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  • 1.
    Andersson, Karin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    'Consider' and its Swedish equivalents in relation to machine translation2007Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the English verb ’consider’ and the characteristics of some of its senses. An investigation of this kind may be useful, since a machine translation program, SYSTRAN, has invariably translated ’consider’ with the Swedish verbs ’betrakta’ (Eng: ’view’, regard’) and ’anse’ (Eng: ’regard’). This handling of ’consider’ is not satisfactory in all contexts.

    Since ’consider’ is a cogitative verb, it is fascinating to observe that both the theory of semantic primes and universals and conceptual semantics are concerned with cogitation in various ways. Anna Wierzbicka, who is one of the advocates of semantic primes and universals, argues that THINK should be considered as a semantic prime. Moreover, one of the prime issues of conceptual semantics is to describe how thoughts are constructed by virtue of e.g. linguistic components, perception and experience.

    In order to define and clarify the distinctions between the different senses, we have taken advantage of the theory of mental spaces.

    This thesis has been structured in accordance with the meanings that have been indicated in WordNet as to ’consider’. As a consequence, the senses that ’consider’ represents have been organized to form the subsequent groups: ’Observation’, ’Opinion’ together with its sub-group ’Likelihood’ and ’Cogitation’ followed by its sub-group ’Attention/Consideration’.

    A concordance tool, http://www.nla.se/culler, provided us with 90 literary quotations that were collected in a corpus. Afterwards, these citations were distributed between the groups mentioned above and translated into Swedish by SYSTRAN.

    Furthermore, the meanings as to ’consider’ have also been related to the senses, recorded by the FrameNet scholars. Here, ’consider’ is regarded as a verb of ’Cogitation’ and ’Categorization’.

    When this study was accomplished, it could be inferred that certain senses are connected to specific syntactic constructions. In other cases, however, the distinctions between various meanings can only be explained by virtue of semantics.

    To conclude, it appears to be likely that an implementation is facilitated if a specific syntactic construction can be tied to a particular sense. This may be the case concerning some meanings of ’consider’. Machine translation is presumably a much more laborious task, if one is solely governed by semantic conditions.

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  • 2.
    Holm, Linus
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University .
    Billing, ErikHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Proceedings of the 15th SweCog Conference2019Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In an article published in Nature: Human Behavior, Nunez et al. (2019) asks What happened to cognitive science? The authors review bibliometric and socio-institutional aspects of the field and argues that the transition from a multi-disciplinary program to a mature inter-disciplinary coherent field has failed. Looking at the Swedish environment, we can nothing but agree. Many of us identifying ourselves as researchers in cognitive science are working at departments primarily focused at other disciplines, teaching within other objects and publishing in journals and conferences adjacent to the field. The diversity of cognitive science is also present in the number of directions that has has evolved over the years. The embodied approaches that many of us align with are not evolving towards a coherent view, but is today found under numerous labels such as situated cognition, distributed cognition, extended cognition, and enactive cognition. The so called 4E perspectives on the field have now ventured beyond the four, and is today more often referred to as the multi-E framework.

    While we agree with Nunez et al. that we remain a multi-disciplinary, multi-perspective, and multi-method group of researchers who may share an interest for the science of the mind, rather than a coherent approach or perspective, we disagree that this entails a failure for the enterprise of cognitive science. We dare to say that the Sweish Cognitive Science Society has embraced the multi-perspectives idea by adopting an inclusive approach in the selection of research and methods presented at our conferences. We hope that SweCog will remain a forum for inclusive discussions, working against discipline conformism and isolation, in a time where both public and scientific debate is increasingly shattered.

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  • 3.
    Huhnstock, Nikolas Alexander
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Riveiro, Maria
    Högskolan i Jönköping, JTH, Datateknik och informatik.
    Steinhauer, H. Joe
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    An Infinite Replicated Softmax Model for Topic Modeling2019Ingår i: Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 16th International Conference, MDAI 2019, Milan, Italy, September 4–6, 2019, Proceedings / [ed] Vicenç Torra, Yasuo Narukawa, Gabriella Pasi, Marco Viviani, Springer, 2019, s. 307-318Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe the infinite replicated Softmax model (iRSM) as an adaptive topic model, utilizing the combination of the infinite restricted Boltzmann machine (iRBM) and the replicated Softmax model (RSM). In our approach, the iRBM extends the RBM by enabling its hidden layer to adapt to the data at hand, while the RSM allows for modeling low-dimensional latent semantic representation from a corpus. The combination of the two results is a method that is able to self-adapt to the number of topics within the document corpus and hence, renders manual identification of the correct number of topics superfluous. We propose a hybrid training approach to effectively improve the performance of the iRSM. An empirical evaluation is performed on a standard data set and the results are compared to the results of a baseline topic model. The results show that the iRSM adapts its hidden layer size to the data and when trained in the proposed hybrid manner outperforms the base RSM model.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-07-25 00:00
  • 4.
    Kotsifas, Dimitrios
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Intonation and sentence type interpretation in Greek: A production and perception approach2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the intonation patterns of Modern Greek with regard to different interpretations of the sentence types (declarative, interrogative, imperative).

    14 utterances are produced by Greek native speakers (2 men and 2 women) so as to express various speech acts: STATEMENT, QUESTION, COMMAND and REQUEST.

    The acquisition of the F0 curve for each utterance by means of the Wavesurfer tool leads to an analysis of the pitch movements and their alignments.

