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  • 10001.
    Ulfenborg, Benjamin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Classification of tumor samples from expression data using decision trunks2013In: Cancer Informatics, ISSN 1176-9351, E-ISSN 1176-9351, Vol. 12, p. 53-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel machine learning approach for the classification of cancer samples using expression data. We refer to the method as "decision trunks," since it is loosely based on decision trees, but contains several modifications designed to achieve an algorithm that: (1) produces smaller and more easily interpretable classifiers than decision trees; (2) is more robust in varying application scenarios; and (3) achieves higher classification accuracy. The decision trunk algorithm has been implemented and tested on 26 classification tasks, covering a wide range of cancer forms, experimental methods, and classification scenarios. This comprehensive evaluation indicates that the proposed algorithm performs at least as well as the current state of the art algorithms in terms of accuracy, while producing classifiers that include on average only 2-3 markers. We suggest that the resulting decision trunks have clear advantages over other classifiers due to their transparency, interpretability, and their correspondence with human decision-making and clinical testing practices. © the author(s), publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Ltd.

  • 10002.
    Ulfenborg, Benjamin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Genome-wide discovery of miRNAs using ensembles of machine learning algorithms and logistic regression2015In: International Journal of Data Mining and Bioinformatics, ISSN 1748-5681, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 338-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In silico prediction of novel miRNAs from genomic sequences remains a challenging problem. This study presents a genome-wide miRNA discovery software package called GenoScan and evaluates two hairpin classification methods. These methods, one ensemble-based and one using logistic regression were benchmarked along with 15 published methods. In addition, the sequence-folding step is addressed by investigating the impact of secondary structure prediction methods and the choice of input sequence length on prediction performance. Both the accuracy of secondary structure predictions and the miRNA prediction are evaluated. In the benchmark of hairpin classification methods, the regression model achieved highest classification accuracy. Of the structure prediction methods evaluated, ContextFold achieved the highest agreement between predicted and experimentally determined structures. However, both the choice of secondary structure prediction method and input sequence length had limited impact on hairpin classification performance.

  • 10003.
    Ulfenborg, Benjamin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Klinga-Levan, Karin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    GenoScan: Genomic Scanner for Putative miRNA Precursors2014In: Bioinformatics Research and Applications: 10th International Symposium, ISBRA 2014, Zhangjiajie, China, June 28-30, 2014. Proceedings / [ed] Mitra Basu, Yi Pan, Jianxin Wang, Springer, 2014, p. 266-277Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The significance of miRNAs has been clarified over the last decade as thousands of these small non-coding RNAs have been found in a wide variety of species. By binding to specific target mRNAs, miRNAs act as negative regulators of gene expression in many different biological processes. Computational approaches for discovery of miRNAs in genomes usually take the form of an algorithm that scans sequences for miRNA-characteristic hairpins, followed by classification of those hairpins as miRNAs or nonmiRNAs. In this study, two new approaches to genome-scale miRNA discovery are presented and evaluated. These methods, one ensemble-based and one using logistic regression, have been designed to detect miRNA candidates without relying on conservation or transcriptome data, and to achieve high-confidence predictions in reasonable computational time. GenoScan achieves high accuracy with a good balance between sensitivity and specificity. In a benchmark evaluation including 15 previously published methods, the regression-based approach in GenoScan achieved the highest classification accuracy.

  • 10004.
    Ulfström, Emil
    University of Skövde, School of Business.
    Medlemsbankernas riskhantering: med samhällsengagemang som ledstjärna2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden today there are two member banks, JAK Medlemsbank and Ekobanken. They differ from the Swedish commercial banks by looking at themselves and their role from a social perspective. Banking is associated with risks, mainly credit risk but also other risks. Banks' risk management becomes more and more technologically advanced. The study aims to contribute to greater understanding of how Sweden's member banks manage their risks compared to the commercial banks.

    Two theories of human models are presented; Homo Politicus, social man, and Homo Economicus, the rational profit-maximizing man. The different groups of banks differ in business logic and driving force which finds support in these two theories.

    The study makes a comparative analysis of data from three different collection methods. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used to come to an accurate conclusion.

    The member banks are driven by a genuine social commitment and their CSR work is well integrated into everyday operations, while at the commercial banks are CSR efforts more besides banking. The member banks show an openness and this is a great addition to their liquidity buffers in a liquidity crisis. The commercial banks' risk analysis of credit based more closely on measurable quantitative factors than the member banks where there is a greater focus on qualitative factors. Although the tools of risk analysis differ member banks and the commercial banks. The commercial banks have centrally developed decision support as a base in its risk analysis while the member banks have a more manual handling. Basel III, the new regulations with stricter requirements for capital and liquidity requirements for banks have not had any negative impact on member banks, as their margins even before the introduction was better than the new stricter discipline. However, the increased workload on the new comprehensive regulatory framework affecting the member banks.

    That member banks can conduct banking activities from a social perspective rather than a more traditional profit-maximizing perspective can be explained by that bank customers accept the higher requirements from the banks, either in the form of collateral or savings alongside loans. This is possible because the member banks members, who is also a partner, are closer to the theory of Homo Politicus like member banks than Homo Economicus that the commercial banks are closer to.

  • 10005.
    Ullah, Naseem
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Disease modules identification in heterogenous diseases with WGCNA method2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The widely collected and analyzed genetic data help in understanding the underlying mechanisms of heterogeneous diseases. Cellular components interact in a network fashion where genes are nodes and edges are the interactions. The failure in individual genes lead to dys-regulation of sub-groups of genes which causes a disease phenotype, and this dys-functional region is called a disease module. Disease module identification in complex diseases such as asthma and cancer is a huge challenge. Despite the development of numerous sophisticated methods there is a still no gold standard. In this study we apply different parameter settings to test the performance of a widely used method for disease module detection in multi-omics data called Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA). A systematic approach is used to identify disease modules in asthma and arthritis diseases. The accuracy of obtained modules is validated by a pathway scoring algorithm (PASCAL) and GWAS SNP enrichment. Our results differ between the tested data sets and therefore we cannot conclude with recommendations for an optimal setting that could perform best for multiple data sets using this method.

