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  • 1.
    Abril López, Raimundo
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Huertas Molina, Pablo
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    González Zuheros, Rocío
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF A WASHING MACHINE THROUGH ITS LOADING CASES: REDESIGN OF THE TRIPOD AND THE FRONT COVER2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project thesis is developed in collaboration with the mechanical department at University of Skövde, and it is focused in the determination of different loading cases and the application of their results to the optimization of two parts of a washing machine.

     

    The first step in this report is to obtain a numerical model of a washing machine. It includes the assembly in a mechanical software program (Abaqus), and the assignment of the specific boundary conditions and material properties for the problem. Simulation parameters such as mesh size; types of elements, and number of iterations used in the calculations will also be decided.

     

    A study of the different loading cases is carried out with the intention of having a general view of the problem and selecting four specific cases for its application to the reconstruction of the aimed parts (tripod and front cover). This study includes the calculation of the worst relative angle between the tripod and the resultant force for two opposite loads inside the drum. This angle results to be 35º between the arm and the direction of the resultant force.

     

    Through the application of these different loading conditions to this model, the mechanical behaviour of the parts will be obtained and this information will be used in the reconstruction. By mechanical behaviour it is meant to know the maximum level of stress (tension, compression and shear), and deformation (displacement and strain).

     

    Once it is well known which are the most suffering points of the tripod and in the front cover, several different new shapes are created. The parameters considered in this reconstruction were the decrease of volume, the reduction of the level of stress and the deformations. Two of these shapes are chosen and tested in the numerical model, as a checkout.

     

    Finally all these results are presented to the University of Skövde for possible future use.

  • 2.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    Academy of Innovation & Research, Falmouth University, Cornwall, United kingdom.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Cloud Service Control Approach for Distributed and Adaptive Equipment Control in Cloud Environments2016In: Research and Innovation in Manufacturing: Key Enabling Technologies for the Factories of the Future - Proceedings of the 48th CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems / [ed] Roberto Teti, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 41, p. 644-649Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A developing trend within the manufacturing shop-floor domain is the move of manufacturing activities into cloud environments, as scalable, on-demand and pay-per-usage cloud services. This will radically change traditional manufacturing, as borderless, distributed and collaborative manufacturing missions between volatile, best suited groups of partners will impose a multitude of advantages. The evolving Cloud Manufacturing (CM) paradigm will enable this new manufacturing concept, and on-going research has described many of its anticipated core virtues and enabling technologies. However, a major key enabling technology within CM which has not yet been fully addressed is the dynamic and distributed planning, control and execution of scattered and cooperating shop-floor equipment, completing joint manufacturing tasks.

    In this paper, the technological perspective for a cloud service-based control approach is described, and how it could be implemented. Existing manufacturing resources, such as soft, hard and capability resources, can be packaged as cloud services, and combined to create different levels of equipment or manufacturing control, ranging from low-level control of single machines or devices (e.g. Robot Control-as-a-Service), up to the execution of high level multi-process manufacturing tasks (e.g. Manufacturing-as-a-Service). A multi-layer control approach, featuring adaptive decision-making for both global and local environmental conditions, is proposed. This is realized through the use of a network of intelligent and distributable decision modules such as event-driven Function Blocks, enabling run-time manufacturing activities to be performed according to actual manufacturing conditions. The control system’s integration to the CM cloud service management functionality is also described.

  • 3.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    Falmouth University, Cornwall, UK.
    Adaptive Robot Control as a Service in Cloud Manufacturing2015In: ASME 2015 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference: Volume 2: Materials; Biomanufacturing; Properties, Applications and Systems; Sustainable Manufacturing, ASME Press, 2015, Vol. 2, p. Paper No. MSEC2015-9479-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest for implementing the concept of Manufacturing-as-a-Service is increasing as concepts for letting the manufacturing shop-floor domain take advantage of the cloud appears. Combining technologies such as Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, Semantic Web, virtualisation and service-oriented technologies with advanced manufacturing models, information and communication technologies, Cloud Manufacturing (CM) is emerging as a new manufacturing paradigm. The ideas of on-demand, scalable and pay-for-usage resource-sharing in this concept will move manufacturing towards distributed and collaborative missions in volatile partnerships. This will require a control approach for distributed planning and execution of cooperating manufacturing activities. Without control based on both global and local environmental conditions, the advantages of CM will not be fulfilled.

    By utilising smart and distributable decision modules such as event-driven FBs, run-time manufacturing operations in a distributed environment may be adjusted to prevailing manufacturing conditions. Packaged in a cloud service for manufacturing equipment control, it will satisfy the control needs in CM. By combining different resource types, such as hard, soft and capability resources, the cloud service Robot Control-as-a-Service can be realised.

    This paper describes the functional perspective and enabling technologies for a control approach for robotic assembly tasks in CM, and describes a scenario for its implementation.

  • 4.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    Falmouth University, Cornwall, United Kingdom.
    Feature-Based Adaptive Manufacturing Equipment Control for Cloud Environments2016In: Proceedings of the ASME 11th International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference, 2016, vol 2, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2016, article id UNSP V002T04A019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ideas of on-demand, scalable and pay-for-usage resource-sharing in Cloud Manufacturing are steadily attracting more interest. For implementing the concept of Manufacturing as-a-Service in a cloud environment, description models and implementation language for resources and their capabilities are required. A standardized approach for systemived virtualization, servisilisation, retrieval, selection and composition into higher levels of functionality is necessary. For the collaborative sharing and use of networked manufacturing resources there is also a need for a control approach for distributed manufacturing equipment. In this paper, the technological perspective for an adaptive cloud service-based control approach is described, and a supporting information model for its implementation. The control is realized through the use of a network of intelligent and distributable Function Block decision modules, enabling run-time manufacturing activities to be performed according to actual manufacturing conditions. The control system's integration to the cloud service management functionality is described, as well as a feature-level capability model and the use of ontologies and the Semantic Web.

  • 5.
    Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Production Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Moore, Philip
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Feature-based control and information framework for adaptive and distributed manufacturing in cyber physical systems2017In: Journal of manufacturing systems, ISSN 0278-6125, E-ISSN 1878-6642, Vol. 43, p. 305-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern distributed manufacturing within Industry 4.0, supported by Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs), offers many promising capabilities regarding effective and flexible manufacturing, but there remain many challenges which may hinder its exploitation fully. One major issue is how to automatically control manufacturing equipment, e.g. industrial robots and CNC-machines, in an adaptive and effective manner. For collaborative sharing and use of distributed and networked manufacturing resources, a coherent, standardised approach for systemised planning and control at different manufacturing system levels and locations is a paramount prerequisite.

    In this paper, the concept of feature-based manufacturing for adaptive equipment control and resource-task matching in distributed and collaborative CPS manufacturing environments is presented. The concept has a product perspective and builds on the combination of product manufacturing features and event-driven Function Blocks (FB) of the IEC 61499 standard. Distributed control is realised through the use of networked and smart FB decision modules, enabling the performance of collaborative run-time manufacturing activities according to actual manufacturing conditions. A feature-based information framework supporting the matching of manufacturing resources and tasks, as well as the feature-FB control concept, and a demonstration with a cyber-physical robot application, are presented.

