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  • 101.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Chou, Chien
    Institute of Education, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan.
    Digital Citizenship: Innovations in Education, Practice, and Pedagogy2018In: Educational Technology & Society, ISSN 1176-3647, E-ISSN 1436-4522, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 3p. 152-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are still disparities in technology-access despite economic pressures and widespread promises to overcome them. The induced digital gap defines the degree of digital citizenship for which, unified policies have yet to be drawn at various educational levels to reduce that gap. The quest for a broad participation to develop digital citizenship competencies needs further investigations into innovative educational approaches, pedagogical methods, and routine practices that foster digital literacy, and narrows the digital divide. This special issue accumulates original theoretical and empirical research contributions across contemporary digital citizenship perspectives. The final selection of the papers explores digital citizenship concepts such as ethics, digital literacy and participation, in various contexts to develop opportunities for a wider engagement in social actions. The international perspectives of contributing authors shed lights on digital citizenship prospects across unique contexts among different nations. 

  • 102.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ding, Jianguo
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Jeusfeld, Manfred A.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Internet of Things Approach to Cloud-Based Smart Car Parking2016In: The 7th International Conference on Emerging Ubiquitous Systems and Pervasive Networks (EUSPN 2016)/The 6th International Conference on Current and Future Trends of Information and Communication Technologies in Healthcare (ICTH-2016)/Affiliated Workshops / [ed] Elhadi Shakshuki, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 98, p. 193-198Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns for parking are becoming imminent to best support the urban core. These persistent parking problems could be turned into new opportunities, brought by current trends in meeting the globally connected continuum. This paper reveals a work-in- progress to capitalize on private land properties for parking, in order to relieve stress on public agencies, create new sources of revenue, and enlist new entities in the intermediary market. These intermediaries, labelled as Parking Service Providers (or PSPs) play a broker role through advertising parking lots on a shared cloud platform. To streamline these business collaborations and related processes, physical parking lots are augmented with Internet connectivity allowing cloud-provided applications to congregate these lots into a larger inventory. The Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm expands the scope of cloud-based intelligent car parking services in smart cities, with novel applications that better regulate car-parking related traffic. This paper presents a work-in-progress agenda that contributes to new business solutions and state-of-the-art research impacts. We reveal a multi- layered system of PSP-business model through interdisciplinary research blocks where original results are expected to be made at each layer.

  • 103.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ding, Jianguo
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Jeusfeld, Manfred
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Yuning, Jiang
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brax, Christoffer
    CombiTech AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    CombiTech AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Cyber-Threat Intelligence Architecture for Smart-Grid Critical Infrastructures Protection2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructures (CIs) are becoming increasingly sophisticated with embedded cyber-physical systems (CPSs) that provide managerial automation and autonomic controls. Yet these advances expose CI components to new cyber-threats, leading to a chain of dysfunctionalities with catastrophic socio-economical implications. We propose a comprehensive architectural model to support the development of incident management tools that provide situation-awareness and cyber-threats intelligence for CI protection, with a special focus on smart-grid CI. The goal is to unleash forensic data from CPS-based CIs to perform some predictive analytics. In doing so, we use some AI (Artificial Intelligence) paradigms for both data collection, threat detection, and cascade-effects prediction. 

  • 104.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Open Source Collaboration Tools and Organisational Learning: On Adopting EtherPad in Small Companies2016In: Proceedings of FLOSSEdu: FLOSS education and computational thinking workshop. Open Source Systems Conference 2016. Gothenburg, Sweden., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organisations could benefit from the improvements in collaborative learning and increased control gained by the use of open source software. EtherPad enables simultaneous updates on a shared document from remotely located participants. We discuss the adoption life-cycle of this open source tool in the context of a strategic intervention, with a focus on a learning agenda to guide the installation and configuration processes, and to reduce the learning curve involved in the adoption experience.

  • 105.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Jiang, Yuning
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Jeusfeld, Manfred A.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ding, Jianguo
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Combitech.
    Haglund, Daniel
    Combitech.
    Lindström, Björn
    Combitech.
    Cyber-threat analysis for Cyber-Physical Systems: Technical report for Package 4, Activity 3 of ELVIRA project2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart grid employs ICT infrastructure and network connectivity to optimize efficiency and deliver new functionalities. This evolu- tion is associated with an increased risk for cybersecurity threats that may hamper smart grid operations. Power utility providers need tools for assessing risk of prevailing cyberthreats over ICT infrastructures. The need for frameworks to guide the develop- ment of these tools is essential to define and reveal vulnerability analysis indicators. We propose a data-driven approach for design- ing testbeds to evaluate the vulnerability of cyberphysical systems against cyberthreats. The proposed framework uses data reported from multiple components of cyberphysical system architecture layers, including physical, control, and cyber layers. At the phys- ical layer, we consider component inventory and related physi- cal flows. At the control level, we consider control data, such as SCADA data flows in industrial and critical infrastructure control systems. Finally, at the cyber layer level, we consider existing secu- rity and monitoring data from cyber-incident event management tools, which are increasingly embedded into the control fabrics of cyberphysical systems.

  • 106.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Jiang, Yuning
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ding, Jianguo
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Jeusfeld, Manfred
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andler, Sten
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Nero, Eva
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Haglund, Daniel
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Multi-agent Systems for Power Grid Monitoring: Technical report for Package 4.1 of ELVIRA project2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document reports a technical description of ELVIRA project results obtained as part of Work- package 4.1 entitled “Multi-agent systems for power Grid monitoring”. ELVIRA project is a collaboration between researchers in School of IT at University of Skövde and Combitech Technical Consulting Company in Sweden, with the aim to design, develop and test a testbed simulator for critical infrastructures cybersecurity. This report outlines intelligent approaches that continuously analyze data flows generated by Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems, which monitor contemporary power grid infrastructures. However, cybersecurity threats and security mechanisms cannot be analyzed and tested on actual systems, and thus testbed simulators are necessary to assess vulnerabilities and evaluate the infrastructure resilience against cyberattacks. This report suggests an agent-based model to simulate SCADA- like cyber-components behaviour when facing cyber-infection in order to experiment and test intelligent mitigation mechanisms. 