  • 10006.
    Ulvestad, Maria
    et al.
    AstraZeneca, Sweden / Cellectis AB, Sweden / University of Oslo, Norway.
    Nordell, Pär
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Asplund, Annika
    Cellectis AB, Sweden.
    Rehnström, Marie
    Cellectis AB, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Susanna
    Cellectis AB, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Gustav
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Cellectis AB, Sweden / Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Davidson, Lindsay
    University of Dundee, Scotland.
    Brolén, Gabriella
    AstraZeneca, Sweden.
    Edsbagge, Josefina
    Cellectis AB, Sweden.
    Björquist, Petter
    Cellectis AB, Sweden.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Cellectis AB, Sweden.
    Andersson, Tommy B.
    AstraZeneca, Sweden / Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter protein profiles of hepatocytes derived from human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells2013In: Biochemical Pharmacology, ISSN 0006-2952, E-ISSN 1356-1839, Vol. 86, no 5, p. 691-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes (hESC-Hep and hiPSC-Hep) have the potential to provide relevant human in vitro model systems for toxicity testing and drug discovery studies. In this study, the expression and function of important drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and transporter proteins in hESC-Hep and hiPSC-Hep were compared to cryopreserved human primary hepatocytes (hphep) and HepG2 cells. Overall, CYP activities in hESC-Hep and hiPSC-Hep were much lower than in hphep cultured for 4 h, but CYP1A and 3A activities were comparable to levels in hphep cultured for 48 h (CYP1A: 35% and 26% of 48 h hphep, respectively; CYP3A: 80% and 440% of 48 h hphep, respectively). Importantly, in hESC-Hep and hiPSC-Hep, CYP activities were stable or increasing for at least one week in culture which was in contrast to the rapid loss of CYP activities in cultured hphep between 4 and 48 h after plating. With regard to transporters, in hESC-Hep and hiPSC-Hep, pronounced NTCP activity (17% and 29% of 4 h hphep, respectively) and moderate BSEP activity (6% and 8% of 4 h hphep, respectively) were observed. Analyses of mRNA expression and immunocytochemistry supported the observed CYP and transporter activities and showed expression of additional CYPs and transporters. In conclusion, the stable expression and function of CYPs and transporters in hESC-Hep and hiPSC-Hep for at least one week opens up the possibility to reproducibly perform long term and extensive studies, e.g. chronic toxicity testing, in a stem cell-derived hepatic system. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 10007.
    Ulvstig, Kalle
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Systemutvecklares syn på användarcentrerad systemdesign2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det talas ofta om hur viktigt det är att involvera användarna vid systemutveckling. Genom att använda användarcentrerad systemdesign kan det bidra till bättre system både ur teknisk- och användarsynpunkt. Det är av stor betydelse att de användare som tas ut vid användarcentrerad systemdesign representerar användargruppen. Användarcentrerad systemdesign är en process som fokuserar på användare och användbarhet genom hela utvecklingsprocessen och vidare genom hela livscykeln. Detta arbete syftar till att undersöka vilka kriterier som utvecklare använder sig av för att ta ut användare vid angreppssättet användarcentrerad systemdesign. Arbetet har genomförts genom en litteraturstudie och ett antal intervjuer.

  • 10008.
    Ulvö, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Systemlösningsmigrationer till öppen källkod: En analys av utförda migrationsprojekt i offentliga förvaltningar sett utifrån ett riskperspektiv2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien bidrar till attöka kunskapen inom området systemlösningsmigrationer genomatt ta reda på vad som går att lära av tidigare genomförda migrationsprojekt. Studien genomförs genom att utföra fallstudier på avrapporterade migrationsprojekt som har utfört en migration från att använda proprietära systemlösningar till att använda systemlösningar baserade på öppen källkod. Efter en urvalsprocess kvarstod tre migrationsprojekt aktuella för analys utifrån ett riskperspektiv. Det var migrationsprojektet LiMux i Tyskland,ett projekt inom det franska gendarmeriet och ett projekt som utfördes bland skolorna i Bolzanoprovinsen i Italien.

    Resultatet av studien visar bland annat att alla tre migrationsprojekten upplevde risken att inte kunna ta egna IT-beslut före den utförda migrationen. Detta berodde på att de före migrationen använde sig av proprietära systemlösningar, vilka de upplevt varit orsaken till detta. Den här risken säger de sig nu ha kunnat undvika genom att använda systemlösningar baserade på öppen källkod. De risker som förvaltningarna upplevt efter utförd migration kan sammanfattas med att det är risker som medför kortsiktiga problem för förvaltningarna. De räknar med att riskerna kommer att minska och problem kommer att lösas allt eftersom tiden går. Till exempel upplevde de att de har varit tvungna att anlita extern support för att lösa tekniska frågor relaterade till den nya systemlösningen. De säger dock att de i framtiden räknar med att själva ansvara för supporten när personalens kompetens har höjts inom förvaltningarna.

    Studien visar också att en modell, BRW Migration Model for desktop OSS, kan användas för att minska riskerna vid en migrationsprocess. Detta görs genom att följa de nio steg som modellen beskriver som viktiga för en lyckad migrationsprocess.

  • 10009.
    Unger, Liza
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    OMT och Objectory: vilka synpunkter har några svenska utvecklingsföretag på dessa metoder idag?1998Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Objektorientering har kommit att bli en väletablerad teknik inom systemutvecklingen. De fördelar som den objektorienterade tekniken anses medföra är bl a att den ger en mer användarnära systemutveckling och ökar produktiviteten genom återanvändning av komponenter. Men det har även riktats kritik mot den objektorienterade tekniken. Ett område som har kritiserats är de objektorienterade metoderna. De har uppfattats som instabila och ofullständiga i början av 90-talet då de var nya. Det medförde att jag blev intresserad av att undersöka hur några av de objektorienterade metoderna fungerar idag.

    Detta arbete tar upp en del av de synpunkter och erfarenheter som några svenska utvecklingsföretag har av de objektorienterade metoderna OMT och Objectory. Syftet med arbetet är bl a att få fram om OMT och Objectory har åtgärdat de brister som de i tidigare litteratur har kritiserats för.

    Den metod som använts för att hantera valt ämne är en kombination av en litteraturstudie och intervjuer/enkäter.

    Det har visat sig under arbetes gång att det är betydligt fler företag som jag har kommit i kontakt med som tillämpar Objectory än OMT. Något överraskande är att alla undersökta företag använder UML-notation och inte OMT och Objectorys ursprungsnotationer. Det anser jag tyda på att UML har fått en stor genomslagskraft. Vidare tyder resultatet av undersökningen på att en del av den kritik som riktats mot OMT och Objectory i litteratur, publicerad i början av 90-talet, har åtgärdats för att förbättra metoderna.

  • 10010.
    Unibaso Eguzkitza, Beñat
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Ismail Dobón, Ismael
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Development of a flexible test platform utilizing gearbox simulators through programming2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A gearbox simulator is developed as platform for testing and demonstrating purposes. For that, a rig composed by a mechanical system and electronic equipment for controlling two servomotors is used. The objective of this equipment is to simulate the forces that the gearbox would transmit to the gear lever when the gear change operation is being carried-out. To reach this goal, a program is developed in LabVIEW to command the servomotors, emulating the forces by controlling the output torque and transmitting them to the gear stick as it would be in a real gearbox, taking into account real force-angle curves. Also, a graphical user interface is developed in order to monitor the simulator performance ad ease the way the data is chosen and introduced into the software.As seen in the experiment results, the graphs present similarities in shape and magnitude, which is important in regards of feeling; a better performance could be reach suppressing some system constraints.

  • 10011.
    Urenda Moris, Matias
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Eriksson, Patric
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    De Vin, Leo
    Introducing discrete event simulation for decision support in the Swedish health care system2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10012.
    Urenda Moris, Matias
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Lezama, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    De Vin, Leo
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Robust design of a Maternity ward supported by discrete event simulation: a case study2007In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, FAIM 2007, 2007, p. 107-114Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10013.
    Urenda Moris, Matias
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Svensson, Jacob
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Simplification and aggregation strategies applied for factory analysis in conceptual phase using simulation2008In: Proceedings of the 2008 Winter Simulation Conference, IEEE conference proceedings, 2008, p. 1913-1921Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10014.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Dealing with variability in the design, planning and evaluation of Healthcare inpatient units: a modelling methodology for patient dependency variations2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research addresses the fluctuating demand and high variability in healthcare systems. These system’s variations need to be considered whilst at the same time making efficient use of the systems’ resources. Patient dependency fluctuation, which makes determining the level of adequate staffing highly complex, is among the variations addressed. Dealing with variability is found to be a key feature in the design, planning and evaluation of healthcare systems.

