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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Sebastian
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neuroplasticity induced by exercise2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As opposed to earlier beliefs, the brain is altering itself throughout an individual’s life. The process of functional or structural alterations is referred to as plasticity, and can be induced by several factors such as experience or physical exercise. In this thesis, the research area of experience-dependent plasticity, with focus on exercise-induced plasticity is examined critically. Evidence from a vast array of studies are reviewed and compared in order to find whether physical exercise can induce neural plasticity in the human brain, how it may be beneficial, and what some of the plausible mediators of exercise-induced plasticity are. The findings demonstrated in this thesis suggest that although there are knowledge gaps and limitations in the literature, physical exercise can indeed result in exhibited plasticity as well as being beneficial for the human brain in several ways.

  • 2.
    Acar, Kasim
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Schizophrenia and Hallucinogens2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Schizophrenic symptoms and hallucinogenic effects have been thought of as similar for a long time. The aim of this paper is to review the current findings in the research of schizophrenia and hallucinogens; symptoms and effects, brain imaging studies and biochemical studies are compared. Systematic investigations show that the acute symptoms of schizophrenia are particularly similar to the effects of hallucinogens when using psychometric rating scales; APZ, EPI and AMPD, even though dissimilarities have been found. Converging evidence suggests that the acute effects of schizophrenia as well as the effects of hallucinogens act through a common receptor subtype, the 5-HT2A receptor. Brain imaging studies using PET and SPECT indicates that hallucinogenic drugs increase frontal cortical activity, studies have found it to be a result of 5-HT2A receptor stimulation. Interactions between the serotonergic system and other neurotransmitter systems might aid in the understanding of these phenomena.

  • 3.
    Al Shobky, Mohamed
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Utilization of cancer-specific genome-scale metabolic models in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas for biomarkers discovery and patient stratification2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas initiates in the exocrine part of the pancreatic tissue and represents over 90% of all the pancreatic cancers. Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinomas are extremely aggressive and are one of the most lethal malignant neoplasms. The five-year relative survival is currently less than 8% of the patients. The main reason behind such a low survival rate is that most of the cases are diagnosed at a very late stage. Although substantial advancement in pancreatic cancer research has been done, there has not been any remarkable significance in the mortality to incidence ratio. This is mainly a result of the scarce of early diagnostic characteristic symptoms and reliable biomarkers besides the unresponsiveness to the treatments. In this study, transcriptomics and proteomics data were used for the construction of a genome-scale metabolic model that was used in the detection of altered metabolic pathways, genes and metabolites using gene set analysis and reporter metabolites analysis. As a result, altered metabolic pathways in PDAC tumours were detected, including the lipid metabolism-related pathways as well as carbohydrate metabolism, in addition to nucleotide metabolism, which are considered as potential candidates for diagnostic biomarkers. Moreover, classification of the filtered DIRAC tightly regulated network genes, based on their prognostic values from the pathology atlas, detected two groups of PDAC patients that have significantly different survival outcome. The differential expression analysis of the two groups showed that six of the eight genes used in clustering were showing significantly altered expression, which suggests their importance in PDAC patient stratification. As a conclusion, this study shows the valuable outcome of the GEM reconstructions and other systems-level analyses for elucidating the underlying altered metabolic mechanisms of PDAC. Such analyses results should provide more insights into the biomarker discovery and developing of potential treatments.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-08-01 19:28
  • 4.
    Al-Bayati, Omar
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Baghdad university.
    Optimizing the Fluorescence In situ hybridization technique for a more rapid inspection of Sepsis causative pathogens by employing DNA probes2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Sepsis is a serious clinical condition that is characterized by a systemic inflammatory response syndrome resulting from a known or suspected infection. The major clinical symptoms involve an abnormal WBC count, elevated body temperature, respiration and pulse rate. Reported cases with high mortality rate range between 13 - 20 million. In order to treat Sepsis, the detection of bacteria in blood culture is extremely crucial. Treating patients with broad spectrum antibiotics is usually related to adverse effects, drug resistance, increased mortality, and high cost. In the past decades, researches had detected that E. coli and S. aureus are the major role players that cause sepsis. These microbes are molecularly tested by methods like MALDI TOF, FISH and Microarrays.  

    In this analysis, DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assessment for the identification of S. aureus, one of the most frequent blood pathogens, was optimized in the labs of Högskolan i Skövde. As a result, the growth of S. aureus was observed very carefully, optimizing the FISH procedure for gram positive bacteria was done and the sensitivity, stability and specificity of the DNA probe were examined under variant conditions like the continuous decrease in the bacteria cells number and utilizing a mixture of different types of bacteria cells. 

  • 5.
    Almgren, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. studingrid@gmail.com.
    Challenging the dual coding theory: Does Affective Information Play a Greater Role in Abstract Compared to Concrete Word Processing?2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    It has long been held that concrete material has a processing advantage over abstract material, as predicted by Dual Coding Theory (Paivio,1991), although this has been challenged. For example, based on evidence for behavioural and neuroscientific studies, Kousta,, Vigliocco, Vinson, & Del Campo, (2011) proposed that emotional valance had a greater influence in the processing of abstract words, and that under some circumstances there may be no concreteness effect and might even be an abstractness effect. This would not be predicted by DCT. In addition, Isen and Daubman (1984) have claimed that emotional valence, and particularly positive emotion can influence cognitive processing. Specifically, they demonstrated that positive emotion was associated with more inclusive categorization of ambiguous category members. This current study was a 2 x 2 between group design to investigate the effect of positive and negative valence on recognition memory for concrete and abstract words and on categorization. Contrary to what was predicted by Dual Coding Theory, abstract words were generally better recognized than concrete, with there being an additional interaction with valence. A significant interaction between word type and valence on categorization was also found. Results partially support Kousta et al. (2011).

  • 6.
    Almqvist, Gustaf
    et al.
    University of Stockholm, Stockholm Sweden.
    Andersen, Michael
    Danish Fishermen’s Association, Fredericia, Denmark.
    Willestofte Berg, Casper
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Broadgate, Wendy
    The Fisheries Secretariat (FISH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bryan, Meaghan
    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Southeast Fisheries Science Center, Miami, United States.
    Campana, Steven
    Fisheries and Oceans Canada Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, Canada.
    Cardinale, Max
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Casini, Michele
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Dierking, Jan
    Leibniz-Institut für Meereswissenschaften, Kiel, Germany.
    von Dorrien, Christian
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Eero, Margit
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Efimov, Yuri
    Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries & Oceanography (VNIRO), Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Gasyukov, Pavel
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Hemmer-Hansen, Jakob
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Department of Inland Fisheries, Silkeborg, Denmark.
    Hjelm, Joakim
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Noél
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Horbowy, Jan
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Hüssy, Karin
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Johansson, Reine
    Baltic Sea Advisory Council, Dyrön, Sweden.
    Jonusas, Stanislovas
    DGMare, Brussels, Belgium.
    Kornelius, George
    Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment (BIOR) 8 Daugavgrivas Str. Fish Resources Research Department, Riga, Latvia.
    Köster, Fritz
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Kraak, Sarah
    Thünen Institute, Braunschweig, Germany.
    Krumme, Uwe
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Large, Scott
    International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Larsson, Staffan
    Swedish Cod Fishermen’s Producer Organisation, Lycke, Sweden.
    Luzenczyk, Anna
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Lövgren, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Maguire, Jean-Jacques
    Godefroy, Quebec, Canada.
    Mosegaard, Henrik
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Nielsen, Anders
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Norrström, Niclas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Oeberst, Rainer
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Stepputtis, Daniel
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Stern, Edward
    The Fisheries Secretariat (FISH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Storr-Paulsen, Marie
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Strehlow, Harry Vincent
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Svedäng, Henrik
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Trenkel, Verena
    Ifremer Nantes Centre, Nantes, France.
    Wæver Pedersen, Martin
    DTU Aqua – National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Zimmermann, Christopher
    Thünen Institute Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Report of the Benchmark Workshop on Baltic Cod Stocks (WKBALTCOD)2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The ICES Benchmark Workshop on Baltic Cod Stocks (WKBALTCOD), chaired by External Chair Jean-Jacques Maguire, Canada and ICES Chair Marie Storr-Paulsen, Denmark, and attended by two invited external experts Verena Trenkel, France and Meaghan Bryan, USA met in Rostock, Germany, 2–6 March 2015 with 39 participants and six countries represented. The objective of WKBALTCOD was to evaluate the appropriateness of data and methods to determine stock status and investigate meth-ods appropriate to use in the single-stock assessment for the cod stock in SD 22–24 and cod in SD 25–32 in the Baltic. Participants in the workshop were a large group with diverse backgrounds representing the industry, fisheries, NGOs, managers and scientists.The single-stock analytic assessment of the eastern Baltic stock was not accepted by the assessment working group (WGBFAS) in 2014 due to severe problems with the input data. The advice for the eastern Baltic cod was, therefore, based on the ICES approach for data-limited stocks. As an outcome ICES decided to establish a bench-mark for both cod stocks and to scope an integrated assessment for the Baltic cod stocks. The first meeting (WKSIBCA) was therefore meant to introduce the interces-sional work conducted since the assessment working group in April 2014, and to reach some conclusions on how to proceed both in the short term (Benchmark in March 2015) and longer term (2–3 years) and was seen as a data compilation work-shop, there is produced a separate report from this workshop. The WKBALTCOD was the 2nd meeting in the benchmark process and was intended to come up with a final stock assessment method, stock annex and input data for both stocks. As it was not possible to reach conclusive decision on the final model to be used for the east Baltic cod stock during the benchmark meeting and as more work on the preferable models was needed, it was decided by the ACOM leadership to prolong the bench-mark process until the assessment working group meeting in April 2015. This deci-sion has led to a relatively long process partly mixed with the assessment working group WGBFAS.It became clear during the benchmark process that although large effort has been put into explaining the underlying processes leading to the changes in the Baltic ecosys-tem, there is still some lack of understanding of the present situation in the eastern Baltic cod stock. Therefore, it was not possible to reach firm conclusions on the final model to be used and therefore not possible to set reference points. It was decided to continue to explore the most promising models and to continue to improve the input data until the assessment working group started in April.The main challenges still to be solved for the Eastern Baltic cod stock is the quantifi-cation of increased natural mortality and decrease in growth. Through several presentations during the workshop (both WKSIBCA and WKBALTCOD) it became clear that natural mortality very likely has increased in later years, due to decreased condition and increased parasite infection. A decrease in growth also seems plausible duo to a decrease in condition and/or selectivity-induced mortality of the largest in-dividuals. However, as none of these parameters are easily estimated, especially with the severe ageing problems, different model assumptions made the output very shaky.For the western Baltic cod, stock identification issues were examined in area SD 24, the intermediate area: based on otolith characteristics and genetics. Due to the results showing a large proportion of east cod in this area, it was decided to split the catch2 | ICES WKBALTCOD REPORT 2015and survey from SD 24 into either the western or eastern Baltic cod stock. It was pos-sible to derive proportions of eastern and western cod in SD 24 back to the mid-1990s.For the western Baltic cod stock a modelled survey indices was included in the as-sessment covering the western part of SD 24 and Area 22+23 and based on a smoothed ALK.Both cod stocks have in the past used commercial tuning fleet to have a better cov-ered of older age groups. It was decided to abound this time-series duo quality issues such as a limited coverage and problems with technical creeping.WKBALTCOD was not able to explore and define reference points for the Western Baltic cod stock during the meeting due to time constraints, but these were calculated and decided by correspondence after the meeting. The recent protocols on estimation procedures developed by WKMSYREF3 for stocks with a full analytical assessment and for data-limited stocks served as objective guidelines to obtain reference point estimates.

