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  • 1.
    Almirón Santa-Bárbara, Rafael
    et al.
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Hospital de Antequera, Malaga, Spain ; School of Medicine, Universidad de Málaga, Spain.
    García Rivera, Francisco
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Víquez Da-Silva, Rodrigo
    Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Victoria, Málaga, Spain.
    Gutiérrez Bedmar, Mario
    Preventive Medicine and Public Health Department, School of Medicine, University of Málaga, Spain ; Biomedical Research Institute of Malaga-IBIMA, Spain ; CIBERCV Cardiovascular Diseases, Carlos III Health Institute, Madrid, Spain.
    New technologies for the classification of proximal humeral fractures: Comparison between Virtual Reality and 3D printed models—a randomised controlled trial2023Ingår i: Virtual Reality, ISSN 1359-4338, E-ISSN 1434-9957, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 1623-1634Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Correct classification of fractures according to their patterns is critical for developing a treatment plan in orthopaedic surgery. Unfortunately, for proximal humeral fractures (PHF), methods for proper classification have remained a jigsaw puzzle that has not yet been fully solved despite numerous proposed classifications and diagnostic methods. Recently, many studies have suggested that three-dimensional printed models (3DPM) can improve the interobserver agreement on PHF classifications. Moreover, Virtual Reality (VR) has not been properly studied for classification of shoulder injuries. The current study investigates the PHF classification accuracy relative to an expert committee when using either 3DPM or equivalent models displayed in VR among 36 orthopaedic surgery residents from different hospitals. We designed a multicentric randomised controlled trial in which we created two groups: a group exposed to a total of 34 3DPM and another exposed to VR equivalents. Association between classification accuracy and group assignment (VR/3DPM) was assessed using mixed effects logistic regression models. The results showed VR can be considered a non-inferior technology for classifying PHF when compared to 3DPM. Moreover, VR may be preferable when considering possible time and resource savings along with potential uses of VR for presurgical planning in orthopaedics. 

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  • 2.
    Babajanyan, Diana
    et al.
    School of Psychological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109, NSW, Australia.
    Patil, Gaurav
    School of Psychological Sciences, Centre for Elite, Performance, Expertise and Training, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109, NSW, Australia.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Kallen, Rachel W.
    School of Psychological Sciences, Centre for Elite, Performance, Expertise and Training, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109, NSW, Australia.
    Richardson, Michael J.
    School of Psychological Sciences, Centre for Elite, Performance, Expertise and Training, Macquarie University, Sydney, 2109, NSW, Australia.
    I Know Your Next Move: Action Decisions in Dyadic Pick and Place Tasks2022Ingår i: Proceedings of the 44th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society / [ed] J. Culbertson; A. Perfors; H. Rabagliati; V. Ramenzoni, Cognitive Science Society, Inc., 2022, s. 563-570Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Joint pick and place tasks occur in many interpersonal scenarios, such as when two people pick up and pass dishes. Previous studies have demonstrated that low-dimensional models can accurately capture the dynamics of pick and place motor behaviors in a controlled 2D environment. The current study models the dynamics of pick-up and pass decisions within a less restrictive virtual reality mediated 3D joint pick and place task. Findings indicate that reach-normalized distance measures, between participants and objects/targets, could accurately predict pick-up and pass decisions. Findings also reveal that participants took longer to pick-up objects where division of labor boundaries were less obvious and tended to pass in locations maximizing the dyad's efficiency. This study supports the notion that individuals are more likely to engage in interpersonal behavior when a task goal is perceived as difficult or unattainable (i.e., not afforded). Implications of findings for human-artificial agent interactions are discussed. 

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  • 3.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Bampouni, Elpida
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Automatic Selection of Viewpoint for Digital Human Modelling2020Ingår i: DHM2020: Proceedings of the 6th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium, August 31 – September 2, 2020 / [ed] Lars Hanson, Dan Högberg, Erik Brolin, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2020, s. 61-70Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During concept design of new vehicles, work places, and other complex artifacts, it is critical to assess positioning of instruments and regulators from the perspective of the end user. One common way to do these kinds of assessments during early product development is by the use of Digital Human Modelling (DHM). DHM tools are able to produce detailed simulations, including vision. Many of these tools comprise evaluations of direct vision and some tools are also able to assess other perceptual features. However, to our knowledge, all DHM tools available today require manual selection of manikin viewpoint. This can be both cumbersome and difficult, and requires that the DHM user possesses detailed knowledge about visual behavior of the workers in the task being modelled. In the present study, we take the first steps towards an automatic selection of viewpoint through a computational model of eye-hand coordination. We here report descriptive statistics on visual behavior in a pick-and-place task executed in virtual reality. During reaching actions, results reveal a very high degree of eye-gaze towards the target object. Participants look at the target object at least once during basically every trial, even during a repetitive action. The object remains focused during large proportions of the reaching action, even when participants are forced to move in order to reach the object. These results are in line with previous research on eye-hand coordination and suggest that DHM tools should, by default, set the viewpoint to match the manikin’s grasping location.