    Healthcare providers are facing increasing challenges resulting from an aging population, higher patient expectancies, a shortage of healthcare professionals, as well as increasing costs and reduced funding. Despite the accentuated need for effective healthcare systems and efficient use of resources, many healthcare organisations are inadequately designed and, moreover, poorly managed. Hospital systems consist of complex interrelations between relatively small units, each of which is sensitive to stochastic variations in demand. In addition to this aspect of the system view, a critical resource for the patients’ wellbeing and survival is the staffing level of nurses. This puts the planning and scheduling of human resources as one of the system’s foremost aims. Current tools for staffing and personnel planning in healthcare organisations do not take into consideration the workload variations that result from the variable nature of patient dependency levels.

    The work presents the empirical findings of a number of case studies conducted at a regional hospital in Sweden. Principles and practical suggestions for the robust system design of inpatient wards using Discrete Event Simulation (DES) have been identified. Although DES techniques have, in principle, all the features for modelling the variation and stochastic nature of systems, DES has not been previously used for workload studies of inpatient wards. The main contribution of this work is therefore how a combination of DES and the data of Patient Classification Systems (PCSs) can be used to model workload variations and, subsequently, plan the nurse staffing requirements in systems with high variability. The work presented gives step by step guidance in how the analysis and subsequent modelling of an inpatient ward should be carried out. It defines a novel modelling methodology for patient dependency variations and length of stay modelling of a patient’s dependency progression, including an adaptation to the ward’s discharge figures. The modelling approach opens a novel way of analysing and evaluating the system design of inpatient wards.

  • 10015.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bernedixen, Jacob
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Goienetxea, Ainhoa
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Diseño Y Análisis De Sistemas Productivos Utilizando La Optimización Mediante Simulación Basado En Internet2012In: Ingenieria Industrial, ISSN 0717-9103, E-ISSN 0718-8307, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 37-49Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10016.
    Urenda Moris, Matías
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bernedixen, Jacob
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Goienetxea Uriarte, Ainhoa
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Diseño Y Análisis De Sistemas Productivos Utilizando La Optimización Mediante Simulación Basado En Internet2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10017.
    Urkia Kortabarria, Mikel
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Mondragon Unibertsitatea.
    Web Service Performance on Heterogeneous Systems: A performance comparison between J2EE and .NET on heterogeneous systems2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At the moment, two main web platforms have the monopoly of web service business; NET and J2EE have been competitors in this area for many years. Within last years, a technological advance has occurred with the appearance of Mono, an open source project that allows NET technologies to be taken into operating systems other than Microsoft Windows. This opens an information gap that needs to be solved with a new and actualised performance analysis.

    This thesis work identifies the performance characteristics of the web platforms on heterogeneous systems. The aim of this study is to investigate different performance characteristics of .NET and J2EE web services in heterogeneous systems. The student systems are Windows 7 and Ubuntu Linux.

    A set of web services is built following different service structures, which are then exposed to some quantitative and qualitative test following predefined criteria. The results demonstrate that both .NET and J2EE are suitable web platforms under different circumstances, based mostly on the communication protocol and operating system. This work identifies the best combination of web platform and operating system for each of the web service structures, which can vary for each company.

  • 10018.
    Usynina, Anna A.
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / International School of Public Health, Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia.
    Grjibovski, Andrej M.
    International School of Public Health, Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia / Department of Preventive Medicine, International Kazakh-Turkish University, Turkestan, Kazakhstan / Department of International Public Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway / Department of Public Health, Hygiene and Bioethics, Institute of Medicine, North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk, Russia.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Odland, Jon Øyvind
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Kudryavtsev, Alexander V.
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / International School of Public Health, Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia.
    Anda, Erik Eik
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Risk factors for perinatal mortality in Murmansk County, Russia: a registry-based study2017In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 1-10, article id 1270536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Factors contributing to perinatal mortality (PM) in Northwest Russia remain unclear. This study investigated possible associations between selected maternal and fetal characteristics and PM based on data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry.

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated possible associations between selected maternal and fetal characteristics and PM based on data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry.

    METHODS: The study population consisted of all live- and stillbirths registered in the Murmansk County Birth Registry during 2006-2011 (n = 52,806). We excluded multiple births, births prior to 22 and after 45 completed weeks of gestation, infants with congenital malformations, and births with missing information regarding gestational age (a total of n = 3,666) and/or the studied characteristics (n = 2,356). Possible associations between maternal socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, maternal pre-pregnancy characteristics, pregnancy characteristics, and PM were studied by multivariable logistic regression. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated.

    RESULTS: Of the 49,140 births eligible for prevalence analysis, 338 were identified as perinatal deaths (6.9 per 1,000 births). After adjustment for other factors, maternal low education level, prior preterm delivery, spontaneous or induced abortions, antepartum hemorrhage, antenatally detected or suspected fetal growth retardation, and alcohol abuse during pregnancy all significantly increased the risk of PM. We observed a higher risk of PM in unmarried women, as well as overweight or obese mothers. Maternal underweight reduced the risk of PM.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that both social and medical factors are important correlates of perinatal mortality in Northwest Russia.

  • 10019.
    Usynina, Anna A.
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / International School of Public Health, Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia.
    Grjibovski, Andrej M.
    International School of Public Health, Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia / Department of International Public Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway / Department of Preventive Medicine, International Kazakh-Turkish University, Turkestan, Kazakhstan / Department of Public Health, Hygiene and Bioethics, Institute of Medicine, North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk, Russia.
    Odland, Jon Øyvind
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Social correlates of term small for gestational age babies in a Russian Arctic setting2016In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 2242-3982, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 75, article id 32883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Small for gestational age (SGA) births have been associated with both short- and long-term adverse health outcomes. Although social risk factors for SGA births have been studied earlier, such data are limited from Northern Russia.

    OBJECTIVE: We assessed maternal social risk factors for term SGA births based on data from the population-based Murmansk County Birth Registry (MCBR).

    DESIGN: Data on term live-born singleton infants born between 2006 and 2011 in Murmansk County were obtained from the MCBR. We applied the 10th percentile for only birth weight (SGAW) or for both birth weight and birth length (SGAWL). Binary logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of independent variables on SGA males and females with adjustment for known risk factors and potential confounders. Both crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the studied risk factors were calculated.

    RESULTS: The proportions of term SGAW and SGAWL births were 9.7 and 4.1%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, the risk of term SGA births among less educated, unemployed, unmarried, smoking and underweight women was higher compared with women from the reference groups. Evidence of alcohol abuse was also associated with birth of SGAWL and SGAW boys. Maternal overweight and obesity decreased the risk of SGA.