  • 7.
    Alteryd, Olivia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Think your pain away: The neurochemistry of placebo analgesia2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Placebo treatments are inert but are known to alleviate symptoms across numerous clinical conditions. One of the most studied placebo effects is placebo analgesia, which is a placebo effect limited to pain relief. This thesis aims to introduce the current state of research regarding the neuroscience of placebo analgesia and specifically to present research findings regarding the neurotransmission. Studies have demonstrated that placebo analgesia can be elicited through two separate processes interacting with each other; manipulation of expectations and through conditioning. These processes seem to affect neurotransmission in different ways. Many brain areas have been found to be correlated to placebo analgesia. Besides the pain-processing brain areas, studies point to that the prefrontal cortex can have a vital role in the placebo analgesic effect. Known neurotransmitters that have shown to be involved in placebo analgesia are endogenous opioids, cholecystokinin (CCK), and endocannabinoids. Studies point to that endogenous opioids are involved in the placebo analgesic effect when elicited by expectation or conditioned by an opioid drug. CCK act on placebo analgesia by affecting the release of endogenous opioids and endocannabinoids seem to be involved in placebo analgesia while it occurs due to conditioning with non-opioid drugs. Getting a better understanding of placebo analgesia and find ways to apply this knowledge in the clinical context could powerfully develop the whole medical society.

  • 8.
    Alvarez Svahn, Rodrigo
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The hippocampal dependence of long-term declarative memory2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations into the neural correlates of memory have found the hippocampus to be a crucial structure for long-term declarative memories, but the exact nature of this contribution remains under debate. This paper covers three theories concerned with how the hippocampus is involved in long-term memory, namely the Standard Consolidation Model, the Multiple-Trace Theory, and the Distributed Reinstatement Theory. According to the Standard Consolidation Model, long-term declarative memories (both episodic and semantic) are dependent on the hippocampus for a limited time during which the memories undergo a process of consolidation, after which they become dependent on the neocortex. In contrast, the Multiple-Trace Theory argues that detailed and context-specific episodic (but not semantic) memories remain dependent on the hippocampus indefinitely. While both the aforementioned theories posit that memories are initially dependent on the hippocampus, the Distributed Reinstatement Theory does not. Advocates of this theory propose that several memory systems compete for the encoding of a memory, and that the hippocampus usually is the dominant system. However, it is also suggested that the other (unspecified) memory systems can overcome the hippocampal dominance through extensive and distributed learning sessions. In this paper, findings from both human and rodent studies focusing on the hippocampus are reviewed and used to evaluate the claims made by each theory on a systems level.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Louise
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Psychedelic agents: Changes induced in subjective experience and brain activity2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis combines phenomenological and neuroscientific research to elucidate the effects of psychedelic agents on the human brain, mind and psychological well-being. Psychoactive plants have been used for thousands of years for ceremonial and ritual purposes. Psychedelics are psychoactive substances that affect cognitive processes and alter perception, thoughts, and mood. Illegalization of psychedelics in the 1960s rendered them impossible to study empirically but in the last couple of decades, relaxed legal restrictions regarding research purposes, renewed interest in the effects of psychedelic drugs and new brain imaging techniques have started to reveal the possibilities of these mind-altering substances. Psychedelics mainly affect the serotonin receptor 5-HT2A which in turn affect the functioning of largescale cortical areas by changing cerebral blood flow, alpha oscillations, and functional connectivity. These cortical changes not only induce immediate alterations in perception and cognition but have been shown to have positive effects in therapeutic interventions for depression, anxiety, and addiction, and also positively affect well-being in general. Although the pharmacology and neurobiology of psychedelics are still poorly understood, the potential benefits justify empirical research on psychedelics in humans.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Pernilla
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Sleep and Its Effects on Synaptic Strength2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 11.
    Andersson Szabo, Sofia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    A Biological And Psychological Profile of Eudaimonia as High Psychological Well-Being2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Aristotle (4th century B.C.E/1925) described eudaimonia as “the good life”, and is today commonly understood as eudaimonic well-being (EWB) within research. Despite the long history, the definitions and operationalizations of EWB are diverse and no coherent description or explanation for the biology of EWB exist. Hence, the present thesis reviews current neuroscientific- and additional biological research on EWB. This review reveals EWB to be most frequently operationalized as psychological well-being (PWB) (Ryff, 2014), and is here used as basis for an attempt to explain the biological and psychological profiles of EWB as high PWB. High PWB was characterized by brain activity linked to the reward circuitry, dorsolateral and left prefrontal cortex (PFC) and grey matter (GM) volume in areas of the brainstem and insular cortex. High PWB was also positively related to lower levels of several harmful biomarkers. The proposed psychological profile of high PWB included the psychological functions goal directed behaviour and emotional control. It is hoped that the proposed profiles will serve as inspiration for further exploration of the biology and psychology of human well-being (WB).

  • 12.
    Andersérs, Caroline
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Effect that Exercise has on Cognitive Functions: A Review2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    My aim for this literature review is to present and discuss a possible relationship between physical exercise and different kinds of cognitive functions. With the increasing interest on the topic, more studies have been conducted and the results from the studies have been a little ambiguous. The most part of the studies has been showing that exercise has a positive effect on cognitive functions. The evidence from the studies also says that exercise can help the brain to regulate the production of new neurons and to increase brain volume in the prefrontal and temporal areas. That can be very beneficial for elderly people with dementia, Alzheimer's disease or other cognitive declines. Evidence of exercise combined with the right nutrition can enhance cognitive performance even more but to establish this more research is needed.  

  • 13.
    Anna-Karin, Weivert
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Music and Emotion: The Neural Correlates of Music-Induced Positive Affect2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Listening to music is rated as one of the most pleasurable activities in human life and,in fact, listeners report the emotional impact of music to be one of the main motivatorsas to why they listen to music. This thesis focuses on the positive affective statesexperienced when listening to music and their underlying neural substrates. Despite thefact that research on the neural correlates of music-induced positive affect is arelatively recent undertaking our understanding has significantly improved during thelast decades. The aim of the current thesis is to give an overview of the neuralcorrelates of music-induced positive affect in healthy individuals. As such,psychophysiological, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies are reviewed.Across studies the consistent involvement of brain regions, such as the orbitofrontalcortex, the striatum and the amygdala and left hemisphere frontal regions in response tomusic-induced positive affect has been found. These structures constitute an importantpart of the mesolimbocortical reward circuitry found to be involved in the processing ofa wide range of pleasures. The thesis also discusses conceptual and methodologicallimitations inherent in the studies reviewed. Understanding the nature and underlyingneural basis of music-induced positive affect is important because of the implications itmay have for psychological and physical wellbeing.

  • 14.
    Annett, Judith
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Berglund, Stefan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Increasing Societal Well-Being Through Enhanced Empathy Using Computer Games2015Ingår i: Well-Being in Contemporary Society / [ed] Johnny H. Søraker, Jan-Willem Van der Rijt, Jelle de Boer, Pak-Hang Wong & Philip Brey, Springer, 2015, s. 135-155Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research suggests that the well-being of both individuals and society in general may have a neurobiological basis linked to empathy. This raises the issue of available routes for enhancing empathy (through interventions such as education, training, pharmacology, etc.). One of the most important features of the human brain, especially of the brains of children and teenagers, is its plasticity. Millions of children and teenagers spend many hours every day playing computer games. Many computer games include different forms of violence and aggression and there has been extensive research that indicates that there is a correlation between playing these games, aggression, and reduced disposition to pro-social behaviors. However, much less research has been conducted on the potential effects of pro-social and non-violent computer games. Since there is not yet a comprehensive model of the possible causal relationships between playing such games and neuropsychological function, neuroendocrine function (e.g. oxytocin release), empathy, pro-social behaviors, and individual and societal well-being, we provide a basic theoretical framework for empirical research on these issues. The aim of this framework is ultimately to establish not only correlational evidence, but to allow the development of experimental protocols to meaningfully examine the causal relationships and mechanisms.