  • 6.
    Adawi, Rahim
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Preventing fatal effects of overworking: Product design solution2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    “Overworking to death” is a phenomenon that has been noticeable in developing countries. The cause of death is mainly through ischemic strokes. While the victims’ occupations differed, they all shared a common characteristic, being positioned in a sedentary work, ranging from IT workers to doctors. This project’s aim was to develop a product that prevented or decreased the strokes that derived from sedentary overwork. This was mainly tackled by preventing one of the three causes of developing blood props, slowed blood flow. In order to gather rich data of the phenomenon, a qualitative study was conducted in China, during two months. By doing an extensive structured sampling, information rich data could be gathered during a short period of time. Data were derived from observations, questionnaires and an interview, which then was interpreted to customer needs and the final product specification. The final product became a trouser with an in built dynamic compression mechanic, that can compress the veins mostly during sitting activities, in order to prevent blood stasis. The compression mechanic works like the Chinese finger trap; compressing the calves while sitting and stretching the legs forward. It is made only out of polysaccharides fibres; cotton and corn.

  • 7.
    Agea, Andrés
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Millán, Iván
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Range Extender for the Renault Fluence Z.E.: Choice of the engine and design of the structural support.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electric cars have appeared as an alternative to the big pollution caused by internal combustion engine cars. However, electric cars as the Renault Fluence Z.E. are not very sold in the market because of their small range of autonomy. To make this car an attractive option, it is necessary to add a range extender that extends its autonomy. This range extender is based in the addition of a small internal combustion engine to be attached only when the electric autonomy cannot fulfill the trip. A range extender is chosen by means of a comparison between different electric engines sold in the market. By means of a classification tree, the different places of the car where to mount it are compared and the most appropriate is chosen. By using Solidworks, a structure to support the engine and attach it to the car is designed. The result is a Range Extender device to mount in the hitch hook of the Renault Fluence Z.E. that provides an autonomy of around 665 km. This supposes a good solution for the owner of the Renault Fluence Z.E. who needs to cover trips of more than 180 km, the electric autonomy of this car.

  • 8.
    Ahmed, Adell
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Analys och simulering av produktionsflödet på ett tillverkningsföretag: Simulering kombinerat med Lean-principer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Production concurrence within manufacturing companies is continuously increasing due to production requirements and demand of mass produced customized goods. In order to meet customers’ requirements nowadays, companies need to increase customize production without suffering a loss of quality. In pursuance of an increased production on the main shop floor of the industrial partner involved in this project, the company investigates the idea of investing in an automated pressing machine to centralize the process outside different assembly lines. With the help of automation, simulation, and Lean, the potential of the company to reduce lead times to satisfy the customer needs can be increased.

    The aim of this final year project is to investigate the potential of a stator pressing machine to manage the supply of product parts to four assembly lines. One of the requirements is that the yearly volume of the new system could be increased by 50%.

    The methodology used in this study is based on Lean, simulation, and optimization. In order to have an overview of the problem, a situation analysis was made on the current production flow. Therefore, a data collection process was performed through observations, continuous communication with matter experts, and historical data. This data was used to analyze the system and feed the simulation model of the proposed new system. Different Lean tools were also used for the analysis and improvement of the system.

    The company presented ideas on how they wanted the production flow to look like, which were then further developed and used as a basis for the improvement suggestions. One requirement was that the solution had to be Lean inspired.

    The aim of the study was achieved by creating a simulation model to test how the system would behave in different configurations. A first scenario designed as a Pull flow system where the products were only produced according to demand. The second scenario was a Push based system without considering just-in-time production. The first scenario was presented as suggestion for final solution.

    The result from the simulation scenarios showed a clear difference between the two systems. The Pull flow was more suitable due to a drastic decrease in both number of products as work- in-progress and lead time. The final solution, using a Kanban method, and a suggestion for the production layout of the future production flow is presented in the report.

  • 9.
    Akrouh Ettaghadouini, Samy
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Metamodelling of a Finite Element Analysis of a Drilling Process with Replaceable Inserts2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to create a metamodel from a drilling tool with replaceable inserts from FEA of the machining process using MATLAB and ABAQUS. This report contains research in drilling and in metamodeling using neural networks and the work from the design of the CAD, through FEA and simulations, to the metamodeling, excluding the optimization.

    The work has resulted in a framework where a base FE model of the drill with two inserts that works, but due to time issues and given high cutting speed and feed the results of the FEA and the metamodeling are not very accurate. Therefore, the optimization analysis could not be done. However, it has been shown that feed has a major influence on the inserts temperature than the cutting speed, despite the higher range of this last one.

  • 10.
    Al-Dabagh, Hussain
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Wahlström, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Konstruktion av gripverktyg för en kollaborativ robot2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work is performed to use a collaborative robot in a mounting process with the aim of solving a type of hidden assembly, in which gear wheels should be synchronized. Because the parts are fragile and heavy, they become difficult for the assembler to handle, which can lead to damage to material or even worse the assembler. A gripping tool should therefore be designed to be used with a collaborative robot in this type of assembly. A comparison of collaborative robots is performed, based on two necessary requirements, where the robot's lifting capacity must be at least 10 kg and that the robots meet safety standards in a safety manner. Where the cobot KUKA LBR IIWA 14 meets these requirements and is considered to be most appropriate for carrying out the task. The robot has a lifting capacity of 14 kg, which means it can handle the gripping tool and the gearbox housing mass, the robot is also considered to be very easy to program. LBR iiwa is a very versatile robot and has no major deficits and therefore the choice of robot is considered to be well completed. A gripping tool has been designed and gone through different stages of development, from concept-generating ideas to design and choosing materials and making FEM analyses. Results suggest that selection of designs and materials on the gripping tool makes it approved for manufacturing and will handle the various loads the gripping tool will be exposed to in carrying out the task.

  • 11.
    Alfredsson, K. Svante
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Biel, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Salimi, Saeed
    University of Skövde.
    Shear testing of thick adhesive layers using the ENF-specimen2015In: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 62, p. 130-138Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Alfredsson, K. Svante
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Stigh, Ulf
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Stability of beam-like fracture mechanics specimens2012In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 89, p. 98-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Test specimens used to determine the interlaminar strength of composites as well as the strength of adhesive layers are known to occasionally suffer from instability. Thus, even though the experiments are performed under controlled load-point displacement, the experiments are terminated prematurely by unstable crack propagation. Often there exists a critical crack length which must be exceeded in order to obtain stable crack propagation. In this paper, a general method to assess the stability of beam-like fracture mechanics specimens is developed. Both systems subjected to a single load and the more general situation with several independent loads are treated. A simple formula is derived for the critical crack length for one-parameter loading. The only parameter necessary as input is the compliance of the un-cracked specimen. For the case of non-proportional loading, stability is determined by studying the eigenvalues of a symmetric matrix. Other findings quantified in the paper are the effect of orthotropy, the influence of a flexible interphase layer and the influence of the compliance of the loading device.

  • 13.
    Almqvist, Josefin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Sundelius, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Modular Locking System to RBS Cabinet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Radio base stations contain equipment which enables the use of cell phones all around the world. ERICSSON is developing these stations and everything connected to the area, such as electronics, software and hardware. In a new project ERICSSON plans to make their hardware modular, to satisfy all their customers around the world even if their preferences differ. The task that was given to us was to develop a modular locking system to the radio base station cabinets.The concept was developed in an integrated working process that focused on a user centered final product. The process included the definition of the problem, preliminary studies of areas which are connected to the problem and a summary of the demands that the customers mediated in a list of requirements. The idea generation generated lots of ideas that later on were developed into different concepts. The concepts were evaluated before the final decision was made together with ERICSSON.The final product is a lifting handle connected to a rod and latch system, which already existed. A new mechanical function was created to make the new handle function with the old system. The locking system is modular and it is possible to choose which way to lock the handle, with a cylinder lock or a padlock. Only one module, the cylinder in the middle, needs to be switched to get the other solution. The other parts are the same; this makes the product modular. The lift handle is an entire new design, developed in the project.