    CONCLUSIONS: Maternal low education, unemployment, unmarried status, smoking, evidence of alcohol abuse and underweight increased the risk of term SGA births in a Russian Arctic setting. This emphasizes the importance of both social and lifestyle factors for pregnancy outcomes. Public health efforts to reduce smoking, alcohol consumption and underweight of pregnant women may therefore promote a decrease in the prevalence of SGA births.

  • 10020.
    Usynina, Anna A.
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / International School of Public Health, Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia.
    Postoev, Vitaly A.
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / International School of Public Health, Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia.
    Grjibovski, Andrej M.
    International School of Public Health, Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk, Russia / Department of International Public Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway / Department of Preventive Medicine, International Kazakh-Turkish University, Turkestan, Kazakhstan / North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk, Russia.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nieboer, Evert
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
    Odland, Jon Øyvind
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway / Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
    Anda, Erik Eik
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Maternal Risk Factors for Preterm Birth in Murmansk County, Russia: A Registry-Based Study2016In: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, ISSN 0269-5022, E-ISSN 1365-3016, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 462-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Globally, about 11% of all liveborn infants are preterm. To date, data on prevalence and risk factors of preterm birth (PTB) in Russia are limited. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of PTB in Murmansk County, Northwestern Russia and to investigate associations between PTB and selected maternal factors using the Murmansk County Birth Registry.

    METHODS: We conducted a registry-based study of 52 806 births (2006-2011). In total, 51 156 births were included in the prevalence analysis, of which 3546 were PTBs. Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals of moderate-to-late PTB, very PTB and extremely PTB for a range of maternal characteristics were estimated using multinomial logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders.

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of PTB in Murmansk County was 6.9%. Unmarried status, prior PTBs, spontaneous and induced abortions were strongly associated with PTB at any gestational age. Maternal low educational level increased the risk of extremely and moderate-to-late PTB. Young (<18 years) or older (≥35 years) mothers, graduates of vocational schools, underweight, overweight/obese mothers, and smokers were at higher risk of moderate-to-late PTB. Secondary education, alcohol abuse, diabetes mellitus, or gestational diabetes were strongly associated with moderate-to-late and very PTB.

    CONCLUSIONS: The observed prevalence of PTB (6.9%) in Murmansk County, Russia was comparable with data on live PTB from European countries. Adverse prior pregnancy outcomes, maternal low educational level, unmarried status, alcohol abuse, and diabetes mellitus or gestational diabetes were the most common risk factors for PTB.

  • 10021.
    Uvnäs Moberg, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Närhetens hormon: oxytocinets roll i relationer2009 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 10022.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Agriculture (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ekström-Bergström, Anette
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Health Sciences, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Berg, Marie
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Centre for Person-Centred Care, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Buckley, Sarah
    School of Public Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
    Pajalic, Zada
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University, College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Hadjigeorgiou, Eleni
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Cyprus, University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus.
    Kotłowska, Alicja
    Faculty of Health Sciences with Subfaculty of Nursing, Institute of Maritime and Tropical Medicine, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Lengler, Luise
    Midwifery Research and Education Unit, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.
    Kielbratowska, Bogumila
    Faculty of Medical Sciences, Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Leon-Larios, Fatima
    Faculty of Nursing, Physiotherapy and Podiatry, University of Seville, Seville, Spain.
    Magistretti, Claudia Meier
    Department of Social Work Center for Health Promotion and Social Participation, Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Luzern, Switzerland.
    Downe, Soo
    Research in Childbirth and Health (ReaCH) Group, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Lindström, Bengt
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Dencker, Anna
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Centre for Person-Centred Care, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Maternal plasma levels of oxytocin during physiological childbirth: A systematic review with implications for uterine contractions and central actions of oxytocin2019In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 285Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Oxytocin is a key hormone in childbirth, and synthetic oxytocin is widely administered to induce or speed labour. Due to lack of synthetized knowledge, we conducted a systematic review of maternal plasma levels of oxytocin during physiological childbirth, and in response to infusions of synthetic oxytocin, if reported in the included studies. Methods: An a priori protocol was designed and a systematic search was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO in October 2015. Search hits were screened on title and abstract after duplicates were removed (n = 4039), 69 articles were examined in full-text and 20 papers met inclusion criteria. As the articles differed in design and methodology used for analysis of oxytocin levels, a narrative synthesis was created and the material was categorised according to effects. Results: Basal levels of oxytocin increased 3-4-fold during pregnancy. Pulses of oxytocin occurred with increasing frequency, duration, and amplitude, from late pregnancy through labour, reaching a maximum of 3 pulses/10 min towards the end of labour. There was a maximal 3- to 4-fold rise in oxytocin at birth. Oxytocin pulses also occurred in the third stage of labour associated with placental expulsion. Oxytocin peaks during labour did not correlate in time with individual uterine contractions, suggesting additional mechanisms in the control of contractions. Oxytocin levels were also raised in the cerebrospinal fluid during labour, indicating that oxytocin is released into the brain, as well as into the circulation. Oxytocin released into the brain induces beneficial adaptive effects during birth and postpartum. Oxytocin levels following infusion of synthetic oxytocin up to 10 mU/min were similar to oxytocin levels in physiological labour. Oxytocin levels doubled in response to doubling of the rate of infusion of synthetic oxytocin. Conclusions: Plasma oxytocin levels increase gradually during pregnancy, and during the first and second stages of labour, with increasing size and frequency of pulses of oxytocin. A large pulse of oxytocin occurs with birth. Oxytocin in the circulation stimulates uterine contractions and oxytocin released within the brain influences maternal physiology and behaviour during birth. Oxytocin given as an infusion does not cross into the mother's brain because of the blood brain barrier and does not influence brain function in the same way as oxytocin during normal labour does. 

  • 10023.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Handlin, Linda
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen
    Texas Tech University School of Medicine, Amarillo, TX, USA.
    Petersson, Maria
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Endocrine and Diabetes Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Oxytocin is a principal hormone that exerts part of its effects by active fragments2019In: Medical Hypotheses, ISSN 0306-9877, E-ISSN 1532-2777, Vol. 133, p. 1-9, article id 109394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxytocin is a nonapeptide consisting of a cyclic six amino-acid structure and a tail of three amino acids. It was originally known for its ability to induce milk ejection and to stimulate uterine contractions. More recently, oxytocin has been shown to stimulate social behaviors, and exert pain-relieving, anti-stress/anti-inflammatory and restorative effects. We hypothesize that oxytocin is a principal hormone that, in part, exerts its effects after degradation to active fragments with more specific effect profiles. Experimental findings on rats show that administered oxytocin exerts biphasic effects. For example, after an initial increase in pain threshold, a second more long-lasting increase follows. Blood pressure and cortisol levels initially increase and then reverse into a long-lasting decrease in blood pressure and cortisol. Whereas the initial effects are, the second-phase effects are not blocked by an oxytocin antagonist, but by an opioid mu-antagonist and by an alpha 2-adrenoreceptor antagonist, respectively, suggesting that other receptors are involved. Repeated administration of oxytocin induces multiple anti-stress effects, which are mediated by alpha 2-adrenoreceptors. Repeated administration of linear oxytocin and linear oxytocin fragments with a retained C-terminal reduce spontaneous motor activity, a sedative or anti-stress effect, suggesting that alpha 2-adrenoreceptors have been activated. In contrast, linear mid-fragments stimulate motor activity. Low-intensity stimulation of cutaneous nerves in rats, as well as breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact between mothers and babies, trigger immediate anti-stress effects. Some of these effects are likely caused by open ring/linear C-terminal fragments activating alpha 2-adrenoreceptors. Oxytocin fragments may be pre-formed and released in the brain or created by metabolic conversion of the principal hormone oxytocin in the central nervous system. Oxytocin and its fragments may also be released from peripheral sites, such as peripheral nerves, the gastrointestinal tract, and blood vessels in response to decreased sympathetic or increased parasympathetic nervous tone. Smaller fragments of oxytocin produced in the periphery may easily pass the blood-brain barrier to induce effects in the brain. In conclusion, oxytocin is linked to many different, sometimes opposite effects. The intact cyclic molecule may act to initiate social interaction and associated psychophysiological effects, whereas linear oxytocin and C-terminal fragments may induce relaxation and anti-stress effects following social interaction. In this way, the principal hormone oxytocin and its fragments may take part in a behavioral sequence, ranging from approach and interaction to calm and relaxation. Linear fragments, with an exposed cysteine-residue, may exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and thereby contribute to the health-promoting effects of oxytocin. 