  • 15.
    Arif Jahangir, Chowdhury
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Role of BACH1 in regulation of antioxidant mediated metastasis in lung cancer2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumption of antioxidant supplements is widely popular worldwide mainly because of their supposed anticancer benefits. Though these benefits against cancer are highly advertised by supplement industry and a well stablished perception in general population, there are not enough studies to support those claims. In fact, several studies have pinpointed antioxidants’ role in promoting tumor proliferation and migration in multiple types of cancer. Nevertheless, the mechanisms behind how antioxidants are actually mediating these events is largely unknown. This study aims to investigate how antioxidants are affecting lung cancer cells migration and to decipher the involvement of the transcription factor BACH1 in it. In this study, effect of antioxidant supplementation on three human Non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines were investigated. Antioxidant administration was found to increase cell migration and BACH1 expression in all of them. Effect of inactivation and over activation of BACH1 confirmed significant relation between antioxidant induced migration and BACH1 expression. Along with increased migration, antioxidants increased glycolysis in the cells in a Bach1 dependent manner. Activation of NRF2, the master regulator of endogenous antioxidant expression had also been found to increase migration through up regulation of BACH1. Overall findings of this study confirm Bach1’s role in antioxidant-induced migration in lung cancer from different directions and provides a broader understanding how redox status of cancer cells influence their metastatic ability.

  • 16.
    Arnesén, Lisa
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Vems landskap ska förändras för att öka den biologiska mångfalden?: En studie av skillnaderna i odlingslandskapets konnektivitet med avseende på två skyddsvärda arter med olika preferenser2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Eftersom skyddsvärda organismer inte följer administrativa gränser behövs ett landskapsperspektiv i naturvårds- och planarbete, och de arter som studeras behöver ha juridiska belägg för att skyddas. Nätverksanalyser anpassade för ekologi har vuxit fram som ett kraftfullt verktyg för att studera och kommunicera sambanden mellan arters spridning över större områden. I denna rapport ställs därför frågan: hur läderbaggens (Osmoderma eremita) respektive bivråkens (Pernis apivorus) spridningsmöjligheter i odlingslandskapet i Borås kommun påverkas vid exploatering, med avseende på a)spridningsförmåga, b) habitatkvalitet c) habitatpatchers position i ett nätverk? Analyserna baserades på kommunal och regional naturvårdsdata, som p.g.a. sekretess inte redovisas med kartmaterial, koordinater eller liknande. Flera nätverk etablerades för varje art för att indikera hur nätverken av patcher ser ut idag och hur arternas spridning förändras beroende på vilka patcher som utesluts – detta för att imitera hur exploatering kan påverka arternas fortsatta överlevnad och spridning. Resultaten visade att läderbaggens största begränsning är dess dåliga spridningsförmåga, tätt följd av patchernas position, medan bivråken påverkas mer av habitatkvalitet. De viktigaste slutsatserna som kunde dras var att läderbaggens naturliga spridning må vara begränsad men kan förbättras genom att länka samman små nätverkskomponenter och fortsätta sköta de som är störst idag. För bivråkens del skulle en annan typ av analys med mer fokus på artens beteende och behov av olika patcher för olika aktiviteter ge ett bättre underlag.

  • 17.
    Aronsson, Emelie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Kan tacksamhet främja moraliskt beteende?2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har undersökt om tacksamhet kan påverka vårt moraliska beteende, genom att se över studier som gjorts inom psykologi och kognitiv neurovetenskap. Tidigare forskning har fokuserat mestadels på hur det kognitiva resonerandet påverkar ens moral. På senare tid har forskningen allt mer betonat specifika emotioners avgörande roll för om man agerar efter moraliska normer eller inte. Dessa emotioner benämns som moraliska emotioner. En av dessa moraliska emotioner är tacksamhet. Tacksamhet har i studier visats fungera som en moralisk barometer, stärka välgörares fortsatta moraliska beteende samt fungera som ett moraliskt motiv. Den neurala grunden för tacksamhet är ännu relativt outforskad. Emotioners generella påverkan på moraliskt beteende samt positiva emotioners tendenser till agerande (eng: action tendencies) kan dock ses som ett steg till ökad förståelse om hur tacksamheten påverkar vårt moraliska beteende.

  • 18.
    Arvidsson, Andrea
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Meditation, attention and the brain: function, structure and attentional performance2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Meditation has been practiced around the world for thousands of years and has during the past decade become increasingly popular in the Western world. Meditation can be seen as a form of mental exercise and refers to a family of complex emotional and attentional regulatory practices that involves different attentional, cognitive monitoring and awareness processes. Clinical research on meditation has demonstrated that meditation seem to reduce stress, anxiety, and depression. Recent interest in how meditation affect the human brain and body have lead to an increase in research regarding the neural correlates of meditation, structural changes induced by meditation, and the potential attentional and emotional benefits mediated by meditation. This thesis investigates expert related changes in neural activity, brain structure, and attentional performance induced by focused attention meditation (FAM) and open monitoring meditation (OMM). The research on meditation and the brain is still in its infancy but despite this, there seem to be some converging evidence of meditation’s impact on the human brain and mind. The results from the included studies in this thesis indicates that expert meditators show greater activation in some meditation related brain areas, as well as less activation in other areas when compared to novice meditators. The results also suggest that long-term meditation practice induce some structural changes in the brain and that meditation seem to enhance the practitioners’ attentional control. 

  • 19.
    Arvidsson, Tobias
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neural Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Emotion Regulation: Differences Between Adolescents and Adults2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The time of adolescence is marked by enhanced emotional experiences and difficulties with regulating one’s emotions. One way to improve the adolescent’s ability to regulate their emotions is to let them practice mindfulness meditation. The motivational drive behind this thesis is the question of what forms of mindfulness meditation are needed to give the highest increase in their emotion regulation-abilities. One problem is that while there exist neural studies on mindfulness meditation for adults, the research field of adolescent meditation lacks them. Because neural studies are needed to adequately answer this question, and the lack of brain imaging tools for this thesis, the focus here was to conduct some groundwork for this discussion. The first aim was to investigate the neural effects of mindfulness meditation on emotion regulation in adults and the second aim was to investigate to what extent we can generalize these neural effects to adolescents. To be able to theoretical discuss the second aim, neural and psychological studies on mindfulness meditation and emotion regulation were used as a base. The studies were grouped into five sub-categories based on age group and research field and then discussed with the help of developmental studies. Adult meditators had stronger functionality in regulatory brain regions than non-meditators during meditation and during the perception of negative stimuli. The discussion about the generalization of the adult neural patterns to adolescents showed that the findings were too diverse to come to any useful conclusions. Empirical and conceptual improvements, along with neural meditation studies on adolescents, are needed to improve the research field in both age groups.

  • 20.
    Asker, Mohammed
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Real-time measurement of locus coeruleus (LC) activity during eating and mild stress with fiber photometry2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress has been always associated with a deviating than normal feeding behavior. Both over-eating and under-eating accompanied by altered food choice towards palatable food have been reported in response to stress. The neuronal pathways that link stress with eating are still unclear. Locus Coeruleus (LC) is the main endogenous norepinephrine (NE) secreting nucleus. It lies in the center of the stress response mediating arousal state. LC-NE nucleus with its widespread innervations throughout the brain can modulate brain mechanisms linked with motivation towards food. In this study, the aim was to study the activity of NE neurons in the LC in relation to stress and food intake. The hypothesis was that NE neurons are activated by mild stressors and that this activity drives food intake. Because the association between LC activity and food intake is observational by nature, it is not expected to demonstrate a causal link but to show findings consistent with this hypothesis. Another aim was to standardize the photometry measurements and an analysis paradigm. In response to a stressor, animals showed freezing behavior, with photometry recordings displaying a significant reduction in Ca+2 signals right after the distressing stimulus. When a stressor preceded food intake, LC-NE activity significantly decreased right after the first meal the effect that did not last to the second meal with no difference between chow and palatable food. These results highlight the involvement of LC-NE in modulating feeding behavior by integrating environmental cues and internal needs. Future investigations of distinct, projection-defined, LC-NE sub-populations may reveal more specific food and stress interactions.

  • 21.
    Asplund, Annika
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pradip, Arvind
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden / Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark.
    van Giezen, Mariska
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Aspegren, Anders
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Choukair, Helena
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rehnström, Marie
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Susanna
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ghosheh, Nidal
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    El Hajjam, Dorra
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Sandra
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden / Institute of Biomedicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Susanna
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Benecke, Jörg
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Butron, Mariela
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wigander, Annelie
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Noaksson, Karin
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sartipy, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. AstraZeneca R&D, GMD CVMD GMed, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Björquist, Petter
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden / NovaHep AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Edsbagge, Josefina
    Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Takara Bio Europe AB (former Cellartis AB), Arvid Wallgrens Backe 20, 413 46, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    One Standardized Differentiation Procedure Robustly Generates Homogenous Hepatocyte Cultures Displaying Metabolic Diversity from a Large Panel of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells2016Ingår i: Stem Cell Reviews, ISSN 1550-8943, E-ISSN 1558-6804, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 90-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human hepatocytes display substantial functional inter-individual variation regarding drug metabolizing functions. In order to investigate if this diversity is mirrored in hepatocytes derived from different human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines, we evaluated 25 hPSC lines originating from 24 different donors for hepatic differentiation and functionality. Homogenous hepatocyte cultures could be derived from all hPSC lines using onestandardized differentiation procedure. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a standardized hepatic differentiation procedure that is generally applicable across a large panel of hPSC lines without any adaptations to individual lines. Importantly, with regard to functional aspects, such as Cytochrome P450 activities, we observed that hepatocytes derived from different hPSC lines displayed inter-individual variation characteristic for primary hepatocytes obtained from different donors, while these activities were highly reproducible between repeated experiments using the same line. Taken together, these data demonstrate the emerging possibility to compile panels of hPSC-derived hepatocytes of particular phenotypes/genotypes relevant for drug metabolism and toxicity studies. Moreover, these findings are of significance for applications within the regenerative medicine field, since our stringent differentiation procedure allows the derivation of homogenous hepatocyte cultures from multiple donors which is a prerequisite for the realization of future personalized stem cell based therapies.

