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  • 1.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Rosén, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lamb, Maurice
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Language Models for Human-Robot Interaction2023In: HRI '23: Companion of the 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, ACM Digital Library, 2023, p. 905-906Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in large scale language models have significantly changed the landscape of automatic dialogue systems and chatbots. We believe that these models also have a great potential for changing the way we interact with robots. Here, we present the first integration of the OpenAI GPT-3 language model for the Aldebaran Pepper and Nao robots. The present work transforms the text-based API of GPT-3 into an open verbal dialogue with the robots. The system will be presented live during the HRI2023 conference and the source code of this integration is shared with the hope that it will serve the community in designing and evaluating new dialogue systems for robots.

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  • 2.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Rosén, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Expectations of robot technology in welfare2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report findings from a survey on expectations of robot technology in welfare, within the coming 20 years. 34 assistant nurses answered a questionnaire on which tasks, from their daily work, that they believe robots can perform, already today or in the near future. Additionally, the Negative attitudes toward robots scale (NARS) was used to estimate participants' attitudes towards robots in general. Results reveal high expectations of robots, where at least half of the participants answered Already today or Within 10 years to 9 out of 10 investigated tasks. Participants were also fairly positive towards robots, reporting low scores on NARS. The obtained results can be interpreted as a serious over-estimation of what robots will be able to do in the near future, but also large varieties in participants' interpretation of what robots are. We identify challenges in communicating both excitement towards a technology in rapid development and realistic limitations of this technology.

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  • 3.
    Rosén, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Are ethics overlooked in the field of Human-Robot Interaction?2019In: Proceedings of the 15th SweCog Conference / [ed] Linus Holm; Erik Billing, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2019, p. 19-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are, in any scientific research practice, ethical guidelines to adhere to. For example, the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct by the American Psychological Association (2017), WMA Declaration of Helsinki by the World Medical Association (2018), and Ethics for Researchers by the European Commission (2013), all offer principles on how to conduct research ethically. Although the formulations of guidelines vary, the following aspects are usually included: data protection, privacy, informed consent, deception, and debriefing. However, these aspects are rarely explicitly addressed in publications in the field of Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). Proper ethical conduct is an integral part of scientific research and ought to be included in this field as well. There might be societal implications if participants in HRI studies are deceived regarding the actual capabilities of social robots. 

    A literature study is planned in order to investigate and analyse how ethical issues are considered in publications from the HRI 2018 conference, e.g., what ratio of publication dealing with human participants mention ethical aspects explicitly. The aim is to contribute to a methodology in HRI where ethical aspects have a significant bearing.

  • 4.
    Rosén, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Expectations: Approaching Social Robots2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of robots that are able to interact socially with humans is still in its early stages. Since the beginning of the 2000's, these (so called) social robots have started to emerge in a variety of settings. Along with the emergence of social robots, there has been a parallel interest to study the different aspects of having humans interact with robots socially. There are several motivations behind developing and studying social robots; social robots may be used as test beds to study human behavior, as tools for humans to achieve certain tasks in specific contexts, or as interaction partners and thus viewed as social agents. These three perspectives often draw on the assumption that human-robot interaction (HRI) is similar to human-human interaction. Thus, humans tend to expect human-like abilities in social robots, often mismatching the robots' actual capabilities.

    In this thesis proposal, expectations of social robots are the focal point. Expectations are, in any aspect of life and not just in HRI, underlying and ever present mechanisms of human behavior. Expectations are defined as believed probabilities of future events that set the stage for the human belief system which guides our behavior, hopes, and intentions. Expectations are based on direct experience, other people, and beliefs. Once an expectation is set, it is accompanied by either positive or negative affect which turns to behavior and performance. Thus, expectations are crucial in human behavior, including when interacting with social robots. What makes social robots more rare than other technical artifacts such as computers, is the lack of personal experience for many humans. High expectations happen especially with social robots as they are purposely designed to look and behave like humans, thus creating ethical implications as it can be considered deceptive design.  Expectations are therefore usually built on beliefs based on the portrayal of social robots in media. When humans interact with social robots, they will usually have high expectations which ultimately has an effect on how successful the interaction will be. This creates a gap between what is expected, and what the robots are actually capable of.

