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  • 101.
    Andersson, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    ”På samma sätt som alla barn, med vänlighet och respekt”: En kvalitativ studie om mångkulturellt arbete i förskolan2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this qualitative study was to analyze, describe and understand the school leaders and teachers’ perceptions about multicultural work in preschool, and their importance to preschool activities. The study was based on sociocultural theory and built on interviews of school leaders and teachers in a multicultural preschool.

    The results of the study showed that the school leaders and teachers expressed that children and parents should be treated with respect regardless of cultural background. The teachers considered themselves important to convey basic values of the curriculum as well as the Swedish language and culture to preschool children and parents. They also expressed their experience of different cultural backgrounds as exciting and rewarding, giving them a deeper knowledge of alternative ways to think and believe. The teachers of the study considered children's language development as the most important content, both in Swedish and in children's first language.

    In the discussion of the study were results compared with theories and previous research. Teacher's complex and multi-faceted work were problematized with questions how the early childhood education could be developed. There were questions in discussion about the inclusion of children of different cultures and first language, questions about values as well as children’s dual cultural affiliation. These issues can contribute to develop early childhood education to a preschool where all children and families' cultural backgrounds are equal, and where all children's languages is included.

  • 102.
    Andersson, Kristin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Blanehögh, Sophia
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Chefers förhållningssätt till mål inom målstyrning i offentlig verksamhet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Management by objectives is an often applied tool in the public sector where overall objectives occurs at the political level and is broken down into a hierarchy of objectives to be handled at each level. Management by objectives means that objectives are set for an operating part or whole to that stakeholder should work in the same direction. Management by objectives requires that objectives are controlled and therefore require objectives to be measurable so a comparison of planned and accomplished objectives becomes possible. The objectives can be of different importance and it should for clarity indicate whether they intend resources, achievements or results. Problem: How do the managers at various levels in the public sector relate to objectives in management by objectives? Purpose: The study intends to contribute to a deeper understanding and knowledge of the objectives in management by objectives where the delimitation is to discern why managers relate the way they do to the organization's objectives. Method: A qualitative case study of the social services in a municipal in Skaraborg. Theory: Literature and scientific articles about management by objectives and institutional theory have created our theoretical framework. This theoretical framework has also resulted in an analytical model that has been supporting the empirical analysis. Empiricism: Empirical material was collected through interviews with managers at different levels in the operation. Analysis: Empirical data have been analyzed with the aid of the analysis model. We have analyzed various levels of management about their approach to objectives in management by objectives. Conclusion: Our conclusion is that the approach to management by objectives for managers in all levels of operation, are positive although there are deficiencies with management by objectives. The most prominent deficiency is that objectives can be difficult to measure in quantitative terms. This has developed an ability to measure objectives in other ways than in quantity. In management by objectives in this operation, it is important to relate to the values and norms because the objectives are based on these.

  • 103.
    Andersson, Lise
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Exponering i butiken - Hur kan butiker i klädesbranschen använda ytor, designfaktorer och exponeringstekniker för att uppmärksamma kunderna på deras sortiment?2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To stand out on the market and from the competitors it’s important to know how to work effective by presenting and alert the customer on the range. When working with exposure it’s good to think about how the store in a good way can use the range, area, design factors and exposure techniques. The range can sell itself if the store has a visually attractive merchandising.

    The report is intended to determine how exposure in store can make costumers aware of the range when working with the area, design factors and exposure techniques. The study is a qualitative study with an individual interview and two observations. The interview is with a visual merchandiser and the observations are with a large store and a small store. All units belong to the clothing industry. It has also been 15 interviews with costumers about what they noticed in the visual merchandiser’s store. The visual merchandiser work in a chain business and the observed stores belong to both a chain business and a single store. This is to get useful knowledge and deeper understanding of the practical work of a decorator and see how the two stores of various sizes work in the visible environment and to see what the costumers get aware of.

    The results show that exposure is something all the stores work with effective and it’s hard to see only one right way. The most similarity was between the two chains, which clearly showed a red thread of the visual and "silent" communication. Similarities of all the stores were that they had white and black as base colors, used special exposure, they had a podium and used a shopwindow. The results of interviews with consumers revealed that many consumers have already decided to visit the store before they are outside the store. The shopwindow was an area that all but one noticed, but it was only a third part that said that it was the determining factor to the visit. Many noticed the podium first at the entrance which is one of the a-sites. The inspiration and possible purchases were from different eye-catcher in the store, that different from other interior elements. The signs that the costumers noticed was mainly those who are perceptually attractive, there was no one who had communicated with the staff beyond any purchase at pay desk.

  • 104.
    Andersson, Louice
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Sex- och samlevnadsundervisning: En kvalitativ studie om flickors och pojkars uppfattningar om undervisningen i skolår 7-92010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Experience and research of sexual education in school shows that the teaching is not valued as satisfaction by young people. To investigate this statement a study of girls’and boys’ perceptions of content and teaching methods in sexual education in secondary school was conducted. How the teaching should be designed to be meaningful is of interest in the study. The study was conducted with a qualitative approach where the key is to get the different views. To gather the data both questionnaires and group interviews were used. The questionnaires study involved 47 students and group interviews four girls and four boys. The result shows that students believe that sexual education is important and that they had received a good education in secondary school. Common for girls and boys is that they want a varied teaching of both content and teaching methods. It's important that anyone who teaches in the area must have good knowledge. The students also think that the teacher must not be embarrassed and think it's embarrassing when students ask questions. Students in the investigation wants more time for discussions. The study also shows that a large part of teaching is on issues related to sexuality, genital anatomy, STD and contraception. On the other hand is only a bit of time about relationships, which is an area that students are asking for. In order to achieve a meaningful education, from a student perspective, requires that students gain knowledge of what the area contains in order to be able to have influence in teaching. By preliminary information students can be given influence in teaching. It's of great importance that the teacher understands students' questions and what students feel is relevant for them right now.

  • 105.
    Andersson, Louise
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Fridh, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    En komparativ fallstudie mellan fyra kommunala fastighetsföretags miljöarbete och miljöredovisning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concerns over how activities of enterprises have affected the environment have increased, and therefore enterprises environmental activities have increased to reach a sustainable future. Enterprises can work with environmental issues in several ways, and environmental work is becoming more common in SMEs. The business of real estate has large energy consumption, several hazardous chemicals and a high generation of solid waste, resulting in affecting the environment. Environmental issues should be important for enterprises in the business of real estate, because of the environmental impact the business have. 

