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  • 1.
    Butler, Simon
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Combitech AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Husqvarna AB, Huskvarna, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Tomas
    PrimeKey Solutions AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Feist, Jonas
    RedBridge AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kvarnström, Bengt
    Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lönroth, Erik
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Considerations and challenges for the adoption of open source components in software-intensive businesses2022In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 186, article id 111152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-Based Software Development is a conventional way of working for software-intensive businesses and OpenSource Software (OSS) components are frequently considered by businesses for adoption and inclusion in softwareproducts. Previous research has found a variety of practices used to support the adoption of OSS components, in-cluding formally specified processes and less formal, developer-led approaches, and that the practices used continue todevelop. Evolutionary pressures identified include the proliferation of available OSS components and increases in thepace of software development as businesses move towards continuous integration and delivery. We investigate workpractices used in six software-intensive businesses in the primary and secondary software sectors to understand currentapproaches to OSS component adoption and the challenges businesses face establishing effective work practices to eval-uate OSS components. We find businesses have established processes for evaluating OSS components and communitiesthat support more complex and nuanced considerations of the cost and risks of component adoption alongside matterssuch as licence compliance and functional requirements. We also found that the increasing pace and volume of softwaredevelopment within some businesses provides pressure to continue to evolve software evaluation processes.

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  • 2.
    Butler, Simon
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Combitech AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Husqvarna AB, Huskvarna, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Tomas
    PrimeKey Solutions AB, Solna, Sweden.
    Feist, Jonas
    RedBridge AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kvarnström, Bengt
    Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lönroth, Erik
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    On business adoption and use of reproducible builds for open and closed source software2023In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 687-719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproducible builds (R-Bs) are software engineering practices that reliably create bit-for-bit identical binary executable files from specified source code. R-Bs are applied in someopen source software (OSS) projects and distributions to allow verification that the distrib-uted binary has been built from the released source code. The use of R-Bs has been advo-cated in software maintenance and R-Bs are applied in the development of some OSS secu-rity applications. Nonetheless, industry application of R-Bs appears limited, and we seekto understand whether awareness is low or if significant technical and business reasonsprevent wider adoption. Through interviews with software practitioners and business man-agers, this study explores the utility of applying R-Bs in businesses in the primary and sec-ondary software sectors and the business and technical reasons supporting their adoption.We find businesses use R-Bs in the safety-critical and security domains, and R-Bs are valu-able for traceability and support collaborative software development. We also found thatR-Bs are valued as engineering processes and are seen as a badge of software quality, butwithout a tangible value proposition. There are good engineering reasons to use R-Bs inindustrial software development, and the principle of establishing correspondence betweensource code and binary offers opportunities for the development of further applications.

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  • 3.
    Butler, Simon
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Combitech AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Husqvarna AB, Huskvarna, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Tomas
    PrimeKey Solutions AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Feist, Jonas
    RedBridge AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lönroth, Erik
    Scania IT AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Maintaining interoperability in open source software: A case study of the Apache PDFBox project2020In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 159, article id 110452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software interoperability is commonly achieved through the implementation of standards for communication protocols or data representation formats. Standards documents are often complex, difficult to interpret, and may contain errors and inconsistencies, which can lead to differing interpretations and implementations that inhibit interoperability. Through a case study of two years of activity in the Apache PDFBox project we examine day-to-day decisions made concerning implementation of the PDF specifications and standards in a community open source software (OSS) project. Thematic analysis is used to identify semantic themes describing the context of observed decisions concerning interoperability. Fundamental decision types are identified including emulation of the behaviour of dominant implementations and the extent to which to implement the PDF standards. Many factors influencing the decisions are related to the sustainability of the project itself, while other influences result from decisions made by external actors, including the developers of dependencies of PDFBox. This article contributes a fine grained perspective of decision-making about software interoperability by contributors to a community OSS project. The study identifies how decisions made support the continuing technical relevance of the software, and factors that motivate and constrain project activity. 

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  • 4.
    Butler, Simon
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Combitech AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Persson, Tomas
    Digitalist Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Husqvarna AB, Huskvarna, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Tomas
    PrimeKey Solutions AB, Solna Sweden.
    Feist, Jonas
    RedBridge AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Öberg, Jonas
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    An Exploration of Openness in Hardware and Software Through Implementation of a RISC-V Based Desktop Computer2022In: OpenSym '22: Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Open Collaboration / [ed] Gregorio Robles; Amel Charleux; Igor Steinmacher; Javier Arroyo; Antonio Balderas; Gemma Catolino; Alexandre Decan; Francisco Martín-Rico; Amit Kumar Verma, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022, article id 4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open hardware and open source software platforms bring benefits to both implementers and users in the form of system adaptability and maintainability, and through the avoidance of lock-in, for example. Development of the \riscv\ Instruction Set Architecture and processors during the last ten years has made the implementation of a desktop computer using open hardware, including open processors, and open source software an approaching possibility. We use the SiFive Unmatched development board and Ubuntu Linux, and the recorded experiences of system builders using the Unmatched board to explore the extent to which it is possible to create an open desktop computer. The work identifies current limitations to implementing an open computer system, which lie mainly at the interface between the operating system and hardware components. Potential solutions to the challenges uncovered are proposed, including greater consideration of openness during the early stages of product design. A further contribution is made by an account of the synergies arising from open collaboration in a private-collective innovation process.