  • 14.
    Alsen, Felicia
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Rening med UV-ljus: Utvärdering av Aquatron drickvatten2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 15.
    Amouzgar, Kaveh
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Metamodel Based Multi-Objective Optimization with Finite-Element Applications2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the increase in accessibility of computational resources and the increase of computer power during the last two decades, designers are able to create computer models to simulate the behavior of complex products. To address global competitiveness, companies are forced to optimize the design of their products and production processes. Optimizing the design and production very often need several runs of computationally expensive simulation models. Therefore, integrating metamodels, as an efficient and sufficiently accurate approximate of the simulation model, with optimization algorithms is necessary. Furthermore, in most of engineering problems, more than one objective function has to be optimized, leading to multi-objective optimization(MOO). However, the urge to employ metamodels in MOO, i.e., metamodel based MOO (MB-MOO), is more substantial.Radial basis functions (RBF) is one of the most popular metamodeling methods. In this thesis, a new approach to constructing RBF with the bias to beset a priori by using the normal equation is proposed. The performance of the suggested approach is compared to the classic RBF and four other well-known metamodeling methods, in terms of accuracy, efficiency and, most importantly, suitability for integration with MOO evolutionary algorithms. It has been found that the proposed approach is accurate in most of the test functions, and it was the fastest compared to other methods. Additionally, the new approach is the most suitable method for MB-MOO, when integrated with evolutionary algorithms. The proposed approach is integrated with the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2) and applied to two real-world engineering problems: MB-MOO of the disk brake system of a heavy truck, and the metal cutting process in a turning operation. Thereafter, the Pareto-optimal fronts are obtained and the results are presented. The MB-MOO in both case studies has been found to be an efficient and effective method. To validate the results of the latter MB-MOO case study, a framework for automated finite element (FE) simulation based MOO (SB-MOO) of machining processes is developed and presented by applying it to the same metal cutting process in a turning operation. It has been proved that the framework is effective in achieving the MOO of machining processes based on actual FE simulations.

  • 16.
    Amouzgar, Kaveh
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Andersson, Tobias J.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    A framework for simulation based multi-objective optimization and knowledge discovery of machining process2018In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 98, no 9-12, p. 2469-2486Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Amouzgar, Kaveh
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Andersson, Tobias J.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Metamodel based multi-objective optimization of a turning process by using finite element simulationArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the advantages and potentials of the metamodelbased multi-objective optimization (MOO) of a turning operation through the application of finite element simulations and evolutionary algorithms to a metal cutting process. The objectives are minimizing the interface temperature and tool wear depth obtained from FE simulations using DEFORM2D software, and maximizing the material removal rate. Tool geometry and process parameters are considered as the input variables. Seven metamodelling methods are employed and evaluated, based on accuracy and suitability. Radial basis functions with a priori bias and Kriging are chosen to model tool–chip interface temperature and tool wear depth, respectively. The non-dominated solutions are found using the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm SPEA2 and compared with the non-dominated front obtained from pure simulation-based MOO. The metamodel-based MOO method is not only advantageous in terms of reducing the computational time by 70%, but is also able to discover 31 new non-dominated solutions over simulation-based MOO.

  • 18.
    Amouzgar, Kaveh
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Andersson, Tobias
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Metamodel based multi-objective optimization of a turning process by using finite element simulation2019In: Engineering optimization (Print), ISSN 0305-215X, E-ISSN 1029-0273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the advantages and potentials of the metamodelbased multi-objective optimization (MOO) of a turning operation through the application of finite element simulations and evolutionary algorithms to a metal cutting process. The objectives are minimizing the interface temperature and tool wear depth obtained from FE simulations using DEFORM2D software, and maximizing the material removal rate. Tool geometry and process parameters are considered as the input variables. Seven metamodelling methods are employed and evaluated, based on accuracy and suitability. Radial basis functions with a priori bias and Kriging are chosen to model tool–chip interface temperature and tool wear depth, respectively. The non-dominated solutions are found using the strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm SPEA2 and compared with the non-dominated front obtained from pure simulation-based MOO. The metamodel-based MOO method is not only advantageous in terms of reducing the computational time by 70%, but is also able to discover 31 new non-dominated solutions over simulation-based MOO.

  • 19.
    Amouzgar, Kaveh
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Radial basis functions with a priori bias as surrogate models: A comparative study2018In: Engineering applications of artificial intelligence, ISSN 0952-1976, E-ISSN 1873-6769, Vol. 71, p. 28-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radial basis functions are augmented with a posteriori bias in order to perform robustly when used as metamodels. Recently, it has been proposed that the bias can simply be set a priori by using the normal equation, i.e., the bias becomes the corresponding regression model. In this study, we demonstrate the performance of the suggested approach (RBFpri) with four other well-known metamodeling methods; Kriging, support vector regression, neural network and multivariate adaptive regression. The performance of the five methods is investigated by a comparative study, using 19 mathematical test functions, with five different degrees of dimensionality and sampling size for each function. The performance is evaluated by root mean squared error representing the accuracy, rank error representing the suitability of metamodels when coupled with evolutionary optimization algorithms, training time representing the efficiency and variation of root mean squared error representing the robustness. Furthermore, a rigorous statistical analysis of performance metrics is performed. The results show that the proposed radial basis function with a priori bias achieved the best performance in most of the experiments in terms of all three metrics. When considering the statistical analysis results, the proposed approach again behaved the best, while Kriging was relatively as accurate and support vector regression was almost as fast as RBFpri. The proposed RBF is proven to be the most suitable method in predicting the ranking among pairs of solutions utilized in evolutionary algorithms. Finally, the comparison study is carried out on a real-world engineering optimization problem.

  • 20.
    Amouzgar, Kaveh
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Product Development Department, School of Engineering, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Niclas
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Science and Technology, University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Radial basis functions as surrogate models with a priori bias in comparison with a posteriori bias2017In: Structural and multidisciplinary optimization (Print), ISSN 1615-147X, E-ISSN 1615-1488, Vol. 55, no 4, p. 1453-1469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to obtain a robust performance, the established approach when using radial basis function networks (RBF) as metamodels is to add a posteriori bias which is defined by extra orthogonality constraints. We mean that this is not needed, instead the bias can simply be set a priori by using the normal equation, i.e. the bias becomes the corresponding regression model. In this paper we demonstrate that the performance of our suggested approach with a priori bias is in general as good as, or even for many test examples better than, the performance of RBF with a posteriori bias. Using our approach, it is clear that the global response is modelled with the bias and that the details are captured with radial basis functions. The accuracy of the two approaches are investigated by using multiple test functions with different degrees of dimensionality. Furthermore, several modeling criteria, such as the type of radial basis functions used in the RBFs, dimension of the test functions, sampling techniques and size of samples, are considered to study their affect on the performance of the approaches. The power of RBF with a priori bias for surrogate based design optimization is also demonstrated by solving an established engineering benchmark of a welded beam and another benchmark for different sampling sets generated by successive screening, random, Latin hypercube and Hammersley sampling, respectively. The results obtained by evaluation of the performance metrics, the modeling criteria and the presented optimal solutions, demonstrate promising potentials of our RBF with a priori bias, in addition to the simplicity and straight-forward use of the approach.