    The purpose of this study is to identify and describe which of the proactive motivations: personal values, stakeholder pressure, legitimation and competitive advantages, that is the reason to why environmental activities were initiated, occurs and reports in four municipal   real estate SMEs in Skaraborg. Empirical material was collected from four municipal real estate companies: Tidaholms Bostads AB, AB Karlsborgsbostäder, AB Bostäder Lidköping and AB Skövdebostäder to fulfil the purpose. The empirical material was collected through semi-structured interviews with informants with different positions, and examination of annual reports from 2014.

    The result and conclusion of the study is that the motivations of why environmental activities were initiated and occurs have, to some extent, changed. The proactive motivation for the initiation of the activities in all companies is staffs’ personal values. The motivations of why environmental activities occur in all companies is staffs’ personal values and stakeholder pressure from the staff. The motivation, competitive advantages, is in one of the companies a motivation to the occurring environmental activities. Stakeholder pressure from owners is in one of the companies a motivation to the occurring environmental activities. Our conclusion is also that the motivation to the reporting of environmental activities in municipal real estate businesses is legitimation, resulting in the motivations to report and environmental activities differ.

  • 106.
    Andersson, Madelene
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kristensson, Katarina
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Livsstilsbutiker: Väljer butiker att kalla sig för livsstilsbutiker för att de har en helhet i utbudet som representerar ett livsstilskoncept som konsumenter identifierar sig med, eller är det snarare ett sätt att skapa ett intresse hos konsumenterna och särskilja butiken på marknaden?2007Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste årtiondena har den privata konsumtionen per capita ökat påtagligt och konsumenters köpbeslut har alltmer kommit att handla om emotionella köpkriterier och shopping har kommit att bli mer än bara ett produktval. Användandet av livsstilar som bas för segmentering har blivit ett populärt inslag i dagens marknadsföring. Med detta menas att butiker segmenterar sin marknad efter konsumentens intressen, erfarenheter och uppfattningar, för att nå konsumenten så bra som möjligt samt få konkurrensfördelar mot konkurrenterna. Uppsatsens undersökning bygger på att vi har besökt butiker som utger sig för att vara livsstilsbutiker. Vi intervjuade representanter för butikerna för att få deras syn på livsstilskoncept. Syfte med detta är att få reda på om butiker väljer att kalla sig för livsstilsbutiker för att de har ett koncept som bildar en livsstil som konsumenten identifierar sig med, eller om det snarare är ett sätt att skapa ett intresse och särskilja butiken på marknaden? Mot bakgrund av detta har vi genomfört en undersökning bland kunder som besöker livsstilsbutiker. Uppsatsens syfte är att se till livsstil som differentierings- och segmenteringsstrategi, för att se hur kundströmmar svarar upp och identifierar sig med konceptet. Vårt arbete utgår ifrån en mix av en kvalitativ och kvantitativ undersökningsmetod. Vi kan konstatera att det är en fördel att använda sig av båda två, eftersom det säkrar upp för och täcker upp så att vi fick med oss alla bitar. De centrala slutsatserna för uppsatsen är att livsstilsbutiker differentierar sig från traditionella butiker genom att sälja in en helhet, ett koncept. Dessa koncept kan skilja sig åt i olika avseende eller vara likartade. öjligheter som skapas utifrån detta sätt att särskilja sig är att butiken får en säregen position på marknaden som är svår för andra att kopiera. Samt att livsstilskonceptet är gångbart som differentieringsstrategi men ineffektiv för butiksägare som segmenteringsfokus. Detta eftersom livsstilsbutiker verkligen kan särskilja sig från konkurrenter och erbjuda fördelar och mervärden till konsumenterna som konkurrenterna inte har. Vi kan även konstatera att livsstilsbutiker är på väg in på marknaden och att det är ett koncept som är här för att stanna, samt ett bra sätt för butiker att verkligen kunna särskilja sig på marknaden. Den viktigaste fördelen med livsstilsbutikerna är att konsumenterna ser butiken som annorlunda men det är en stor nackdel att konsumenterna inte köper konceptet. De har ännu inte riktigt tagit till sig konceptet utan ser alltså livsstilsbutiker mer som annorlunda butiker i dagsläget. Resultaten från studien pekar på att livsstilsbutiker ger stora möjligheter, men det är fortfarande relativt nytt för konsumenterna. Undersökningen visar att det snarare handlar om en stark differentiering än om livsstil i de butiker vi har besökt.

  • 107.
    Andersson, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Barns upplevelse av rädsla vid vård på sjukhus, samt hur sjuksköterskan kan minska densamma2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When children are hospitalized they will face a new and unknown environment. Many children experience this situation as stressful and with fear. It is important that the nurse is aware of this fact in order to facilitate the hospitalization for the child. The purpose of this study is to investigate the fear that children feel when they are hospitalized, and to investigate the meaning of being well prepared for clinical examinations and procedures. The method used was a literature review. The result is based on fourteen empirical articles published in scientific journals the year 1998 to 2007, and one dissertation from 2002. The articles were screened and read critically. The result indicates that most of the children who are hospitalized feel fear and that this could be reduced by proper behaviour from the nurse. The findings also show the importance for the parents and children to be well prepared, prior to the examination and treatment. The results show that the nurse needs to adapt the behaviour towards the child and the parents due to age and maturity of the child

  • 108.
    Andersson, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Socialt arv i Socialt arbete: En narrativ studie om socialarbetares erfarenheter och möten med det sociala arvet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gustav Jonson's theory of the social heritage characterized social work in Sweden during the 1960s and onwards. The social policy issues debated then were about class society, labelling and alienation. After thirty years of professional work as a social worker, I find it interesting that the work still focuses on the theory of the social heritage and methods for breaking it. The aim of this study is to examine possible explanations to why this is so. The empirical material is taken from interviews with senior social workers. Issues examined are how they perceive social work and the theory of the social heritage. The results of the interviews have been processed based upon narrative analysis and reported in the form of meta-narratives. The stories provide a historical view of social work, encounters, situations and contexts. The final discussion is about how the social heritage is created, identified and carried forward. The conclusions show that the social heritage is a social construction created by the society and its inhabitants.The issue then, is to understand and to relate to this context, creating security control and balance in it. As a phenomenon, the social heritage can come to act as conservation and thus become a counterforce to change. Based on discussion and conclusions, it appears that efforts to break the social heritage are questionable. The study is a social psychological qualitative study worked with from a social constructionist perspective.