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  • 5.
    Butler, Simon
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Combitech AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Johan
    Findwise AB, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Husqvarna AB, Huskvarna, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Thomas
    PrimeKey Solutions AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Feist, Jonas
    RedBridge AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lönroth, Erik
    Scania IT AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    On Company Contributions to Community Open Source Software Projects2021In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 1381-1401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of contributions to community open source software (OSS) projects are made by practitioners acting on behalf of companies and other organisations. Previous research has addressed the motivations of both individuals and companies to engage with OSS projects. However, limited research has been undertaken that examines and explains the practical mechanisms or work practices used by companies and their developers to pursue their commercial and technical objectives when engaging with OSS projects. This research investigates the variety of work practices used in public communication channels by company contributors to engage with and contribute to eight community OSS projects. Through interviews with contributors to the eight projects we draw on their experiences and insights to explore the motivations to use particular methods of contribution. We find that companies utilise work practices for contributing to community projects which are congruent with the circumstances and their capabilities that support their short- and long-term needs. We also find that companies contribute to community OSS projects in ways that may not always be apparent from public sources, such as employing core project developers, making donations, and joining project steering committees in order to advance strategic interests. The factors influencing contributor work practices can be complex and are often dynamic arising from considerations such as company and project structure, as well as technical concerns and commercial strategies. The business context in which software created by the OSS project is deployed is also found to influence contributor work practices.

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  • 6.
    Butler, Simon
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Jonsson, Per
    Combitech AB.
    Sjöberg, Johan
    Findwise AB.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Husqvarna AB.
    Rickö, Niklas
    JAK.
    Gustavsson, Tomas
    PrimeKey Solutions AB.
    Feist, Jonas
    RedBridge AB.
    Landemoo, Stefan
    Saab AB.
    Lönroth, Erik
    Scania IT AB.
    An Investigation of Work Practices Used by Companies Making Contributions to Established OSS Projects2018In: ICSE-SEIP '18 Proceedings of the 40th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018, p. 201-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Professionals contribute to open source software (OSS) projects aspart of their employment. Previous research has addressed motivationsof individuals and the ways they engage with OSS projects.However, there is a lack of research which examines and explainswork practices used by companies in their engagement with projects.Work practices used by companies to contribute to five establishedOSS projects are investigated through examination of the actions ofemployees in public communication channels and draw on our experienceswhen analysing engagement with the same projects. Wefind that companies utilise work practices for contributing whichare congruent with the circumstances and their capabilities thatsupport their short and long term needs. We find that companiescontribute to OSS projects in different ways, such as employing coreproject developers, making donations, and joining project steeringcommittees in order to advance strategic interests.

  • 7.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Butler, Simon
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    On engagement with ICT standards and their implementations in open source software projects: The case of H.2652021In: Joint Proceedings EURAS 2021: Standardisation and Innovation SIIT 2021 The Past, Present and Future of ICT Standardisation / [ed] Kai Jakobs, Aachen: Verlag Mainz , 2021, Vol. 16, p. 191-210Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper novel results are reported on engagement with ICT standards and their implementations in open source software (OSS). Specifically, findings draw from observations and analyses related to the ITU-T H.265 standard and five OSS projects (x265, libde265, SVT-HEVC, Kvazaar, and Turing codec) implementing the standard. The study reports on a characterisation of organisations that engage with standard development for the H.265 standard and organisations with declarations for H.265 in the ITU-T patent database in relation to standard development for H.265, and how OSS projects implementing H.265 are related to standard development for H.265.

