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  • 1.
    Fernandez-Alvira, J. M.
    et al.
    Univ Zaragoza, Fac Hlth Sci, GENUD Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Gr, E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain.
    Bammann, K.
    Univ Bremen, Inst Publ Hlth & Nursing Sci Ipp, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.;Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS GmbH, Bremen, Germany.
    Pala, V.
    Fdn IRCCS, Ist Nazl Tumori, Dept Prevent & Predict Med, Nutr Epidemiol Unit, Milan, Italy.
    Krogh, V.
    Fdn IRCCS, Ist Nazl Tumori, Dept Prevent & Predict Med, Nutr Epidemiol Unit, Milan, Italy.
    Barba, G.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Unit Epidemiol & Populat Genet, Avellino, Italy.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Publ Hlth Epidemiol Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hebestreit, A.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS GmbH, Bremen, Germany.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Dept Chron Dis, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Reisch, L.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Tornaritis, M.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Kovacs, E.
    Univ Pecs, Dept Paediat, Pecs, Hungary.
    Huybrechts, I.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium / Int Agcy Res Canc, Dietary Exposure assessment Grp, F-69372 Lyon, France.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Fac Hlth Sci, GENUD Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Gr, E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain.
    Country-specific dietary patterns and associations with socioeconomic status in European children: the IDEFICS study2014Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 68, nr 7, s. 811-821Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. We described country-specific dietary patterns among children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS study and assessed the association of dietary patterns with an additive SES indicator. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Children aged 2-9 years from eight European countries were recruited in 2007-2008. Principal component analysis was applied to identify dietary country-specific patterns. Linear regression analyses were applied to assess their association with SES. RESULTS: Two to four dietary patterns were identified in the participating regions. The existence of a 'processed' pattern was found in the eight regions. Also, a 'healthy' pattern was identified in seven of the eight regions. In addition, region-specific patterns were identified, reflecting the existing gastronomic and cultural differences in Europe. The 'processed' pattern was significantly inversely associated with the SES additive indicator in all countries except Sweden, whereas the 'healthy' pattern was positively associated with SES in the Belgian, Estonian, German and Hungarian regions, but was not significant in the Italian, Spanish and Swedish regions. CONCLUSIONS: A 'processed' pattern and a 'healthy' pattern were found in most of the participating countries in the IDEFICS study, with comparable food item profiles. The results showed a strong inverse association of SES with the 'processed' pattern, suggesting that children of parents with lower SES may be at higher risk of unhealthy eating. Therefore, special focus should be given to parents and their children from lower SES levels when developing healthy eating promotion strategies.

  • 2.
    Gonzalez-Gil, E. M.
    et al.
    Univ Zaragoza, GENUD Growth Exercise NUtr & Dev Res Grp, Fac Hlth Sci, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Santabarbara, J.
    Minist Sci & Innovat, Ctr Invest Biomed Red Salud Mental CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.;Univ Zaragoza, Dept Prevent Med & Publ Hlth, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Siani, A.
    CNR, Unit Epidemiol & Populat Genet, Inst Food Sci, Avellino, Italy.
    Ahrens, W.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Dept Epidemiol Methods & Etiol Res, Bremen, Germany / Univ Bremen, Fac Math & Comp Sci, Inst Stat, Bremen, Germany.
    Sioen, I.
    Univ Ghent, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Publ Hlth, Ghent, Belgium.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Community Med & Publ Hlth, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Guenther, K.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Dept Epidemiol Methods & Etiol Res, Bremen, Germany.
    Iacoviello, L.
    IRCCS Mediterranean Neurol Inst NEUROMED, Dept Epidemiol & Prevent, Lab Mol & Nutr Epidemiol, Pozzilli, Italy.
    Molnar, D.
    Univ Pecs, Fac Med, Dept Pediat, Pecs, Hungary.
    Rise, P.
    Univ Milan, Dept Pharmacol & Biomol Sci, Milan, Italy.
    Russo, P.
    CNR, Unit Epidemiol & Populat Genet, Inst Food Sci, Avellino, Italy.
    Tornaritis, M.
    REF, Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Tervise Arengu Inst, Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Galli, C.