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  • 4.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Hanson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Digital Human Modelling in Action2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the 15th SweCog Conference / [ed] Linus Holm; Erik Billing, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2019, s. 25-28Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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  • 5.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Rosén, Julia
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Language Models for Human-Robot Interaction2023Ingår i: HRI '23: Companion of the 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, ACM Digital Library, 2023, s. 905-906Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in large scale language models have significantly changed the landscape of automatic dialogue systems and chatbots. We believe that these models also have a great potential for changing the way we interact with robots. Here, we present the first integration of the OpenAI GPT-3 language model for the Aldebaran Pepper and Nao robots. The present work transforms the text-based API of GPT-3 into an open verbal dialogue with the robots. The system will be presented live during the HRI2023 conference and the source code of this integration is shared with the hope that it will serve the community in designing and evaluating new dialogue systems for robots.

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  • 6.
    Garcia Rivera, Francisco
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Perez Luque, Estela
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    DHM supported assessment of the effects of using an exoskeleton during work2022Ingår i: International Journal of Human Factors Modelling and Simulation, ISSN 1742-5549, Vol. 7, nr 3/4, s. 231-246Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, exoskeletons have been gaining popularity in many industries, primarily for supporting manual assembly tasks. Due to the relative novelty of exoskeleton technologies, knowledge about the consequences of using these devices at workstations is still developing. Digital human modelling (DHM) and ergonomic evaluation tools may be of particular use in this context. However, there are no standard integrations of DHM and ergonomic assessment tools for assessing exoskeletons. This paper proposes a general method for evaluating the ergonomic effects of introducing an exoskeleton in a production context using DHM simulation tools combined with a modified existing ergonomic assessment framework. More specifically, we propose adapting the Assembly Specific Force Atlas tool to evaluate exoskeletons by increasing the risk level threshold proportionally to the amount of torque that the exoskeleton reduces in the glenohumeral joint. We illustrate this adaptation in a DHM tool. We believe the proposed methodology and the corresponding workflow can be helpful for decision-makers and stakeholders when considering implementing exoskeletons in a production environment.

  • 7.
    Garcia Rivera, Francisco
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Waddell, Melanie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Improving the efficiency of virtual-reality-based ergonomics assessments with digital human models in multi-agent collaborative virtual environments2022Ingår i: Proceedings of the 7th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium (DHM 2022), August 29–30, 2022, Iowa City, Iowa, USA, University of Iowa Press, 2022, Vol. 7, s. 1-11, artikel-id 39Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Often new digital tools are introduced alongside existing tools and workflows to augment and fill gaps in current processes. Virtual and augmented reality (XR) tools are currently being deployed in this way within design processes, allowing for interactive visualization in virtual environments including the use of DHM tools. Currently, the focus is on how to implement XR as a stand-alone tool for single-user scenarios. However, in collaborative design contexts, screen-based and XR tools can be used together to leverage the benefits of each technology maximizing the potential of multi-user design processes. XR allows for an immersive exploration of designed objects in 3D space, while screen-based tools allow for easier notetaking and integration of additional non-3D software and meeting tools. Ensuring that these technologies are integrated in a mutually beneficial manner requires a framework for determining the best combination of technologies and interfaces for diverse design teams. This paper presents a framework for performing collaborative design reviews in a digital environment that can be accessed using both XR and 2D screen devices simultaneously. It enables asymmetric collaboration to provide each design team member with the technology that best fits their workflow and requirements.