  • 107.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    National Road Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ding, Jianguo
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Internet of Things data analytics for parking availability prediction and guidance2020In: European transactions on telecommunications, ISSN 1124-318X, E-ISSN 2161-3915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cutting-edge sensors and devices are increasingly deployed within urban areas to make-up the fabric of transmission control protocol/internet protocol con- nectivity driven by Internet of Things (IoT). This immersion into physical urban environments creates new data streams, which could be exploited to deliver novel cloud-based services. Connected vehicles and road-infrastructure data are leveraged in this article to build applications that alleviate notorious parking and induced traffic-congestion issues. To optimize the utility of parking lots, our proposed SmartPark algorithm employs a discrete Markov-chain model to demystify the future state of a parking lot, by the time a vehicle is expected to reach it. The algorithm features three modular sections. First, a search pro- cess is triggered to identify the expected arrival-time periods to all parking lots in the targeted central business district (CBD) area. This process utilizes smart-pole data streams reporting congestion rates across parking area junc- tions. Then, a predictive analytics phase uses consolidated historical data about past parking dynamics to infer a state-transition matrix, showing the transfor- mation of available spots in a parking lot over short periods of time. Finally, this matrix is projected against similar future seasonal periods to figure out the actual vacancy-expectation of a lot. The performance evaluation over an actual busy CBD area in Stockholm (Sweden) shows increased scalability capa- bilities, when further parking resources are made available, compared to a baseline case algorithm. Using standard urban-mobility simulation packages, the traffic-congestion-aware SmartPark is also shown to minimize the journey duration to the selected parking lot while maximizing the chances to find an available spot at the selected lot.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-01-09 00:01
  • 108.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Stylianos, Sergis
    University of Piraeus, Athens, Greece.
    Demetrios, Sampson
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiason, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Cyberphysical Learning Approach for Digital Smart Citizenship Competence Development2017In: WWW '17: Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on World Wide Web Companion, ACM Digital Library, 2017, p. 397-405Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart Cities have emerged as a global concept that argues for the effective exploitation of digital technologies to drive sustainable innovation and well-being for citizens. Despite the large investments being placed on Smart City infrastructure, however, there is still very scarce attention on the new learning approaches that will be needed for cultivating Digital Smart Citizenship competences, namely the competences which will be needed by the citizens and workforce of such cities for exploiting the digital technologies in creative and innovative ways for driving financial and societal sustainability. In this context, this paper introduces cyberphysical learning as an overarching model of cultivating Digital Smart Citizenship competences by exploiting the potential of Internet of Things technologies and social media, in order to create authentic blended and augmented learning experiences.

  • 109.
    Augustsson, Christian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Egeberg Jacobson, Pontus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Scherqvist, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Evaluating Machine Learning Intrusion Detection System classifiers: Using a transparent experiment approach2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There have been many studies performing experiments that showcase the potential of machine learning solutions for intrusion detection, but their experimental approaches are non-transparent and vague, making it difficult to replicate their trained methods and results. In this thesis we exemplify a healthier experimental methodology.

    A survey was performed to investigate evaluation metrics. Three experiments implementing and benchmarking machine learning classifiers, using different optimization techniques, were performed to set up a frame of reference for future work, as well as signify the importance of using descriptive metrics and disclosing implementation.

    We found a set of metrics that more accurately describes the models, and we found guidelines that we would like future researchers to fulfill in order to make their work more comprehensible. For future work we would like to see more discussion regarding metrics, and a new dataset that is more generalizable.

  • 110.
    Axelsson, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Kunskap och mindreading inom fightingspel2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport handlar om hur spelare kommer fram till beslut i fightingspel: om de använder kunskap eller om de förutser vad motståndaren ska göra. Bakgrunden behandlar termen ”mindreading” och vad fightingspel är samt vilka skickligheter som används i fightingspel. En förundersökning gjordes med erfarna fightingspelsspelare för att undersöka vilka faktorer som skulle kunna vara viktiga. Rapportens frågeställning är om det är spelmekaniken eller förmågan till mindreading som är viktigast för framgång i ett spel med frekventa Yomi-situationer såsom fightingspel. Ett enkelt rundbaserat fightingspel togs fram för att användas i undersökningen. Sex par försökspersoner spelade spelet och samtidigt fick de tala högt om sina tankeprocesser. Analysen av spelomgångarna och spelarnas kommentarer indikerade att beslut baserade på spelmekanik var mer framgångsrika än beslut baserade på mindreading. Denna rapport bygger på en undersökning med dataspelare som dock inte var specialiserade på fightingspel. En kommande undersökning skulle kunna göras med mer erfarna spelare.

  • 111.
    Axelsson, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Privata VPN-anslutningar i nätverk2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To create a secure connection between two endpoints, over an otherwise insecure network, a VPN tunnel can be used. Traffic in the tunnel is encrypted so that it is hard for an outsider to intercept communication within the tunnel. VPN tunnels can have a negative impact on the network security. For example, existing protection methods may not be able to handle the encrypted traffic within the tunnel, which may lead to unwanted traffic entering the network.

    The purpose of this study is to chart IT managers' potential challenges, regarding unauthorized VPN tunnels, and how these challenges may be handled in various organizations. The purpose of the study is answered through three sub-questions. To answer these questions, a quantitative questionnaire and a qualitative interview study are applied. A total of 52 IT managers participated in the study. 37 IT managers participated in the questionnaire survey and another five participated in the interview study.

    The results show that one of the biggest challenges experienced by the IT-managers is that private VPN connections can act as a way into the network for unwanted network communication, which could result in information theft and destruction of an organization's assets. Furthermore, a majority of the study participants perceived that general user agreements and technical solutions are sufficient to maintain good protection against unauthorized VPN tunnels. This study brings new knowledge to the field of network security as it shows what challenges the IT-managers perceive from VPN tunnels and how those challenges are handled.

  • 112.
    Axelsson, Olle
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Diegetiska och spatiala UI-element i speltutorials: Hur immersion och lärbarhet påverkas av olika typer av UI i ett VR-spels tutorial2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tutorial kallas ofta delen i början av ett spel där spelaren lär sig hur spelet fungerar. Utformningen av detta segment, som ofta innehåller en kombination av träning i spelmekanik och inledning till spelets berättelse, utgör ofta en utmaning för speldesigners. I tutorial-delen av VR-spelet Budget Cuts har utvecklarna använt sig av så kallade spatiala UI-element för att förmedla instruktioner och information till spelaren. Man har från utvecklarnas sida sett vissa brister i lärbarhet och immersion. Det har föreslagits att en förflyttning av UI-element till ett diegetiskt plan, d.v.s. där dessa får en naturlig placering och del i spelets fiktion, kan ha en positiv effekt på immersionsnivån och lärbarheten. En ny version av spelets tutorial har utvecklats för att undersöka detta antagande. Genom användbarhetstestning och jämförelse av den nya och tidigare versionen, har detta visats stämma.