  • 10024.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara.
    Handlin, Linda
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Petersson, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Promises and pitfalls of hormone research in human-animal interaction2011In: How Animals Affect Us: Examining the Influence of Human-Animal Interaction on Child Development and Human Health / [ed] Peggy McCardle, Sandra McCune, James A. Griffin, Valerie Maholmes, American Psychological Association (APA), 2011, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10025.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Handlin, Linda
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Petersson, Maria
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Endocrine and Diabetes Unit, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Self-soothing behaviors with particular reference to oxytocin release induced by non-noxious sensory stimulation2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, article id 1529Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 10026. Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Graviditet, hormoner och känsloliv2005In: Psykosocial obstetrik: kropp och själ och barnafödande / [ed] Berit Sjögren, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2005, p. 181-196Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10027.
    Vagnell, David
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Discrete Event Simulation: Påverkan på realtidsstrategispel vid användning för logisk uppdatering2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att försöka besvara frågeställningen: Kan en traditionell simulationsteknik vid namn Discrete Event Simulation utnyttjas för uppdatering i spel för att minska processortid? För att besvara frågeställningen skapades ett program där två implementeringar av Discrete Event Simulation testades mot kontinuerlig speluppdatering i två testfall. Resultatet visar på att det är möjligt att utnyttja Discrete Event Simulation för att minska processortid. Discrete Event Simulation utnyttjar i genomsnitt mindre processortid än kontinuerlig speluppdatering, men resultaten kan variera kraftigt och göra en stabil implementation i datorspel svår.

  • 10028.
    Vahlgren, Simon
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Stopptidsanalys och standardiseringsförslag: Examensarbete på Semper AB2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The food processing company Semper AB in Götene has, after implementing software for monitoring production down time,identified a need for improvements considering time consumption in the cleaning process of Torn 4.After conducting studies, evaluations and analyses within the production, a need for standardization and time determination for the process has been identified. The project has resulted in propositions for new work standards considering time consumption for the included operations within the cleaning process, as well as definitions regarding the steps conducted parallel to one another to reduce the required time and streamline the process.The problem which was initially identified, as visualized through Semper’s down time tracking soft-ware Axxos, has through the course of the project been clarified as a symptom of a neglected work around standardization on the studied object. The need for increased standardization, control and planning is called for from both production management and operators alike, hence the competence involving the process exists within the organization, but need to emphasize and make use of it is nec-essary in a more efficient way.

  • 10029.
    Vahtra, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Prestandajämförelse av krypterade XML-databaser2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete undersöks hur kryptering påverkar prestandan hos en XML-databas. Detta görs med hjälp av ett inom litteraturen populärt dataset, XMark. Kryptering genomförs med hjälp av standarden XML Encryption. Okrypterade dataset jämförs med krypterade dataset genom att ställa Xpath-frågor och mäta tiden för dessa frågeställningar. Resultaten presenteras i tabeller och grafer och analyseras utifrån ett prestandaperspektiv. Även framtida utökning av testerna föreslås som framtida arbete.

  • 10030.
    Vaidya, Abhinav
    et al.
    Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu, Nepal / Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Gothenburg.
    Aryal, Umesh Raj
    Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu, Nepal / Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Gothenburg.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV / Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Cardiovascular health knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour in an urbanising community of Nepal: a population-based cross-sectional study from Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site2013In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 3, no 10, article id e002976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This study determined the knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour of cardiovascular health in residents of a semiurban community of Nepal.

    DESIGN: To increase the understanding of knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour towards cardiovascular health, we conducted in-home interviews using a questionnaire based on the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance and other resources, scoring all responses. We also recorded blood pressure and took anthropometric measurements.

    SETTING: Our study was conducted as part of the Heart-Health-Associated Research and Dissemination in the Community project in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site in two urbanising villages near Kathmandu.

    PARTICIPANTS: The study population included 777 respondents from six randomly selected clusters in both villages.

    RESULTS: Seventy per cent of all participants were women and 26.9% lacked formal education. The burden of cardiovascular risk factors was high; 20.1% were current smokers, 43.3% exhibited low physical activity and 21.6% were hypertensive. Participants showed only poor knowledge of heart disease causes; 29.7% identified hypertension and 11% identified overweight and physical activity as causes, whereas only 2.2% identified high blood sugar as causative. Around 60% of respondents did not know any heart attack symptoms compared with 20% who knew 2-4 symptoms. Median percentage scores for knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour were 79.3, 74.3 and 48, respectively. Nearly 44% of respondents had insufficient knowledge and less than 20% had highly satisfactory knowledge. Among those with highly satisfactory knowledge, only 14.7% had a highly satisfactory attitude and 19.5% and 13.9% had satisfactory and highly satisfactory practices, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates a gap between cardiovascular health knowledge, attitude and practice/behaviour in a semiurban community in a low-income nation, even among those already affected by cardiovascular disease.

  • 10031.
    Vaidya, Abhinav
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden / Kathmandu Medical College, Duwakot, Bhaktapur, Nepal.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden / Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Is health promotion the starting point of primary cardiovascular care in low- and middle-income countries like Nepal?2012In: Health Promotion Practice, ISSN 1524-8399, E-ISSN 1552-6372, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 412-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) but have not received adequate priority. With a lack of concrete policy and programs, the present emphasis of CVD management in most LMICs is on curative aspects. Nepal is a prototype in this trend as it is treatment centric, particularly in urban areas. A major drawback of cure-centrism is that it requires both larger funds and more skilled manpower--both of which are limited in Nepal and other LMICs.

    AIMS: In this article, the authors suggest a possible role of health promotion as starting point for tackling the rising burden of CVDs in LMICs with Nepal as example.

    CONCLUSIONS: Health promotion is practiced in Nepal in connection with many health care programs and could be used to include CVD preventive strategies. The authors believe this to be a first step to increase health literacy toward CVD in the general population which may help bridge limited funds and manpower that the current curative-centric CVD strategy requires. Thus, health promotion strategies should be a tempting option for many LMICs and deserve further explorative attention.