  • 8.
    García Rivera, Francisco
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Brolin, Anna
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    The Schematization of XR Technologies in the Context of Collaborative Design2022Ingår i: SPS2022: Proceedings of the 10th Swedish Production Symposium / [ed] Amos H. C. Ng; Anna Syberfeldt; Dan Högberg; Magnus Holm, Amsterdam; Berlin; Washington, DC: IOS Press, 2022, s. 520-529Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the concept of Industry 5.0 has been introduced to complement, among other things, Industry 4.0’s focus on efficiency and productivity with a focus on humans in digital design and production processes. The inclusion of human interaction with digital realities, extended reality (XR) technologies, such as augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR), can play an essential role in Industry 5.0. While rapid advances in XR technologies are solidifying and finding their place in the product and production development process, terminology and classification scheme remain under-determined. As a result, there have been numerous classifications of XR technologies from different perspectives, but little widespread agreement. They have been classified by their level of immersion or how well they meet a specific purpose (such as training). In addition to that, the classifications are usually made for one particular field (e.g. marketing, healthcare, engineering, architecture, among others). Therefore, to set the basis for future research, it is essential to identify and outline the dimensions that intervene in product and production design in regards to XR facilitated collaboration. With the ideas proposed in this paper, we want to identify basic concepts that classify a collaborative XR system by analyzing how users interact with the environment and other users. Our motivation is that collaborative design involves not only the physical dimension but also a social dimension. Defining when an XR system contributes to increasing social and/or physical presence could clarify and simplify its categorization.

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  • 9.
    Grover, Francis
    et al.
    Center for Cognition, Action, and Perception, Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, USA.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Center for Cognition, Action, and Perception, Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, USA.
    Bonnette, Scott
    Division of Sports Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Silva, Paula L.
    Center for Cognition, Action, and Perception, Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, USA.
    Lorenz, Tamara
    Center for Cognition, Action, and Perception, Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, USA / Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA / Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Riley, Michael A.
    Center for Cognition, Action, and Perception, Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, USA.
    Intermittent coupling between grip force and load force during oscillations of a hand-held object2018Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 236, nr 10, s. 2531-2544Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Tightly coordinated grip force adaptations in response to changing load forces have been reported as continuous, stable, and proportional to the load force changes. Considering the existence of inherent sensorimotor feedback delays, current accounts of grip force–load force coupling invoke explicit predictive mechanisms in the form of internal models for feedforward control to account for anticipatory grip force modulations. However, recent findings suggest that the stability and regularity of grip force–load force coupling is less persistent than previously thought. Thus, the objective of the current study was to comprehensively quantify the time-varying characteristics of grip force–load force coupling. Investigations into the coupling’s dynamics during continuous 30 s bouts of load force oscillation revealed intermittent phases of coordination, as well as phases that varied in stability, rather than a persistent and continuously stable pattern of coordination. These findings have important implications for accounts of grip force–load force coupling and of anticipation in motor control, more broadly.

  • 10.
    Hanson, Lars
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling. Scania CV AB, Global Industrial Development, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Brolin, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Billing, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Iriondo Pascual, Aitor
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Current Trends in Research and Application of Digital Human Modeling2022Ingår i: Proceedings of the 21st Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2021): Volume V: Methods & Approaches / [ed] Nancy L. Black; W. Patrick Neumann; Ian Noy, Cham: Springer, 2022, s. 358-366Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper reports an investigation conducted during the DHM2020 Symposium regarding current trends in research and application of DHM in academia, software development, and industry. The results show that virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and digital twin are major current trends. Furthermore, results show that human diversity is considered in DHM using established methods. Results also show a shift from the assessment of static postures to assessment of sequences of actions, combined with a focus mainly on human well-being and only partly on system performance. Motion capture and motion algorithms are alternative technologies introduced to facilitate and improve DHM simulations. Results from the DHM simulations are mainly presented through pictures or animations.