  • 113.
    Baalsrud Hauge, Jannicke Madeleine
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Bremer Institut für Produktion und Logistik, Germany.
    Stanescu, Ioana
    Carol I National Defence University, Romania.
    Arnab, Sylvester
    Disruptive Media Learning Lab, Coventry University, UK.
    Moreno Ger, Pablo
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Lim, Theodore
    Herriot-Watt University, UK.
    Serrano-Laguna, Angel
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Lameras, Petros
    Serious Games Institute, Coventry University, UK.
    Hendrix, Maurice
    School of Science and Technology, University of Northampton, UK.
    Kiili, Kristian
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Ninaus, Manuel
    University of Graz, Austria.
    de Freitas, Sara
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Mazzetti, Alessandro
    Gruppo SIGLA S.r.l, Italy.
    Dahlbom, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Degano, Cristiana
    Gruppo SIGLA S.r.l, Italy.
    Learning Analytics Architecture to Scaffold Learning Experience through Technology-based Methods2015In: International Journal of Serious Games, ISSN 2384-8766, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 29-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge of delivering personalized learning experiences is often increased by the size of classrooms and online learning communities. Serious Games (SGs) are increasingly recognized for their potential to improve education. However, the issues related to their development and their level of effectiveness can be seriously affected when brought too rapidly into growing online learning communities. Deeper insights into how the students are playing is needed to deliver a comprehensive and intelligent learning framework that facilitates better understanding of learners' knowledge, effective assessment of their progress and continuous evaluation and optimization of the environments in which they learn. This paper discusses current SOTA and aims to explore the potential in the use of games and learning analytics towards scaffolding and supporting teaching and learning experience. The conceptual model (ecosystem and architecture) discussed in this paper aims to highlight the key considerations that may advance the current state of learning analytics, adaptive learning and SGs, by leveraging SGs as an suitable medium for gathering data and performing adaptations.

  • 114.
    Back, Jesper
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Återanvändning av spelobjekt och dess påverkan på spelupplevelsen: En studie om originalitet i spelmiljöer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att återanvända spelobjekt är i dagsläget någon som ständigt används i spelproduktion. Återanvändningen är grundläggande för att effektivt kunna producera spel och hinna skapa grafiska resurser i tid. Men att se samma träd flera gånger i en skog gör man ju inte i verkligheten, är det inte möjligt att denna återanvändning påverkar spelarens upplevelse av spelvärlden? För att undersöka detta har en serie deltagare fått utvärdera sin upplevelse av två olika spelvärldar, en med hög grad av återanvändning och en med så sparsam återanvändning som möjligt. Genom att jämföra dessa upplevelser visade det sig att spelare generellt har svårt att upptäcka eller avgöra om en miljö återanvänder spelobjekt i hög utsträckning eller inte. Generell kvalitet av de spelobjekt som existerar verkar vara av större vikt än mångfald och variation. En tydligare koppling mellan återanvändningens påverkan och spelets genre samt precisering av eventuella minimiantal unika objekt av olika typer skulle kunna vara föremål för vidare studier i ämnet.

  • 115.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Developing games for non-leisure contexts: Identification of challenges and research gaps2017In: 2017 9th International Conference on Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications (VS-Games): Proceedings / [ed] F. Liarokapis et al., IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, 2017, p. 15-22, article id 8055806Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of games in non-leisure contexts is referred to as serious games. The tradition of using games for purposes beyond entertainment goes back a long time before digital games. However, with the advent of digital games, serious games development has become an issue of both game design and technology development in various combinations. This paper presents a literature review of what types of topics are studied in the realm of serious games development, and contrasts the results with challenges and problems expressed by a panel of developers and researchers in serious games and gamification to identify research gaps. Our findings indicate a lack of research on the actual usage situations of serious games. It seems that the phase of organizational deployment and use is most often overseen. Furthermore, we identified a lack of client/customer perspective in most research on the development of gamified solutions.

  • 116.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Enhancing Immersion with Contextualized Scenarios: Role-playing in prehospital care training2015In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications / [ed] Per Backlund, Henrik Engström & Fotis Liarokapis, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 167-170Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 117.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Danielsson, Magnus
    Västra Götalandsregionen.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås.
    The S.A.R.E.K Simulation Environment: Technical description of a flexible training environment for prehospital care.2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a technical description of the result of the S.A.R.E.K (Simulation – Ambulance – Research – Education - Kinship) collaboration project and the Sim2020 project. The projects are collaborations between researchers in healthcare and IT, and prehospital care practitioners, with the aim to design, develop and test a contextualized simulation environment for prehospital care. We built a simulation environment representing the full depth and width of a prehospital care process. Breadth refers to including all phases of a prehospital mission, from dispatch to handover; while depth refers to detailed representations and recreation of artefacts, information and context for each of these phases. This report outlines the details of the overall design, all equipment and practical solutions used to create this.  

    Apart from the installation which is described in this report we have also developed methods and carried out a variety of tests and experiments which are reported elsewhere. The focus of this report is the system and its components.

  • 118.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, HenrikUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.Liarokapis, FotisMasaryk University, Czech Republic.
    VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 119.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Breaking Out of the Bubble Putting Simulation Into Context to Increase Immersion and Performance2018In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 642-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Simulation based training with full-size mannequins is a prominent means of training within the healthcare sector. Prehospital missions include all parts of the healthcare process which take place before a patient is handed over to the receiving hospital. This implies that the context for prehospital care is varied and potentially challenging or dangerous in several ways. In this article we present a study which explores immersion and performance by emergency medical services (EMS) professionals in in a training situation which takes the specifics of prehospital interventions into account.

    Methods. The study was carried out as a field experiment at an ambulance unit. The experiment was designed to compare the differences between two types of medical scenarios: basic and contextualized. We analyzed the levels of immersion throughout the scenarios and then team performance was evaluated by independent experts. Both analyses were made by observing video recordings from multiple camera angles with a custom made analysis tool.

    Results. Our results show that the contextualization of a medical scenario increases both immersion as measured by the Immersion Score Rating Instrument (ISRI) and team performance as measured by the Global Rating Scale (GRS). The overall ISRI score was higher in the contextualized condition as compared to the basic condition, with an average team wise difference of 2.94 (sd = 1.45). This difference is significant using a paired, two-tailed t-test (p<.001). The GRS score was higher for overall clinical performance in the contextualized scenario with an average team wise difference of 0.83 (sd = 0.83, p=.005).

    Conclusions. Full-size mannequin simulation based training for EMS professionals may be enhanced by contextualizing the medical scenarios. The main benefits are that the contextualized scenarios better take prehospital medical challenges into account and allow participants to perform better.