  • 21.
    Ander, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Johansson, Matilda
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utveckling av laddhandske för laddbara fordon2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the autumn term of 2017, Jenny Ander and Matilda Johansson have performed a project in collaboration with Sea Ice AB in the course Degree Project in Integrated Product Development at the University of Skövde. Sea Ice AB is working on developing charging infrastructure systems for rechargeable vehicles with focus on end-user benefits, high quality and increasing sustainability for the environment.The company is aiming to grow larger in the market and, in the future, be able to deliver attractive products and services, which in this project has involved the development of a new vehicle connector for rechargeable vehicles.

    During the project, vehicle connectors and CEE-plugs have been compared with each other, focusing on its internal components. The pre-study is based on literature studies where standards have been studied, ergonomics and user studies, questionnaires, electrical measurements, but mainly disassembly and analysis of vehicle connectors and CEE-plugs.

    After the pre-study, the concept development of the vehicle connector began with design methods, FEA-analyzes, CAD and clay modeling, concept screening and detail design. The concept development resulted in a complete final concept for both internal components, but also an external shell with ergonomic grip surfaces and angles.

    The final concept has been compared to the requirement specification and achieved the requirements set for the project, with some reservation for continued development. The vehicle connector has a unique and appealing appearance and meets the demands that both users and Sea Ice AB whished for.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. andersson.daniel89@gmail.com.
    Andersson, David
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. davdii_@live.com.
    Produktionseffektivisering med hjälp av flödessimulering och förbättringsarbete2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AB Furhoffs Rostfria is a company with its base in Skövde. They are specialists in the manufacturing of stainless-steel parts, such as plumbing products, floor wells and sinks. In addition to manufacturing their own products, the company also has a subcontract to manufacture other companies’ products.

    The department where this bachelor thesis will be conducted has a subcontract to manufacturing radar cones and treats only the production of the most frequent manufactured radar cones. The department consists of seven manufacturing steps and three additional steps for one of the details.

    The purpose of the bachelor thesis is to create a simulation model that shows how potential improvement proposals would meet the expected increase of the order intake of the radar cones by streamlining the current production flow. In order to achieve this, a simulation model has been created in which the improvement proposals have been implemented. The improvement proposals that have been tested are based on the data that has been collected through production engineering methods.

    The frame of references describes the theory that constitutes the foundation for the chosen methods. In addition, areas within discrete event simulation, lean production and improvement work have been studied from other works in the literature review. These areas can in some way relate to the work and conclusions of this project.

    The empirical study was conducted by using observations according to genchi genbutsu, conversations and interviews with operators, spaghetti diagrams of the operators and the product flow as well as time studies according to the continuous method. These methods have formed the basis for both the creation of the simulation model, where the current situation is reflected, and for the development of the future state simulation model. The future state simulation model shows the implementation of the improvement proposals that increases efficiency and production volume throughout the system.

    The empirical study resulted in a visual overview of the production flow, standard times, the identification of waste as well as improvement proposals. When all the improvement proposals were implemented, the hourly production was increased by 26.6% and the lead time was reduced by 21.1%. With these improvements, the company can increase their production and profit significantly.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Emil
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Optimization and re-design of a wheel hub to reduce unsprung mass of a rallycross car2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Wheel Hub of a rallycross car is analysed to reduce the unsprung mass of the car. The problem statement is to mainly focus on the unsprung mass related to the suspension, and more specifically on the Wheel Hub. One of the objectives of the suspension system of a car is to damping the movement of the car. This is an important area when designing a vehicle, and especially a race car due to the extreme conditions that may result in reduced traction and loose of confidence for the driver. A theoretical model is performed to demonstrate the importance of a low unsprung mass and to illustrate how it affects the vehicle-handling. A process to evaluate the current Wheel Hub and decision to re-design the Wheel Hub is performed, and the parts are analysed using the Finite Element Method to verify the design and material selection. Vehicle dynamics of the car is analysed to calculate the acting forces. Optimization of the design is performed by using Computer Aided Engineering. The re-designed Wheel Hub presented as the result of this project with a Brake Disk Adapter integrated in Hub. This design reduces the number of parts, and the unsprung mass up to 25% without any effects on suspension geometry or other parts of the car.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Emilia
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Utveckling av vippgunga för barn i åldrarna 1-3 år2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the spring of 2013, Emilia Andersson, a student in product design engineering at University of Skövde, carried out a product development project in cooperation with HAGS Aneby AB. The aim of the project was to develop a seesaw adapted for children aged 1-3 years. The goal was to develop a seesaw that could be sold worldwide and meet the American standard and European standard for playground equipment.

    The project began with a pre study and a theory phase, which included literature review and competitor analysis and information were gathered to gain a deeper knowledge of the subject. Later on ideas and concepts were generated, which then through evaluations as user testing lead to a final concept. The concept was evaluated with for example strength calculations and an anthropometric analysis.

    The final seesaw can, despite adjustment for the age group, not only be use by 1-3-year-olds, but also by older children, this thanks to the design and the handles that provide extra play values.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Thyberg, Terese
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Chefsrekrytering: Hur fungerar det?2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recruitment can include everything from hiring a stand-in for the summer to finding an executive for a big company. When hiring an executive is it important for the company that the right person gets the right job. There is little information in Swedish literature that explains how executive recruitment separates from ordinary recruitment. Neither is there any information about how internal and external executive recruitment are separated.

    When a recruitment process starts it is important to do a thorough preparatory work. This can be done by doing a work analyse, or a revision of the job description which is mostly used in executive recruitment. After this a specification of requirements is formed, the specification is a guide that the company uses to specify what kind of person they want to hire.

    The search of candidates for a position can be done in several different ways. The company has to decide if they should do the process by themselves or if a recruitment firm should be consulted, which is common today. There are several ways of searching candidates, the most common today is advertising in different media or using the employment service. The company also have to make a decision considering if the search should be done internal or external, or both ways.

    When suitable candidates have been chosen it is time for interviews and testing. At this time the recruiter meets the candidate for the first time and creates a picture of him or her. Testing is often used as a complement to the interview to confirm or deny feelings or suspicions that has arisen during the process. Another way of doing this is by contacting references, it is important to be aware of the fact that references often just have good things to say about the candidate. There is a risk with this considering that the whole truth might not come out.

    There are many different ways of making the decision who to hire, most important is though to use the specification of requirements as basic data. It is not always a need that all demands in the specifications are fulfilled, the candidates other qualifications can be more important.

    During this study it has come to our knowledge that the recruitment process for hiring executives are not that different from the process of hiring other co-workers. The biggest difference is that companies often choose to outsource the process to a consult. The companies in this study are quite small and think that they don’t have the right competence to find people with the right qualifications themselves. They think that it is better to pay money to the consultant than risk that the recruitment goes wrong and they have to do the process all over again.

    Companies today are more interested in recruiting executives from outside the company. In a time of changes they want an objective point of view to be able to survive in business. Once again there are no right or wrong way for the company to choose, but to search both internal and external might be the best solution to minimize the risk of overlooking the best candidate. Being able to advance in the company is a big push for many employees to work harder.