  • 11.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Players' Embodied Cognitive Interactions in VR Environments2022Ingår i: What Happens When We Play: A Critical Approach to Games User Experience Design & Education / [ed] Rebecca Rouse; Björn Berg Marklund; Anna-Sofia Alklind Taylor, ETC Press, 2022, s. 119-125Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 12.
    Lamb, Maurice
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Brundin, Malin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Perez Luque, Estela
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Billing, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Eye-Tracking Beyond Peripersonal Space in Virtual Reality: Validation and Best Practices2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Virtual Reality, E-ISSN 2673-4192, Vol. 3, artikel-id 864653Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in commercial virtual reality (VR) hardware with embedded eye-tracking create tremendous opportunities for human subjects researchers. Accessible eye-tracking in VR opens new opportunities for highly controlled experimental setups in which participants can engage novel 3D digital environments. However, because VR embedded eye-tracking differs from the majority of historical eye-tracking research, in both providing for relatively unconstrained movement and stimulus presentation distances, there is a need for greater discussion around methods for implementation and validation of VR based eye-tracking tools. The aim of this paper is to provide a practical introduction to the challenges of, and methods for, 3D gaze-tracking in VR with a focus on best practices for results validation and reporting. Specifically, first, we identify and define challenges and methods for collecting and analyzing 3D eye-tracking data in VR. Then, we introduce a validation pilot study with a focus on factors related to 3D gaze tracking. The pilot study provides both a reference data point for a common commercial hardware/software platform (HTC Vive Pro Eye) and illustrates the proposed methods. One outcome of this study was the observation that accuracy and precision of collected data may depend on stimulus distance, which has consequences for studies where stimuli is presented on varying distances. We also conclude that vergence is a potentially problematic basis for estimating gaze depth in VR and should be used with caution as the field move towards a more established method for 3D eye-tracking.

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  • 13.
    Lamb, Maurice J.
    et al.
    Department of Philosophy, University of Cincinnati, United States.
    Chemero, Anthony P.
    Department of Philosophy and Psychology, University of Cincinnati, United States.
    Interaction-dominant dynamics and extended embodiment2013Ingår i: Constructivist Foundations, ISSN 1782-348X, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 88-89Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 14.
    Lamb, Maurice
    et al.
    Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States.
    Kallen, Rachel W.
    Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States.
    Harrison, Steven J.
    Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Connecticut, CT, United States.
    Di Bernardo, Mario
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy / Department of Engineering Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
    Minai, Ali A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computing Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States.
    Richardson, Michael J.
    Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States.
    To Pass or Not to Pass: Modeling the Movement and Affordance Dynamics of a Pick and Place Task2017Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, artikel-id 1061Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans commonly engage in tasks that require or are made more efficient by coordinating with other humans. In this paper we introduce a task dynamics approach for modeling multi-agent interaction and decision making in a pick and place task where an agent must move an object from one location to another and decide whether to act alone or with a partner. Our aims were to identify and model (1) the affordance related dynamics that define an actor’s choice to move an object alone or to pass it to their co-actor and (2) the trajectory dynamics of an actor’s hand movements when moving to grasp, relocate, or pass the object. Using a virtual reality pick and place task, we demonstrate that both the decision to pass or not pass an object and the movement trajectories of the participants can be characterized in terms of behavioral dynamics model. Simulations suggest that the proposed behavioral dynamics model exhibits features observed in human participants including hysteresis in decision making, non-straight trajectories, and non-constant velocity profiles. The proposed model highlights how the same low-dimensional behavioral dynamics can operate to constrain multiple (and often nested) levels of human activity and suggests that knowledge of what, when, where and how to move or act during pick and place behavior may be defined by these low dimensional task dynamics and, thus, can emerge spontaneously and in real-time with little a priori planning.

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  • 15.
    Lamb, Maurice
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Lorenz, Tamara
    Department of Psychology, Cincinnati, OH, USA / Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Rhodes Hall Cincinnati, OH, USA / Department of Materials and Mechanical Engineering, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.
    Harrison, Stephen
    Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, CT, USA.
    Kallen, Rachel
    Department of Psychology, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Minai, Ali
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Rhodes Hall Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Richardson, Michael
    Department of Psychology, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Behavioral Dynamics and Action Selection in a Joint Action Pick-and-Place Task2017Ingår i: Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci), Cognitive Science Society , 2017, s. 2506-2511Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many common tasks require or are made more efficient by coordinating with others. In this paper we investigate the coordination dynamics of a joint action pick-and-place task in order to identify the behavioral dynamics that underlie the emergence of human coordination. More precisely, we introduce a task dynamics approach for modeling multi-agent interaction in a continuous pick-and-place task where two agents must decide to work together or alone to move an object from one location to another. Our aims in the current paper are to identify and model (1) the relevant affordance dynamics that underlie the selection of the different action modes required by the task and (2) the trajectory dynamics of each actor’s hand movements when moving to grasp, relocate, or pass the object. We demonstrate that the emergence of successful coordination can be characterized in terms of behavioral dynamics models which may have applications for artificial agent design.