  • 109.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Blomqvist, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Individualisering av barns språkutveckling i förskolans stora barngrupper: pedagogers utsagor om arbetssätt och organisation av verksamheten2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, pre-schools are often associated with large children’s groups and the

    personnel are understaffed in relation to the size of the children’s groups. This

    results in, pedagogues feel frustrated that they do not have the time (and

    resources) to provide for every child’s need to support their development,

    which is one of the commissions of the pre-school. The purpose of our study is

    to illustrate a pedagogue reasoning on how to work in order to individualise 3-

    5-year-old children’s language process in relation to the size of the children’s

    groups. The study is based on six qualitative interviews with pedagogues who

    work or have worked with children in the ages of 3 to 5 years old. This method

    is chosen in order to realise how teachers reflect on and act to notice and

    distinguish every child and their language process among the rest of the

    children. The results show that it is often easier to pay attention to every child

    when they are divided into several smaller groups. Another way is to interact

    with the child in ordinary situations in their own level of language

    development. The large group of children can stop their language process when

    it comes to their speech development and possibility of individual time with the

    pedagogues. Documentation helps the teachers to organise the way to work and

    thereby on how to follow every child’s individual language process. Something

    that can be of importance is that it is not always the size of the group that is the

    contributory cause for a pedagogue to take notice to every child and its needs

    but the composition of the group can also be determining.

  • 110.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Karlsson, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Konflikthantering2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett tydligt samband mellan konflikter och sjukskrivningar i organisationer. Det är oundvikligt med konflikter i organisationer dock upplevs de av flera som något jobbigt. Det är inte konflikter i sig som är det huvudsakliga problemet utan hur konflikten hanteras. Det ärdärför viktigt för chefer att ha kunskap i konflikthantering. Genom denna undersökning vill vita reda på hur butikschefer inom detaljhandeln arbetar med konflikter och konflikthantering medarbetare emellan. Ordet konflikt betyder oenighet och ses ofta som ett problem i organisationen. Människor har fyra olika basbehov som kommer leda till en konflikt ifall de kränks. De som arbetar med konflikhantering har kommit fram till att alla konflikter har en process som ser i stort sett likadan ut oavsett var den uppstår. Grunden för allt samspel mellan människor är kommunikation och innebär att man delar med sig av tankar, avsikter, känslor och värderingar. För att kunna lösa en konflikt måste den först tydliggöras, därefter analyseras och komma fram till vad den beror på för att sedan bearbetas. Hur chefen tar sig an detta beror på hur denne kombinerar egenintresse respektive samarbetsintresse. För att genomföra undersökningen valdes en kvalitativ undersökningsmetod som bestod av öppna individuella intervjuer med tre butikschefer. Intervjuerna genomfördes i tre olika butiker med olika storlekar samt olika företagsformer. Butikschefens erfarenhet är det mest avgörande för hur konflikthanteringen kommer att se ut, utbildning inom området är till synes betydelselös i konfliktsammanhang. Det kan vara svårt att följa en teoretisk modell då alla konflikter ser olika ut. Det mest avgörande för en konstruktiv konflikthantering är att uppmärksamma konflikten i tid samt att ha en god kommunikation vilket inte kan påpekas nog med gånger. Det finns olika konflikthanteringsstilar som beroende på hur man kombinerar samarbetsintresse och egenintresse väljs i konfliktsituationer. Det mest funktionella skulle kunna vara att kombinerade olika stilarna och anpassa stilen efter hur situationen ser ut. Det är av stor vikt att lösa konflikter så snabbt som möjligt i butiksmiljö för att undvika att kunder påverkas avkonflikten.

  • 111.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Karlsson, Åsa
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Förskoleklassen-lekens mellanrum?: En studie kring den fria lekens plats i förskoleklassen2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay is about the free play in preschool classes and how much time the pupils have for free play. The study investigates if the play material and the environment affects the time that is given for free play. The study also describes if the location of the preschool classes, in relation to preschool and school has any importance for the time that is given to the pupils for free play, and which thoughts the teachers in the preschool classes has about free play and its conditions. Observations and interviews were conducted with teachers from three different preschools.

    The results shows that the time given to free play varied between the three preschool classes and that the play material and environment had some importance for the existence of the free play. The preschool classes that are situated in the school buildings are more influenced by the school and their goals, while the preschool classes that lies outside the school buildings are more like preschools. The study also shows that the teacher has a significant part for the free play. In the discussion, we ask the question, if preshool classes should have a curriculum of their own.

  • 112.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Granath, Petra
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Larm, Veronica
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lektionen om substantiv: En illustration från tre teoretiska positioner2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish curriculum, all pupils shall through teaching learn theSwedish language and its structure. With this as a background, we found it interesting toprepare a lecture planning that was to be varied on the basis of three different theoreticalpositions, socialconstructivism, individualconstructivism and behaviourism. Ateachingobject was also chosen. The teaching object that was selected was substantive,both in irregular and regular form, and in singular and plural form. Furthermore, thestudy aims to illustrate the pupils’ knowledge development after carried out teaching.The development was shown through three written tests. The three groups of pupils thattook part in the study were pupils in second grade, second- third grade and third grade.The result of the study shows that the knowledge developments of the pupils have beenaffected by the teaching they have participated in. Something that crossed our mindsthroughout this study was that there are no optimal methods of teaching. Since all pupilsare unique and learn differently, a variation of teaching methods are of big importance.