  • 10032.
    Vaidya, Abhinav
    et al.
    Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu, Nepal / Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Physical activity level and its sociodemographic correlates in a peri-urban Nepalese population: a cross-sectional study from the Jhaukhel-Duwakot health demographic surveillance site2014In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN 1479-5868, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular and other noncommunicable diseases in high-, low- and middle-income countries. Nepal, a low-income country in South Asia, is undergoing an epidemiological transition. Although the reported national prevalence of physical inactivity is relatively low, studies in urban and peri-urban localities have always shown higher prevalence. Therefore, this study aimed to measure physical activity in three domains-work, travel and leisure-in a peri-urban community and assess its variations across different sociodemographic correlates.

    METHODS: Adult participants (n=640) from six randomly selected wards of the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site (JD-HDSS) near Kathmandu responded to the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. To determine total physical activity, we calculated the metabolic equivalent of task in minutes/week for each domain and combined the results. Respondents were categorized into high, moderate or low physical activity. We also calculated the odds ratio for low physical activity in various sociodemographic variables and self-reported cardiometabolic states.

    RESULTS: The urbanizing JD-HDSS community showed a high prevalence of low physical activity (43.3%; 95% CI 39.4-47.1). Work-related activity contributed most to total physical activity. Furthermore, women and housewives and older, more educated and self-or government-employed respondents showed a greater prevalence of physical inactivity. Respondents with hypertension, diabetes or overweight/obesity reported less physical activity than individuals without those conditions. Only 5% of respondents identified physical inactivity as a cardiovascular risk factor.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal a high burden of physical inactivity in a peri-urban community of Nepal. Improving the level of physical activity involves sensitizing people to its importance through appropriate multi-sector strategies that provide encouragement across all sociodemographic groups.

  • 10033.
    Vaidya, Abhinav
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College / Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Oli, Natalia
    Department of Community Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College.
    Aryal, Umesh Raj
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Community Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College.
    Karki, D. B.
    Department of Internal Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Nordic School of Public Health NHV, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Disparities in fruit and vegetable intake by socio-demographic characteristics in peri-urban Nepalese adults: findings from the Heart-Health Associated Research and Dissemination in the Community (HARDIC) Study, Bhaktapur, Nepal2013In: Journal of Kathmandu Medical College, ISSN 2091-1785, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 3-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Inadequate fruit and vegetable intake and other adverse dietary habits – along with tobacco and alcohol abuse and sub-optimal physical activity - make up the four most important behavioural risk factors of non-communicable diseases. Low fruit and vegetable intake is particularly associated with burden of high cardiovascular disease. It has received more attention in the last decade, with studies that explore disparities and determinants in their intake, as well as interventions that attempt to improve the intake.

    Objectives: Our study aimed to determine fruit and vegetable consumption in a peri-urban community of Nepal and to compare this intake in relation to various socio-demographic variables.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted as a part of the HARDIC (Heart-Health Associated Research and Dissemination in the Community) study in the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site in the Bhaktapur district of Nepal during September-December 2011. Adults from six randomly selected clusters were interviewed by 12 trained interviewers after taking informed consent. WHO-STEPS questions were used to elicit information on fruit and vegetable intake.

    Results: Fruit and vegetable intake in the community was low with 2.1 percent of the study population consuming the WHO-recommended five servings per day. There were differences in the intake according to the various sociodemographic factors.

    Conclusions: Our study reaffirms low fruit and vegetable intake as a public health problem in the Nepalese context. Health-promotional activities aimed at specific target groups are essential. Multi-sectoral coordination of health and other health-related sectors is therefore vital in addressing the issue.

  • 10034.
    Vaidya, Abhinav
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital, Sinamangal, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Oli, Natalia
    Department of Community Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital, Sinamangal, Kathmandu, Nepal / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    The heart-health associated research, dissemination and intervention in the community (HARDIC) trial for nepalese mothers regarding diet and physical activity: A process evaluation2017In: Kathmandu University Medical Journal, ISSN 1812-2027, E-ISSN 1812-2078, Vol. 15, no 58, p. 107-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Mothers with young children in the peri-urban Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance site of Bhaktapur district have misconceptions and poor behavioural practice regarding diet and physical activity. We developed the Heart-health Associated Research, Dissemination and Intervention in the Community trial - a health promotion intervention for mothers. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the intervention’s feasibility, acceptability, potential for transferability and scaling up, and to determine its immediate outcome. Method Duwakot and Jhaukhel were randomly selected as the intervention and control communities, respectively. We trained 47 peer mothers from Duwakot, each of whom gave classes with 10 fellow mothers of their neighbourhood. The process evaluation was carried out on a continuous basis at different points of the intervention held from August to November 2016. Result In round one, the participation and completion rates were both > 90% for peer mothers; and 85% and 70%, respectively, for the fellow mothers. However, the participation rates fell in the round two of the intervention. On the whole, the mothers expressed satisfaction and acceptance of the course content and training modality. Immediate evaluation of the intervention showed improvement of knowledge, attitude and practice of diet and physical activity among both groups of mothers. Conclusion The successful implementation of the intervention targeting diet and physical activity clearly demonstrates the feasibility of health promotional activities in the Nepalese community for improvement of cardiovascular health. © 2017, Kathmandu University. All rights reserved.

  • 10035.
    Vaidya, Abhinav
    et al.
    Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Oli, Natalia
    Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu, Nepal / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Göteborgs universitet / UiT Norges Arktiska Universitet.
    High prevalence of prehypertension in mothers of young children in peri-urban Nepal2016In: Journal of Kathmandu Medical College, ISSN 2091-1785, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 52-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prehypertension is clinically defined as a level of blood pressure between normal and hypertension, i.e. elevated systolic blood pressure between 120-139 or diastolic blood pressure between 80-89 mm Hg. Prehypertension remains neglected as a public health problem, and has not been explored in mothers with small children in Nepal.

    Objectives: We aimed to study prehypertension and its related factors including obesity-related parameters among mothers with children aged 1-7 years in Duwakot and Jhaukhel communities of Bhaktapur district, Nepal.

    Methods: We prepared a sampling frame of all the eligible mothers, and interviewed 962 mothers. The trained enumerators also measured their blood pressure, body weight, height, waist and hip circumferences. We analysed data with SPSS version 22. We received ethical approval from the Nepal Health Research Council to conduct the study, and obtained informed verbal consent from the participating mothers.

    Results: About one-third (31.8%) of the mothers had prehypertension. It was more common among Newars and those aged 30-34 years. Multivariate analysis did not reveal significant association with sociodemographic variables except for education. We found positive correlations between blood pressure and obesity parameters. Overweight and obese participants were 2.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.06-4.73) and 4.65 (95% confidence interval: 1.92-11.23) times, respectively, more likely to have prehypertension than underweight mothers.

    Conclusions: Our study demonstrated a high prevalence of prehypertension, coupled with high obesity parameters, among young mothers of peri-urban Nepal. Primordial preventive efforts at community level are needed not only for the mothers themselves, but for heart-health of their offspring as well.