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  • 16.
    Lamb, Maurice
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling. Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, USA.
    Nalepka, Patrick
    Department of Psychology, Center for Elite Performance, Expertise and Training, Macquarie University, Australia.
    Kallen, Rachel W.
    Department of Psychology, Center for Elite Performance, Expertise and Training, Macquarie University, Australia.
    Lorenz, Tamara
    Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, USA / Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Cincinnati, USA / Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Cincinnati, USA.
    Harrison, Steven J.
    Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, USA.
    Minai, Ali A.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Cincinnati, USA.
    Richardson, Michael J.
    Department of Psychology, Center for Elite Performance, Expertise and Training, Macquarie University, Australia.
    A Hierarchical Behavioral Dynamic Approach for Naturally Adaptive Human-Agent Pick-and-Place Interactions2019Ingår i: Complexity, ISSN 1076-2787, E-ISSN 1099-0526, artikel-id 5964632Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactive or collaborative pick-and-place tasks occur during all kinds of daily activities, for example, when two or more individuals pass plates, glasses, and utensils back and forth between each other when setting a dinner table or loading a dishwasher together. In the near future, participation in these collaborative pick-and-place tasks could also include robotic assistants. However, for human-machine and human-robot interactions, interactive pick-and-place tasks present a unique set of challenges. A key challenge is that high-level task-representational algorithms and preplanned action or motor programs quickly become intractable, even for simple interaction scenarios. Here we address this challenge by introducing a bioinspired behavioral dynamic model of free-flowing cooperative pick-and-place behaviors based on low-dimensional dynamical movement primitives and nonlinear action selection functions. Further, we demonstrate that this model can be successfully implemented as an artificial agent control architecture to produce effective and robust human-like behavior during human-agent interactions. Participants were unable to explicitly detect whether they were working with an artificial (model controlled) agent or another human-coactor, further illustrating the potential effectiveness of the proposed modeling approach for developing systems of robust real/embodied human-robot interaction more generally.

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  • 17.
    Lamb, Maurice
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Pérez Luque, Estela
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Billing, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Understanding Eye-Tracking in Virtual Reality2022Ingår i: AIC 2022 Artificial Intelligence and Cognition 2022: Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Cognition, Örebro, Sweden, 15-17 June, 2022 / [ed] Hadi Banaee; Amy Loutfi; Alessandro Saffiotti; Antonio Lieto, CEUR-WS.org , 2022, s. 180-181Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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  • 18.
    Lamb, Maurice
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Rouse, Rebecca
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Traveling Through the Dark: Using an interdisciplinary theatre and cognitive science approach to identify design strategies for human-machine shared experience in a self-driving car2021Ingår i: Proceedings of the 16th SweCog Conference / [ed] Erik Billing; Andreas Kalckert, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2021, s. 32-34Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research on human-machine interaction (HMI) across a range of fields, including both cognitive science and theatre, has stressed the need to re-frame such interactions as relational and based in shared experience (Gaggioli et al., 2021; Sciutti et al., 2018). In this case, the machine, whether software or hardware based, is characterized as an interaction partner instead of a tool. Reconceiving HMI as involving reciprocity and shared experiences moves away from transactional or one-sided models of interaction and requires exploring what can be meant by reciprocation and shared experience with a non-human partner. In particular, the concept of shared experience in HMI has been relatively under-explored due to both the typical framing of trust in HMI research and technological limitations of HMI systems. Refocusing the design of HMI systems on the ethos of shared experience can be supported by interdisciplinary research with theater. 

