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  • 1.
    Billgren, Isabella
    et al.
    University of Skövde.
    Bjarnehed, Mathilda
    University of Skövde.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Donna - inclusive game development by example2014In: Making Change: Nordic Examples of Working Towards Gender Equality in the Media / [ed] Maria Edström & Ragnhild Mølster, Göteborg: Nordicom, 2014, p. 85-87Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    A Computational Model for Gossip Initiation2010In: Aspects of Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue: SemDial2010, 14th Workshop on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue / [ed] Pawel Lupkowski and Matthew Purver, Poznan: Polish Society for Cognitive Science , 2010, p. 139-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are interested in creating non-player characters (NPCs) in games that are capable of engaging in gossip conversations. Gossip could for instance be used to spread news, manipulate, and create tension between characters in the game, so it can have a functional as well as a social purpose. To accomplish this we need a computational model of gossip and such a model does not yet exist. As a first step in that direction we therefore present a model for initiating gossip that calculates whether it is appropriate for the NPC to start a gossip conversation based on the following factors: The (perceived) relationship between the NPC and the player character (PC); the relationship between each of the participants and the potential target; the news value of the gossip story; and how sensitive the story is.

  • 3.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Computer Game Development: Diversity and Inclusiveness2016In: Art and Game Obstruction / [ed] Lars Kristensen, Göteborg: Rojal Förlag , 2016, p. 47-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer games combine various artistic disciplines, such as visual art, sound, music and storytelling, with low-level data representations and algorithms in order to create an interactive experience for one or more players. This essay discusses the implications of exploring the design space at the intersection of games and art from a game design perspective. In particular, this essay argues that exploring and treating games as art is a step towards inclusive game development.

  • 4.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Kristine Jørgensen: Gameworld Interfaces2014In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 70-71Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Steps Towards Creating Socially Competent Game Characters2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates and presents approaches towards creating more socially competent NPCs by means of natural language dialogues. The aim is to provide hands-on solutions for game developers who want to offer interactions with the NPCs in the game that are socially driven rather than functionally motivated and that encourage the player to build and maintain relationships between the character they control and the other game characters. By means of gameplay design patterns (GDPs), i.e. a semi-formal means of describing, sharing and expanding knowledge about game design, a selection of games have been analysed in order to identify existing and hypothetical GDPs for game dialogues. The analysis resulted in a number of GDPs that support, or could support, social interaction among game characters. A selection of the identified patterns has then been modelled using Harel statecharts and implemented in State Chart XML, a candidate to become a W3C standard.

  • 6.
    Brusk, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Artstein, Ron
    USC, Institute for Creative Technologies, 13274 Fiji Way, Marina del Rey, CA 90292, United States.
    Traum, David
    USC, Institute for Creative Technologies, 13274 Fiji Way, Marina del Rey, CA 90292, United States.
    Don't tell anyone!: Two Experiments on Gossip Conversations2010In: Proceedings of the SIGDIAL 2010 Conference: The 11th Annual Meeting of the Special Interest Group on Discourse and Dialogue, 24-15 September 2010, Tokyo, Japan / [ed] Raquel Fernández, Yasuhiro Katagiri, Kazunori Komatani, Oliver Lemon, Mikio Nakano, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2010, p. 193-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to get a working definition that matches people’s intuitive notion of gossip and is sufficiently precise for computational implementation. We conducted two experiments investigating what type of conversations people intuitively understand and interpret as gossip, and whether they could identify three proposed constituents of gossip conversations: third person focus, pejorative evaluation and substantiating behavior. The results show that (1)  conversations are very likely to be considered gossip if all elements are present,  no intimate relationships exist between the participants, and the person in  focus  is  unambiguous. (2) Conversations that have at most one gossip element are not considered gossip. (3) Conversations that lack one or two elements or have an ambiguous element lead to inconsistent judgments. 