  • 120.
    Backman, Arvid
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Effektivitet hos navigering av autonoma agenter: En jämförelse mellan flödesfält och vägföljning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete undersöks två styrbeteenden som kan användas för att navigera grupper av agenter genom olika spelmiljöer. Teknikerna som arbetet har som syfte att utvärdera är vägföljnings- och flödesfältsbeteende. Arbetets undersökning har som avsikt att jämföra dessa tekniker med avseende på tids- och minneseffektivitet och utvärdera hur dessa tekniker presterar på dessa aspekter i olika gruppstorlekar och miljötyper.

    Resultaten från arbetets utförda tester visade att vägföljningsbeteendet klart är den mest minneseffektiva tekniken medan flödesfältsbeteendet var något mer tidseffektiv. I en slutgiltig diskussion presenteras arbetet ur en samhällelig och etisk synpunkt och även en diskussion över hur framtida forskning inom området kan se ut.

  • 121.
    Badidi, Elarbi
    et al.
    United Arab Emirates University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
    Atif, Yacine
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Sheng, Michael Z.
    Macquarie University, New South Wales, Australia .
    Maheswaran, Muthucumaru
    McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
    On Personalized Cloud Service Provisioning for Mobile Users Using Adaptive and Context-Aware Service Composition2018In: Computing, ISSN 0010-485X, E-ISSN 1436-5057, Vol. 101, no 4, p. 291-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud service providers typically compose their services from a number of elementary services, which are developed in- house or built by third-party providers. Personalization of composite services in mobile environments is an interesting and challenging issue to address, given the opportunity to factor-in diverse user preferences and the plethora of mobile devices at use in multiple contexts. This work proposes a framework to address personalization in mobile cloud-service provisioning. Service personalization and adaptation may be considered at different levels, including the user profile, the mobile device in use, the context of the user and the composition specification. The user’s mobile device and external services are typical sources of context information, used in our proposed algorithm to elicit context-aware services. The selection process is guided by quality-of-context (QoC) criteria that combine cloud-service provider requirements and user preferences. Hence, the paper proposes an integrated framework for enhancing personalized mobile cloud-services, based on a composition approach that adapts context information using a common model of service metadata specification.

  • 122.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Visual Data Analysis2019In: Data science in Practice / [ed] Alan Said, Vicenç Torra, Springer, 2019, p. 133-155Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data Science offers a set of powerful approaches for making new discoveries from large and complex data sets. It combines aspects of mathematics, statistics, machine learning, etc. to turn vast amounts of data into new insights and knowledge. However, the sole use of automatic data science techniques for large amounts of complex data limits the human user’s possibilities in the discovery process, since the user is estranged from the process of data exploration. This chapter describes the importance of Information Visualization (InfoVis) and visual analytics (VA) within data science and how interactive visualization can be used to support analysis and decision-making, empowering and complementing data science methods. Moreover, we review perceptual and cognitive aspects, together with design and evaluation methodologies for InfoVis and VA.

  • 123.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Havsol, Jesper
    AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karpefors, Martin
    AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Mathiason, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Short Text Topic Modeling to Identify Trends on Wearable Bio-sensors in Different Media Types2019In: Proceedings - 6th International Symposium on Computational and Business Intelligence, ISCBI 2018, IEEE Computer Society, 2019, p. 89-93Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The technology and techniques for bio-sensors are rapidly evolving. Accordingly, there is significant business interest to identify upcoming technologies and new targets for the near future. Text information from internet reflects much of the recent information and public interests that help to understand the trend of a certain field. Thus, we utilize Dirichlet process topic modeling on different media sources containing short text (e.g., blogs, news) which is able to self-adapt the learned topic space to the data. We share the observations from the domain experts on the results derived from topic modeling on wearable biosensors from multiple media sources over more than eight years. We analyze the topics on wearable devices, forecast and market analysis, and bio-sensing techniques found from our method. 

  • 124.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde .
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde.
    Identifying Root Cause and Derived Effects in Causal Relationships2017In: Human Interface and the Management of Information: Information, Knowledge and Interaction Design: 19th International Conference, HCI International 2017, Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 9–14, 2017, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Sakae Yamamoto, Springer, 2017, p. 22-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on identifying factors that influence the process of finding a root cause and a derived effect in causal node-link graphs with associated strength and significance depictions. We discuss in detail the factors that seem to be involved in identifying a global cause and effect based on the analysis of the results of an online user study with 44 participants, who used both sequential and non-sequential graph layouts. In summary, the results show that participants show geodesic-path tendencies when selecting causes and derived effects, and that context matters, i.e., participant’s own beliefs, experiences and knowledge might influence graph interpretation.

  • 125.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Understanding Indirect Causal Relationships in Node-Link Graphs2017In: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 411-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To find correlations and cause and effect relationships in multivariate data sets is central in many data analysis problems. A common way of representing causal relations among variables is to use node-link diagrams, where nodes depict variables and edges show relationships between them. When performing a causal analysis, analysts may be biased by the position of collected evidences, especially when they are at the top of a list. This is of crucial importance since finding a root cause or a derived effect, and searching for causal chains of inferences are essential analytic tasks when investigating causal relationships. In this paper, we examine whether sequential ordering influences understanding of indirect causal relationships and whether it improves readability of multi-attribute causal diagrams. Moreover, we see how people reason to identify a root cause or a derived effect. The results of our design study show that sequential ordering does not play a crucial role when analyzing causal relationships, but many connections from/to a variable and higher strength/certainty values may influence the process of finding a root cause and a derived effect.

  • 126.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Mellin, Jonas
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Ståhl, Niclas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Complex Data Analysis2019In: Data science in Practice / [ed] Alan Said, Vicenç Torra, Springer, 2019, p. 157-169Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data science applications often need to deal with data that does not fit into the standard entity-attribute-value model. In this chapter we discuss three of these other types of data. We discuss texts, images and graphs. The importance of social media is one of the reason for the interest on graphs as they are a way to represent social networks and, in general, any type of interaction between people. In this chapter we present examples of tools that can be used to extract information and, thus, analyze these three types of data. In particular, we discuss topic modeling using a hierarchical statistical model as a way to extract relevant topics from texts, image analysis using convolutional neural networks, and measures and visual methods to summarize information from graphs.

