miR-199b, miR-146a, miR-15b, miR-130a, miR-214, and miR-424, that are differentially expressed upon, and after, treatment with doxorubicin. Investigation of the biological relevance of the identified microRNAs revealed connections to cardiomyocyte function and cardiotoxicity, thus supporting the findings of these microRNAs as potential biomarkers for drug-induced cardiotoxicity.

  • 148.
    Holmgren, Gustav
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Bogestål, Yalda
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. SP Chemistry Materials and Surfaces, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Améen, Caroline
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellectis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Åkesson, Karolina
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellectis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Sandra
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellectis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Anders
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellectis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden / GMed CVMD, AstraZeneca, Mölndal.
    Identification of novel biomarkers for doxorubicin-induced toxicity in human cardiomyocytes derived from pluripotent stem cells2015In: Toxicology, ISSN 0300-483X, E-ISSN 1879-3185, Vol. 328, p. 102-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Doxorubicin is a chemotherapeutic agent indicated for the treatment of a variety of cancer types, including leukaemia, lymphomas, and many solid tumours. The use of doxorubicin is, however, associated with severe cardiotoxicity, often resulting in early discontinuation of the treatment. Importantly, the toxic symptoms can occur several years after the termination of the doxorubicin administration. In this study, the toxic effects of doxorubicin exposure have been investigated in cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC). The cells were exposed to different concentrations of doxorubicin for up to 2 days, followed by a 12 day recovery period. Notably, the cell morphology was altered during drug treatment and the cells showed a reduced contractile ability, most prominent at the highest concentration of doxorubicin at the later time points. A general cytotoxic response measured as Lactate dehydrogenase leakage was observed after 2 days' exposure compared to the vehicle control, but this response was absent during the recovery period. A similar dose-dependant pattern was observed for the release of cardiac specific troponin T (cTnT) after 1 day and 2 days of treatment with doxorubicin. Global transcriptional profiles in the cells revealed clusters of genes that were differentially expressed during doxorubicin exposure, a pattern that in some cases was sustained even throughout the recovery period, suggesting that these genes could be used as sensitive biomarkers for doxorubicin-induced toxicity in human cardiomyocytes. The results from this study show that cTnT release can be used as a measurement of acute cardiotoxicity due to doxorubicin. However, for the late onset of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy, cTnT release might not be the most optimal biomarker. As an alternative, some of the genes that we identified as differentially expressed after doxorubicin exposure could serve as more relevant biomarkers, and may also help to explain the cellular mechanisms behind the late onset apoptosis associated with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy.

  • 149.
    Holmgren, Noél
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Norrström, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Aps, Robert
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Kuikka, Sakari
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    A Concept of Bayesian Regulation in Fisheries Management2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 11, article id e111614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stochastic variability of biological processes and uncertainty of stock properties compel fisheries managers to look for tools to improve control over the stock. Inspired by animals exploiting hidden prey, we have taken a biomimetic approach combining catch and effort in a concept of Bayesian regulation (BR). The BR provides a real-time Bayesian stock estimate, and can operate without separate stock assessment. We compared the performance of BR with catch-only regulation (CR), alternatively operating with N-target (the stock size giving maximum sustainable yield, MSY) and F-target (the fishing mortality giving MSY) on a stock model of Baltic Sea herring. N-targeted BR gave 3% higher yields than F-targeted BR and CR, and 7% higher yields than N-targeted CR. The BRs reduced coefficient of variance (CV) in fishing mortality compared to CR by 99.6% (from 25.2 to 0.1) when operated with F-target, and by about 80% (from 158.4 to 68.4/70.1 depending on how the prior is set) in stock size when operated with N-target. Even though F-targeted fishery reduced CV in pre-harvest stock size by 19–22%, it increased the dominant period length of population fluctuations from 20 to 60–80 years. In contrast, N-targeted BR made the periodic variation more similar to white noise. We discuss the conditions when BRs can be suitable tools to achieve sustainable yields while minimizing undesirable fluctuations in stock size or fishing effort.

  • 150.
    Holmqvist, Merily
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Effekten av Omega-3 på demenssjukdom2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kännedom om Omega-3 började med att man upptäckte att omega-3 har en effekt på kardiovaskulära sjukdomar, sedan dess har man börjat utforska allt fler områden där omega-3 har visat sig ha en positiv effekt. Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka huruvida Omega-3 har en effekt på demens och den vanligaste demenssjukdomen Alzheimer. Demens orsakas bland annat av en omfattande celldöd i hjärnan och uttrycker sig genom att minnet och kognitionen blir gradvis försämrat eftersom det episodiska minnet är försämrat hos dementa. Alzheimer i sin tur har visat sig ha låga nivåer av DHA i hippocampus. Studier har visat att ett intag av fisk och Omega-3 kan förebygga en uppkomst av demens och Alzheimer och förbättra den kognitiva försämringen som sker vid demenssjukdom. Slutresultaten är motsägelsefulla. De flesta studier visar att Omega-3 påverkar och förbättrar kognitionen hos Demens och Alzheimer patienter och kan verka förebyggande och även som behandling. Emellertid finns det de studier som visar på att Omega-3 inte har visat någon signifikant effekt, eller enbart har en förebyggande effekt och endast ifall demenssjukdomen inte är starkt genetiskt betingad.

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