  • 7.
    Brusk, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Marvinter: A case study of an inclusive transmedia storytelling production2020In: Convergence. The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, ISSN 1354-8565, E-ISSN 1748-7382, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines how the unique characteristics of Marvinter, an inclusive transmedia Advent calendar, affected its production and the individual media workers involved in this. In the native transmedia Marvinter project, a radio series and a mobile game were created and released simultaneously. Using ‘partly shared’ resources, the project was developed by two collaborating, non-profit organisations. Each chapter of the digital game had to match the corresponding radio episode. The whole had to be designed to provide a shared cultural experience that included people with hearing or visual impairments. The authors of the present article were part of the game development team and thus directly experienced the complexity of developing a digital game as part of a transmedia project. This article presents the results of a case study with an insider perspective. It is supplemented by semi-structured interviews with key people in the project. The transmedia nature of Marvinter was justified by the need to include people with complementary disabilities. Although sometimes associated with negative connotations of ‘naked commercialisation’ in transmedia contexts, the marketing strategy was here an important element in promoting inclusivity. However, owing to the concurrent work processes, game production became overly complex.

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  • 8.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Erlandsson, Patrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Prototyping Tools for Game Writers2018In: The Computer Games Journal, E-ISSN 2052-773X, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 153-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A game is best evaluated by playing it and prototyping is therefore an important activity in game development. Game writers and narrative designers are responsible for the narrative structure of a game, which may have a varying degree of interactivity to it. The aim of this paper is to analyse the role of prototyping tools for game writers. There is a limited range of such tools available, of which Twine is one of the most established. Most of these tools have a text-based programming interface for modelling of game mechanics. This paper presents Deig—a proto- typing tool for creating point-and-click adventure games. In Deig, game mechanics is modelled graphically using nodes from a set of primitives. We present an interview study where game writing students reflect on their experience of using Deig and Twine as prototyping tools. The result shows that both tools have their merits and complement each other. Deig was found to be intuitive for modelling of game mechanics, which lead students to create interactive narratives. Twine was found to be more useful for experimental writing. The conclusion of this work is that there is a need for a diverse set of prototyping tools to support game writing.

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  • 9.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Östblad, Per Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A comparison of immersion between players playing the same game with and without graphics2015In: Proceedings of the International Conferences on Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction 2015, Game and Entertainment Technologies 2015 and Computer Graphics, Visualization, Computer Vision and Image Processing / [ed] Katherine Blashki & Yingcai Xiao, IADIS Press, 2015, p. 84-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project presented in this paper is that visually impaired and sighted players should be able to play the same game and share a gaming experience. The goal is that the game should be accessible to visually impaired players without any additional tools, such as text-to-speech, that may reduce the immersion. At the same time, sighted players should perceive the game as a regular game. This paper presents an evaluation of the game where the player immersion has been evaluated through a post test immersion questionnaire. The study was conducted with three independent groups: sighted players using graphics (n=10), blindfolded sighted players (n=10) and visually impaired players (n=9). Although progress in the game and the reported sense of control differed between groups, player immersion was very high in all groups. There were differences between the three groups only in one out of five immersion factors. The result shows that it has been possible to provide an immersive experience irrespective of whether the players are playing the game with graphics or using audio only. 

  • 10.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Östblad, Per Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Including Visually Impaired Players in a Graphical Adventure Game: A Study of Immersion2015In: IADIS International Journal on Computer Science and Information System, ISSN 1646-3692, E-ISSN 1646-3692, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 95-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project presented in this paper is that visually impaired and sighted players should be able to play the same game and share a gaming experience. The goal is that the game should be accessible to visually impaired players without any additional tools, such as text-to-speech, that may reduce the immersion. At the same time, sighted players should perceive the game as a regular game. This paper presents an evaluation of the game where the player immersion has been evaluated through a post test immersion questionnaire. The study was conducted with three independent groups: sighted players using graphics (n=10), blindfolded sighted players (n=10) and visually impaired players (n=9). Although progress in the game and the reported sense of control differed between groups, player immersion was very high in all groups. There were differences between the three groups only in one out of five immersion factors. The result shows that it has been possible to provide an immersive experience irrespective of whether the players are playing the game with graphics or using audio only.

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  • 11.
    Westin, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Activities to Support Sustainable Inclusive Game Design Processes2020In: EAI Endorsed Transactions on Creative Technologies, ISSN 2409-9708, Vol. 6, no 20, article id e4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The problem addressed in this work is the lack of knowledge of what inclusive game design would mean in practice within existing design processes of game companies. A pilot project was devised to involve both the game industry and disabled people.

    OBJECTIVES: The goal in this study was to identify activities that constitute the biggest obstacles to realising sustainable design processes for inclusive game design.