  • 10036.
    Vaidya, Abhinav
    et al.
    Department of Community Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu.
    Oli, Natalia
    Department of Community Medicine, Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu / Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / 4Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway .
    Eiben, Gabriele
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Preference of Food-items and Physical Activity of Peri-urban Children in Bhaktapur2017In: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, ISSN 1727-5482, E-ISSN 1999-6217, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 150-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Though cardiovascular diseases are mostly seen in adulthood, the foundation of diet and physical activity is largely formed during childhood. The study aimed to explore children's preference for diet and physical activity in a peri-urban area of Nepal because this is an important dimension to explore in the life-course approach to combat non-communicable diseases.

    METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to enquire young peri-urban children of Duwakot and Jhaukhel villages of Bhaktapur district, Nepal on their preferences for diet and physical activity. All eligible households with children in the age range 5-10 years as enlisted from the Jhaukhel-Duwakot Health Demographic Surveillance Site database were selected for the study. Twelve enumerators visited the selected households and facilitated the eligible children to fill in the questionnaire. We used a child-friendly photo-assisted questionnaire with face-scales that easily enabled the children to select a particular preference for each of the food item and physical activity. During analysis, food items were categorized into 'green', 'yellow' and 'red' on the basis of their nutritive values. Physical activity was categorized based on severity of the activity.

    RESULTS: Four hundred and thirty seven children filled up the questionnaires. Overall, median preference scores for 'red' food were higher than for healthier 'green' food (4.16 vs. 4.03), particularly, if mothers were self-employed. Likewise, the children preferred low over moderate-to-severe physical activity (4.16 vs. 3.50), and preference was affected by parents' occupation and income.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study objectively revealed that most of the children preferred unhealthier food-items and low physical activities. It shall be useful to consider these findings while planning health promotional activities targeted at them.

  • 10037.
    Vaidya, Abhinav
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden / Kathmandu Medical College, Duwakot, Bhaktapur, Nepal.
    Shakya, Suraj
    Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden / Nepal Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Jorpati, Kathmandu.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden / Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Obesity Prevalence in Nepal: Public Health Challenges in a Low-Income Nation during an Alarming Worldwide Trend2010In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 2726-2744Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The future toll of the obesity epidemic will likely hit hardest in low- and middle-income countries. Ongoing urbanization promotes risk factors including sedentary lifestyle and fat- and sugar-laden diets. Low-income countries like Nepal experience a double disease burden: infectious diseases as well as rising incidence of noncommunicable diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus) frequently characterized by obesity. Nepal currently directs efforts towards curing disease but pays little attention to preventive actions. This article highlights obesity prevalence in Nepal, delineates the challenges identified by our pilot study (including low health literacy rates), and suggests strategies to overcome this trend.

  • 10038.
    Valerio Trujillo, Francisco Javier
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Gallego Díaz, José Antonio
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    DEVELOPMENT OF FURNITURE FOR SKÖVDE CULTURAL CENTRE2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Skövde Kulturhus is a cultural centre in Skövde that have been remodelled to incorporate new areas

    and to improve the old ones. The centre has different locals where different activities can be

    performed such as watching movies and theatre plays, dance, etc. In the art gallery, one of the new

    areas is the workshop, and for this, new furniture is needed. During the project, a set of a table and

    chairs have been developed for the workshop, following some specifications, set by the personnel of

    the Cultural Centre and by the conclusion from the different investigations.

    This report covers the whole process from the different researches to the evaluation and the

    development of the final concepts; it follows a modification of the Cyclic Strategy Method process,

    which includes the research and different design tools to create the concepts, as morphological chart,

    braindrawing and a study of the form. User studies have been made to get a good understanding of the

    way a person uses this furniture using surveys; ergonomics research has been made to design

    furniture for all kind of people; and market research have been made to discovered what kind of

    furniture is usually used. All these researches have been investigated to create the optimal table and

    chair for the activities done at the Centre. The final solutions, which have been evaluated against

    other concepts, are a wooden table, whose design and modular form permits to join other tables to

    work in teams; and a wooden chair, which have been designed for different people size. Both would

    fulfil the requirements and fit in the new cultural centre.

  • 10039.
    Vallabhu, Rishu
    et al.
    University of Skövde.
    Falck, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Lindlöf, Angelica
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    A systems biology view of the spliceosome component Phf5a in relation to estrogen and cancer2014In: Journal of Computer Science and Systems Biology, ISSN 0974-7230, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 193-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer is a broad term for a wide spectrum of diseases and which involves the alteration in expression levels of several hundreds of genes. As such, the study of the disease from a systems biology point of view becomes rational, as the properties of a system as a whole may be very different from the properties of its individual components. However, understanding a network at the systems level not only requires knowledge about the components of the network, but also the interactions between them.

    Here, a systems biology view of the rat PHD finger protein 5A (Phf5a) gene was attempted; a gene previously identified as aberrantly expressed in estrogen dependent endometrial adenocarcinoma tumors from both rat and human. Phf5 ais a highly conserved cysteine rich (C4HC3) zinc finger and such proteins predominantly have a role in chromatin mediated transcriptional regulation. Moreover, PHF5A is a component of the macromolecular complex spliceosome that takes part in pre-mRNA splicing and spliceosome component coding genes have previously been shown to be implicated in various cancer types and suggested to potentially be novel antitumor drugs.

    To derive a systems biology view, in this study, a weighted gene network was inferred from a list of genes having correlated expression profiles to Phf5a as nodes, and common transcription factors and microRNAs regulating these genes together with annotation about biological process ontology term(s) and pathway(s) as edge weights. In the inferred network a higher weight indicates more annotation shared between two genes and, hence, the network facilitates the identification of closely interacting genes with Phf5a. The results show that highly weighted edges connect Phf5a to other spliceosome components, but also to genes involved in the metabolism of proteins, proteasome and DNA replication, repair and recombination. The results also link Phf5a to the Myc/Rb/E2F pathway, one of the central pathways associated with cancer. The proposed method for inferring a weighted gene network can easily be applied to other genes and diseases. 

  • 10040.
    Vallbo, Christina
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Matematiksvårigheter i vardagen: elevers syn på hur de hanterar sin vardag utifrån sina matematiksvårigheter2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on pupil’s view how they handle mathematics learning disabilities in their daily life. The study is from pupil’s point of view and the ambition was to capture the pupil’s own thoughts and feelings. Observations and interviews were carried out with three pupils, in the age of 13, and their parents. The results show that all three of the pupils have difficulty in their daily life due to the mathematics learning disabilities. They have different problems from to plan their free time to plan when schoolwork should be submitted. The result of this is that the parents have to plan for them, even now when they are teenager’s and should be able to handle things like this by themselves. The pupils are not aware of the strategies they use to cope with the difficulties in mathematics. However, their parents are able to explain the strategies their children have developed. The emotions the pupils feel when they think about math class are that they feel dejected and they are under stress with thoughts as “will I fail again today”. It is very important how the teacher do talk to the pupils and this will affect the pupil’s self-confidence and they develop discomfort to mathematics. This study, unlike some other studies, does not show that pupils feel uncomfortable because they have special support. Instead they feel relief in visiting the support group.

  • 10041.
    Vallgren, Annika
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Svenska patientjournaler på Internet är det möjligt?2001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag går det att publicera och hämta information från databaser på Internet. Inom hälso- och sjukvården kan förbättringar av vården ske om patientjournaler fanns tillgängliga på Internet. Här undersöks om det under svenska förhållanden är genomförbart. Studien syftar till att belysa för och nackdelar med att publicera patientjournaler på Internet samt att belysa specifika egenskaper hos patientjournaler som måste tas hänsyn till vid en eventuell publicering.