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  • 19.
    Lamb, Maurice
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Seunghun, Lee
    Texas Tech University, United States.
    Billing, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Yang, James
    Texas Tech University, United States.
    Forward and Backward Reaching Inverse Kinematics (FABRIK) solver for DHM: A pilot study2022Ingår i: Proceedings of the 7th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium (DHM 2022), August 29–30, 2022, Iowa City, Iowa, USA, University of Iowa Press, 2022, Vol. 7, s. 1-11, artikel-id 26Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Posture/motion prediction is the basis of the human motion simulations that make up the core of many digital human modeling (DHM) tools and methods. With the goal of producing realistic postures and motions, a common element of posture/motion prediction methods involves applying some set of constraints to biomechanical models of humans on the positions and orientations of specified body parts. While many formulations of biomechanical constraints may produce valid predictions, they must overcome the challenges posed by the highly redundant nature of human biomechanical systems. DHM researchers and developers typically focus on optimization formulations to facilitate the identification and selection of valid solutions. While these approaches produce optimal behavior according to some, e.g., ergonomic, optimization criteria, these solutions require considerable computational power and appear vastly different from how humans produce motion. In this paper, we take a different approach and consider the Forward and Backward Reaching Inverse Kinematics (FABRIK) solver developed in the context of computer graphics for rigged character animation. This approach identifies postures quickly and efficiently, often requiring a fraction of the computation time involved in optimization-based methods. Critically, the FABRIK solver identifies posture predictions based on a lightweight heuristic approach. Specifically, the solver works in joint position space and identifies solutions according to a minimal joint displacement principle. We apply the FABRIK solver to a seven-degree of freedom human arm model during a reaching task from an initial to an end target location, fixing the shoulder position and providing the end effector (index fingertip) position and orientation from each frame of the motion capture data. In this preliminary study, predicted postures are compared to experimental data from a single human subject. Overall the predicted postures were very near the recorded data, with an average RMSE of 1.67°. Although more validation is necessary, we believe that the FABRIK solver has great potential for producing realistic human posture/motion in real-time, with applications in the area of DHM.

  • 20.
    Nalepka, Patrick
    et al.
    Centre for Elite Performance, Expertise and Training, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia / Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Center for Cognition, Action & Perception, Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, OH 45220, USA.
    Kallen, Rachel W.
    Centre for Elite Performance, Expertise and Training, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia / Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.
    Shockley, Kevin
    Center for Cognition, Action & Perception, Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, OH 45220, USA.
    Chemero, Anthony
    Center for Cognition, Action & Perception, Department of Psychology, University of Cincinnati, OH 45220, USA.
    Saltzman, Elliot
    Department of Physical Therapy & Athletic Training, Sargent College of Health & Rehabilitation Sciences, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA / Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.
    Richardson, Michael J.
    Centre for Elite Performance, Expertise and Training, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia / Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.
    Human social motor solutions for human-machine interaction in dynamical task contexts2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 116, nr 4, s. 1437-1446Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiagent activity is commonplace in everyday life and can improve the behavioral efficiency of task performance and learning. Thus, augmenting social contexts with the use of interactive virtual and robotic agents is of great interest across health, sport, and industry domains. However, the effectiveness of human–machine interaction (HMI) to effectively train humans for future social encounters depends on the ability of artificial agents to respond to human coactors in a natural, human-like manner. One way to achieve effective HMI is by developing dynamical models utilizing dynamical motor primitives (DMPs) of human multiagent coordination that not only capture the behavioral dynamics of successful human performance but also, provide a tractable control architecture for computerized agents. Previous research has demonstrated how DMPs can successfully capture human-like dynamics of simple nonsocial, single-actor movements. However, it is unclear whether DMPs can be used to model more complex multiagent task scenarios. This study tested this human-centered approach to HMI using a complex dyadic shepherding task, in which pairs of coacting agents had to work together to corral and contain small herds of virtual sheep. Human–human and human–artificial agent dyads were tested across two different task contexts. The results revealed (i) that the performance of human–human dyads was equivalent to those composed of a human and the artificial agent and (ii) that, using a “Turing-like” methodology, most participants in the HMI condition were unaware that they were working alongside an artificial agent, further validating the isomorphism of human and artificial agent behavior.

  • 21.
    Perez Luque, Estela
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Brolin, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Challenges for the Consideration of Ergonomics in Product Development in the Swedish Automotive Industry – An Interview Study2022Ingår i: DESIGN2022, Cambridge University Press, 2022, Vol. 2, s. 2165-2174Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an interview study aiming to understand the state of the art of how ergonomics designers work in the vehicle development process within the Swedish automotive industry. Ten ergonomic designers from seven different companies participated in the interview study. Results report the ergonomics designers' objectives, workflow, tools, challenges, and ideal work performance tool. We identify four main gaps and research directions that can enhance the current challenges: human behavior predictions, simulation tool usability, ergonomics evaluations, and integration between systems.