  • 26.
    Andersson Lassila, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Folcke, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Numerical and experimental analysis of adhesively bonded T-joints: Using a bi-material interface and cohesive zone modelling2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing climate change the automotive industry is facing increasing demands regarding emissions and environmental impact. To lower emissions and environmental impact the automotive industry strives to increase the efficiency of vehicles by for example reducing the weight. This can be achieved by the implementation of lightweight products made of composite materials where different materials must be joined. A key technology when producing lightweight products is adhesive joining.

    In an effort to expand the implementations of structural adhesives Volvo Buses wants to increase their knowledge about adhesive joining techniques. This thesis is done in collaboration with Volvo Buses and aims to increase the knowledge about numerical simulations of adhesively bonded joints. A numerical model of an adhesively bonded T-joint is presented where the adhesive layer is modelled using the Cohesive Zone Model. The experimental extraction of cohesive laws for adhesives is discussed and implemented as bi-linear traction-separation laws. Experiments of the T-joint for two different load cases are performed and compared to the results of the numerical simulations. The experimental results shows a similar force-displacement response as for the results of the numerical simulations. Although there were deviations in the maximum applied load and for one load case there were deviations in the behavior after the main load drop. The deviations between numerical and experimental results are believed to be due to inaccurate material properties for the adhesive, the use of insufficient bi-linear cohesive laws, the occurrence of a combination of adhesive and cohesive fractures during the experiments and dissimilar effective bonding surface areas in the numerical model and the physical specimens.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Linna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Bergström, Ellinor
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utveckling av portabel mobilhållare som hjälpmedel vid e-möten och distansundervisning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the degree project is to methodically develop a product that will serve as an accessory for a smartphones during documentation. A preliminary study was done to gain a deeper knowledge and understanding of digital meeting rooms, how a camera works and what resolution is. With the information gathered, the work went on to a literature study on additive manufacturing, how a product can be designed and printed digitally. The preliminary study resulted in a requirement specification that formed the basis for concept generation and later a result.

     The result was a prototype of a lightweight and portable holder for smartphones that is 3D-printable and made out of only one material, which provides good recycling opportunities for the user. The prototype fulfills most of the sub-goals that were set up early and the main purpose of the project could also be met.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Louise
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Erlandsson, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utveckling av ett lyftverktyg för skivformade produkter2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the second semester of 2013, product design engineering students Stefan Erlandsson and Louise Andersson have been involved in a project in cooperation with entrepreneur Lars Willebrand. The main objective of this project has been to develop a lifting tool for sheet materials. The lifting tool is one of four different products developed by Lars Willebrand. The line of products also includes an overhead crane, a slewing crane and a storage drawer for metal sheets, which are already fully developed and ready for production. The purpose of this lifting tool is to be used along with the storage drawer which means that is has to be optimised for lifting sheet materials from different heights. This means that the lifting tool has to be designed with regards to the users working postures. Human factors such as ergonomics have to be taken into account as well.

    The initial part of the project is a pre-study with focus on ergonomics and human factors. This pre-study included a study in relevant literature, contact with a manufacturing company and an analysis of the possible competitor’s lifting tools. The results from the pre-study have further been used to define the specification of requirements, which is the foundation for the concept development. The concept development has undergone a number of different phases. All of the lifting tool’s main functions were broken down and developed individually. The functions were as follows; adjustment of the suction cups, lifting from different heights and handling. The most suitable solution for each main function were chosen and assembled into one final concept.

    The final concept has been analysed and further developed in order to please the employer and the users of the lifting tool. Some details in the design have been changed in order to ease the manufacturing of the lifting tool. To ensure that the final concept matches the specification of requirements, strength calculations and FEM analysis have been made and anthropometrical measurements have been taken into account. The final chapters include a discussion and recommendations for further development of the lifting tool.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Fredricsson, Sandra
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Effektivitetsmätning: En studie kring privata företags inre effektivitet2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Effektivitetsmätning är ett ständigt aktuellt ämne som intresserar många företag. Historiskt sett har denna mätning begränsats till ekonomiska aspekter, men i dagens samhälle räcker inte det. För att hänga med i den allt hårdare konkurrensen mellan företagen måste effektivitetsmätningen täcka upp organisationens samtliga aktiviteter. Utifrån teorier om effektivitet, mål och mått har det därför undersökts hur privata företag arbetar med den inre effektivitetsmätningen, samt hur detta kan appliceras på tjänste- och systemutvecklingsföretaget Aptic AB.

    Denna kvalitativa studie baseras på sju intervjuer genomförda på olika företag som alla har använt sig av effektivitetsmätningar i flera år. För att få en överblick av Aptic AB:s behov av liknande effektivitetsmätningar intervjuades även två personer från denna organisation. Intervjuerna var halvstrukturerade med öppna frågor för att respondenterna skulle ha möjlighet att ta upp det som de själva tyckte var viktigt.

    Empirin visar att effektivitet kan mätas genom att sätta upp mål inom områden som ekonomi, kvalitet, leveranssäkerhet, medarbetare, säkerhet, miljö och förbättringar, för att sedan utföra mätningar som visar hur verksamheten ligger till i förhållande till det. Eftersom samtliga företag ansåg att effektivitetsmätning är en viktig del i organisationens överlevnad på längre sikt, så rekommenderas även Aptic AB att påbörja detta arbete.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Martin
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Industrial scheduling with evolutionary algorithms using a hybrid representation2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Scheduling problems have been studied extensively in the literature but because they are so hard to solve, especially real-world problems, it is still interesting to find ways of solving them more efficiently. This thesis aims to efficiently solve a real-world scheduling problem by using a hybrid representation together with an optimisation algorithm. The aim of the hybrid representation is to allow the optimisation to focus on the parts of the scheduling problem where it can make the most improvement. The new approach used in this thesis to accomplish this goal, is the combination of simulation-based optimisation using genetic algorithms and dispatching rules. By using this approach, it is possible to investigate the effect of putting specified job sequences in certain machines and using dispatching rules in the other. The hypothesis is that the optimisation can use dispatching rules on non-bottleneck machines that have little impact on the overall performance of the line and some specified job sequences on bottleneck machines that are hard to be scheduled efficiently with dispatching rules. This would allow the optimisation to focus on the bottleneck machines and that would produce a more efficient search. The results from the case study shows it is a viable approach exceeding or equalling existing techniques. The hypothesis that the optimisation can focus its efforts is supported by a bottleneck analysis which corresponds with the experimental results from optimisations.

  • 31.
    Andersson, My
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Hovbjer, Samantha
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Från manuella monteringstationer till människa-robot samarbete: Framtagning av en specifikation för HRC2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As industry 4.0 is rising companies are obliged to work to increase their quality, flexibility and reduce their changeover time. The final year project is written for Högskolan I Skövde and Volvo GTO with focus to identify possible human-robot collaboration tasks in a manual assembly line. The main objective for the thesis is to developed a method for a specification for implementation of virtual collaboration station.

    A central point for the thesis is sustainable development. By reducing non ergonomically and stressful tasks, social sustainability can be increased which can lead to lead to less scrap and quality deviation.