    Informationen om en patient måste skyddas mot att obehöriga kommer åt eller ändrar den. Den måste även vara åtkomlig just då den erfordras av en auktoriserad användare. Vården är ett områden där bristande säkerhet kan bli livshotande.

    De svenska lagar som måste beaktas då patientjournaler görs åtkomliga på Internet är: Personuppgiftslagen, Lag om vårdregister, Sekretesslagen, Patientjournallagen samt Lag om hälsodataregister. Lagarna utgör inte något hinder mot åtkomst av patientjournaler på Internet under förutsättning att detta kan utföras på ett för patienten säkert sätt.

  • 10042.
    Vallgren, Frida
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    EN UNDERSÖKNING OMKOLLABORATIVT BETEENDE ISVÄRM AI: En jämförelse mellan tvåvägplaneringstekniker som skaparsamarbete mellan agenter.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10043.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Dreaming in the multilevel framework2011In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 1084-1090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological realism (Revonsuo, 2001, 2006) states that dreaming is a biological phenomenon and therefore explainable in naturalistic terms, similar to the explanation of other biological phenomena. In the biological sciences, the structure of explanations can be described with the help of a framework called ‘multilevel explanation’. The multilevel model provides a context that assists to clarify what needs to be explained and how, and how to place different theories into the same model. Here, I will argue that the multilevel framework would be useful when we try to construct scientific explanations of dreaming.

  • 10044.
    Valli, Katja
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Dreams2016In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Psychology / [ed] Harold L. Miller, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10045.
    Valli, Katja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Frauscher, Birgit
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Gschliesser, Viola
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Wolf, Elisabeth
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Falkenstetter, Tina
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Schönwald, Suzana V.
    Hosp Clin Porto Alegre, Dept Neurol, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
    Ehrmann, Laura
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Zangerl, Anja
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Marti, Isabelle
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Boesch, Sylvia M.
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Poewe, Werner
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Högl, Birgit
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Neurol, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria .
    Can observers link dream content to behaviours in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder?: A cross-sectional experimental pilot study2012In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 21-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motor activity in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) has been linked to dream content. Systematic and controlled sleep laboratory studies directly assessing the relation between RBD behaviours and experienced dream content are, however, largely lacking. We aimed to investigate whether a link can be established between RBD behaviours and dream content when both are systematically sampled in a controlled setting. We investigated six patients with Parkinson syndrome and RBD who underwent 23 nights of videopolysomnographic recording during which they were awakened from REM sleep (10 min after the onset of the second and successive REM periods). Spontaneous free-worded dream reports and a structured dream questionnaire were obtained. Video recordings of motor manifestations were each combined with four dream reports, and seven judges had to match the video clip with the correctly reported dream content from a choice of four possibilities. Of the 35 REM sleep awakenings performed, a total of 17 (48.6%) motor-behavioural episodes with recalled dream content were obtained. The mean of correctly identified video-dream pairs was 39.5% (range 0100%). Our data showed that reported dream content can be linked to motor behaviours above chance level. Matching accuracy was affected mainly by the clarity of dream reports and the specific nature of movements manifest in video recordings.

  • 10046.
    Valli, Katja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Frauscher, Birgit
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Peltomaa, Taina
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Gschliesser, Viola
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Högl, Birgit
    Department of Neurology, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Dreaming furiously?: A sleep laboratory study on the dream content of people with Parkinson's disease and with or without rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder2015In: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 419-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) has been related to altered, action-filled, vivid, and aggressive dream content, but research comparing the possible differences in dreams of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with and without RBD is scarce. The dream content of PD patients with and without RBD was analyzed with specific focus on action-filledness, vividness, emotional valence, and threats.

    METHODS: A total of 69 REM and NREM dream reports were collected in the sleep laboratory, 37 from nine PD patients with RBD and 32 from six PD patients without RBD. A content analysis of (1) action-filledness (actions and environmental events); (2) vividness (emotions and cognitive activity); (3) intensity of actions, events and emotions; (4) emotional valence, and (5) threatening events was performed on the transcripts.

    RESULTS: Altogether 563 dream elements expressing action-filledness and vividness were found. There were no significant between-group differences in the number or distribution of elements reflecting action-filledness or vividness, emotional valence or threats. In within-group analyses, PD patients with RBD had significantly more negative compared to positive dreams (p = 0.012) and compared to PD patients without RBD, a tendency to have more intense actions in their dreams (p = 0.066).

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of this study, there are no major between-group differences in the action-filledness, vividness, or threat content of dreams of PD patients with and without RBD. However, within-group analyses revealed that dreams were more often negatively than positively toned in PD patients with RBD.

  • 10047.
    Valli, Katja
    et al.
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Assistentinkatu 7, FI-20014 Turku, Finland.
    Lenasdotter, Sophie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    MacGregor, Oskar
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Department of Philosophy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    A Test of the Threat Simulation Theory: Replication of Results and Independent Sample2007In: Sleep and Hypnosis: A Journal of Clinical Neuroscience and Psychopathology, ISSN 1302-1192, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 30-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Threat Simulation Theory (TST) postulates that dreaming evolved as a mental simulation for the rehearsal of the neurocognitive mechanisms essential for threat recognition and avoidance behaviors. In the present study, we tested the predictions of the TST that dreams are specialized in the frequent simulation of realistic and severe threatening events targeted against the dream self, and that the dream self is likely to take appropriate defensive actions against the threat. The subjects were 50 Swedish university students who kept home-based dream diaries for a period of two or four weeks. The dreams were analyzed with a content analysis method specifically designed for identifying and classifying threatening events in dreams, the Dream Threat Scale. Our results show that in the dreams of ordinary young adults threatening events are frequent, severe, realistic and targeted against the self and significant others. Appropriate defensive actions are frequently undertaken when the situation allows active participation. The present study replicates earlier findings but in an independent sample, collected in a different country and language area, and analyzed by judges different from the original study. Our findings thus offer further support for the predictions of the TST

  • 10048.
    Valli, Katja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Evolutionary Psychological Approaches to Dream Content2007In: The New Science of Dreaming: volume III, Praeger, 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10049.
    Valli, Katja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Sleep: Dreaming Data and Theories2009In: Encyclopedia of Consciousness / [ed] William P. Banks, London: Academic Press, 2009, p. 341-355Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10050.
    Valli, Katja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Pälkäs, Outi
    Punamäki, Raija-Leena
    The effect of trauma on dream content: A field study of Palestinian children2006In: Dreaming (New York, N.Y.), ISSN 1053-0797, E-ISSN 1573-3351, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 63-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we compared the frequency and intensity of threatening events in the dreams of traumatized and nontraumatized Palestinian children. The aim of the study was to test some of the predictions and hypotheses derived from the Threat Simulation Theory proposing an evolutionary function for dreaming. Most, but not all, of our hypotheses were supported by the findings. We discuss the results in the light of the Threat Simulation Theory, and we also consider whether alternative theories of dream function are able to account for them

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