  • 113.
    Andersson, Martin
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    A bilevel approach to parameter tuning of optimization algorithms using evolutionary computing: Understanding optimization algorithms through optimization2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most optimization problems found in the real world cannot be solved using analytical methods. For these types of difficult optimization problems, an alternative approach is needed. Metaheuristics are a category of optimization algorithms that do not guarantee that an optimal solution will be found, but instead search for the best solutions using some general heuristics. Metaheuristics have been shown to be effective at finding “good-enough” solutions to a wide variety of difficult problems. Most metaheuristics involve control parameters that can be used to modify how the heuristics perform its search. This is necessary because different problems may require different search strategies to be solved effectively. The control parameters allow for the optimization algorithm to be adapted to the problem at hand. It is, however, difficult to predict what the optimal control parameters are for any given problem. The problem of finding these optimal control parameter values is known as parameter tuning and is the main topic of this thesis. This thesis uses a bilevel optimization approach to solve parameter tuning problems. In this approach, the parameter tuning problem itself is formulated as an optimization problem and solved with an optimization algorithm. The parameter tuning problem formulated as a bilevel optimization problem is challenging because of nonlinear objective functions, interacting variables, multiple local optima, and noise. However, it is in precisely this kind of difficult optimization problem that evolutionary algorithms, which are a subclass of metaheuristics, have been shown to be effective. That is the motivation for using evolutionary algorithms for the upper-level optimization (i.e. tuning algorithm) of the bilevel optimization approach. Solving the parameter tuning problem using a bilevel optimization approach is also computationally expensive, since a complete optimization run has to be completed for every evaluation of a set of control parameter values. It is therefore important that the tuning algorithm be as efficient as possible, so that the parameter tuning problem can be solved to a satisfactory level with relatively few evaluations. Even so, bilevel optimization experiments can take a long time to run on a single computer. There is, however, considerable parallelization potential in the bilevel optimization approach, since many of the optimizations are independent of one another. This thesis has three primary aims: first, to present a bilevel optimization framework and software architecture for parallel parameter tuning; second, to use this framework and software architecture to evaluate and configure evolutionary algorithms as tuners and compare them with other parameter tuning methods; and, finally, to use parameter tuning experiments to gain new insights into and understanding of how optimization algorithms work and how they can used be to their maximum potential. The proposed framework and software architecture have been implemented and deployed in more than one hundred computers running many thousands of parameter tuning experiments for many millions of optimizations. This illustrates that this design and implementation approach can handle large parameter tuning experiments. Two types of evolutionary algorithms, i.e. differential evolution (DE) and a genetic algorithm (GA), have been evaluated as tuners against the parameter tuning algorithm irace. The as pects of algorithm configuration and noise handling for DE and the GA as related to the parameter tuning problem were also investigated. The results indicate that dynamic resampling strategies outperform static resampling strategies. It was also shown that the GA needs an explicit exploration and exploitation strategy in order not become stuck in local optima. The comparison with irace shows that both DE and the GA can significantly outperform it in a variety of different tuning problems.

  • 114.
    Andersson, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Ehrenborg, Sarah
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Lojalitetsprogram: Hur kan ett gemensamt lojalitetsprogram hjälpa butiker i mindre orter med lönsamhetsproblem?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The climate is hard in the retail trade, and this means that it takes a lot of effort from the stores, to get a profitable business. It has been noted that it is difficult for individual stores in smaller communities to maintain their business, due to the heavy competition from established chains in major cities.

    The purpose of the thesis was to find out whether a collaboration between shops in a small community with a common loyalty program, makes it easier to survive in the market. This through theories of relationship oriented consumption, which aims to keep customers by developing good relationships, but even earlier studies of the loyalty program to find any differences and similarities. The collection of empirical data was done using focus group interviews, where the groups consisted of people in three different age categories. Through this we got information about how respondents relate to a single loyalty program, based on issues of trust and customer satisfaction.

    The conclusion of the report shows that the customer value, frequency of visits, the dedication and the relations has developed with the help of the loyalty program. Nevertheless it’s not possible to draw a complete conclusion that this lead to increased loyalty and viability, since earlier research not is unanimous that these factors contribute to this. The result in the report shows that the first steps to obtain increased viability and loyalty are fulfilled and that according to most scientists should lead to increased viability in the long term. It has also appeared in the report that there is a difference between a traditional loyalty program and a cooperative loyalty program. This is that it does not matter what the customer loyalty is before the loyalty program, to enable him or her to increase their purchase.

  • 115.
    Andersson Nell, Louise
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Arbetshälsa genom medarbetarskap: En studie om påverkande faktorer för arbetshälsa2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: For companies are every economic aspect essential. One aspect is the workplace health that employees feel whom can be a big cost. In our society is stress and depression increasing despite extensive knowledge in the topic for workplace health.

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to illustrate the connection between followship and workplace health.

    Theory: The study has it starting point from followship and workplace health. Previous research in the topic for workplace health have been related to the wheel of followship to study if one of the four factors in followship can explain workplace health more than the other factors.

    Method: The empirical material have been collected from a quantitative research in form of a survey, is was 83 participants who responded. Previous research and literature have made it possible to relate the answers from the survey to factors affecting workplace health in the strategy of followship.

    Result: The result show that there are many factors that influence workplace happiness. It showed that communication, affinity, relations, appreciation and personal development have connections with workplace happiness. Factors that influence in stress is trust in the manager and control of the workday.

    Conclusion: Followship is a good tool to prevent workplace related illnesses. Workplace health is a complex topic and many factors for workplace health affect each other, therefore should none aspect of followship be ignored.

  • 116.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Wilhelmsson Ramshage, Bitte
    Texter som inte räknas?: Om digitala läs- och skrivaktiviteter bland barn och unga2010In: Utbildning och lärande, ISSN 1653-0594, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 14-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the age of the Internet and a changing semiotic landscape, reading and writing become increasingly complex activities in school. ICT have to be considered as a partner in the daily pedagogies. Digital media and new forms of communication are of great interest for literacy researches, particularly within the area of research that has come to be called New literacies. This article presents the results of a survey in which we asked 320 pupils about their use of information technology as part of daily literacy activities in and outside school. The study is inspired by an American study among young adolescents in New York (Agee & Altarriba 2009), but based on a wider range of ages: between 10-16 years. Our results show some significant differences in the pupils’ literacy activities based on factors such as gender, age, and attitudes towards reading and writing. Of particular interest is one group that distinguishes itself by having a negative attitude to reading and writing even though spending much time on digital literacies in and outside school.

  • 117.
    Andersson, Rebecka
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Almqvist, Emily
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Pålsson, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Sambandsexponeringar: Hur påverkar det butikers försäljning?2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sambandsexponeringar innebär att två produkter, en basprodukt och en komplementprodukt, exponeras intill varandra, där tanken är att ett intresse ska väckas för komplementprodukten och därmed skapa merförsäljning. I den här studien kommer endast komplementprodukten att undersökas för att se hur exponeringen påverkar försäljningen. För att exponeringen ska fungera krävs det att produkterna har ett naturligt samband och antingen köps vid samma tillfälle eller används tillsammans. I dagens samhälle trivs konsumenterna med att bli inspirerade till köp och ser gärna att butiker har en lösningsorienterad exponering. Tidigare forskning tyder på att en välkomponerad sambandsexponering kan öka försäljningen med 500-800 procent.