    Presumptions for the thesis are analyzed and discussed where standardized work is a central and important part. Four general collaborations methods are mentioned. A specific collaborative robot where used and its proficiency analyzed during the work, a UR10e. Previous researched mentioned the safety issue related to implementation of a collaborative robot. A recommendation to properly ensure the safety is to perform a risk assessment when the work sequence and layout is generated.

    To identify potential tasks for the collaborative robot data related to the defined stations needs to be analyzed. The conclusion was that only one station included all the five identified potential tasks for the collaborative robot. This resulted in an adjustment of the work order for the selected station and thereby create a human robot collaboration.

    Two implementation suggestions where created and differed only in the location of a specific component. The new position for the component requires a reorganization of the material handling to the station. There are two categories of product variants and the new working sequences reduce the work load because tasks are performed by the robot.

    The generated method to create a specification is based on the work performed during the thesis. This method includes recommendation and methods which will facilitate similar projects. Standardize work is a key factor to create similar prerequisites.

    A recommendation for continual work is to create a virtual environment where a risk assessment can take place in order to generate a safe work environment.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Rasmus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Hellgren, Martin
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    ÖKAD PRODUKTIVITET GENOM STÄLLTIDSREDUCERING: En fallstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Kongsberg Automotive (KA) is a company operating in the highly competitive automotive industry. At one of its plants located in Mullsjö, assembling of gear transmission systems is taking place. KA sees a need to increase capacity in the section by increasing productivity. A large potential for improvement are identified during the changeover between different product variants in the assembly section. The setup time reduction is expected to increase the productivity in the assembly section, which also contributes to increased flexibility in order to competitively meet customer’s flexible needs. In order to determine the starting position at the improvement work, a situation analysis and suggestions for improvement to reduce setup time can be worked out. Implementation of improvement suggestions can then be adopted. In order to document the current situation and to demonstrate improvements in the setup time reduction a simulation model was establishes. The simulation model will demonstrate an example of when to use production simulation tool.

    To implement the setup time reduction SMED (Single -Minute Exchange of Die) is used, originally developed to reduce the setup time for the press machines. The method aims at reducing setup time to under 10 minutes, the "single- minute'. Through video documentation, participant observation, and further data collection methods the present situation could be determined. This created a good picture of the operations carried out and the time consumption it corresponded to. To verify the data of the current situation timing of work elements according to snapback method was conducted. The simulation model is constructed after Banks twelve-step method with the data gathered during the project. The model is then verified against the situation analysis. When improvement proposals were formulated the values were added ​​into the model, which corresponded to the calculated time improvement proposals. The improvement proposals for the setup time are partly produced by the project, but also through a workshop with staff at KA and focusing on the five previously identified problem areas. The improvement proposals were evaluated on the workshop through a pick chart.

    Five elaborate improvements that require little effort but gives a great effect was presented to KA. To verify theoretical calculations, a pilot with four of the five improvements temporarily implemented. The results showed a reduction of setup time from 38 minutes to 3.7 minutes, which corresponds to an improvement of 90.3%.  The analysis also shows that the improvement creates a reduction in the production rate in normal assembly. In total, the improvements in this project increase OEE value in assembly section with 4.2%. Even so, one of the stated objectives of the project will not be achieved since the setup time activities are too small part of the available time in the assembly section.

  • 33.
    Andersson, Rikard
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Welin, Annika
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Analys av elasticitetsmodulsvariationer i vevaxel2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A study is performed regarding an eventual variation of the Young's modulus in crankshafts from Volvo Cars, which are delivered from subcontractors. The purpose of the study is to enable future FE-analysis regarding the cutting processing that crankshafts are exposed for at Volvo Cars. Thus, an examination are is desired if these FE-analysis can be done with using a constant Young's modulus. Two 4-cylindrical crankshafts are obtained from Volvo Cars, which are partioned divided into four parts each, and each and used in two experiments. Where experiment one, was a pressure compression test in a tensile stress testing machine at the University of Skövde, and experiment two, where experiment one, are is mimicked in the software Abaqus CAE with boundary conditions and load. Also, three part experiments are performed, one where the parts of the crankshaft were allowed to spring back, two where an examination of stress concentrations in Abaqus CAE to examine if the parts of the crankshaft plasticizes and three, where one of the divided crankshaft parts are inverted in the tensile stress test machine to examine measurement uncertainty. The obtained results show that it is a small variation of the Young's modulus in the two crankshafts, with a variation of 3.45 %. This variation can be explained with a measurement uncertainty, because in part experiment three where the paortioneddivided crankshaft part were twisted aroundinverted in the tensile stress test machine show a measurement uncertainty of 3.16 %. The percentage difference between the two crankshafts are bigger, and this can not only originate from a measurement uncertainty.

    Completed analyses show that FE-analysis is an applicable method to calculate the deformation of crankshafts from engines with 4-cylinders, but it can be a need for Volvo Cars to carry out further investigations regarding a varying Young's modulus between different providers/batches of the raw material for crankshafts.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Rinat
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Johansson, Martin
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Underlag för beslut av investering i ny utrustning2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 35.
    Andersson, Tobias
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Mechanical Behaviour of Adhesive Layers: Methods to Extract Peel and Mixed Mode Properties2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical Behaviour of Adhesive Layers Methods to Extract Peel and Mixed Mode Properties TOBIAS ANDERSSON Department of Applied Mechanics Chalmers University of Technology ABSTRACT This thesis is concerned with methods to extract material properties of thin adhesive layers loaded in peel and in mixed mode. The first part of the thesis is devoted to an experimental method to determine the complete stress-elongation relation (or cohesive law) for an adhesive layer loaded in peel using the DCB-specimen. The method is based on the concept of equilibrium of the energetic forces acting on the specimen. Two sources of energetic forces are identified: the start of the adhesive layer and the positions of the two acting loads. By use of the concept of equilibrium of energetic forces, it is possible to measure the energy release rate of the adhesive layer instantaneously during an experiment. The complete stress-elongation relation is found to be the derivative of the energy release rate with respect to the elongation of the adhesive layer at its start. By this procedure, an effective property of the adhesive layer is measured. The validity of the approach is investigated by experiments where the adherends deform 1) elastically and 2) plastically. It is found that a unique stress-elongation is obtained when the adherends deform elastically. The same relation cannot be used to predict the experiments where the adherends deform plastically indicating that the approach has limited applicability. The second part of the thesis is concerned with the development of a mesomechanical finite element model of a thin adhesive layer loaded in mixed mode. The model is calibrated to previously performed experiments. In these, the adhesive layer is loaded in monotonically increasing peel or shear. An in situ SEM-study is also performed and used to guide the modelling and calibration. The purpose of the mesomechanical finite element model is to facilitate the development of constitutive laws for adhesive layers. The modelling is based on Xu and Needleman’s method where all continuum finite-elements are surrounded by interface elements that allow for the development of micro cracks. Thus, this enables the modelling of the entire process of degradation and fracture of the adhesive layer. A genetic algorithm is developed for the calibration. The simulations are shown to be in reasonably good agreement with the experiments. Keywords: adhesive layer, stress-elongation relation, J-integral, energetic force, experimental method, RVE, interface elements, genetic algorithm

  • 36.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Information Technology, Visual Information and Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Tool use and collaborative work of dock assembly in practice2017In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 164-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to deepen the understanding of the intrinsic interactions andinterplay between humans, tools, and environment from a systemsperspective, research in the wild (RITW) approaches have gainedtraction during recent decades as they provide a higher ecologicalvalidity of findings. This paper presents a RITW study, investigatinghow assembly, in this case dock assembly of forwarders, was donein practice. As our theoretical foundation, we used the framework ofdistributed cognition, which is one of the main pillars of RITW. Thefindings are presented in narrative form, describing and highlightingthat the workers achieve an efficient production outcome by beingintegral parts of the whole production process and doing so throughcoordination of activities benefitting the shared goal of the distributedsocio-technical system.