  • 8.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Butler, Simon
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Combitech AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Persson, Tomas
    Digitalist Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Husqvarna AB, Huskvarna, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Tomas
    PrimeKey Solutions AB, Solna, Sweden.
    Feist, Jonas
    RedBridge AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lönroth, Erik
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Towards open government through open source software for web analytics: The case of Matomo2021In: eJournal of eDemocracy & Open Government, E-ISSN 2075-9517, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 133-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Web analytics technologies provide opportunities for organisations to obtain information about users visiting their websites in order to understand and optimise web usage. Use of such technologies often leads to issues related to data privacy and potential lock-in to specific suppliers and proprietary technologies. Use of open source software (OSS) for web analytics can create conditions for avoiding issues related to data privacy and lock-in, and thereby provides opportunities for a long-term sustainable solution for organisations both in the public and private sectors. This paper characterises use of and engagement with OSS projects for web analytics. Specifically, we contribute a characterisation of use of OSS licensed web analytics technologies in Swedish government authorities, and a characterisation of organisational engagement with the Matomo OSS project for web analytics.

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  • 9.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Butler, Simon
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Combitech AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Tomas
    Digitalist Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Husqvarna AB, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Tomas
    PrimeKey Solutions AB, Sweden.
    Feist, Jonas
    RedBridge AB, Sweden.
    Öberg, Jonas
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    On engagement with ICT standards and their implementations in open source software projects: the case of WebRTC2022In: Proceedings 26th EURAS Annual Standardisation Conference: Standards for Digital Transformation: Blockchain and Innovation / [ed] Kai Jakobs; Dong-hyu Kim, Aachen: Verlag Mainz , 2022, p. 143-162Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time communication (RTC) technologies for the web provide opportunities for individuals and organisations to work and collaborate remotely, and the need for such technologies has recently increased. Use of RTC technologies and tools for the web involves a number of challenges concerning data privacy and lock-in effects, such as dependency to specific suppliers and proprietary technologies. Use of open standards for RTC and open source software (OSS) implementing such standards can create conditions for avoiding issues related to data privacy and lock-in, and thereby provides opportunities for long-term sustainable solutions. The paper characterises how engagement with standardisation of WebRTC in the context of IETF and W3C is related to engagement with the WebRTC OSS project.

  • 10.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Butler, Simon
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Combitech AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Tomas
    Digitalist Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Husqvarna AB, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Tomas
    PrimeKey Solutions AB, Sweden.
    Feist, Jonas
    Redbridge AB, Sweden.
    Öberg, Jonas
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    On Engagement with Open Source Software, Open Source Hardware, and Standard Setting: The Case of White Rabbit2022In: OpenSym '22: Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Open Collaboration / [ed] Gregorio Robles; Amel Charleux; Igor Steinmacher; Javier Arroyo; Antonio Balderas; Gemma Catolino; Alexandre Decan; Francisco Martín-Rico; Amit Kumar Verma, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Butler, Simon
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Fischer, Thomas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Combitech AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Feist, Jonas
    RedBridge AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Tomas
    PrimeKey Solutions AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Katz, Andrew
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Moorcrofts LLP, UK.
    Kvarnström, Bengt
    SAAB Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lönroth, Erik
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Husqvarna AB, Huskvarna, Sweden.
    Effective Strategies for Using Open Source Software and Open Standards in Organizational Contexts: Experiences From the Primary and Secondary Software Sectors2022In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 84-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open source software (OSS) and open standards have become increasingly important for addressing challenges related to lock-in, interoperability and long-term maintenance of systems and associated digital assets. OSS projects operate under different conditions and many projects and organisations consider successful governance and strategic involvement with projects to constitute major challenges. Today, many companies seek to establish work practices which facilitate strategic engagement with OSS projects. Based on findings from collaborative research which draws from rich insights and extensive experiences from practice, the paper presents seven actionable strategies for organisations that seek to leverage long-term involvement with OSS projects. 

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  • 12.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Butler, Simon
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Combitech AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Persson, Tomas
    Digitalist Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Husqvarna AB, Huskvarna, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Tomas
    PrimeKey Solutions AB, Solna, Sweden.
    Feist, Jonas
    RedBridge AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Öberg, Jonas
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Enabling OSS usage through procurement projects: How can lock-in effects be avoided?2021In: Open Source Systems: 17th IFIP WG 2.13 International Conference, OSS 2021, Virtual Event, May 12–13, 2021, Proceedings / [ed] Davide Taibi; Valentina Lenarduzzi; Terhi Kilamo; Stefano Zacchiroli, Cham: Springer, 2021, p. 16-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formulation of mandatory requirements in procurement projects has significant influence on opportunities for development and deployment of Open Source Software (OSS). The paper contributes insights on a widespread practice amongst public procurement projects which causes problematic lock-in effects and thereby inhibits opportunities for use of OSS solutions. Through a systematic investigation of 30 randomly selected procurement projects in the software domain the paper highlights illustrative examples of mandatory requirements which cause lock-in and presents five recommendations for how requirements instead should be formulated in order to avoid causing lock-in. Findings show significant lock-in caused by current procurement practices with a stark preference for proprietary software and SaaS solutions amongst procuring organisations.

1 - 12 of 12
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