  • 22.
    Asplund, Annika
    et al.
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Synnergren, Jane
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Andersson, Christian X.
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Küppers-Munther, Barbara
    Takara Bio Europe AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A novel maintenance medium extends the life-span and enables long term applications for both human primary hepatocytes and human pluripotent stem cell derived hepatocytes in conventional 2D cultures2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 23.
    Asplund Fromholz, Marcus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Idrottsprestationers påverkan av anspänning, oro och stress och förslag till prestationshöjande tekniker2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Anspänning, oro och stress är tre begrepp som har studerats länge, vilket har gett upphov till flertalet modeller, teorier och domäner där dessa begrepp har studerats och fortfarande studeras. I denna uppsats så kommer dessa tre begrepp bland annat att redogöras för var för sig med koppling till mätmetoder, idrott och kognitiv neurovetenskap. Syftet med uppsatsen är att beskriva hur idrottsprestationer kan påverkas av anspänning, oro och stress för att utifrån det kunna redogöra för evidensbaserade metoder som kan appliceras för att främja en idrottsprestation. Först kommer anspänning att redogöras för, anspänning följs sedan av oro som i sin tur följs av stress som sista begrepp. Avslutningsvis så behandlas även problematik och möjligheter för dessa begrepp inom forskningsfältet och dess tillämpningsområden.

  • 24.
    Axelsson, K. F.
    et al.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden / Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden / Center for Bone Research at the Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, R.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundh, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Hälsa och Lärande.
    Lorentzon, M.
    Geriatric Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden / Center for Bone Research at the Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effectiveness of a minimal resource fracture liaison service2016Ingår i: Osteoporosis International, ISSN 0937-941X, E-ISSN 1433-2965, Vol. 27, nr 11, s. 3165-3175Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate if a 2-year intervention with a minimal resource fracture liaison service (FLS) was associated with increased investigation and medical treatment and if treatment was related to reduced re-fracture risk.

    METHODS: The FLS started in 2013 using existing secretaries (without an FLS coordinator) at the emergency department and orthopaedic wards to identify risk patients. All patients older than 50 years of age with a fractured hip, vertebra, shoulder, wrist or pelvis were followed during 2013-2014 (n = 2713) and compared with their historic counterparts in 2011-2012 (n = 2616) at the same hospital. Re-fractures were X-ray verified. A time-dependent adjusted (for age, sex, previous fracture, index fracture type, prevalent treatment, comorbidity and secondary osteoporosis) Cox model was used.

    RESULTS: The minimal resource FLS increased the proportion of DXA-investigated patients after fracture from 7.6 to 39.6 % (p < 0.001) and the treatment rate after fracture from 12.6 to 31.8 %, which is well in line with FLS types using the conventional coordinator model. Treated patients had a 51 % lower risk of any re-fracture than untreated patients (HR 0.49, 95 % CI 0.37-0.65 p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: We found that our minimal resource FLS was effective in increasing investigation and treatment, in line with conventional coordinator-based services, and that treated patients had a 51 % reduced risk of new fractures, indicating that also non-coordinator based fracture liaison services can improve secondary prevention of fractures.

  • 25.
    Ayukekbong, James A.
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases/Section of Clinical Virology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, M. E.
    Department of Infectious Diseases/Section of Clinical Virology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Vansarla, Goutham
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Tah, F.
    Camyaids Institute of Laboratory Diagnosis and Clinical Research, Douala, Cameroon.
    Nkuo-Akenji, T.
    Faculty of Science Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon.
    Lindh, M.
    Department of Infectious Diseases/Section of Clinical Virology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergström, T.
    Department of Infectious Diseases/Section of Clinical Virology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Monitoring of seasonality of norovirus and other enteric viruses in Cameroon by real-time PCR: an exploratory study2014Ingår i: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 142, nr 7, s. 1393-1402Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the seasonal fluctuation of norovirus and other enteric viruses in Cameroon. Two hundred participants aged between 1 and 69 years were prospectively followed up. Each participant provided monthly faecal samples over a 12-month period. A total of 2484 samples were tested using multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of norovirus, rotavirus and enterovirus. The effect of weather variables and risk factors were analysed by Pearson correlation and bivariate analysis. Overall, enterovirus was the most commonly detected virus (216% of specimens), followed by norovirus (39%) and rotavirus (04%). Norovirus and enterovirus were detected throughout the year with a peak of norovirus detection at the beginning of the rainy season and a significant alternation of circulation of norovirus genogroups from one month to the next. Age <5 years and consumption of tap water were risk factors for norovirus infection. Better understanding of factors influencing transmission and seasonality may provide insights into the relationship between physical environment and risk of infection for these viruses.

  • 26.
    Backström, Linus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Establishing a biopsychosocial model for conspiracy theory ideation2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to provide the grounds for a biopsychosocial understanding of the underpinnings of conspiracy theorist ideation by studying research articles from different scientific disciplines. Cross-disciplinary concurring results are presented and discussed, as well as some examples of how conspiracy theories have been used during the 20th century. Also discussed is how this is used in political discourse in the populist climate of today, with the rise of radical right-wing movements, the justification of “alternative facts” from higher governmental ranks, and religious fundamentalism, making it a societal issue of possible big magnitude. Neurological similarities was found between religiousness and proneness to conspiracy theory ideation, and the articles concerning neural correlates therefore stem from research on religious individuals due to the lack of neuro-biopsychological research on actual conspiracy theorists. Since conspiracy theory ideation has shown the ability to cause negative consequences it is also advised that governmental agencies and society as a whole revise its stance on populism and the spread of flawed information, in order to maintain an open society. Also presented are a few ideas on how to begin countering the rise of populism.

  • 27.
    Badekar, Karishma
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Cloning of two arsenic reponsive arsB and arsC genes from Lysinibacillus sphaericus and construction of binary vectors for T-DNA mediated transformation of tobacco plants.2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic is classified to be a heavy metal that severely contaminates human foods, drinking water and the environment in many regions of the world. Long term exposure to arsenic can create chronic poisoning of human health leading to many life threatening and lethal diseases such as cancer, keratosis, gangrene, damage of lung, kidney and liver and also many other neuro vascular disorders.

    To cope with this problem, the researchers of the Biotechnology Research group at the University of Skövde has previously identified and isolated a bacterial strain Lysinibacillus sphaericus sp. B1-CDA from arsenic contaminated soil. These strains are resistant to arsenic, can uptake arsenic from the contaminated source and store it inside the cells thus reducing the arsenic content in the contaminated source. Genome sequencing of this strain revealed that the bacterium harbors several arsenic responsive genes. The research group has also performed several in silico studies on these genes to determine their molecular functions. Two of these genes arsB and arsC were predicted to be involved in uptake and storage of arsenics inside the cells. In this thesis work the arsB and arsC genes were cloned from the genomic DNA of bacterium by PCR using database sequences as primers. These genes were then transferred into two cloning vectors pMAN1080 and pMAN0385, respectively. The pCAMBIA1301 vector was utilized to construct the binary vectors for transferring these genes to tobacco plants by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA mediated gene transfer. Two binary vectors each harboring the respective arsenic responsive genes arsB and arsC were successfully constructed. Transgenic calli derived from leaf disk transformation were successfully selected. Transgenic shoots were generated but with a very low transformation frequency (<6%).

  • 28.
    Bahrd, Phillie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Blacked Out Brain: Neural Mechanisms of Unconsciousness in General Anesthesia and Disorders of Consciousness2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding the neural mechanisms of unconsciousness is a pursuit with significance to both the scientific study of consciousness as well as for the improvement of clinical diagnosis of patients with severe structural brain damage that has resulted in disorders of consciousness (DOC), such as coma or vegetative state . This literature review gives an account for what consciousness studies have contributed to the understanding of the neural mechanisms of unconsciousness, focusing on experiments using anesthetic agents to investigate the loss and return of consciousness. Mechanisms that frequently correlate with the loss of consciousness are modulation of the brainstem, the thalamus, and the cortex, but different anesthetic drugs act on different areas. According to a bottom-up approach unconsciousness can be induced by sleep-circuits in the brainstem, and according to a top-down approach unconsciousness can be induced by cortical and thalamocortical disruption. But the mechanisms involved during loss of consciousness are not the same as for return of consciousness, and this paper includes evidence for the mechanisms involved during the return being closer to what research should be further investigating. The mechanisms involved in return from anesthesia-induced unconsciousness resemble those mechanisms involved in recovery from DOC. Studying mechanisms of unconsciousness can further our understanding of consciousness, as well as improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with DOC.

  • 29.
    Banks, H. T.
    et al.
    Center for Research in Scientific Computation North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Banks, J. E.
    Undergraduate Research Opportunities Center (UROC) California State University, Monterey Bay Seaside, CA, USA.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Department of Ecology Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala, Sweden.
    Curtsdotter, Alva
    Department of Ecology Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Ecology Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Uppsala, Sweden.
    Laubmeier, A. N.
    Center for Research in Scientific Computation North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC, USA.
    Parameter estimation for an allometric food web model2017Ingår i: International journal of pure and applied mathematics, ISSN 1311-8080, E-ISSN 1314-3395, Vol. 114, nr 1, s. 143-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of mechanistic models to natural systems is of interest to ecological researchers. We use the mechanistic Allometric Trophic Network (ATN) model, whichis well-studied for controlled and theoretical systems, to describe the dynamics of the aphidRhopalosiphum padi in an agricultural field. We diagnose problems that arise in a first attemptat a least squares parameter estimation on this system, including formulation of the modelfor the inverse problem and information content present in the data. We seek to establishwhether the field data, as it is currently collected, can support parameter estimation for theATN model.