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur sambandsexponeringar kan påverka butikers försäljning, men även bidra med värdefull kunskap om ämnet för både blivande och nuvarande butikschefer. Målet är med andra ord att få kunskap i hur butiker kan arbeta med sambandsexponeringar med hjälp av exponeringskorgar och om det är ett effektivt sätt för att öka försäljningen. För att undersöka det här genomfördes ett experiment i två butiker, där sambandsexponeringar med hjälp av exponeringskorgar testades för att se hur det påverkar respektive butiks försäljning. Fem exponeringskorgar med fem likadana produkter placerades ut i respektive butik och de produkter som valdes ut är: Bamse tandkräm, Kavli räkost, Santa Maria tacokrydda, OLW Chilinötter samt Marabou Premium choklad. Försäljningsresultatet för samtliga produkter jämfördes med samma veckor föregående år.

    Experimentets resultat sammanställdes därefter skriftligt samt i diagram. Resultatet visar positiva siffror i båda butikerna, vissa produkter nådde upp till mer än 1000 procent i försäljningsökning, dock nådde inte samtliga av de utvalda produkterna upp till 500-800 procent. Butikscheferna i respektive butik var positivt överraskade av resultatet och troligen är sambandsexponeringar en trend som vi kommer att se mer av i framtiden.

    Nyckelord: sambandsexponering, exponeringseffekten, impulsköp, association.

  • 118.
    Andersson, Rickard
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Stadin, Jonna
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning i Kommunal Verksamhet: En kvalitativ studie av fem kommuner i Skaraborg2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's society it has become increasingly important for organizations to take into account non-financial values. Sustainability reporting involves reporting the economic, social and environmental aspects of an organization's operations. The trend has been towards an all the more scrutinizing society with an increasing demand for transparency and translucency. A greater focus on environmental issues has also contributed to sustainability’s increasing importance as a topic. In this aspect, sustainability reporting becomes a mean for an organization's survival. Much attention has been paid to companies in the private sector; however, less attention has been directed towards the public sector. Local government activities have a strong impact on the environment in regard to its usage of resources, energy and raw materials. In addition, most municipalities are actively working with environmental issues and as a result, some form of sustainability reporting would be a logical step. However, sustainability reporting requires both resources and knowledge, which can be a limiting factor for municipalities’ sustainability operations. At the same time, the public sector is expected to be some form of guiding force when it comes to sustainability and environmental issues.

    The purpose of this study is to create a deeper understanding of sustainability in the local government sector and to outline to which stakeholders local government sustainability reporting is aimed and why. To meet this purpose, qualitative interviews were conducted with people responsible in the field of sustainability in various municipalities in Skaraborg. The collected empirical data were then analyzed based on a combination of institutional theory, legitimacy theory and stakeholder theory.

    The study shows that there are various institutional pressures, created by society affecting the implementation of sustainability reporting in local government and that these pressures differ between stakeholders. The study also explains how local authorities respond to these pressures by trying to legitimize their business. The study's results, however, show that the municipal sustainability reporting also aims to engage and motivate the municipality's citizens to contribute to a sustainable development.

  • 119.
    Andersson, Stina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Pettersson, Malin
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Sex timmars arbetsdag: En flerfallsstudie om hur chefer använder styrning för att uppnå högre effektivitet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sex timmars arbetsdag har under senare år skapat stor debatt och fler och fler arbetsgivare väljer att testa arbetstidsförkortningen. Till skillnad från tidigare studier i ämnet, som till stor del syftat till att behandla effekter gällande hälsa och välbefinnande, väljer den aktuella studien att fokusera på införandet av sex timmars arbetsdag. En arbetstidsförkortning ställer krav på ökad effektivitet för att en organisation ska kunna behålla sin lönsamhet, varför åtgärder gällande styrning är relevant vid införandet. Tidigare forskning visar att det har blivit allt vanligare att medarbetare ägnar tid åt icke arbetsrelaterade aktiviteter under arbetstid, vilket är relevant att undersöka i samband med en arbetstidsförkortning. Föreliggande studie undersöker hur två privata företag och två offentliga verksamheter arbetar med styrning för att skapa förutsättningar för en lyckad arbetstidsförkortning.

    Syfte: Studiens syfte är att ge ökad förståelse för hur organisationer arbetar med styrning för att uppnå ökad effektivitet vid införande av sex timmars arbetsdag. Vidare kommer studien att undersöka om det inom organisationerna funnits något tomt arbete som i samband med införandet kunnat minskas.

    Metod: För att uppfylla studiens syfte har en kvalitativ metod antagits. Undersökningen är en jämförande studie där semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts med chefer och medarbetare på fyra organisationer. 

    Slutsatser: Föreliggande studie visar att cheferna inte upplever någon förändring gällande sitt sätt att styra vid införandet av sex timmars arbetsdag och stort ansvar för förändringar i arbetssätt har förlagts på medarbetarna. Vidare konstaterar studien att ett införande av sex timmars arbetsdag betraktas som en belöning och leder till ökad motivation hos medarbetarna. Slutligen har studien kunnat identifiera tomt arbete inom de undersökta organisationerna som till viss del har kunnat minskas i samband med införandet av sex timmars arbetsdag. 

  • 120.
    Andersson, Svetlana
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Elmefeldt, Iréne
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Spår av grundtankar i Vygotskijs teori i gymnasieskolan: En studie om hur Vygotskijs socio-kulturella teoribildning återspeglas i gymnasielärares syn på lärande2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim with the study was that through high teachers’ statements apply for tracks of basic thoughts of Vygotsky’s theory education in their sights on learning. This is to ascertain what criteria teachers assume when they do their didactic choices in the education and how Vygotsky’s basic thoughts are reflected in teachers’ sights on learning.

    Our study bases itself on qualitative interviews where four teachers from two high schools were participated. After the transcription, the analysis was done on the basis of the four aspects that characterize the socio-cultural perspective according to Vygotsky’s theory of education: the social, the mediated, the situated and the creative aspects. We chose to use the hermeneutic method for analyze of our result where we used relevant research in order to strengthen our interpretation of teachers’ statements.