    Univ Milan, Dept Pharmacol & Biomol Sci, Milan, Italy.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, GENUD Growth Exercise NUtr & Dev Res Grp, Fac Hlth Sci, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Whole-blood fatty acids and inflammation in European children: the IDEFICS Study2016Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 70, nr 7, s. 819-823Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fatty acids are hypothesized to influence cardiovascular disease risk because of their effect on inflammation. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between whole-blood fatty acids (WBFAs) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in European children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 1401 subjects (697 boys and 704 girls) aged between 2 and 9 years from the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects in Children and infantS) study were measured in this cross-sectional analysis. The sample was divided into three categories of hs-CRP. Associations between WBFA and hs-CRP were assessed by logistic regression models adjusting for body mass index (BMI), country, age, breastfeeding, mother's education and hours of physical activity. RESULTS: Linoleic acid (LA) (P = 0.013, 95% confidence interval (CI):0.822-0.977) and sum of n-6 WBFA (P = 0.029, 95% CI: 0.866-0.992) concentrations were associated with lower concentrations of hs-CRP in boys. In girls, a high ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/arachidonic acid (AA) was associated (P = 0.018, 95% CI: 0.892-0.989) with lower hs-CRP concentrations. In contrast, sum of blood n-6 highly unsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.012, 95% CI: 1.031-1.284), AA (P = 0.007, 95% CI: 1.053-1.395) and AA/LA ratio (P = 0.005, 95% CI: 1.102-1.703) were associated (P < 0.05) with higher concentrations of hs-CRP in girls. CONCLUSIONS: The n-6 WBFAs (sum of n-6 FA and LA) were associated with lower hs-CRP in boys and with higher hs-CRP in girls (AA, sum of n-6 highly unsaturated and AA/LA ratio). More studies are needed to identify the optimal levels of WBFAs to avoid low-grade inflammation in children considering the differences by sex and BMI.

  • 3.
    Mikkelsen, A.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Sect Epidemiol & Social Med, POB 453, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Narhalsan, Res & Dev Primary Hlth Care, Gothenburg, Region Vostra G, Sweden.
    Galli, C.
    Univ Milan, Dept Pharmacol & Biomol Sci, DiSFeB, Milan, Italy.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Sect Epidemiol & Social Med, POB 453, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ahrens, W.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Iacoviello, L.
    Dept Epidemiol & Prevent, Lab Mol & Nutrit Epidemiol, IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy.
    Molnar, D.
    Univ Pecs, Dept Pediat, Pecs, Hungary.
    Pala, V.
    Dept Prevent & Predict Med, Epidemiol Unit, Fdn IRCCS Ist Nazl Tumori, Milan, Italy.
    Rise, P.
    Univ Milan, Dept Pharmacol & Biomol Sci, DiSFeB, Milan, Italy.
    Rodriguez, G.
    Univ Zaragoza, GENUD Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev, Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.;Inst Invest Sanitaria, Aragon, Spain.
    Russo, P.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Avellino, Italy.
    Tornaritis, M.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Vyncke, K.
    Department of Public Health, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Wolters, M.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Mehlig, K.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Sect Epidemiol & Social Med, POB 453, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden / Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, Ghent, Belgium.
    Blood fatty acid composition in relation to allergy in children aged 2-9 years: results from the European IDEFICS study2017Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 71, nr 1, s. 39-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Blood polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are involved in allergy development, but the etiological role of n-6 and n-3 PUFA is still controversial. A European multicenter study of children (IDEFICS) provided the opportunity to explore the cross-sectional association between fatty acids (FA) and allergy. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Blood FA levels were measured in 2600 children aged 2-9 years and were recorded as the percentage of weight of all FA detected. Logistic regression of allergy status on FA components was adjusted for age, sex, country, body mass index, family history of allergic disease, breast-feeding, and number of siblings. The results were given as odds ratios (OR) for current vs no allergy ever and an increase in FA by 1 s.d. RESULTS: Overall, higher proportions of n-6 PUFA were associated with higher odds of allergy (OR = 1.21 (1.05, 1.40)). Monounsaturated FA (MUFA) were associated with reduced risk for allergy (OR = 0.75 (0.65, 0.87)), whereas saturated FA did not differ by allergy status. The strongest associations were observed in children < 4 years old, with ORs of allergy given as 1.62 (1.15, 2.29) for n-3 PUFA and 0.63 (0.42, 0.95) for MUFA. With regard to individual FA, these associations were independently observed for docosapentaenoic acid (22: 5 n-3) and oleic acid (18: 1 n-9). CONCLUSIONS: Both PUFA subtypes were positively associated with allergy in an age-dependent manner, whereas MUFA was associated with less allergy. The observation of high proportions of n-3 PUFA in allergic children younger than 4 years might help to understand the nature of early onset of atopic disease.