  • 30.
    Baxter, John
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Evaluation of Oxford nanopore’s MinION: Use, functionality, and genome assembly2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 30 poäng / 45 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid and reliable detection of pathogens is of utmost importance in healthcare settings to ensure the appropriate treatment thereby reducing morbidity and mortality for the patient. Current culturing, PCR based and NGS species detection methods are time consuming (Opota et al., 2015), limited in their detection (Buckley et al., 2015), or require specialist skills and are expensive (Basho and Eterovic., 2015). Oxford Technologies Nanopore devices could provide detailed genomic sequencing at a fraction of the cost and without the need for technical bioinformatic skills. This study evaluates the MinION device and analysis tools to suggest best practice. Classification and genotyping of 12 Klebsiella isolates were performed using EPI2ME automated workflows and manual de novo assembly.  Automated workflows using raw MinION reads provided clinically relevant information identified in ~6hrs. Manual de novo assembly and analysis used hybrid, and single source data took >24hrs. The inclusion of MinION long reads overcome problems assembling short reads. Hybrid genomes provided the most contiguous and highly detailed contigs. MinION only read assemblies contained more errors but still identified similar genotypic findings. Automated workflows are rapid and require minimal bioinformatic know-how. There should be a dialogue between clinicians and bioinformaticians to develop bespoke analysis tools.  Although challenges remain around compatible kits and vulnerable flowcells long read sequencing can be an effective tool for species detection and pathogen typing. Furthermore, hybrid assemblies have the potential to advance our genome detailing and discovery.

  • 31.
    Bays, Harold E.
    et al.
    Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center Inc., Louisville, KY, USA.
    Sartipy, Peter
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Global Medicines Development, CVMD, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Xu, John
    Biometrics and Information Sciences, AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA.
    Sjöström, Carl David
    Global Medicines Development, CVMD, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Underberg, James A.
    Department of Medicine, NYU School of Medicine & NYU Center for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, New York, NY, USA.
    Dapagliflozin in patients with type II diabetes mellitus, with and without elevated triglyceride and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels2017Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Lipidology, ISSN 1933-2874, E-ISSN 1876-4789, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 450-458Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Dapagliflozin is a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that improves glycemic control in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by reducing renal glucose reabsorption.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the lipid effects of dapagliflozin 10 mg or placebo in patients with T2DM with/without baseline elevated triglyceride and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels.

    METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of 10 phase 3, placebo-controlled studies of dapagliflozin 10 mg (N = 2237) or placebo (N = 2164) administered for 24 weeks in patients with T2DM. Patients with elevated triglyceride (>= 150 mg/dL [1.69 mmol/L]) and reduced HDL cholesterol levels (<40 mg/dL [1.04 mmol/L] in men; <50 mg/dL [1.29 mmol/L] in women) were included (group A). The reference group (group B) included patients who did not meet the defined lipid criteria.

    RESULTS: The effects of dapagliflozin on fasting lipid profiles were generally similar in the 2 lipid groups (ie, groups A and B) and, compared with placebo, were associated with minor increases in non-HDL cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and HDL cholesterol levels. The effects on triglyceride levels were inconsistent. The incidence of adverse events (AEs)/serious AEs, and AEs of genital infection, urinary tract infection, volume reduction, renal function, and hypoglycemia were similar in the 2 lipid groups.

    CONCLUSION: Patients with T2DM treated with dapagliflozin experienced minor changes in lipid levels; the changes were generally similar in the 2 lipid groups. The clinical significance of these changes in lipids is unclear, especially in view of the positive effects of dapagliflozin on other cardiovascular disease risk factors. 

  • 32.
    Bedi, Abhishek
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Impact of the new class of clinically relevant drugs: Imipridones on the migration of mantle cell Lymphoma cells2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL)is a subtype of B-cell lymphoma characterized by chromosomal translocation t(11;14)(q13;q32), enhancing the expression of cyclin D1, resulting in alteration in cell cycle progression. The translocation is the key event for initiation of mantle cell lymphoma however is not sufficient for the development of the disease. Changes in the expression of the G-protein coupled receptors in different cancer types due to mutations and other regulating mechanisms can lead to changes in expression of proteins, resulting in defects in signalling pathways,favouring tumor dissemination. Growing evidences suggests that the disease progression in various B cell malignancies is due to the interactions between neoplastic B cells and stromal cells in tissue microenvironment. ONC201 is an imipridone, which is an antagonist to a type of G-protein coupled receptor: dopamine receptor D2. ONC201 has the property for inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis. The objective of the project was to investigate the migration of MCL cells towards fetal bovine serum and by this, study the impact of ONC201 on the migration of mantle cell lymphoma cells using chemotaxis assay. Theapoptotic effect of the drug was examined by detection of activecaspase-3 and cleaved PARP proteins using western blotting. The chemotaxis assay and western blot demonstrated that ONC201 inhibited migration of the mantle cell lymphoma cell lines at the concentration-dependent manner without inducing apoptosis in the cells at the investigated time point. The expression of cyclin D1 in the cells treated with ONC201 was also investigated after incubation period of 24 hours and it was observed that ONC201 plays a role in reducing cyclin D1 expression in mantle cell lymphoma cells.

  • 33.
    Berg, Fredrik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Abnormala beteendestörningar och stereotyper hos djur i fångenskap.: Enrichment ett sätt att motverka?2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 34.
    Berg Junker, Maria Constance
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Neural correlates of romantic love and romantic attachment2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of neuroscience, being in love and feeling romantically attached to a partner is described as a dynamic process. Romantic love may be viewed as a motivational system, changing throughout time and place, fluctuating on the interest and motivation of the individual. Early memories and attachment towards a caregiver, lay the foundation for later attachment behavior, also known as attachment styles. In this thesis, an exploratory approach is present. The thesis aims to introduce and describe the neural correlates of romantic love and romantic attachment. Brain regions concerned with reward, emotion and thought processing, such as the reward circuitry network of the brain and the limbic system, are being investigated. So are other brain areas involved in romantic love and romantic attachment. Research findings suggest that brain areas responsible for affection, emotional control, learning, memory and social judgment are all involved in the complex processes of being in love and feeling romantically attached. These findings are represented by the involvement of the frontal lobe, cerebral cortex, limbic system, orbitofrontal cortex, and hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), ventral tegmental area (VTA), caudate tail, including the reward pathways of the brain. Distribution and regulation of neurotransmitters such as; vasopressin, oxytocin, dopamine, corticosterone and serotonin are all present in the state of romantic  attachment and romantic love. Overlapping evidence confirms the involvement of the reward circuitry network, together with the limbic system as crucial in the formation and maintenance of a romantic relationship.

  • 35.
    Berg, Sofia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Dept of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Div. of Theoretical Biology, Linköping Univ., Linköping, Sweden.
    Pimenov, Aexander
    Weierstrass Inst., Berlin, Germany / Environmental Research Inst., Univ. College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Palmer, Catherine
    Weierstrass Inst., Berlin, Germany.
    Emmerson, Mark
    School of Biological Sciences, Queen's Univ. Belfast, Belfast, United Kingdom.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Dept of Ecology, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ecological communities are vulnerable to realistic extinction sequences2015Ingår i: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 124, nr 4, s. 486-496Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 36.
    Bergenius, Mikaela
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Boje, Jesper
    The National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Casini, Michele
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Degel, Henrik
    The National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Eero, Margit
    The National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Management Systems, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Florin, Ann-Britt
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Coastal Research, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Gasyukov, Pavel
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Grygiel, Wlodzimierz
    Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Gröhsler, Tomas
    Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries (TI-OF), Rostock, Germany.
    Hjelm, Joakim
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Marine Research, Sweden.
    Horbowy, Jan
    Sea Fisheries Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Holmgren, Noél
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Norrström, Niclas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kaljuste, Olavi
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Coastal Research, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Karpushevskiy, Igor
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Karpushevskaia, Anastasiia
    AtlantNIRO, Kaliningrad, Russian Federation.
    Kornilovs, Georgs
    Latvian Fish Resources Agency, Riga, Latvia.
    Krumme, Uwe
    Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries (TI-OF), Rostock, Germany.
    Luzenczyk, Anna
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Lövgren, Johan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Institute of Marine Research, Lysekil, Sweden.
    Pönni, Jukka
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research, Institute Kotka Unit, Kotka, Finland.
    Oeberst, Rainer
    Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries (TI-OF), Rostock, Germany.
    Raid, Tiit
    Estonian Marine Institute, University of Tartu, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Raitaniemi, Jari
    Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute Turku Game and Fisheries Research, Turku, Finland.
    Statkus, Romas
    Division of fishery research and science, Fishery service under Ministry of Agriculture, Klaipeda, Lithuania.
    Stoetera, Sven
    Thünen Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries (TI-OF), Rostock, Germany.
    Storr-Paulsen, Marie
    DTU Aqua - National Institute of Aquatic Resources Section for Fisheries Advice, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Ustups, Didzis
    Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment (BIOR), Fish Resources Research Department, Riga, Latvia.
    Walther, Yvonne
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Marine Research, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS): 14-21 April 2015, ICES HQ, Copenhagen, Denmark2015Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ICES Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group (WGBFAS) met 14-21 April 2015 (Chair: Mare Storr-Paulsen, Denmark), with 28 participants and 9 countries represented. The objective of WGBFAS was to assess the status of the following stocks:

    1 ) Sole in Division IIIa, SDs 20-22

    2 ) Cod in Kattegat, Cod in SD 22-24, Cod in SD 25-32

    3 ) Herring in SD 25-27, 28.2, 29 and 32, Herring in SD 28.1 (Gulf of Riga), Herring in SD 30, Herring SD 31.