    In the study the teachers expressed that interaction and dialogue are important elements in the education. We also have found tracks from the mediated aspects there teachers as a mediator has an active role, but that they at the same time recommend a traditional education.

    Our conclusion is that teachers are not based their learning on some specific scientific theory. We however have interpreted that the teachers when they choose a method, prefer to reflect over how students are getting knowledge instead of what students shall learn and develop. That sight on learning as we possibly can discern on the basis of teachers’ statements is a mixture of different theories that has been influenced by Vygotsky’s theory of education.

  • 121.
    Andersson, Therese
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Aspenbäck, Sandra
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Förskolerummets pedagogiska dilemma: Pedagogernas syn på miljöns och materialets betydelse.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine how teachers at the preschool was thinking about the environment and the material's impact on children's development and learning. We also wanted to found out how the indoor environment of the departments is structured, whether they are traditional, they look like the home or if they are inspiring for children to experiment and explore the environment. We also looked at how the material is used and how it is placed and if the children have access to it. We have assumed the socio-cultural perspective in the study, which says that it is the teacher who organizes the environment around the kids and the kids are taking the help of their environment to learn and develop. Our empirical gathering of the materials were developed through interviews and observations. The teachers we interviewed were from different departments. The observations were made by walking around and looking at the environment and we also took photographs of what we wanted to examine extra. The result showed that most preschool teachers thought the environments significance. The traditional environment was found in the kindergarten but with attempts to change it. The material would be visible to the children besides the "dirty and messy."

  • 122.
    Andersson, Therese
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lindblom, Veronica
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Skönlitteraturens möjligheter i undervisningen: en studie om sex lärares uppfattningar om skönlitteratur som läromedel i skolans tidigare år2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background to our study is our common interest in fiction and our curiosity of how it is being used in school at present. The aim of the study was to find out if and how teachers in the earlier years of school, use fiction in their teaching. We have found how some teachers think about their teaching where fiction is an element and in what purpose fiction are used. By doing qualitative interviews with six active teachers we got a material that we analysed. In the result we found that the teachers were well aware of the possibilities fiction gives, not just in the subject Swedish but in all subjects in school. The main purpose of using fiction in school was to entertain but we found that the teachers also used it to teach their pupils how to read, to increase their knowledge and to give them inspiration. The conclusion is that fiction is used a lot in school today, in many different ways and with different intentions. We found that fiction has the ability to stimulate children’s imagination and make them experience and explore other worlds and cultures without even leaving the classroom. As a result we can establish that fiction is more than just a book!

  • 123.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Att leda genom medarbetarskap2016In: Organisation & Samhälle, ISSN 2001-9114, no 2, p. 44-47Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom att ge medarbetarna förtroende och uppmuntra ansvars- och initiativtagande är det möjligt att bryta den passivitet som detaljerade regler och standardisering ofta medför.

  • 124.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Att leda genom medarbetarskap i vården2018In: Cancervården, ISSN 1401-6583, no 1, p. 16-17Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 125.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Followership: An important social resource for organizational resilience2018In: The Resilience Framework: Organizing for sustained viability / [ed] Stefan Tengblad, Margareta Oudhuis, Singapore: Springer, 2018, p. 147-162Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 126.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Förtroende för sig själv: En studie av chefers självförtroende2006In: Värdet av förtroende, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2006, 1, p. 287-309Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Förutsättningar för förbättringsarbete i vården2013In: Att utveckla vården: Erfarenheter av kvalitet, verksamhetsutveckling och förbättringsarbete / [ed] Nomie Eriksson, Kajsa-Mia Holgers, Tomas Müllern, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1, p. 121-142Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 128.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Identity work and identity regulation in managers' personal development training2008Report (Refereed)
  • 129.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Managers' identity work: experiences from introspective management training2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The study takes its point of departure in the complex relation between “being yourself” and being manager, i.e. the struggle between what one ought to do as a representative of an organizations and what one want to do as a person. Introspective management training constitutes one extreme of focusing on the person in this matter, i.e. managers should develop their own unique leadership style upon “who they are”. The influences on managers from this type of management training are not self-evident considering the complex relation mentioned in the beginning. The study therefore aims at describing how introspective management training influences practicing managers. To reach that aim six managers representing three different organizations were followed during and after their participation in an eight month long introspective management training. For the managers in the study, the introspective training was mainly an arena for identity work. Identity work meant dealing with conflicting identities, elaborating and developing identities, roles and role transitions, and struggling to fit into different discourses, rather than finding the “true self”. The identity process is complex and is influenced both by direct interaction with others “here-and-now” and by the “generalized other”, which goes beyond “here-and-now”. Identity work and role transitions are important parts of management considering the relational aspect of both identity and role. The introspective management training seems to have a potential on the personal level for the managers, but the organizational gain is more doubtful. There is a need of reciprocity during the process to enable an organizational enhancement together with the manager’s personal

  • 130.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Normative identity processes in managers' personal development training2012In: Personnel review, ISSN 0048-3486, E-ISSN 1758-6933, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 572-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The article aims to analyze how personal development training influences managers’ identity processes.

    Design/methodology/approach – The article, taking an interpretive-critical approach, is based on a qualitative, longitudinal study of five participants (managers) in a personal development training program. During the two years of research, 62 interviews (with the managers and related personnel) were conducted and 13 observations were made.

    Findings – Personal development training provokes identity regulation by prescribing a normative identity process that claims managers should engage in a process of reflection in order to gain self-awareness. Such training constitutes a local management discourse that may influence different levels of identity work and identity regulation processes depending on the participants’ expectations, their organizations and professional situations, their level of insecurity, as well as their previous experience with management discourse.

    Practical implications – Since management training influences participants’ identity processes, program organizers, purchasers and participants should be wary of the expectation that management training will deliver content as “a package” of managerial skills.

    Originality/value – The study challenges the traditional view of management training as a provider of skills and solutions for managers by focusing instead on its influence on managers’ processes of identity work and identity regulation. Management training in general is claimed to regulate identities and direct identity work by providing inspirational identities. However, this study finds that personal development training regulates identities by prescribing the identity process in itself.