  • 37.
    Antonsson, Arvid
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Hermansson, Gustaf
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    System analysis, improvement and visualisation of a manufacturing workflow, using discrete-event simulation: A combination of discrete-event simulation and lean manufacturing2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project has been initiated in cooperation with a Swedish manufacturing company. Due to increased demand and competition, the company wants to streamline its production process, increase the degree of automation and visualize specific workflows. By creating a frame of reference and a literature review, a theoretical basis for methods and concepts which has been utilized throughout the project has been obtained. With the help of the identified methods and methodologies, a current state analysis was performed. Using traditional Lean tools such as Genchi genbutsu, Ishikawa diagram and a 5-why analysis, in combination with time studies and interviews, the current state of the studied system was successfully mapped and analysed. With the help of the current state analysis, which served as a conceptual model, a simulation model of the current state was created in order to handle the large variety and the complexity of the system. The simulation model was validated and verified in order to ensure that it was “good enough” for the purpose of this project in the depiction of the real world system. During the experimental design, several improvement suggestions were created by utilizing methods such as brainstorming, Ishikawa diagram and a 5-why analysis. In a Kaizen event, onsite personnel had the opportunity to decide which suggestions that was fit for experimentation using simulation. With the result of the Kaizen event, experiments were performed in order to evaluate the proposed improvement suggestion. As a result, several new insights regarding improvements could be obtained, which provided several suggestions for an improved future state. Including a proposed automated cell. The analysis of the results did not entirely satisfy the aim of the project since certain factors could not be analysed, therefore the authors recommend that further studies are needed if proposed improvement suggestions are to be implemented.

  • 38.
    Areitioaurtena Oiartzun, Maialen
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Mixed material bonding: Effects of the properties of the adhesive on the thermal shape distortion2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesive bond-line read-through is the terminology used in the automotive industry that describes a visible distortion of an adherent over the adhesive bond-line. Usually, this is a result of the difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion of the substrates and the adhesive. First of all, previous work is presented, as well as some information about the terms that are used throughout the project. A linear thermal simulation is carried out in order to analyse the bond-line read-through curvature defects produced by the adhesive properties in a typical bonding from the automotive industry. The analysed models belong to a carbon fibre and epoxy composite material plate bonded with a metal plate that can be made of steel, aluminium and magnesium. The use of carbon fibre composites is one of the main focuses in the automotive industry due to the decrease of environmental and therefore economic impact. The adhesives used for the analysis are liquid or paste adhesive and adhesive tapes from the 3M™ VHB™ series. Several equations are obtained from the results, which can be used to calculate the curvature produced by a specific adhesive for these combinations. The use of these equations is limited to certain material properties and thicknesses that are presented through the work. The outcome of this project provides an opportunity to make the adhesive selection easier, based on the maximum required substrate curvature.

  • 39.
    Arteaga Viafara, Edinson Elan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Linders, Linders
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Utveckling av en postlåda för montage på säkerhetsdörrar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the process of creating a design proposal of a letterbox for mounting on security doors. The project was developed in cooperation with a manufacturer of security doors made of steel. The purpose of this work has been to develop a concept for a mailbox with several new functions and an innovative aesthetic design, at the request of the company. This new design has to be in line with existing security demands and should also include a wide group of users.

    According to French’s model, a method has been used where user studies, tests and focus groups provides essential information. The three design principles inclusive design, pleasure design and gamification has been the guiding star throughout the process.

    A function diagram was used on a regular letterbox to find functions with potential for improvements. The focus of the concept development was based on the findings from this diagram.

    The concept generation resulted in the letter box Droppen, containing innovative functions that have been developed from the existing ones. This letterbox is challenging by expanding old functionalities such as LED lamps as a mean of communication or using the magazine holder as a form of unloading zone. The distinguished and soft form of a drop is a design that appeals to many people and at the same time makes it easy to pick up the mail. The box is made from zinc alloyed steel, which makes it heavy but durable. The many options for individual design not only increase the customer value but also indirectly reduce the impact on the environment.

  • 40.
    Arufors, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Reducerad tidsvariation vid monteringsmoment2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 41.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Multi-objective Optimization and Analysis of the Inventory Management Model2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 Summer Simulation Multiconference, Society for Computer Simulation International , 2014, Vol. 46, p. 99-106Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Karlsson, Ingemar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Integrating system dynamics and multi-objective optimisation for manufacturing supply chain analysis2014In: International Journal of Manufacturing Research, ISSN 1750-0605, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 27-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to address the dilemma of supply chain management (SCM) within a truly Pareto-based multi-objective context. This is done by introducing an integration of system dynamics and multi-objective optimisation. An extended version of the well-known pedagogical SCMproblem, the Beer Game, originally developed at MIT since the 1960s, has been used as the illustrative example. As will be discussed in the paper, the integrated multi-objective optimisation and system dynamics model has been shown to be very useful for revealing how the parameters in the Beer Game affect the optimality of the three common SCM objectives, namely, the minimisation of inventory cost, backlog cost, and the bullwhip effect.

  • 43.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Karlsson, Ingemar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Integrating System Dynamics and Multi-Objective Optimization for Manufacturing Supply Chain Analysis2012In: Proceedings of the 5th Swedish Production symposium (SPS'12), 2012, p. 433-441Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to address the dilemma of Supply Chain Management (SCM) within a truly Pareto-based multi-objective context. This is done by introducing an integration of System Dynamics and Multi-Objective Optimization. Specifically, the paper contrasts local optimization with global optimization for SCM in which optimal trade-off solutions in the entity level, i.e. optimizing the supply chain from the perspectives of individual (local) entities. e.g., supplier, factory, distributor and retailer, are collected and compared to those obtained from an overall supply chain level (global) optimization. An extended version of the well-known pedagogical SCM problem, the Beer Game, originally developed at MIT since the 1960s, has been used as the illustrative example. As will be discussed in the paper, the integrated multi-objective optimization and system dynamics model has been shown to be very useful for revealing that how the parameters in the Beer Game affect the optimality of the three common SCM objectives, namely, the minimization of inventory, backlog, and the bullwhip effect.

  • 44.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H.C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Strategy evaluation using system dynamics and multi-objective optimization for an internal supply chain2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] L. Yilmaz, W. K. V. Chan, I. Moon, T. M. K. Roeder, C. Macal and M. D. Rossetti, Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 2033-2044Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    System dynamics, which is an approach built on information feedbacks and delays in the model in order to understand the dynamical behavior of a system, has successfully been implemented for supply chain management problems for many years. However, research within in multi-objective optimization of supply chain problems modelled through system dynamics has been scares. Supply chain decision making is much more complex than treating it as a single objective optimization problem due to the fact that supply chains are subjected to the multiple performance measures when optimizing its process. This paper presents an industrial application study utilizing the simulation based optimization framework by combining system dynamics simulation and multi-objective optimization. The industrial study depicts a conceptual system dynamics model for internal logistics system with the aim to evaluate the effects of different material flow control strategies by minimizing total system work-on-process as wells as total delivery delay.