    Expectations are thus an underlying factor in interaction with any artifact, and there is a need to get a deeper understanding of how these expectations affect HRI. Once we have gained a richer understanding of how expectations affect HRI, we can narrow the expectation gap, and create more successful interactions between humans and social robots in society. With this in mind, the aim of my PhD work is to investigate the role expectations play when interacting socially with robots, including the subsequent ethical implications of such expectations. My four objectives are to (1) theoretically identify existing research on expectations in HRI, (2) empirically investigate expectations in HRI, (3) synthesize the obtained findings from objective 1 and 2 to create an interdisciplinary theoretical framework of expectations in HRI, and (4) address the ethical implications of expectations in HRI. In this thesis proposal, I present what I have done so far to reach these objectives, as well as my research plan moving forward towards my dissertation. The intended contributions of my PhD work is to theoretically and empirically characterize the role and relevance of humans' expectations when interacting with social robots with the goal to narrow the social robot expectation gap.

  • 5.
    Rosén, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Expectations in Human-Robot Interaction2021In: Advances in Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering: Proceedings of the AHFE 2021 Virtual Conferences on Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering, Industrial Cognitive Ergonomics and Engineering Psychology, and Cognitive Computing and Internet of Things, July 25-29, 2021, USA / [ed] Hasan Ayaz; Umer Asgher; Lucas Paletta, Cham: Springer, 2021, p. 98-105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is acknowledged that humans expect social robots to interact in a similar way as in human-human interaction. To create successful interactions between humans and social robots, it is envisioned that the social robot should be viewed as an interaction partner rather than an inanimate thing. This implies that the robot should act autonomously, being able to ‘perceive’ and ‘anticipate’ the human’s actions as well as its own actions ‘here and now’. Two crucial aspects that affect the quality of social human-robot interaction is the social robot’s physical embodiment and its performed behaviors. In any interaction, before, during or after, there are certain expectations of what the social robot is capable of. The role of expectations is a key research topic in the field of Human-Robot Interaction (HRI); if a social robot does not meet the expectations during interaction, the human (user) may shift from viewing the robot as an interaction partner to an inanimate thing. The aim of this work is to unravel the role and relevance of humans’ expectations of social robots and why it is important area of study in HRI research. Moreover, I argue that the field of HRI can greatly benefit from incorporating approaches and methods from the field of User Experience (UX) in its efforts to gain a deeper understanding of human users’ expectations of social robots and making sure that the matching of these expectations and reality is better aligned.

  • 6.
    Rosén, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Towards Understanding Social Robots2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging research field of human-robot interaction (HRI) has grown increasingly popular as social robots are being introduced to the general public with applications such as elderly care, companionship, or therapy. With researchers with multidisciplinary backgrounds from e.g. psychology, cognitive science, computer science, how HRI is chosen to be framed is still discussed. My research aims to gain a deeper knowledge of how humans interpret and understand social robots. When interacting with social robots, humans tend to prescribe more intelligence than what the robot is actually capable of. Due to this expectation from the humans, one may fill in a gap between what humans prescribe in social robots and what they actually can do. People’s expectations of robots and other agents has been previously addressed in different ways, e.g. in research on anthropomorphism, intentional stance, and autonomy. My aim is to address this in social robots and look at the different levels when this occurs. My first approach involves how humans respond to robots on a low level cognitive function, namely anticipatory gaze. Previous research has shown that humans have anticipatory gaze when observing another human move objects with their hands. This ties into the direct-matching hypothesis: human’s understand another human’s action by mapping it to their own motor representation of that action. Preliminary research has shown that this is also possible if the hand performing the action is a social robot. Although the social robot has no agency, humans tend to fill in this intelligence in the robot and thus eliciting anticipatory gaze. Another more explicit way of deepening the knowledge of this topic, is how human’s describe and react to an interaction with social robots. Because social robots are such a new artefact, most humans are not used to interacting with them and yet they tend to have preconceived notions of what they are capable of. I ask, how are humans actually interacting with robots and how are they influenced by these preconceived notions? Furthermore, what responsibility to we have a researchers towards participants when exposing them to social robots? Are we deceiving participants when we are not transparent with what the robot is actually capable of? There is a need to understand this further in HRI in order to continue with the important research that is being done in this field.