  • 127.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ventocilla, Elio
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Evaluating Multi-Attributes on Cause and Effect Relationship Visualization2017In: Proceedings of the 12th International Joint Conference on Computer Vision, Imaging and Computer Graphics Theory and Applications (VISIGRAPP 2017): Volumne 3: IVAPP / [ed] Alexandru Telea, Jose Braz, Lars Linsen, SciTePress, 2017, p. 64-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents findings about visual representations of cause and effect relationship's direction, strength, and uncertainty based on an online user study. While previous researches focus on accuracy and few attributes, our empirical user study examines accuracy and the subjective ratings on three different attributes of a cause and effect relationship edge. The cause and effect direction was depicted by arrows and tapered lines; causal strength by hue, width, and a numeric value; and certainty by granularity, brightness, fuzziness, and a numeric value. Our findings point out that both arrows and tapered cues work well to represent causal direction. Depictions with width showed higher conjunct accuracy and were more preferred than that with hue. Depictions with brightness and fuzziness showed higher accuracy and were marked more understandable than granularity. In general, depictions with hue and granularity performed less accurately and were not preferred compared to the ones with numbers or with width and brightness.

  • 128.
    Bae, Juhee
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ventocilla, Elio
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Torra, Vicenç
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    On the Visualization of Discrete Non-additive Measures2018In: Aggregation Functions in Theory and in Practice AGOP 2017 / [ed] Torra V, Mesiar R, Baets B, Springer, 2018, p. 200-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-additive measures generalize additive measures, and have been utilized in several applications. They are used to represent different types of uncertainty and also to represent importance in data aggregation. As non-additive measures are set functions, the number of values to be considered grows exponentially. This makes difficult their definition but also their interpretation and understanding. In order to support understability, this paper explores the topic of visualizing discrete non-additive measures using node-link diagram representations.

  • 129.
    Bagler, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Normbrytande form på spelrollen Tank: Kan en spelkaraktär med de spelmekaniska egenskaperna hos rollen Tank upplevas annorlunda om den har en kroppstyp som inte normalt är associerad med den rollen?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker om personer med erfarenhet av hjältebaserade spel kan kategorisera en karaktär som rollen Tank, när karaktären har en kroppstyp som inte normalt är associerad med rollen. De fem deltagarna i undersökningen fick se två karaktärer, en med bred kroppsform och en med smal kroppsform. Båda karaktärerna finns i två versioner, en spetsig och en rund, och deltagarna fick sedan gissa deras roll i ett hypotetiskt spel.    

    Resultatet visar att en karaktär med smal kroppsform har svårare att få deltagarna att uppfatta den som Tank än en bred karaktär. Överlag var svaren att karaktärsrollen inte var Tank.     

  • 130.
    Baiao, Manuel Mazanga
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Open Source Verktyg Stöd för Centrala Egenskaper hos Business Process Management (BPM) System2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    In a world of developing complex information technologies, companies and organizations need flexible and updated business systems that and match these technological developments. For this reason, commercial BPMS (Business Process Management System) tools have become popular because of their high ability to quickly integrate with business systems in new work environments. An alternative to commercial BPMS tools are the OSS-based (Open Source Software) open source BPMS tools that are available for the public to develop. Since the OSS-based BPMS tools are often new on the market and need further development, the purpose of this paper was to conduct an analysis of open source-based BPMS tools with respect to their various features. Such an analysis increases the understanding of the tools’ functionality and therefore facilitates further development of them. Based on an established analysis model by Delgado et al. (2015), a thematic option for some companies, depending on the characteristics and functionalities that are prioritized within the company. Content analysis was conducted to compare the characteristics of these tools. More specifically, collected documents were analyzed describing the properties of BPMS tools. That way, 6 different BPMS tools were compared based on 13 properties. The analysis showed that Bonitasoft, jBPM and JBPM5 were the most well-developed BPMS tools that supported most of the features. In addition, the analysis demonstrated that tools with fewer features could still be a good option for some companies, depending on the characteristics and functionalities that are prioritized within the company.

  • 131.
    Baiao, Manuel Mazanga
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Open source verktygs stöd för centrala egenskaper hos Business Process Management (BPM) system2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a world of developing complex information technologies, companies and organizations need flexible and updated business systems that and match these technological developments. For this reason, commercial BPMS (Business Process Management System) tools have become popular because of their high ability to quickly integrate with business systems in new work environments. An alternative to commercial BPMS tools are the OSS-based (Open Source Software) open source BPMS tools that are available for the public to develop. Since the OSS-based BPMS tools are often new on the market and need further development, the purpose of this paper was to conduct an analysis of open source-based BPMS tools with respect to their various features. Such an analysis increases the understanding of the tools’ functionality and therefore facilitates further development of them. Based on an established analysis model by Delgado et al. (2015), a thematic option for some companies, depending on the characteristics and functionalities that are prioritized within the company. Content analysis was conducted to compare the characteristics of these tools. More specifically, collected documents were analyzed describing the properties of BPMS tools. That way, 6 different BPMS tools were compared based on 13 properties. The analysis showed that Bonitasoft, jBPM and JBPM5 were the most well-developed BPMS tools that supported most of the features. In addition, the analysis demonstrated that tools with fewer features could still be a good option for some companies, depending on the characteristics and functionalities that are prioritized within the company.

  • 132.
    Baker, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Evaluating the Necessity of Third-Party Antivirus Software2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Some may assume that it is essential to purchase and install antivirus software to protect the underlying layers of an IT infrastructure. However, nowadays the Windows 10 operating system is shipped with a built-in antivirus feature by default. With Microsoft being a large contender in the antivirus market it raises the question if it is necessary to use third-party antivirus software in a Windows 10 environment.

     

    The aim of this research is to determine the necessity of third-party antivirus software by examining the detection capabilities and measuring the performance impact caused by third-party antivirus software, in comparison with the antivirus service that is integrated with the Windows 10 operating system. This was done by measuring the response time of certain user activities to determine how the user-experience is affected differently by using third-party antivirus software. In addition to the effect on performance, the documentation of the tested products was studied to determine if there is value in using non-integrated antivirus software.

     

    The results of the performance benchmarks showed that overall there was a significant performance increase when using third-party antivirus. Additionally, the study showed that some third-party antivirus software offers more ways to detect malicious activities than Windows Defender Antivirus. These two facts put together suggests that using third-party antivirus software in a Windows 10 environment is necessary if there is a desire to increase the efficiency of performing certain user activities and if there is a desire to have more detection capabilities available.