  • 4.
    Olafsdottir, S.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Food & Nutr & Sport Sci, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Berg, C.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Food & Nutr & Sport Sci, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lanfer, A.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS GmbH, Dept Epidemiol Methods & Etiol Res, Bremen, Germany.
    Reisch, L.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    Ahrens, W.
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS GmbH, Dept Epidemiol Methods & Etiol Res, Bremen, Germany.
    Kourides, Y.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Strovolos, Cyprus.
    Molnar, D.
    Univ Pecs, Fac Med, Dept Paediat, Pecs, Hungary.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Siani, A.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Unit Epidemiol & Populat Genet, Avellino, Italy.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Lissner, L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Young children's screen activities, sweet drink consumption and anthropometry: results from a prospective European study2014Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 68, nr 2, s. 223-228Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This longitudinal study describes the relationship between young children's screen time, dietary habits and anthropometric measures. The hypothesis was that television viewing and other screen activities at baseline result in increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and increased BMI, BMI z-score and waist to height ratio (WHtR) two years later. A second hypothesis was that SSB consumption mediates the association between the screen activities and changes in the anthropometric measures. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study is a part of the prospective cohort study IDEFICS ("Identification and prevention of dietary and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants"), investigating diet, lifestyle and social determinants of obesity in 2 to 9-year-olds in eight European countries (baseline n = 16 225, two-year follow-up; n = 11 038). Anthropometry was objectively measured, and behaviours were parent-reported. RESULTS: The main hypothesis was supported, but the second hypothesis was not confirmed. The odds ratio of being in the highest quintile of % change in WHtR was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.17-1.36) and in BMI 1.22 (95% CI: 1.13-1.31), for each hour per day watching television. The odds ratio of having increased SSB consumption was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.09-1.29) for each hour per day watching TV. The associations for total screen time were slightly weaker. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate substantial effects of TV viewing and other screen activities for young children, both on their consumption of sugary drinks and on an increase in BMI and central obesity. Our findings suggest that television viewing seems to have a stronger effect on food habits and anthropometry than other screen activities in this age group.

  • 5.
    Papoutsoul, S.
    et al.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, CY-2027 Nicosia, Cyprus.
    Briassoulis, G.
    Univ Crete, Fac Med, Pediat Intens Care Unit, Iraklion, Greece / BIPS GmbH, Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Wolters, M.
    BIPS GmbH, Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol BIPS, Bremen, Germany.
    Peplies, J.
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology–BIPS GmbH, Bremen, Germany.
    Iacoviello, L.
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo NEUROMED, Dept Epidemiol & Prevent, Lab Mol & Nutr Epidemiol, Pozzilli, Italy.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Molnar, D.
    Univ Pecs, Fac Med, Dept Pediat, Pecs, Hungary.
    Russo, P.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Avellino, Italy.
    Michels, N.
    Univ Ghent, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Publ Heath, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Moreno, L. A.
    Univ Zaragoza, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Tornaritis, M.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, CY-2027 Nicosia, Cyprus.