  • 45.
    Auma, Faith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Lingehed, Emma
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Chair for pupils with cerebral palsy in Uganda2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An adjustable chair was developed for children with cerebral palsy in Uganda. The chairs these children use today are custom made which means that they cannot be used when a child outgrows a chair. Sometimes the chair is used by other children and does not give the support that the child needs.

    The project was executed in the capitol, Kampala, by the two design engineer students Faith Auma and Emma Lingehed in collaboration with Makerere University, Kampala school for the physically handicapped and Katalemwa Cheshire home. The goal of the project was to help pupils with cerebral palsy from a young age develop adequate sitting behaviour and become more physically independent. The chair should be able to be manufactured and assembled in Uganda and the material should be able to be found in the country.

    The project started by clarifying the problem, information was collected through literature studies, study visits and interviews. The gathered information was used to create a product specification focusing on safety, environment, manufacturing and ergonomics.

    All background information was used throughout the idea generation. A number of ideas were generated and evaluated until a final concept was found. The final concept, called Billy, was chosen through a concept scoring where it was evaluated against three other concepts. Billy was considered the easiest concept to manufacture in Uganda and had the simplest construction.

    Billy was developed further and became the final concept Entebbe. Entebbe is a chair that is adjustable and gives the support a child with cerebral palsy needs. A prototype was made at Katalemwa Cheshire home. 

    Entebbe can be manufactured in Uganda and since it is module-based it can easily be repaired and resized by simply changing the concerned parts. This also means that parts can be reused to build other chairs. Entebbe can be adjusted in five different ways and requires no tools to assemble.

  • 46.
    Azamfirei, Victor
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. 1994.
    A visualization approach for improved interpretation and evaluation of assembly line balancing solutions2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Future manufacturing will be characterized by the complementarity between humans and automation (human-robot collaboration). This requires new methods and tools for the design and operation of optimized manufacturing workplaces in terms of ergonomics, safety, efficiency, complexity management and work satisfaction. There have been some efforts in the recent years to propose a tool for determining optimal human-automation levels for load balancing.

    Although the topic is quite new, it shares some similarities with some of the existing research in the area of robotic assembly line balancing. Therefore, it is crucial to review the existing literature and find the most similar models and methods to facilitate the development of new optimization models and algorithms.

    One of the two contributions that this thesis gives to the research world in the RALBP context is a literature review that involves high quality articles from 1993 to beginning 2018. This literature review includes visual and comprehensive tables—and a label system— where previous research patterns and trends are highlighted.

    Visualization of data and results obtained by assembly line optimization tools is a very important topic that has rarely been studied. Data visualization would provide a: 1. better comprehension of patterns, trends and qualitative data 2. more constructive information absorption 3. better visualization of relationships and patterns between operations, and 4. better contribution to data manipulation and interaction.

    The second contribution to research found in this thesis is the use of a human modelling (DHM) tool (called IPS), which is proposed as an assessment to the ergonomic risk that a robotic assembly line may involve. This kind of studies are necessary in order to reduce one of the most frequent reasons of work absence in our today society i.e. musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). MSDs are often the result of poor work environments and they lead to reduced productivity and quality losses at companies. In view of the above, IPS was used in order to resolve the load handling problem between human and robot, depending on their skills and availability, while fulfilling essential ISO standards i.e. 15066 and 10218:1 and :2. The literature review made it possible to select highly useful documents in developing assumptions for the experiment and contributed to consider real features detected in the industry.

    Results show that even though IPS is not capable of calculating an entire robotic assembly with human-robot collaboration, it is able to simulate a workstation constituted of one robot and one human. Finite and assembly motions for both human and robot are expected to be implemented in future versions of the software.

    Finally, the main advantages of using DHM tools in assessing ergonomic risks in RALB can be extracted from the results of this thesis. This advantages include 1. ergonomic evaluation for assembly motions 2. ergonomic evaluation for a full working day (available in future version) and 3. essential ISO standard testing (available in future version). 

  • 47.
    Azamfirei, Victor
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Preciado Navarro, Luis Donaldo
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Interface Design for Driver Operated Control Systems2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 48.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Deb, Kalyanmoy
    Michigan State University, USA.
    Temporal Innovization: Evolution of Design Principles Using Multi-objective Optimization2015In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization (EMO 2015), Springer, 2015, Vol. 9018, p. 79-93Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multi-objective optimization yields multiple solutions each of which is no better or worse than the others when the objectives are conflicting. These solutions lie on the Pareto-optimal front which is a lower-dimensional slice of the objective space. Together, the solutions may possess special properties that make them optimal over other feasible solutions. Innovization is the process of extracting such special properties (or design principles) from a trade-off dataset in the form of mathematical relationships between the variables and objective functions. In this paper, we deal with a closely related concept called temporal innovization. While innovization concerns the design principles obtained from the trade-off front, temporal innovization refers to the evolution of these design principles during the optimization process. Our study indicates that not only do different design principles evolve at different rates, but that they start evolving at different times. We illustrate temporal innovization using several examples.

  • 49.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    An empirical comparison of metamodeling strategies in noisy environments2018In: Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO-2018) / [ed] Hernan Aguirre, New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2018, p. 817-824, article id 3205509Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metamodeling plays an important role in simulation-based optimization by providing computationally inexpensive approximations for the objective and constraint functions. Additionally metamodeling can also serve to filter noise, which is inherent in many simulation problems causing optimization algorithms to be mislead. In this paper, we conduct a thorough statistical comparison of four popular metamodeling methods with respect to their approximation accuracy at various levels of noise. We use six scalable benchmark problems from the optimization literature as our test suite. The problems have been chosen to represent different types of fitness landscapes, namely, bowl-shaped, valley-shaped, steep ridges and multi-modal, all of which can significantly influence the impact of noise. Each metamodeling technique is used in combination with four different noise handling techniques that are commonly employed by practitioners in the field of simulation-based optimization. The goal is to identify the metamodeling strategy, i.e. a combination of metamodeling and noise handling, that performs significantly better than others on the fitness landscapes under consideration. We also demonstrate how these results carry over to a simulation-based optimization problem concerning a scalable discrete event model of a simple but realistic production line.

  • 50.
    Bandaru, Sunith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    On the scalability of meta-models in simulation-based optimization of production systems2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] L. Yilmaz, W. K. V. Chan, I. Moon, T. M. K. Roeder, C. Macal, and M. D. Rossetti, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Press, 2015, p. 3644-3655Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimization of production systems often involves numerous simulations of computationally expensive discrete-event models. When derivative-free optimization is sought, one usually resorts to evolutionary and other population-based meta-heuristics. These algorithms typically demand a large number of objective function evaluations, which in turn, drastically increases the computational cost of simulations. To counteract this, meta-models are used to replace expensive simulations with inexpensive approximations. Despite their widespread use, a thorough evaluation of meta-modeling methods has not been carried out yet to the authors' knowledge. In this paper, we analyze 10 different meta-models with respect to their accuracy and training time as a function of the number of training samples and the problem dimension. For our experiments, we choose a standard discrete-event model of an unpaced flow line with scalable number of machines and buffers. The best performing meta-model is then used with an evolutionary algorithm to perform multi-objective optimization of the production model.

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