    After the F0 curves are analyzed and illustrated using the Excel program we are able to compare and group them. Thus, we come up with 5 different intonation patterns. After a second-level comparison based on the fact that some of the F0 curves were similar but they differed only as far as the final pitch movement is concerned, we ended up with 3 fundamental categories of intonation patterns: Category I whose main feature is the rising pitch movement aligned to the onset of the stressed syllables. This category includes only sentences that denote Statement so we can call it the STATEMENT category. Category II’s main characteristic is a dipping pitch movement aligned to the head of the utterance that is the stress of the verb or a particle that signifies negation (/min/, /den/). Sentences meaning Command or Request belong to this category. Lastly, Category III’s intonation pattern consists of peaking pitch movements aligned to the initial and final stressed syllables. Interrogative sentences belong to this category no matter their interpretation.

    A secondary goal of the thesis is to examine to which extent intonation can be a safe criterion for the “correct” interpretation of a sentence. A de facto presumption that since the ratio between the number of utterances (14) and the different intonation patterns (5) is not 1:1 there can always be misunderstandings among speakers, is basically verified by the results of our perception test conducted to Greek native speakers: Greek native speakers were able to identify most of the speech acts that were expressed by the most common (default) sentence type (i.e. imperative sentence for COMMAND and interrogative for QUESTION) however there were combinations that they had difficulties to identify, such as interrogative sentences that were denoting other than QUESTION, e.g. REQUEST or STATEMENT.Ending, a perception test conducted to Flemish speakers (subjects that were native speakers of another language than Greek) showed that they were more successful in sentences that meant STATEMENT and QUESTION but they could hardly identify an interrogative sentence that meant other than QUESTION and they also confused between COMMAND and REQUEST. This implies that the intonation used to convey different interpretations is basically language-dependent.

    Concluding, this study offers a description of the intonation patterns (based on pitch movements) regarding the 3 sentence types with 4 different interpretations. Our findings prove that the intonation for some cases (i.e. for sentences that express COMMAND or STATEMENT) seems to be structure-independent and for others structure-dependent (cf. the interrogative sentences). Additionally, the fact that the negation can play an important role for the choice of intonation pattern (as shown for the case of COMMAND and STATEMENT) could be considered as a structure-dependent feature of intonation. This approach contrasts the approach used for many years in the traditional Grammar according to which the structure alone (sentence type) defines the meaning that is to be conveyed.

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  • 5.
    Olavison, Jari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Tolkning av spansk känsloprosodi2003Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Text-till-talsystem blir allt vanligare i vardagen, och det forskas även en hel del på utvecklingen av tal-till-talöversättningssystem. Många företag använder sig i allt större utsträckning av telefontjänster där automatiska system med syntetiskt tal och taligenkänning ersätter människor. För att vi som konsumenter ska känna att det är bekvämt att nyttja dessa tjänster och förstå budskapen är det viktigt att dessa syntetiska röster låter så naturliga som möjligt. Det som gör en röst naturlig är dess prosodi, dvs.

    dess ickesegmentella aspekter såsom röstens intonation, intensitet och tempo, för att nämna några. Prosodin har inte endast lingvistiska funktioner utan den signalerar även känslor och attityder hos talaren. Vem vill lyssna på en syntetisk röst som låter väldigt ledsen eller arg t.ex. när bilens GPS-navigator sorgset talar om att vi ska ta nästa avfart åt höger.

    Känslosignalering sker normalt både auditivt och visuellt, en glad person har ofta ett leende på läpparna och talar på ett sätt att vi som lyssnare får intryck av att personen är glad. Denna studie handlar just om den auditiva signaleringen av känslor som jag kallar känsloprosodi.

    Det är inte självklart att talare av olika språk signalerar känslor på samma sätt trots att många lingvister, liksom jag, är övertygade om att det finns en viss universalitet, vilket man bör beakta vit tal-till-talöversättningssystem. Av denna anledning har jag i min studie valt att jämföra svenska auditiva känsloyttranden med spanska känsloyttranden.

    Detta har jag gjort genom att göra perceptionstester av spanska röster och jämfört resultaten med en tidigare studie av Åsa Abelin och Jens Allwood på Göteborgs universitet (1999) som gjort en liknande studie mha. svenska röster. Jämförelser av misstolkningar av avsedda känslor indikerar bl.a. att vissa känslor verkar uttryckas på olika sätt för spanska och svenska. Tydligast är detta för ”förvåning” som i båda studier i stor utsträckning misstolkats av informanter med annat modersmål än talaren, även ”avsky” verkar uttryckas något annorlunda. Andra resultat som framkom är att svensktalande ofta misstolkar ”ilska” (spansk) som ”glädje” vilket kan jämföras med att spansktalande misstolkade ”glädje” (svensk) som ”sorg”. Studien visar också att känslor som förväxlas ofta är akustiskt lika till uttrycket och även har en del semantiska likheter.

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  • 6.
    Virk, Shafqat Mumtaz
    et al.
    Språkbanken, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Muhammad, Azam Sheikh
    Department of CS & Eng., Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Borin, Lars
    Språkbanken, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Aslam, Muhammad Irfan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Iqbal, Saania
    GIFT University, Pakistan.
    Khurram, Nazia
    GIFT University, Pakistan.
    Exploiting frame semantics and frame-semantic parsing for automatic extraction of typological information from descriptive grammars of natural languages: Natural Language Processingin a Deep LearningWorld, Proceedings2019Ingår i: International Conference Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing, RANLP / [ed] Galia Angelova, Ruslan Mitkov, Ivelina Nikolova, Irina Temnikova, Shoumen: Incoma Ltd , 2019, s. 1247-1256Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a novel system for automatic extraction of typological linguistic information from descriptive grammars of natural languages, applying the theory of frame semantics in the form of frame-semantic parsing. The current proof-of-concept system covers a few selected linguistic features, but the methodology is general and can be extended not only to other typological features but also to descriptive grammars written in languages other than English. Such a system is expected to be a useful assistance for automatic curation of typological databases which otherwise are built manually, a very labor and time consuming as well as cognitively taxing enterprise.

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