    4 ) Sprat in SD 22-32

    5 ) Plaice 21-23, Plaice 2425

    6 ) Flounder 22-23; 24-25; 26+28 and 27+29-32, Brill 2232, Dab 2232, and Turbot 2232 (survey trends)

    WGBFAS also identified the data needed, for next year’s data call with some suggestions for improvements in the data call as well as in InterCatch. The report contains an introduction with the summary of other WGs relevant for the WGBFAS, country specific fishery description, the methods used, and ecosystem considerations. The results of the analytical stock assessment or survey trends for the species listed above are then presented with all the stocks with the same species in the same sections. The report ends with references, list of Working Documents, recommendations and Stock Annexes. In first quarter 2015 the Baltic cod stocks and the plaice stocks were benchmarked. As a result the Baltic cod stocks now have to apply a splitting key in SD 24 were both stocks are present. This has changed the assessment from being an area based assessment to now being a stock based assessments and has implications for the advice. The principle analytical models used for the stock assessments were XSA and SAM. For most flatfishes, CPUE trends from bottom trawl surveys were presented (except plaice 2425 and her31 using relative SSB from SAM and XSA, respectively). Ecosystem changes have been analytically considered in the following stock assessments: Herring in SD 25-27, 28.2, 29 and 32, and Sprat in SD 22-32, in form of cod predation mortality. Last year a very large retrospective pattern in the Eastern Baltic cod stock caused that the WG rejected the analytic assessment. Several uncertainties in the data lead to this conclusion i.a age reading problems with large inconsistency between and within nations as well as a change in growth and natural mortality. However, even though a data compilation workshop and a benchmark have been conducted in the intermediate time it was not possible to solve the main issue on growth. The lack of knowledge on growth caused to that even the length based data required in the data call was very uncertain for the models and in the end the WG was not able to produce a better model than was presented last year which is based on survey trends. The Her-30 (Herring in the Botnian Sea) was by the working group down scaled from a category 1 stock to a category 3 stock due to the commercial tuning fleet used in the assessment having very uncertain estimates in the last couples of years. However, during the Baltic ADG an alternative assessment was suggested were the stock is still considered a category 1 stock but the last 8 years of the commercial tuning fleet was terminated. This assessment was conducted after the working group but has been included in the report.

  • 37.
    Bergström, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm Recilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frelat, Romain
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Haapasaari, Päivi
    University of Helsinki, Department of Environmental Sciences, Helsinki, Finland.
    Haas, Bianca
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg Germany.
    Heikinheimo, Outi
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland.
    Jernberg, Susanna
    Finnish Environment Institute, Marine Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland.
    Large, Scott
    ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lindegren, Martin
    Centre for Ocean Life, DTU-Aqua, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Levin, Phil
    Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, USA.
    Lehikoinen, Annukka
    Helsinki University, Kotka Maritime Research Centre, Kotka, Finland.
    Möllmann, Christian
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Nordström, Marie
    Åbo Akademi University, Environmental and Marine Biology, Åbo, Finland.
    Norrström, Niclas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Otto, Saskia
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Peltonen, Heikki
    Marine Research Centre, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland.
    Précuchét, Laurence
    Centre for Ocean Life, DTU-Aqua, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Putnis, Ivars
    Institute of Food Safety, Animal Health and Environment BIOR, Fish Resources Research Department, Riga, Latvia.
    Romakkaniemi, Atso
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Oulun yliopisto, Finland.
    Suikkanen, Sanna
    Finnish Environment Institute, Marine Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland.
    Torres, Marian
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Uusitalo, Laura
    Finnish Environment Institute, Marine Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland.
    Weigel, Benjamin
    Åbo Akademi University, Environmental and Marine Biology, Åbo, Finland.
    Wesslander, Karin
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Marine Environment, Västra Frölunda, Sweden.
    Zagrodzka, Zuzanna
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Interim Report of the ICES/HELCOM Working Group on Integrated Assessments of the Baltic Sea (WGIAB): 18-22 April 2016 Helsinki, Finland2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The ICES/HELCOM Working Group on Integrated Assessments of the Baltic Sea (WGIAB) meeting was held in Helsinki (Finland), 18-22 April 2016. The meeting was attended by 26 participants from five countries and chaired by Laura Uusitalo, Fin-land, Saskia Otto, Germany, Martin Lindegren, Denmark, and Lena Bergström, Swe-den. This was the first year of the new three-year Terms of Reference (ToR) for WGIAB. The main working activities in 2016 were to A) develop the trait-based ap-proach of understanding the ecosystem function, and B) explore the social-ecological system, including indicator development, revising the conceptual model, and devel-oping case studies. As a primary outcome of the ToR A, we built on our previous work on integrated ecosystem assessments (IEAs) in the Baltic Sea, but extended it beyond considering changes in abundances of a few dominant species, to accounting for community-wide changes in a number of key traits across multiple trophic levels. These traits represent various ecosystem functions upon which we derive important ecosystem services. By investigating temporal changes in the community weighted mean traits of phyto-plankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos, and fish, we demonstrated whether trait reor-ganizations at the level of entire communities occurred in the Central Baltic Sea as a result of the 1980s regime shift. Using in total 29 traits combined for all groups we found indications of two breakpoints across all four taxonomic groups over the last decades, i.e. one around 1990 and one around 2000. Further work will focus on ex-ploring the nature of the changes in trait composition and on standardizing the num-ber of traits and data types (i.e. binary, continuous or categorical) across taxonomic group.In addition, we collected data on key functional groups and abiotic variables in all main sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, setting the stage for a cross-regional comparison of temporal patterns and trends in lower trophic level in the face of recent develop-ments in climate-related drivers.With reference to Tor B, to explore how social indicators could be used in parallel with biological indicators in an integrated assessment framework, we developed a conceptual model of interrelationships between ecosystem and society. We used the model as a basis for mapping factors to be accounted for in the ecosystem-based management using the Baltic salmon and clupeid species as case studies. The models depict 1) the structure of the foodweb relevant to the target species, 2) the key com-munity level and population traits that contribute to the state of the species, 3) main pressures affecting the foodweb and their effects on the species, 4) key management measures, and 5) benefits that the species can produce for society.To support the development of Ecosystem Overview the group members evaluated the probability of occurrence and the magnitude of the effect of 15 pressures occur-ring in the Baltic Sea. The top five pressures identified were input of nutrients, in-creased temperature, decreased salinity, input of hazardous substances, and input or spread of non-indigenous species.The work will continue intersessionally and the next meeting of WGIAB is planned to be held in Lisbon, Portugal, back-to-back with WGCOMEDA and WGEAWESS.

  • 38.
    Bergström, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish Univeristy of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Blenckner, Thorsten
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gårdmark, Anna
    Swedish Univeristy of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Hamrén, Henrik
    Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Noél
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Jacob, Ute
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Kininmonth, Stuart
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Large, Scott
    ICES, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Levin, Phil
    Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, USA.
    Lehikoinen, Annukka
    Helsinki University, Kotka Maritime Research Centre, Kotka, Finland.
    Llope, Marcos
    Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanográfico de Cádiz, Spain.
    Luzenczyk, Anna
    National Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Gdynia, Poland.
    Müller-Karulis, Bärbel
    Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm university, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Möllmann, Christian
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Neuenfeldt, Stefan
    DTU Aqua, Charlottenlund, Denmark.
    Norrström, Niclas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Olsson, Jens
    Swedish Univeristy of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Otto, Saskia
    University of Hamburg, Institute of Hydrobiology and Fishery Science, Hamburg, Germany.
    Pekcan-Hekim, Zeynep
    Swedish Univeristy of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Rau, Andrea
    Thuenen-Institute of Baltic Sea Fisheries, Rostock, Germany.
    Reid, David
    Marine Institute, Rinville, Galway, Ireland.
    Tomczak, Maciej, T.
    Baltic Sea Centre, Stockholm university, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Torres, Marian
    Swedish Univeristy of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Aquatic Resources, Öregrund, Sweden.
    Ustups, Didzis
    Institute of Food safety, Animal Health and Environment, Riga, Latvia.
    Uusitalo, Laura
    Finnish Environment Institute, Marine Research Centre, Helsinki, Finland.
    Wesslander, Karin
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Marine Environment, Västra Frölunda, Sweden.
    Report of the ICES/HELCOM Working Group on Integrated Assessments of the Baltic Sea (WGIAB)2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The ICES/HELCOM Working Group on Integrated Assessments of the Baltic Sea(WGIAB) was established in 2007 as a forum for developing and combining ecosystembasedmanagement efforts for the Baltic Sea. The group intends to serve as a scientificcounterpart and support for the ICES Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group(WGBFAS) as well as for efforts and projects related to Integrated Ecosystem Assessments(IEA) within ICES and HELCOM. The group works in cooperation with similargroups within the ACOM/SCICOM Steering Group on Integrated Ecosystem Assessments(SSGIEA).The 2015 WGIAB meeting was held in Cádiz, Spain, from 9–13 March, back-to-backwith the meeting of its counterpart in the Working Group on Ecosystem Assessmentof Western European Shelf Seas (WGEAWESS). The meetings had joint sessions as wellas WG specific work, and some participants effectively participated in both meetings.The WGIAB meeting was attended by 27 participants from nine countries. The meetingwas chaired by Christian Möllmann, Germany, Laura Uusitalo, Finland and Lena Bergström,Sweden.This was the last year of the ongoing three-year Terms of Reference (ToR) for WGIAB.The main working activities in 2015 were to i) conduct studies on Baltic Sea ecosystemfunctioning with the goal to publish case studies from different parts of the Baltic Seain peer-reviewed journals, ii) work on the demonstration exercise to develop ecosystem-based assessment and advice for Baltic fish stocks focusing on cod (DEMO) withmultiple approaches, iii) plan further how to integrate the social and economic aspectsmore tightly in the WGIAB work, and iv) discuss the future focus and format of theWGIAB work.The Baltic ecosystem functioning activity focused on identifying and exploring keytrends and linkages in the Baltic Sea foodweb. This was pursued by presentation andfurther discussion of ongoing intersessional work on foodweb modelling and integratedanalyses, and by exercises to develop conceptual models Baltic Sea foodwebsand the links to ecosystem function. Long-term monitoring datasets on the abiotic andbiotic parts of the Baltic Sea Proper ecosystem were updated for use in the continuedwork to develop environmental indicators for fisheries and marine management.The focus of the DEMO 3 (DEMOnstration exercise for Integrated Ecosystem Assessmentand Advice of Baltic Sea cod) was on finding a way to use the results from theDEMO1 and DEMO2 workshops in short and midterm projections/scenarios of Balticcod dynamics based on different types of modelling, as well as designing methodologyand modelling data for practical implementation of Integrated Advice for Baltic cod.The WGIAB was positively inclined towards including social and economic aspectsinto the integrated assessment. Openings to this path were provided by presentationon ongoing project work, and discussing their linkages to ecological aspects. It wasseen as crucial that experts on social and economic analysis should be included andtake an active part in the future work of the group.The group concluded that its upcoming work should focus more closely on functionaldiversity, which was identified as a recurring issue in the Baltic Sea. This approach wasalso identified as a useful connection point between scientific and management aspectsin order for the group to continue serving as a forum for developing ecosystem-basedmanagement efforts in the Baltic Sea. A focus on functional diversity was also seen as2 | ICES WGIAB REPORT 2015a potentially feasible way of bringing together management aspects for different sectors,by linking to ecosystem services concepts.The group proposed Saskia Otto, Germany and Martin Lindegren, Denmark as newincoming Chairs, together with Lena Bergström, Sweden and Laura Uusitalo, Finland.Having four Chairs is justified due to the wide scope of the group's work, as well asthe increased work load due to the planned new foci.