    No breakfast at home: association with cardiovascular disease risk factors in childhood2014Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 68, nr 7, s. 829-834Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Limited data exist regarding breakfast consumption and its association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. This study investigates the relationship between breakfast routine and CVD risk factors in a multinational sample. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Cross-sectional data from eight European countries participating in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) survey (2007-2008) were used. The sample included children 2 to <10 years of age (n=8863, 51.2% boys). The Mann-Whitney U-test and logistic regression were used to assess CVD risk factors among no breakfast (NBrH), occasional breakfast and daily breakfast at home (DBrH) consumption. RESULTS: Male school-aged NBrH consumers, compared with DBrH consumers, were more likely to be overweight/obese (odds ratio (OR): 1.37, 95% confidence interval (Cl) = 1.05-1.79), to have higher risk for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels lower than 40 mg/dl (OR: 1.69, 95% CI = 1.24-2.30), triglycerides (TG) above 75 mg/dl (OR: 1.65, 95% CI = 1.24-2.19) and sum of skinfolds greater than the 90th percentile (OR: 1.32, 95% CI = 1.0-1.76). Female school-aged NBrH consumers compared with DBrH consumers had a higher risk for waist circumference greater than the 90th percentile (OR: 1.70, 95% CI = 1.14-2.51), HDL cholesterol levels lower than 40 mg/dl (OR: 1.65, 95% CI = 1.23-2.21), TG above 75 mg/dl (OR: 1.65, 95% CI = 1.26-2.17) and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio >3.5 (OR: 1.39, 95% CI = 1.09-1.77). Results remained significant after adjusting for daily physical activity in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) periods (in min/day). Male DBrH consumers, 6 to <10 years of age, had longer daily periods of MVPA compared with NBrH consumers (32.0 +/- 21.4 vs 27.5 +/- 18.8, P < 0.05). For preschoolers, breakfast consumption was negatively associated with CVD risk factors but results of regression models were mostly insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Daily breakfast consumption contributes to controlling school-aged children's weight and lipid profile and promotes higher PA.

  • 6.
    Svensson, A.
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Food & Nutr, Umea, Sweden.
    Larsson, C.
    Umea Univ, Dept Food & Nutr, Umea, Sweden / Univ Gothenburg, Dept Food & Nutr & Sport Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eiben, Gabriele
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Publ Hlth Epidemiol Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lanfer, A.
    BIPS GmbH, Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol, Dept Epidemiol Methods & Etiol Res, Bremen, Germany.
    Pala, V.
    Ist Nazl Tumori, Fdn IRCSS, Dept Prevent & Predict Med, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
    Hebestreit, A.
    BIPS GmbH, Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol, Dept Epidemiol Methods & Etiol Res, Bremen, Germany.
    Huybrechts, I.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium / IARC, Dietary Exposure Assessment Grp, Lyon, France.
    Fernandez-Alvira, J. M.
    Univ Zaragoza, Fac Hlth Sci, Growth Exercise Nutr & Dev Res Grp, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Russo, P.
    CNR, Inst Food Sci, Unit Epidemiol & Populat Genet, Avellino, Italy.
    Koni, A. C.
    Univ Glasgow, Coll Med Vet & Life Sci, Inst Cardiovasc & Med Sci, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    De Henauw, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Publ Hlth, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Veidebaum, T.
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Tallinn, Estonia.
    Molnar, D.
    Univ Pecs, Fac Med, Dept Paediat, Pecs, Hungary.
    Lissner, L.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Publ Hlth & Community Med, Publ Hlth Epidemiol Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    European children's sugar intake on weekdays versus weekends: the IDEFICS study2014Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 68, nr 7, s. 822-828Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To compare the intake of total sugars, foods and drinks rich in added sugar, and energy in children on weekdays (Monday Thursday), Fridays and weekends. METHODS: Dietary intake (g, kJ, energy %) was assessed using a computerized 24-h recall method in a sample of 2- to 9-year-old children from Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden who were participating in the IDEFICS baseline study (2007-2008). Analyses were performed in 9497 children by selecting one 24-h recall per child (for comparison of weekdays vs weekends, and Fridays vs weekdays and weekends). Selected stratified analyses were performed by country and age group. RESULTS: Intake of total sugars exceeded 20 energy % in all countries but one. In the non-stratified analyses, the intakes of total sugars and foods and drinks rich in added sugar were found to be higher on weekends compared with weekdays (both P < 0.001), and intakes on Fridays were a mix between intakes on weekdays and weekends. Energy intake did not differ between weekdays and weekends. Results were somewhat heterogeneous, both across countries and age groups. CONCLUSIONS: High intake of sugar remains an important nutritional problem in children of many European countries. Interventions aiming to prevent this diet pattern may optimize their impact by targeting dietary habits on Fridays and weekends. Furthermore, when conducting dietary assessment in children, data from weekends and Fridays in combination with a selection of Mondays to Thursdays are needed to capture habitual sugar intake. Age and dietary cultures should also be considered in dietary intervention and assessment as effect modifications were seen for both age and country.

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