  • 133.
    Banik, Kallol
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Investigation of Methods for Testing Aspect Oriented Software2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aspect-oriented programming is a comparatively new programming paradigm which intends to overcome some limitations that approaches such as procedural programming and object-oriented programming have. Traditional approaches are unable to properly capture some design decisions. Aspect-oriented programming introduces some new properties that we don’t find in the structural programming or object-oriented programming. New design patterns of aspect-oriented software introduce new fault types and new challenges for testing. Testing is an important part in the software development to produce quality software. Research on testing aspect-oriented software has been going on for several years but it still remains to invent testing approaches that cover all features of aspect-oriented software. This dissertation surveys test methods for aspect-oriented software and presents a comparison among the testing methods which reveals the strengths and weaknesses of current methods for testing of aspect-oriented software. This comparative overview of proposed test methods can be helpful for testers who intend to test aspect-oriented software. The conclusion presents the research contribution of this dissertation and proposes future work.

  • 134.
    Bankler, Jon Victor
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    A chinese view on indie: How is ‘indie’ defined by professionals within the Chinese indie game industry?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to explore which philosophies and opinions professionals within the Chinese indie game industry hold in relation to the indie concept. Indie is a short form of the word "independence”, and is used to describe certain products and creative practices within media such as video games. The term’s exact definition is however subject to discussion. This study aims to include Chinese game professionals in this discussion.

    The study was carried out in China through Game Hub Scandinavia (Game Hub Scandinavia, 2018) and in cooperation with Indienova. The participants that were interviewed in this study were all professionals within the Chinese game industry. The research tools developed for these interviews were two playable demos and a survey. The answers provided constituted as basis for the study’s concluding analysis.

    The data indicated that the Chinese indie developers define indie as a creative endeavour which products and underlying ambitions contrasts the commercially motivated game industry in China.

  • 135.
    Bankler, Jon Victor
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    The Cultural Adaptation of Playful Learning: Aspects to consider when culturalizing a children’s educational game for the Chinese market2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores suitable applications of culturalization in the case of educational games for children, specifically in relation to the Chinese market. Culturalization, in the context of video games, are design choices and adjustments applied to a product in order to cater to the needs of different cultural environments. The characteristics of both this genre, and this target locale, determines to which aspects of the product culturalization should be applied.

    Using three commercial educational games as a basis for discussion, the research was conducted through a series of expert interviews with pedagogues, localizers and game researchers in China. By analyzing the data gathered through these interviews, a series of aspects to consider for culturalization was defined. These were: usage of cultural references; the branding of the product; educational utility in relation to the local school curriculum; choice of gamification design.

  • 136.
    Barkestedt, Filip
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Jämförelse av WebGL-teknologier vid rendering av heatmaps utifrån marin miljödata: Jämförelse mellan Three.js och X3DOM2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En stor kvantitet av miljödata samlas hela tiden in och för att dra nytta av all data behöver den förstås av de användarna som kan applicera kunskapen inom deras område. Visualiseringar tillåter användare att förstå datan och det är därför en viktig del av hur en användare kan ta del av den datan som samlas in. I detta arbete evalueras de WebGLbaserade teknologierna Three.js och X3DOM om vilken som är mest lämplig för att visualisera geospatial data på webben utifrån hur effektiva de är vid rendering av heatmaps. Två applikationer utvecklas, en baserat på Three.js och en på X3DOM. Mätningar utförs på varje applikation för att jämföra renderingstiden mellan teknologierna och en kvalitativ studie används för att evaluera deras användbarhet. Resultatet blev att Three.js är mer lämpligt för att visualisera geospatial data på webben.

  • 137.
    Bartlett, Madeleine E.
    et al.
    Centre for Robotics and Neural Systems, University of Plymouth, UK.
    Costescu, Cristina
    Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
    Baxter, Paul
    Lincoln Centre for Autonomous Systems, School of Computer Science, University of Lincoln, UK.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Requirements for Robotic Interpretation of Social Signals “in the Wild”: Insights from Diagnostic Criteria of Autism Spectrum Disorder2020In: Information, E-ISSN 2078-2489, Information, E-ISSN 2078-2489, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last few decades have seen widespread advances in technological means to characterise observable aspects of human behaviour such as gaze or posture. Among others, these developments have also led to significant advances in social robotics. At the same time, however, social robots are still largely evaluated in idealised or laboratory conditions, and it remains unclear whether the technological progress is sufficient to let such robots move “into the wild”. In this paper, we characterise the problems that a social robot in the real world may face, and review the technological state of the art in terms of addressing these. We do this by considering what it would entail to automate the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Just as for social robotics, ASD diagnosis fundamentally requires the ability to characterise human behaviour from observable aspects. However, therapists provide clear criteria regarding what to look for. As such, ASD diagnosis is a situation that is both relevant to real-world social robotics and comes with clear metrics. Overall, we demonstrate that even with relatively clear therapist-provided criteria and current technological progress, the need to interpret covert behaviour cannot yet be fully addressed. Our discussions have clear implications for ASD diagnosis, but also for social robotics more generally. For ASD diagnosis, we provide a classification of criteria based on whether or not they depend on covert information and highlight present-day possibilities for supporting therapists in diagnosis through technological means. For social robotics, we highlight the fundamental role of covert behaviour, show that the current state-of-the-art is unable to charact

  • 138.
    Bartlett, Madeleine
    et al.
    Centre for Robotics and Neural Systems (CRNS), University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom.
    Edmunds, Charlotte E.R.
    Warwick Business School, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom.
    Belpaeme, Tony
    Centre for Robotics and Neural Systems (CRNS), University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom / ID Lab—imec, University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Lemaignan, Séverin
    Bristol Robotics Lab, University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    What Can You See?: Identifying Cues on Internal States From the Movements of Natural Social Interactions2019In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 6, no 49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the field of Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) has seen an increasingdemand for technologies that can recognize and adapt to human behaviors and internalstates (e.g., emotions and intentions). Psychological research suggests that humanmovements are important for inferring internal states. There is, however, a need to betterunderstand what kind of information can be extracted from movement data, particularlyin unconstrained, natural interactions. The present study examines which internal statesand social constructs humans identify from movement in naturalistic social interactions.Participants either viewed clips of the full scene or processed versions of it displaying2D positional data. Then, they were asked to fill out questionnaires assessing their socialperception of the viewed material. We analyzed whether the full scene clips were moreinformative than the 2D positional data clips. First, we calculated the inter-rater agreementbetween participants in both conditions. Then, we employed machine learning classifiersto predict the internal states of the individuals in the videos based on the ratingsobtained. Although we found a higher inter-rater agreement for full scenes comparedto positional data, the level of agreement in the latter case was still above chance,thus demonstrating that the internal states and social constructs under study wereidentifiable in both conditions. A factor analysis run on participants’ responses showedthat participants identified the constructs interaction imbalance, interaction valence andengagement regardless of video condition. The machine learning classifiers achieveda similar performance in both conditions, again supporting the idea that movementalone carries relevant information. Overall, our results suggest it is reasonable to expecta machine learning algorithm, and consequently a robot, to successfully decode andclassify a range of internal states and social constructs using low-dimensional data (suchas the movements and poses of observed individuals) as input.