  • 22.
    Perez Luque, Estela
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Brolin, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Högberg, Dan
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Simulation of hip joint location for occupant packaging design2022Ingår i: Proceedings of the 7th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium (DHM 2022), August 29–30, 2022, Iowa City, Iowa, USA, University of Iowa Press, 2022, Vol. 7, s. 1-12, artikel-id 34Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    DHM tools have been widely used to analyze and improve vehicle occupant packaging and interior design in the automotive industry. However, these tools still present some limitations for this application. Accurately characterizing seated posture is crucial for ergonomic and safety evaluations. Current human posture and motion predictions in DHM tools are not accurate enough for the precise nature of vehicle interior design, typically requiring manual adjustments from DHM users to get more accurate driving and passenger simulations. Manual adjustment processes can be time-consuming, tedious, and subjective, easily causing non-repeatable simulation results. These limitations create the need to validate the simulation results with real-world studies, which increases the cost and time in the vehicle development process. Working with multiple Swedish automotive companies, we have begun to identify and specify the limitations of DHM tools relating to driver and passenger posture predictions given predefined vehicle geometry points/coordinates and specific human body parts relationships. Two general issues frame the core limitations. First, human kinematic models used in DHM tools are based on biomechanics models that do not provide definitions of these models in relation to vehicle geometries. Second, vehicle designers follow standards and regulations to obtain key human reference points in seated occupant locations. However, these reference points can fail to capture the range of human variability. This paper describes the relationship between a seated reference point and a biomechanical hip joint for driving simulations. The lack of standardized connection between occupant packaging guidelines and the biomechanical knowledge of humans creates a limitation for ergonomics designers and DHM users. We assess previous studies addressing hip joint estimation from different fields to establish the key aspects that might affect the relationship between standard vehicle geometry points and the hip joint. Then we suggest a procedure for standardizing points in human models within DHM tools. A better understanding of this problem may contribute to achieving closer to reality driving posture simulations and facilitating communication of ergonomics requirements to the design team within the product development process.

  • 23.
    Richardson, Michael J.
    et al.
    Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Kallen, Rachel W.
    Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Nalepka, Patrick
    Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Harrison, Steven J.
    School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, University of Nebraska Omaha, NE, USA.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Chemero, Anthony
    Center for Cognition, Action and Perception, University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.
    Saltzman, Elliot
    Department of Physical Therapy and Athletic Training, Sargent College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Boston University, MA, USA.
    Schmidt, Richard C.
    Department of Psychology, College of the Holy Cross, MA, USA.
    Modeling embedded interpersonal and multiagent coordination2016Ingår i: COMPLEXIS 2016 - Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Complex Information Systems / [ed] Víctor Méndez Muñoz, Oleg Gusikhin, Victor Chang, Setubal: SciTePress, 2016, s. 155-164Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Interpersonal or multiagent coordination is a common part of everyday human activity. Identifying the dynamic processes that shape and constrain the complex, time-evolving patterns of multiagent behavioral coordination often requires the development of dynamical models to test hypotheses and motivate future research questions. Here we review a task dynamic framework for modeling multiagent behavior and illustrate the application of this framework using two examples. With an emphasis on synergistic self-organization, we demonstrate how the behavioral coordination that characterizes many social activities emerges naturally from the physical, informational, and biomechanical constraints and couplings that exist between two or more environmentally embedded and mutually responsive individuals.

  • 24.
    Rosén, Julia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Investigating NARS: Inconsistent Practice of Application and Reporting2023Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2023 32nd IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), IEEE, 2023, s. 922-927Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Negative Attitude toward Robots Scale (NARS) is one of the most common questionnaires used in the studies of human-robot interaction (HRI). It was established in 2004, and has since then been used in several domains to measure attitudes, both as main results and as a potential confounding factor. To better understand this important tool of HRI research, we reviewed the HRI literature with a specific focus on practice and reporting related to NARS. We found that the use of NARS is being increasingly reported, and that there is a large variation in how NARS is applied. The reporting is, however, often not done in sufficient detail, meaning that NARS results are often difficult to interpret, and comparing between studies or performing meta-analyses are even more difficult. After providing an overview of the current state of NARS in HRI, we conclude with reflections and recommendations on the practices and reporting of NARS.