  • 39.
    Bergström, Natalie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The neural correlates of cognitive reappraisal stress resilience2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience refers to the fact that some individuals cope well with stressful experiences. Many factors contribute to this sort of resilience, such as the early environment, the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTPLR), the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis, the sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM) axis, and emotion regulation techniques. The aim of this thesis is to investigate which factors contribute to resilience, with a particular focus on the emotion regulation technique of cognitive reappraisal. The results show that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala each play a crucial role when it comes to stress regulation. Studies have found that the PFC inhibits the amygdala response, but that the PFC is vulnerable to exposure to chronic stress. As a result, the PFC might fail to inhibit the amygdala response. Individuals who use cognitive reappraisal techniques – which has been associated particularly with frontal and parietal brain activity – seem to be less prone to this sort of problem, and, as a result, more resilient to stress.

  • 40.
    Berthenet, Elvire
    et al.
    Swansea University, United Kingdom.
    Yahara, Koji
    National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Toyama, Japan.
    Thorell, Kaisa
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pascoe, Ben
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    Meric, Guillaume
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    Mikhail, Jane M.
    Swansea University, United Kingdom / Cardiff University, United Kingdom.
    Engstrand, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Enroth, Helena
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Burette, Alain
    Centre Hospitalier Interrégional Edith Cavell/Site de la Basilique, Brussels, Belgium.
    Megraud, Francis
    Centre National de Référence des Campylobacters et des Hélicobacters, Bordeaux, France / University Bordeaux, France.
    Varon, Christine
    University Bordeaux, France.
    Atherton, John C.
    Nottingham Digestive Diseases Centre and National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom.
    Smith, Sinead
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Wilkinson, Thomas S.
    Swansea University Medical School, Swansea University, Microbiology and Infectious Disease Group, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Hitchings, Matthew D.
    Swansea University, United Kingdom.
    Falush, Daniel
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    Sheppard, Samuel K.
    University of Bath, United Kingdom.
    A GWAS on Helicobacter pylori strains points to genetic variants associated with gastric cancer risk2018Ingår i: BMC Biology, ISSN 1741-7007, E-ISSN 1741-7007, Vol. 16, nr 1, artikel-id 84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Helicobacter pylori are stomach-dwelling bacteria that are present in about 50% of the global population. Infection is asymptomatic in most cases, but it has been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Epidemiological evidence shows that progression to cancer depends upon the host and pathogen factors, but questions remain about why cancer phenotypes develop in a minority of infected people. Here, we use comparative genomics approaches to understand how genetic variation amongst bacterial strains influences disease progression.

    RESULTS:

    We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 173 H. pylori isolates from the European population (hpEurope) with known disease aetiology, including 49 from individuals with gastric cancer. We identified SNPs and genes that differed in frequency between isolates from patients with gastric cancer and those with gastritis. The gastric cancer phenotype was associated with the presence of babA and genes in the cag pathogenicity island, one of the major virulence determinants of H. pylori, as well as non-synonymous variations in several less well-studied genes. We devised a simple risk score based on the risk level of associated elements present, which has the potential to identify strains that are likely to cause cancer but will require refinement and validation.

    CONCLUSION:

    There are a number of challenges to applying GWAS to bacterial infections, including the difficulty of obtaining matched controls, multiple strain colonization and the possibility that causative strains may not be present when disease is detected. Our results demonstrate that bacterial factors have a sufficiently strong influence on disease progression that even a small-scale GWAS can identify them. Therefore, H. pylori GWAS can elucidate mechanistic pathways to disease and guide clinical treatment options, including for asymptomatic carriers.

  • 41.
    Bjerenius, Sara
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    RANKING AV EKOSYSTEMTJÄNSTER KOPPLADE TILL URBANA TRÄD: En avgränsad metodstudie i Skövde2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Människan är beroende av de ekosystemtjänster som naturen bidrar med, i staden är människan inte alltid medveten om dessa ekosystemtjänster och kan lätt förbise dessa. Träden i städerna förser stadsborna med fler ekosystemtjänster än de är medvetna om. Ekosystemtjänster som temperaturreglering och dagvattenhantering kan bli kostsamma att återskapa om alla naturliga element som bidrar med dessa helt gratis är borta. För att inte missa värdefulla naturmiljöer och därmed förlora pengar i planerad exploatering har ett verktyg för att ranka ekosystemtjänster kopplade till urbana träd tagits fram. För att på ett tydligt sätt kunna peka ut olika ekosystemtjänster i staden har en värderingsmatris för ranking av dessa skapats. Rankingvärdet en ekosystemtjänst inom ett område fått kan därpå multipliceras med egen inputdata, en egen värdering av ekosystemtjänsten. Resultatet av sammanställningen visas i form av kartbilder med graderade polygoner för att synliggöra vart ekosystemtjänsten finns i störst redundans. Så vitt författaren känner till, finns det ingen annan typ av kartläggning som kombinerar möjligheten med litteraturbaserad värdering och egen åsikt. Verktyget kan användas i två delar, den litteraturbaserade värderingsmatrisen kan användas enskilt och genererar ett resultat om vart det finns högst värde för ekosystemtjänster, eller gemensamt med egen input kan ett resultat visas i GIS. Metoden är unik och kan förhoppningsvis avvärja konflikter i t ex. planarbeten då ett visst område kan bli extra viktigt, även om olika ekosystemtjänster fått högst värde av de som använder verktyget. Olika åsikter om ekosystemtjänsters värdekan då ändå generera samma resultat.

  • 42.
    Bjurberg, Helena
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Academic achievement and personality traits: an empirical and neurobiological investigation2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis explores how personality traits are connected to academic achievement. First, a theoretical discussion on the neurobiological basis of different personality traits is presented, where variance in brain- activity, volume and chemistry describes possible differences in personality. Traits previously linked to academic achievement is also described in terms of neurobiology. This is followed by an empirical investigation of the connection between personality traits and academic achievement. Previous research suggest the Big Five (Costa & McCrae, 1992a) personality traits of conscientiousness, order and self-discipline to be positively associated with academic achievement. Also, similar suggestions have been put forward concerning the Values in Action (VIA-IS; Peterson & Seligman, 2004) character strengths of love of learning, self-regulation and persistence and academic achievement. 90 students in a medium sized Swedish senior high school completed the two personality inventories and their grades were collected. Positive correlations were found for the personality traits conscientiousness, order, and self-discipline and for the character strengths persistence, love of learning, perspective and open-mindedness. The results partly supported the hypotheses as well as extended the knowledge about what factors contribute to academic achievement. Discussion of the results and suggestions for further research concludes the thesis.

    Keywords: personality trait, character strength, neurobiology, academic achievement, BFI, VIA-IS

  • 43.
    Björnberg, Klara
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    PLACEBO: EN STUDIE UTIFRÅN SMÄRTA,MOTORISK PRESTATION OCH HORMONER2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Placeboeffekter/placeboresponser avser de subjektiva eller biologiskt mätbara resultat som uppstår trots att de i kliniska tester endast varit designade för att fungera som en kontroll. Placebo avser själva förmedlingen som framkallar dessa effekter. Detta kan exempelvis vara ord, piller och kirurgi. Denna litteraturstudie avser att sammanfatta relevant vetenskaplig litteratur inom fältet placebo med särskild fokus på smärtlindring. Delar som presenteras är bland annat vad placeboeffekten innebär, evolutionär bakgrund och information om läkare-patient interaktionen. Neurofysiologiska aspekter och berörda hjärnstrukturer som visat sig vara västentliga inom placebo och smärtlindring är framför allt dopamin- och opioidsystemet, samt nucleus accumbens. Uppsatsen pekar också på att de två mest kända framkallningssätten inom smärtlindrande placebo; betingning och förväntan inte nödvändigtvis behöver utesluta varandra. Dessa fenomen kan istället utgöra olika roller under skilda omständigheter. De motsättningar i litteraturen som framträtt tydligast är hur orden placeboeffekt eller placeborespons ska användas eller om dessa ord ens är lämpliga för att beskriva det som avses.