    METHODS: The study is mainly based on two full-day workshops with the game industry and three game studios, three organisations of disabled youth and authorities.

    RESULTS: Five activities were identified in the analysis of the workshops: 1) Find opportunities for inclusive game design; 2) Raise awareness about inclusive game design; 3) Handle integrity and security; 4) Recruit the right competence; and 5) Adapt workplaces and tools.

    CONCLUSION: The five main activities should be considered to achieve sustainable inclusive game design processes.

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  • 12.
    Westin, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Towards Sustainable Inclusive Game Design Processes2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While many studies have been done about creation of accessible games, they have mainly been conducted in an academic context and represents a gap between game research and the game industry. The pilot project presented in this paper (PowerUp) addresses inclusive design by involving both the game industry and disabled people. The goal is to identify activities that constitute the biggest obstacles to realising sustainable design processes for inclusive game de- sign (IGD). Four activities were identified through two full-day workshops with the game industry and game studios, disabled people and authorities: 1) Find op- portunities for IGD with disabled people; 2) Handle integrity and security of dis- abled people; 3) Recruit the right competence among disabled people; and 4) Adapt workplaces and tools for IGD processes. These activities are tentative and will hopefully be subject to discussion and further development to achieve sus- tainable inclusive game design.

  • 13.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Östblad, Per Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Inclusive game design facilitating shared gaming experience2017In: Journal of Computing in Higher Education, ISSN 1042-1726, E-ISSN 1867-1233, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 574-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the result from a study comparing the perception and understanding of a game story between sighted and visually impaired players playing the same game. In particular, whether sighted and visually impaired players could experience and recount the same story construed from the plot elements that are either manifested by audio and graphics in the case of sighted players or pri- marily by audio in the case of visually impaired players. To this end, we have developed a graphical point-and-click adventure game for iOS and Android devices that aims to show how inclusive game design may be used to facilitate a shared gaming experience between sighted and visually impaired players. The game pro- vides players with audio feedback that enables visually impaired players to interact with and experience the game, but in a manner that does not interfere with the overall appearance and functionality of the game. Thus, it has been designed to be fully inclusive to both groups of players and to give the same gaming experience when it comes to story content. The game has been evaluated through formal user tests where subjects have been asked to play the first chapter of the game followed by an interview. The study shows that the perception of the story was almost identical between the two groups. Generally it took visually impaired players a little longer to play the game but they also seem to listen more carefully to the dialogue and hence also build a slightly deeper understanding of the characters. The study also shows that the sighted players did not respond negatively towards the inclusive game design employed in the game. 

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  • 14.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Östblad, Per-Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Accessible Game Culture using Inclusive Game Design: Participating in a visual culture that you cannot see2015In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications / [ed] Per Backlund, Red Hook, NY: IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 147-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present the result of an experiment, in which we compare the gaming experience between sighted players and visually impaired players playing the same game. Specifically we discuss whether they experience the same story construed from the plot elements that are either manifested by audio and graphics in the case of sighted players or primarily by audio in the case of visually impaired players. To this end, we have developed a graphical point-and-click adventure game for iOS and Android devices. The game has been designed to provide players with audio feedback that enables visually impaired players to interact with and experience the game, but in a manner that does not interfere with the overall appearance and functionality of the game, i.e. a design that is fully inclusive to both groups of players and that is as invisible for sighted players as possible without hindering visually impaired players to share the same gaming experience when it comes to story content. The study shows that the perception of the story were almost identical between the two groups. Generally it took visually impaired players a little longer to play the game but they also seem to listen more carefully to the dialogue and hence also build a slightly deeper understanding of the characters.

  • 15.
    Östblad, Per Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Inclusive game design: audio interface in a graphical adventure game2014In: 9th Audio Mostly: A Conference on Interaction With Sound (AM '14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, New York, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2014, p. 8-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lot of video games on the market are inaccessible to players with visual impairments because they rely heavily on use of graphical elements. This paper presents a project aimed at developing a point-and-click adventure game for smart phones and tablets that is equally functional and enjoyable by blind and sighted players. This will be achieved by utilizing audio to give blind players all necessary information and enjoyment without graphics. In addition to creating the game, the aim of the project is to identify design aspects that can be applied to more types of games to include more players. This paper also presents a pilot study that has been conducted on an early version of the game and the preliminary findings are discussed.

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