  • 25.
    Rosén, Julia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Is human-like speech in robots deception?2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this extended abstract is to discuss how speech and voice in robots could impact user expectations, and how we, within the human-robot interaction (HRI) research community, ought to handle human-like speech both in research and in the development of robots. Human-like speech refers to both emotions that are expressed through speech and the synthetic voice profile by the robot. The latter is especially important as artificial human-like speech is becoming indistinguishable from actual human speech. Together, these characteristics may cause certain expectations of what the robot is and what it is capable of which may impact both the immediate interactions between a user and robot, as well as a user's future interactions with robots. While there are many ethical considerations around robot designs, we focus specifically on the ethical implications of speech design choices as these choices affect user expectations. We believe this particular dimension is of importance because it not only effects the user immediately, but also the field of HRI, both as a field of research and design. The stance on deception may vary across the different domains that robots are used within; for example, there is a wider acknowledgment of deception in scientific research compared to commercial use of robots. Some of this variation may turn on technical definitions of deception for specific areas or cases. In this paper, we will take on a more general understanding of deception as an attempt to distort or withhold facts with the aim to mislead.

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  • 26.
    Rosén, Julia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Billing, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Ethical Challenges in the Human-Robot Interaction Field2021Ingår i: ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction: The Road to a successful HRI: AI, Trust and ethicS - TRAITS Workshop / [ed] Alessandra Rossi ; Anouk van Maris ; Antonio Andriella ; Silvia Rossi, ACM Digital Library, 2021Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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  • 27.
    Rosén, Julia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Billing, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Digital Human Modeling Technology in Virtual Reality: Studying Aspects of Users’ Experiences2020Ingår i: DHM2020: Proceedings of the 6th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium, August 31 – September 2, 2020 / [ed] Lars Hanson, Dan Högberg, Erik Brolin, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2020, s. 330-341Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Reality (VR) could be used to develop more representative Digital Human Modeling (DHM) simulations of work tasks for future Operators 4.0. Although VR allows users to experience the manikin as rather realistic in itself, there are still several aspects that need to be considered when shifting from tasks performed in the real world into a virtual one, adding cognitive and user experience (UX) aspects. Currently, there is limited research of UX in VR. The overall aim was to gain deeper insights into how users’ experiences can ultimately help us to improve how VR can aid in DHM. A pilot study examined how users perceived and experienced actions performed by a humanoid hand (manikin) in VR. Users’ perceived presence indicates how well they are immersed in the virtual environment, and Proactive eye gaze (PEG) was used to measure the realism of the virtual hand. The obtained findings indicate some potentially surprising outcomes and some tentative explanations for these are discussed. The lessons learned from this pilot will be used as input to a future larger study that continues to highlight how UX aspects can be useful in a DHM context.

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  • 28.
    Rosén, Julia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lamb, Maurice
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Virtuell produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Billing, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Previous Experience Matters: An in-Person Investigation of Expectations in Human–Robot Interaction2024Ingår i: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 447-460Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The human–robot interaction (HRI) field goes beyond the mere technical aspects of developing robots, often investigating how humans perceive robots. Human perceptions and behavior are determined, in part, by expectations. Given the impact of expectations on behavior, it is important to understand what expectations individuals bring into HRI settings and how those expectations may affect their interactions with the robot over time. For many people, social robots are not a common part of their experiences, thus any expectations they have of social robots are likely shaped by other sources. As a result, individual expectations coming into HRI settings may be highly variable. Although there has been some recent interest in expectations within the field, there is an overall lack of empirical investigation into its impacts on HRI, especially in-person robot interactions. To this end, a within-subject in-person study () was performed where participants were instructed to engage in open conversation with the social robot Pepper during two 2.5 min sessions. The robot was equipped with a custom dialogue system based on the GPT-3 large language model, allowing autonomous responses to verbal input. Participants’ affective changes towards the robot were assessed using three questionnaires, NARS, RAS, commonly used in HRI studies, and Closeness, based on the IOS scale. In addition to the three standard questionnaires, a custom question was administered to capture participants’ views on robot capabilities. All measures were collected three times, before the interaction with the robot, after the first interaction with the robot, and after the second interaction with the robot. Results revealed that participants to large degrees stayed with the expectations they had coming into the study, and in contrast to our hypothesis, none of the measured scales moved towards a common mean. Moreover, previous experience with robots was revealed to be a major factor of how participants experienced the robot in the study. These results could be interpreted as implying that expectations of robots are to large degrees decided before interactions with the robot, and that these expectations do not necessarily change as a result of the interaction. Results reveal a strong connection to how expectations are studied in social psychology and human-human interaction, underpinning its relevance for HRI research.

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