  • 44.
    Blagrove, Mark
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Hale, Sioned
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Lockheart, Julia
    Swansea College of Art, University of Wales Trinity Saint David, Swansea, United Kingdom / Goldsmiths, University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Carr, Michelle
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Jones, Alex
    Department of Psychology, Swansea University, Swansea, United Kingdom.
    Valli, Katja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Testing the Empathy Theory of Dreaming: The Relationships Between Dream Sharing and Trait and State Empathy2019Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, artikel-id 1351Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, dreams are a novel but realistic simulation of waking social life, with a mixture of characters, motivations, scenarios, and positive and negative emotions. We propose that the sharing of dreams has an empathic effect on the dreamer and on significant others who hear and engage with the telling of the dream. Study 1 tests three correlations that are predicted by the theory of dream sharing and empathy: that trait empathy will be correlated with frequency of telling dreams to others, with frequency of listening to others’ dreams, and with trait attitude toward dreams (ATD) (for which higher scores indicate positive attitude). 160 participants completed online the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and the Mannheim Dream Questionnaire. Pearson partial correlations were conducted, with age and sex partialled out. Trait empathy was found to be significantly associated with the frequency of listening to the dreams of others, frequency of telling one’s own dreams to others, and attitude toward dreams. Study 2 tests the effects of discussing dreams on state empathy, using an adapted version of the Shen (2010) state empathy scale, for 27 pairs of dream sharers and discussers. Dream discussion followed the stages of the Ullman (1996) dream appreciation technique. State empathy of the dream discusser toward the dream sharer was found to increase significantly as a result of the dream discussion, with a medium effect size, whereas the dream sharer had a small decrease in empathy toward the discusser. A proposed mechanism for these associations and effects is taken from the robust findings in the literature that engagement with literary fiction can induce empathy toward others. We suggest that the dream acts as a piece of fiction that can be explored by the dreamer together with other people, and can thus induce empathy about the life circumstances of the dreamer. We discuss the speculation that the story-like characteristics of adult human dreams may have been selected for in human evolution, including in sexual selection, as part of the selection for emotional intelligence, empathy, and social bonding.

  • 45.
    Blomgren, Ami
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    The Neural Correlates of Emotion and Reason in Moral Cognition2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans are a social species. Automatic affective responses generated by neural systems wired into our brains create a moral intuition or “gut-feeling” of wrong and right that guides our moral judgments. Humans are also an intelligent, problem solving and planning species with neural structures that enable cognitive control and the ability to reason about the costs and benefits of decisions, and moral judgments, not the least. Previous research suggests that moral intuition and moral reasoning operates on different neural networks - a dual process of moral cognition, that sometimes gives rise to an inner conflict in moral judgments. Early lesion studies found correlations between damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and changes in moral behaviour. This has been further established through brain imaging studies and the suggestion is that VMPFC mediates affective signals from the amygdala in moral decision making and is highly involved in generating the gut-feeling of right and wrong. However, some moral issues are complex and demand higher level processing than intuition, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) seems to be responsible for the rational, cost-benefit reasoning during moral judgments. Further, recent research suggests that during moral judgments, the brain employ neural systems that generates the representation of value, perspective and cognitive control as well as the representation of the mental and emotional states of others. The present thesis aims to investigate prominent and up to date research on the neural correlates of necessary components in moral cognition, and to examine the function of moral intuition versus reason in relation to current complex moral issues. Moral intuition is supposedly an adaption to favour “us” before “them”, not to be concerned with large scale cooperation, which may explain why we treat many moral issues with ignorance. Understanding how the moral brain works involve understanding what sort of tasks the neural mechanisms in moral cognition evolved to handle, which may explain why some modern issues are so difficult to solve.

  • 46.
    Boldeanu, Silvia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Merging brain-computer interfaces and virtual reality: A neuroscientific exploration2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) blend methods and concepts researched by cognitive neuroscience, electrophysiology, computer science and engineering, resulting in systems of bi-directional information exchange directly between brain and computer. BCIs contribute to medical applications that restore communication and mobility for disabled patients and provide new forms of sending information to devices for enhancement and entertainment. Virtual reality (VR) introduces humans into a computer-generated world, tackling immersion and involvement. VR technology extends the classical multimedia experience, as the user is able to move within the environment, interact with other virtual participants, and manipulate objects, in order to generate the feeling of presence. This essay presents the possibilities of merging BCI with VR and the challenges to be tackled in the future. Current attempts to combine BCI and VR technology have shown that VR is a useful tool to test the functioning of BCIs, with safe, controlled and realistic experiments; there are better outcomes for VR and BCI combinations used for medical purposes compared to solely BCI training; and, enhancement systems for healthy users seem promising with VR-BCIs designed for home users. Future trends include brain-to-brain communication, sharing of several users’ brain signals within the virtual environment, and better and more efficient interfaces.

  • 47.
    Boman, Kajsa
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Heart rate variability: A possible measure of subjective wellbeing?2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Wellbeing and subjective wellbeing (SWB) has become some the most important goals of our time, both individually and societally. Thus, there is a need for reliable ways to measure SWB, as concerns regarding many current measures have been raised. Due to the interwoven nature of physiology and psychology, heart rate variability (HRV) has the potential to assess psychological processes in a physiological manner. HRV is an attractive measure since it is inexpensive, easy and non-invasive. Hence, the aim is to, from a cognitive neuroscientific standpoint, investigate whether HRV could serve as an objective measure to assess SWB. Most studies demonstrate associations between HRV and SWB, in particular between high frequency (HF)-HRV and positive affect (PA). However, the one study fully matching the theoretical framework only showed an inverse correlation between HRV and negative affect (NA). Plausibly implying that HRV does not serve as a reliable measure of SWB, but may be able to indicate inverse associations with NA, and possibly index certain aspect of SWB such as deactivated PA. The study of the relationship between HRV and SWB is still in its infancy and results are inconsistent. The lack of common standards regarding measurements, implementation details, and variable values, make results difficult to compare and generalize. Further standardizations and research are much needed before accurate conclusions can be drawn.

  • 48.
    Borghate, Vedant Subhash
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Functional analysis of an arsB gene (gene-4251) presumably involved in accumulation of arsenics in Lysinibacillus sphaericus2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Many regions of the world are facing the problem with arsenic toxicity. Arsenic contamination has become a considerable threat to the environment triggering various big health issues for every life in that contaminated environment. Lysinibacillus sphaericus (B1-CDA) is an arsenic tolerant strain of bacteria that has been reported and characterized before by the researchers of the University of Skövde, Sweden. The bacteria were found to contain many arsenic responsive genes such as arsB, arsC, and arsR which are responsible for arsenic tolerance in the bacterium. The main focus of the current study was to characterize one of the arsB genes (gene-4251) of Lysinibacillus sphaericus B1-CDA by in silico and in vitro analyses in order to determine the molecular function of this gene. The in silico studies conducted by using the Iterative Threading Assembly and Refinement (I-TASSER) server predicted the tertiary structure of the ArsB protein and suggested that this protein is an intrinsic component of the membrane which primarily helps in the binding of metal ions and liberation of metabolic energy. To validate this predictive results, several in vitro experiments were performed. For complementation studies, the arsB gene was cloned from L. sphaericus B1-CDA and transferred to an arsB knock-out mutant of Escherichia coli JW3469-1. Both, the transgenic and mutant strains were grown under the arsenic stress of 50 mM for 96 hrs followed by measuring their growth and arsenic tolerance after every 24 hrs. Statistical analysis confirmed that there was a significant difference in growth between the transgenic and the mutant E. coli strains. The ICP-MS (Inductive Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy) analysis revealed that after 24 hrs of culture, the arsenic content in the cell-free broth of transgenic strain was reduced from 50 mM to 9.10 mM (81.8%), whereas the reduction in arsenic content by the mutant strain was from 50 mM to 9.80 mM (80.2%). These results suggest that the arsB gene is partly involved in the accumulation of arsenic inside the cells and this feature could be used for a large scale removal of arsenic from the contaminated environment.

  • 49.
    Borgmästars, Emmy
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap.
    Functional analysis of circulating microRNAs in pancreatic cancer2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-01-30 12:27
  • 50.
    Borgmästars, Emmy
    et al.
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    de Weerd, Hendrik Arnold
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Bioinformatics, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lubovac-Pilav, Zelmina
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Sund, Malin
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    miRFA: an automated pipeline for microRNA functional analysis with correlation support from TCGA and TCPA expression data in pancreatic cancer2019Ingår i: BMC Bioinformatics, ISSN 1471-2105, E-ISSN 1471-2105, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 1-17, artikel-id 393Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNAs that regulate gene expression at a post-transcriptional level and are emerging as potentially important biomarkers for various disease states, including pancreatic cancer. In silico-based functional analysis of miRNAs usually consists of miRNA target prediction and functional enrichment analysis of miRNA targets. Since miRNA target prediction methods generate a large number of false positive target genes, further validation to narrow down interesting candidate miRNA targets is needed. One commonly used method correlates miRNA and mRNA expression to assess the regulatory effect of a particular miRNA. The aim of this study was to build a bioinformatics pipeline in R for miRNA functional analysis including correlation analyses between miRNA expression levels and its targets on mRNA and protein expression levels available from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) and the cancer proteome atlas (TCPA). TCGA-derived expression data of specific mature miRNA isoforms from pancreatic cancer tissue was used.

    RESULTS: Fifteen circulating miRNAs with significantly altered expression levels detected in pancreatic cancer patients were queried separately in the pipeline. The pipeline generated predicted miRNA target genes, enriched gene ontology (GO) terms and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways. Predicted miRNA targets were evaluated by correlation analyses between each miRNA and its predicted targets. MiRNA functional analysis in combination with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis suggest that hsa-miR-885-5p could act as a tumor suppressor and should be validated as a potential prognostic biomarker in pancreatic cancer.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our miRNA functional analysis (miRFA) pipeline can serve as a valuable tool in biomarker discovery involving mature miRNAs associated with pancreatic cancer and could be developed to cover additional cancer types. Results for all mature miRNAs in TCGA pancreatic adenocarcinoma dataset can be studied and downloaded through a shiny web application at https://emmbor.shinyapps.io/mirfa/ .

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