  • 131.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Personal growth and sensitivity training as fashions in management and management research2008In: International Studies of Management and Organization, ISSN 0020-8825, E-ISSN 1558-0911, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 71-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – to compare the introduction of, and associated contemporary research into, two management fashions. Design/methodology/approach – names the two fashions as “personal growth” and “sensitivity training”, states that sensitivity training was popular in the 1960s-1970s, and that personal growth, incorporating aspects of sensitivity training, was widely used in 1990s-2000s, focuses on the relationship between management fashions and management research fashions, suggests that fashions follow wave patterns, and discusses the role of consultants in the development, diffusion and translation of a fashion. Draws on the author’s own doctoral thesis to illustrate how individuals can be influenced by a fashion, identifies similarities between sensitivity training and personal development, sees the former as a first-wave fashion and the latter as a second-wave, and profiles the techniques, methods and goals of the two fashions, pinpointing self-knowledge, and the belief that in order to understand others one must understand one’s self, as key concepts in both fashions. Analyses two doctoral theses, the first published in 1979 studying sensitivity training, the second published by the author in 2005 studying personal development, reports the author’s interviews with the first paper’s author, likens managers’ identity work in managing to researchers’ identity work in a dissertation, and concludes that both managers and researchers surf on the same or parallel, fashion waves. Originality/value – highlights the cyclic pattern of fashions, and shows how both researchers and practitioners are subject to fashions

  • 132.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Sociala resurser avgörande för organisatorisk resiliens - även i teknikorienterade organisationer!2014In: Organisatorisk resiliens: Vad är det som gör företag och organisationer livskraftiga? / [ed] Stefan Tengblad & Margareta Oudhuis, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 1, p. 93-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 133.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. Gothenburg Research Institute, School of Technology and Society, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Struggles of managerial being and becoming: Experiences from managers' personal development training2010In: Journal of Management Development, ISSN 0262-1711, E-ISSN 1758-7492, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 167-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the struggles of managerial identity in relation to the process of becoming/being a manager, and the personal conflicts involved within this process.

    Design/methodology/approach – In a qualitative, longitudinal project, five managers were studied for two years using interviews and observations. This was undertaken before, during, and after their participation in personal development training. In total, 62 interviews and eight half-day observations were conducted.

    Findings – The study puts emphasis on the role of management training in providing templates for “how to be a manager”, but it also illustrates the double-edged and complex role played by context in managerial being and becoming. On the one hand context shapes managerial identity; on the other hand, context might operate to dilute the identity an individual manager wishes to assume.

    Research limitations/implications – The study focuses on only five managers in two organizations. This small sample limits the generalisabilty of the research.

    Practical implications – Management training tends to be based on the idea that management concerns the acquisition of competencies, techniques and personal awareness, while managerial practice is more fluid and contextually based. There is a challenge for organizers of all types of management training to bridge the gap between a fixed idea of what it is to be a manager and how management is actually practised.

    Originality/value  – The longitudinal and in-depth qualitative approach facilitates an important contribution to understanding issues in developing a managerial identity.

  • 134.
    Andersson, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    The medical leadership challenge in healthcare is an identity challenge2015In: Leadership in Health Services, ISSN 1751-1879, E-ISSN 1751-1887, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 83-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this article is to describe and analyse the identity challenges that physicians with medical leadership positions face.

    Design/methodology/approach– Four qualitative case studies were performed to address the fact that identity is processual, relational and situational. Physicians with managerial roles were interviewed, as well as their peers, supervisors and subordinates. Furthermore, observations were made to understand how different identities are displayed in action.

    Findings– This study illustrates that medical leadership implies identity struggles when physicians have manager positions, because of the different characteristics of the social identities of managers and physicians. Major differences are related between physicians as autonomous individuals in a system and managers as subordinates to the organizational system. There are psychological mechanisms that evoke the physician identity more often than the managerial identity among physicians who are managers, which explains why physicians who are managers tend to remain foremost physicians.

    Research limitations/implications– The implications of the findings, that there are major identity challenges by being both a physician and manager, suggest that managerial physicians might not be the best prerequisite for medical leadership, but instead, cooperative relationships between physicians and non-physician managers might be a less difficult way to support medical leadership.

    Practical implications– Acknowledging and addressing identity challenges can be important both in creating structures in organizations and designing the training for managers in healthcare (both physicians and non-physicians) to support medical leadership.

    Originality/value– Medical leadership is most often related to organizational structure and/or leadership skills, but this paper discusses identity requirements and challenges related to medical leadership.

  • 135.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Cäker, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Wickelgren, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Belöningssystem i svenskt arbetsliv – Möte eller krock mellan svenska och amerikanska ledningspraktiker2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 136.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Eriksson, Nomie
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Easier to trust managers than management?: The case of improvement work in healthcare2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previously, improvement work in healthcare has mainly been medically related and driven by medical research, but NPM implies that management-initiated improvement work targeting organizing, productivity, efficiency, work flow etc. has become more and more common. Management-initiated improvement work has a high failure rate, and in general it seems difficult to motivate co-workers to actively participate. In all processes of organizational change, trust in the initiator of a change project is an important prerequisite to enable change take place. In this article, our purpose is to investigate how trust in management influences management-initiated improvement work. In a qualitative study we investigate improvement work at three Swedish hospitals. Our theoretical framework is based on a view of management as being both the people who manage and the system of management. This distinction is important since we can trust people and we can have confidence in a system, but these processes are different. Consequently, it is possible to trust individual managers, but as long as we do not trust management as a system, management-initiated improvement work will face considerable problems.  To analyze trust we use a model that identifies three important antecedents for one person (the trustor) to consider another person (the trustee) as trustworthy: ability, benevolence and integrity. Using social system theory, we extend this model to on the one hand describe trust in specific persons (specific managers), and on the other hand describe confidence in a system (management in general, which the system-specific managers are parts of). The results indicate that there in general is a lack of trust between healthcare personnel and healthcare management.

     

    We were able to find certain managers who were found trustworthy by the personnel, but despite these trust-relations the personnel did still not have confidence in management as a system. To the contrary, these managers were perceived as exceptions, and did not change the perception of management in general. The consequences for management-initiated improvement work were that most personnel at best were ignorant to it, and at worst resisted it openly. However, there were examples when trusted enthusiastic managers succeeded in initiating improvement work, but then the continuation and success was directly connected to this person, and if s/he left, the improvement work stopped. Furthermore, some work groups seemed to very clearly separate “real” improvement work, which they initiated themselves, from “phony” improvement work initiated by management, which only stole time from more important tasks.