  • 139.
    Batofi, Sardar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Grafiska Designens verkan på högskolestudenter gällande tilliten till nyhets webbplatser: Denna rapport handlar om hur den grafiska designen på en nyhets webbplats påverkar Högskolestudenters tillit till webbplatsen, och hur det påverkar trovärdigheten på artiklar som återfinns på webbplatsen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This review is about how the graphic design on a news site influences college students' trust towards the site and how it affects the credibility to the articles from the student's perspective. The review was conducted on the basis of a triangular research method. A quantitative and a qualitative method was used, the collection techniques used during the review were a survey and interviews. The purpose of the survey was to understand what factors affect users' trust in a news site and article credibility. The motivation for this review is that truthless news are spread across social media and that many people do not realize that the news is truthless and choose to share it with their circle on social media. This is something that needs to be processed and fixed. 

  • 140.
    Bellogín, Alejandro
    et al.
    Iniversidad Autńoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Said, Alan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Information Retrieval and Recommender Systems2019In: Data Science in Practice / [ed] Alan Said, Vicenç Torra, Springer, 2019, p. 79-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter gives a brief introduction to what artificial intelligence is. We begin discussing some of the alternative definitions for artificial intelligence and introduce the four major areas of the field. Then, in subsequent sections we present these areas. They are problem solving and search, knowledge representation and knowledge-based systems, machine learning, and distributed artificial intelligence. The chapter follows with a discussion on some ethical dilemma we find in relation to artificial intelligence. A summary closes this chapter.

  • 141.
    Bellogín, Alejandro
    et al.
    Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Said, Alan
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Recommender Systems Evaluation2018In: Encyclopedia of Social Network Analysis and Mining / [ed] Reda Alhajj, Jon Rokne, Springer, 2018, 2Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 142.
    Bengtegård, Alfons
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Push tjänster och plattformsoberoende ramverk2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 143.
    Bengtsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Dynamisk Kollisionsundvikande I Twin Stick shooter: Hastighetshinder och partikelseparation2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I examensarbetet jämförs undvikande av kollision och tidsefektivitet mellan det två metoderna hastighetshinder och partikelseparation i spelgenren Twin stick shooter. Arbetet försöker besvara frågan: Hur skiljer sig undvikandet av kollision och tidseffektiviteten mellan metoderna hastighetshinder och partikelseparation, i spelgenren twin stick shooter med flockbeteende? För att besvara frågan har en artefakt skapats. I artefakten jagar agenter en spelare medan agenterna undviker kollision med andra agenter, dock eftersträvar agenterna att kollidera med spelaren. I artefakten körs olika experiment baserat på parametrar som har ställts in. Varje experiment körs en bestämd tid och all data om kollisioner och exekveringstid för respektive metod sparas i en textfil.   Resultatet av experimenten pekar på att partikelseparation lämpar sig bättre för twin stick shooters.  Hastighetshinder kolliderar mindre men tidsberäkningen är för hög och skalar dåligt med antal agenter. Det passar inte twinstick shooter då det oftast är många agenter på skärmen.  Metoderna för undvikandet av kollision har användning till radiostyrda billar och robotar, samt simulation av folkmassa.

  • 144.
    Bengtsson Fröberg, Anton
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Visuell identifikation av musik2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att kunna identifiera musik baserat på vad man hör är uppenbart, att identifiera musik på vad vi ser, en tolkning av ljudet, är noterbart svårare. Att kunna veta om musik spelas och vad för musik det då är som spelas är något som markeras som viktigt ifall man har nedsatt hörsel, att kunna visuellt se musik kan ge tillgång till just det. Ett experiment har genomförts för att försöka svara på frågan ifall det är möjligt att särsklija olika sorters musik med hjälp av visualiseringar av musiken, det visar sig att det är möjligt i en kontrollerad och skräddarsydd miljö men att det kan visa sig svårare i verkligenheten att implementera ett verktyg för detta.

  • 145.
    Bengtsson Jürisalu, Martin
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Webbgeografiska informationssystem och Javascript: Lokalrenderade vs servergenererade kartor i praktiken2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Webbgeografiska informationssystem är populärt på internet. Många stora företag erbjuder karttjänster, exempelvis Google som erbjuder en tjänst som kallas maps. Maps är i dagsläget väldigt populär och hanterar massa olika tjänster. Bland dessa tjänster finns bland annat navigering och lokaliseringsverktyg. Detta arbete har i syfte att kunna undersöka olika strategier och metoder som skulle kunna användas för att kunna skapa en så tidseffektiv (exekverings- och renderingstidsmässigt) kartapplikation som möjligt.

    Två stycken huvudapplikationer har skapats i syfte att analyseras, utvärderas och jämföras. De två applikationer använder sig utav olika tekniker som heter servergenerering och lokalrendering. Utöver servergenerering och lokalrendering så används även olika filformat i de olika applikationer. Applikationen som bygger på servergenerering använder sig av rastergrafik i PNG format. Applikationen som bygger på lokalrendering använder sig av vektorgrafik i SVG format.

    Resultatet som presenteras i detta arbete visar att de olika teknikerna som används i de olika applikationer lämpar sig bra till olika saker. Det vill säga att rastergrafik har en viss fördel gentemot vektorgrafik och vice versa.

  • 146.
    Bengtsson, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Intuitivt kontrollschema: En möjlighet till ökad lärbarhet för spelkontroller2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Spelare behöver lära sig kontrollera ett spel innan de kan få en god upplevelse, men det kan ofta vara svårt att lära sig använda en handkontroll. Naturlig mappning, affordance och tutorials hjälper enbart i vissa fall. Det finns dock indikationer på att intuitiva kontroller skulle kunna fungera, men ingen forskning inom området existerar. Detta arbete syftar till att jämföra lärbarheten hos två olika kontrollscheman, där det ena utvecklats för att vara intuitivt för nyblivna spelare. Kvalitativa och semistrukturerade intervjuer användes för att undersöka vad som är ett intuitivt kontrollschema. En prototyp av ett spel skapades, och denna kunde spelas med båda kontrollschemana. Genom att observera hur nyblivna spelare använde kontrollschemana utvärderades och jämfördes deras respektive lärbarhet. Resultatet visade att det intuitiva kontrollschemat förefaller ha högre lärbarhet än det alternativa kontrollschemat. Problem att hitta lämpliga deltagare samt med utvecklingen av det icke intuitiva kontrollschemat gör dock att arbetets trovärdighet är diskutabelt.