  • 137.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Eriksson, Nomie
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Industriellt baserade modeller för kvalitetsutveckling2013In: Att utveckla vården: Erfarenheter av kvalitet, verksamhetsutveckling och förbättringsarbete / [ed] Nomie Eriksson, Kajsa-Mia Holgers, Tomas Müllern, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 1, p. 73-84Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 138.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Eriksson, Nomie
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Organisering av förbättringsarbete inom vården med inspiration från industrin2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna artikel fokuserar vi på användandet av industriellt baserade produktionssynsätt (IBP) inom vården i avsikt att arbeta systematiskt med förbättringsarbete. Tidigare forskning har visat att det är svårt att få nya arbetsmetoder att få genomslag i den dagliga praktiken. I denna artikel fokuserar vi på om det går att se indirekta effekter såsom hur förbättringsarbetet organiseras beroende på vilka IBP olika sjukhus väljer att arbeta med. Undersökning är genomförd genom fallstudier på tre sjukhus som har valt att arbeta med tre olika metoder: six sigma, processorientering och mikrosystem.

    Studien visar att de olika logikerna bakom de olika metoderna ger fundamentalt olika sätt att organisera förbättringsarbetet vid de tre sjukhusen. Six sigma-sjukhuset valde ett centraliserat förbättringsarbete i hög grad drivet av experter på förbättringsmetoder, processsjukhuset

    hade en expertavdelning som var mer av bollplank och utbildare för verksamhetens förbättringsarbete och mikrosystem-sjukhuset valde ett decentraliserat förbättringsarbete där förbättringsarbetet var både lokalt initierat och drivet.

  • 139.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Gadolin, Christian
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Distributed Leadership in Healthcare: Post-NPM in Action2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 140.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Gadolin, Christian
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Followership and Distributed Leadership in Healthcare2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 141.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Gadolin, Christian
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Medarbetarskap är viktigt men fallgroparna är många2018In: Skaraborgs Allehanda, ISSN 1403-3739Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 142.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Gadolin, Christian
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Relational Leadership: An Enabler of Institutional Work in Healthcare2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 143.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Gadolin, Christian
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Relational Leadership and Institutional Work in Healthcare2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 144.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Gadolin, Christian
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    The Call for Leadership in Healthcare - What Is It We Are Calling for?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 145.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future. Chalmers University.
    Gadolin, Christian
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Hellström, Anders
    Chalmers University.
    Eriksson, Erik
    Chalmers University.
    Unintended Consequences of Management Concepts in Healthcare: The Mix of Value Configurations in Diabetes Care2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 146.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Jönsson, Sten
    Gothenburg Research Institute (GRI), Göteborgs universitet.
    Floby-andan: Här finns inga märkvärdiga människor!2011In: Volvo i våra hjärtan - hur skall det gå?: En närdiskussion om "nationalklenoden" Volvo / [ed] Sten Jönsson & Mikael Wickelgren, Malmö: Liber, 2011, 1, p. 229-250Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 147.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Tengblad, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Wickelgren, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    HRM practices in Swedish retailing2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 148.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Tengblad, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Wickelgren, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Not the Inevitable Bleak House?: The Positive Experiences of Workers and Managers in Retail Employment in Sweden2011In: Retail Work / [ed] Irena Grugulis and Ödül Bozkurt, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, p. 253-276Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 149.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Tengblad, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Wickelgren, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Uppdrag butikschef: Att leda i butik2013 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad innebär det att arbeta med ledaruppdrag inom handeln och hur kan man nå framgång som butikschef? Detta är två centrala frågor i boken Uppdrag butikschef – att leda i butik som tar ett helhetsgrepp om följande centrala aspekter på butikschefsarbete: 

    • ledarskap och medarbetarskap 
    • motivation och kommunikation 
    • personalarbete och arbetsrätt 
    • kompetensutveckling och etik

    Boken är skriven av forskare inom företagsekonomi och socialpsykologi, verksamma vid Högskolan i Skövde, och den bygger delvis på ett aktuellt forskningsprojekt om ledarskap och medarbetarskap inom svensk handel.

  • 150.
    Andersson, Thomas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future. University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Wickelgren, Mikael
    University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future. University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Career in Swedish Retail2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A career in retailing is to a large extent a boundaryless career. A career in retail does not limit the individual to a single organisation, to a single role/position, or to a hierarchical rung on the organisational ladder. Both co-workers and managers move quite easily among organisations within the same retail area, between different retail areas, and in and out of the retail sector.

    • In the past, the description of retailing as a transitory employment sector has had a negative connotation. Yet this description can also have quite a positive connotation. For example, experience acquired in the retail sector can be very useful in other work sectors. Moreover, people working in retail are generally motivated by job security, a job that is possible to combine to leisure/family, and a job close to home. They are typically much less motivated by traditional career advancement opportunities, the exercise of power over others, and by the desire to make decisions.

    • People working in retail have a rather limited interest in becoming managers in part because their major work motivators are not the motivators one usually associates with management career paths.

    • Gender is a relatively weak distinguishing variable in terms of retail careers, but there are some statistically significant – yet small – differences in the work characteristics of men and women in retail. For example, women in retail prioritize work-life balance, the proximity of workplace to home, and outside interests more than men in retail. These priorities have a limiting effect on their opportunities to accept managerial positions and to follow traditional, upward career paths.

    • There are more women than men working in the retail sector today, but a larger percentage of men in management positions. However, this cannot be explained by differences between the motivations of men and women to become managers or in their attitudes towards their own managerial capabilities. The explanation lies in other, more indirect factors such as the expectations of today’s managers.

    • Women generally earn less than men in the retail sector. This inequality is especially evident when differences in work responsibilities exist (e.g., specialized areas, subbranches, management tasks).

    • There is some general scepticism among employees in the retail sector as far as the extent to which their employers are willing to commit to their well-being and development. This finding has important practical implications when employees sense a lack of employer commitment to them.

    • People outside retail sector generally have a more negative picture of the retail sector than the people within the sector. People in the retail sector are relatively satisfied and think their work is varied and interesting.

    • The number of women at the lower management levels (at the store-level) is increasing. Because of this trend, which is expected to continue, in the relatively near future there may be as many female managers as male managers at this level. However, at the upper management levels in retail, there are more than ten men for every woman and no indications of change.

    • Job security is the most important career anchor for retail employees in Sweden. This finding has very important practical implications because job security is typically not associated with employment in the retail sector. It is a factor that can be an important consideration for retailers.

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