  • 147.
    Bennett, Jack
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    A Scalable Recommender System for Automatic Playlist Continuation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As major companies like Spotify, Deezer and Tidal look to improve their music streamingproducts, they repeatedly opt for features that engage with users and lead to a morepersonalised user experience. Automatic playlist continuation enables these platforms tosupport their users with a seamless and smooth interface to enjoy music, own their experience,and discover new songs and artists.This report details a recommender system that enables automatic playlist continuation;providing the recommendation of music tracks to users who are creating new playlists or curatingexisting ones. The recommendation framework given in this report is able to provide accurateand pertinent track recommendation, but also addresses issues of scalability, practicalimplementation and decision transparency, so that commercial enterprises can deploy such asystem more easily and develop a winning strategy for their user experience. Furthermore, therecommender system does not require any rich and varied supply of user data, instead requiringonly basic information as input such as the title of the playlist, the tracks currently in the playlist,and the artists associated with those tracks.To accomplish these goals, the system relies on user-based collaborative filtering; a simple, wellestablishedmethod of recommendation, supported by web-scraping and topic modellingalgorithms that creatively use the supplied data to paint a more holistic image of what kind ofplaylist the user would like. This system was developed using data from the Million PlaylistDataset, released by Spotify in 2018 as part of the Recommender Systems Challenge, evaluatedusing R-precision, normalised discounted cumulative gain, and a proprietary evaluation metriccalled Recommended Song Clicks, that reflects the number of times a user would have to refreshthe list of recommendations provided if the current Spotify user interface was used tocommunicate them. Over an 80:20 train-test split, the scores were: 0.343, 0.224, and 15.73.

  • 148.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Novices Vs. Experts: Game-Based Learning and the Heterogeneous Classroom Audience2015In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Games Based Learning: Nord-Trondelag University College Steinkjer Norway / [ed] Robin Munkvold and Line Kolås, Reading, UK: Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2015, p. 664-671Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how the heterogeneity of K-12 students, as game audiences, affect the way games can beused as educational tools in formal education. When discussing the application of games in educational contexts, the realitiesof the formal educational environment are seldom brought to the fore. There has been a lot of discourse and studiessurrounding the theoretical viability of games as engaging educational tools and their properties as learning environments,but the practicalities of inserting games into classroom environments are comparatively rarely the subject of game-basedlearning research. This paper presents two five month long studies using participatory observation that details the processof putting a commercial of-the-shelf game to use in two different types of formal educational K-12 environments: a computerlab and a classroom. More specifically, this paper focuses on examining how students receive and work with a well-knowncommercial off-the-shelf game when it is introduced as a tool in their ordinary curriculum work. The study revealed severalchallenges that put many of the axiomatic assumptions practitioners and scholars frequently make regarding games’ virtuesas educational tools into question. The challenges relate to students’ perceptions of games and gaming, variations instudents’ efficacy while playing, and of exclusionary behaviour during collaborations. Commercial of-the-shelf games, whilethey might be more equipped than educational titles when it comes to living up to player expectations as far as productionvalues are concerned, can instil a certain set of faulty expectations of how the game will actually be used. If the used gameis widely recognisable by the classroom audience, the important distinction between gameplay intended for active directedlearning rather than unguided leisure activity can be difficult to establish, which can make it difficult for teachers to keepstudents in a reflexive and analytic mode of play. The classroom as a game audience also puts the educator in a tricky positiondue to the wide variation of preferences and gaming literacy among students, and creating engaging play-sessions that areinclusive to everyone in classroom environments can be an immense undertaking for teachers. While the study revealsseveral issues produced by the tension between games and the heterogeneous nature of the classroom as an audience, italso highlights the importance of managing students’ expectations, framing the play activity correctly, and fosteringcollaborative work where subject matter knowledge and gaming literacy are intertwined.

  • 149.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Out of Context: Understanding the Practicalities of Learning Games2014In: DiGRA '14 - Proceedings of the 2014 DiGRA International Conference, Snowbird, UT: Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) , 2014, , p. 16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to highlight the lack of studies examining the contexts in which learning games are used. Learning game research tends to focus heavily on the game artefact by examining how different types of designs foster both engagement and learning and how well the axiomatic definitions of good game design correspond to sound learning principles. While the dissection of the anatomy of games is important, there is an overabundance of studies on learning games as isolated systems at the expense of examinations of the constraints, possibilities, and requirements imposed by their real-world context of use. Learning games that are intended to work in formal settings like K-12 classrooms constitute systems that significantly differ from the traditional game scenarios between game artefacts and their players. As of yet few researchers have set out to survey these systems in their entirety. This paper presents a small literature review of learning game research that highlight the absence of studies focused on understanding the practicalities of the development and use of learning games. The paper also juxtaposes the results of the review with outcomes of a study conducted “within” the identified gap to present arguments for why the current lack of practical research is problematic. 

  • 150.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Swedish Game Education: 2001-2016: An overview of the past and present of Swedish, academic, game-related educations2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This report is written as a part of the EU Interreg Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak funded project GameHub Scandinavia. The aim of the project is to provide resources and services to developers, educators, researchers, and supporting actors that are involved in the Scandinavian game industry. The report is intended to be a continuation of a series of reports written at the University of Skövde regarding the state of Swedish game educations. The inaugural report, Spelutbildarindex 2011, provided the first inventory of Swedish game educations on the tertiary level, and intended to discuss their rapid rate of expansion and the ways in which universities and vocational schools accommodated for changing demands in the industry. A second report, Game Development, Education & Incubation, delved deeper into incubation and industry, and provided a larger, but rather brief, overview of game educations in Denmark and Norway as a supplement to the Swedish statistics.

    This report will essentially describe Swedish game education as a tale of two different eras; the pre-2013 proliferation era, and the post-2013 plateau era. Previously produced reports on the topics were written during a period where game educations were rapidly proliferating, and when the games industry was in a more volatile state than it is currently. The state of both academia and industry differs immensely between this millennium’s two inaugural decades. Throughout the ‘00s, game educations grew at a rate that seemed to favour accommodation for student interests rather than processes of quality assurance, deliberation, and programme improvement. In the ‘10s, the amount of programmes have stopped increasing, and most of the statistics regarding student numbers have plateaued, and are in some cases even decreasing.

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