  • 7.
    Rosén, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    What did you expect?: A human-centered approach to investigating and reducing the social robot expectation gap2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We live in a complex world where we proactively plan and execute various behaviors by forming expectations in real time. Expectations are beliefs regarding the future state of affairs and they play an integral part of our perception, attention, and behavior. Over time, our expectations become more accurate as we interact with the world and others around us. People interact socially with other people by inferring others' purposes, intentions, preferences, beliefs, emotions, thoughts, and goals. Similar inferences may occur when we interact with social robots. With anthropomorphic design, these robots are designed to mimic people physically and behaviorally. As a result, users predominantly infer agency in social robots, often leading to mismatched expectations of the robots' capabilities, which ultimately influences the user experience. 

    In this thesis, the role and relevance of users' expectations in first-hand social human-robot interaction (sHRI) was investigated. There are two major findings. First, in order to study expectations in sHRI, the social robot expectation gap evaluation framework was developed. This framework supports the systematic study and evaluation of expectations over time, considering the unique context where the interaction is unfolding. Use of the framework can inform sHRI researchers and designers on how to manage users’ expectations, not only in the design, but also during evaluation and presentation of social robots. Expectations can be managed by identifying what kinds of expectations users have and aligning these through design and dissemination which ultimately creates more transparent and successful interactions and collaborations. The framework is a tool for achieving this goal. Second, results show that previous experience has a strong impact on users’ expectations. People have different expectations of social robots and view social robots as both human-like and as machines. Expectations of social robots can vary according to the source of the expectation, with those who had previous direct experiences of robots having different expectations than those who relied on indirect experiences to generate expectations.    

    One consequence of these results is that expectations can be a confounding variable in sHRI research. Previous experience with social robots can prime users in future interactions with social robots. These findings highlight the unique experiences users have, even when faced with the same robot. Users' expectations and how they change over time shapes the users’ individual needs and preferences and should therefore be considered in the interpretation of sHRI. In doing so, the social robot expectation gap can be reduced.

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  • 8.
    Rosén, Julia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Applying the Social Robot Expectation Gap Evaluation Framework2023In: Human-Computer Interaction: Thematic Area, HCI 2023, Held as Part of the 25th HCI International Conference, HCII 2023, Copenhagen, Denmark, July 23–28, 2023, Proceedings, Part III / [ed] Masaaki Kurosu; Ayako Hashizume, Cham: Springer, 2023, p. 169-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expectations shape our experience with the world, including our interaction with technology. There is a mismatch between whathumans expect of social robots and what they are actually capable of.Expectations are dynamic and can change over time. We have previ- AQ1ously developed a framework for studying these expectations over timein human-robot interaction (HRI). In this work, we applied the socialrobot expectation gap evaluation framework in an HRI scenario from aUX evaluation perspective, by analyzing a subset of data collected froma larger experiment. The framework is based on three factors of expectation: affect, cognitive processing, as well as behavior and performance. Four UX goals related to a human-robot interaction scenario were evaluated. Results show that expectations change over time with an overallimproved UX in the second interaction. Moreover, even though some UX goals were partly fulfilled, there are severe issues with the conversation between the user and the robot, ranging from the quality of theinteraction to the users’ utterances not being recognized by the robot.This work takes the initial steps towards disentangling how expectations work and change over time in HRI. Future work includes expanding the metrics to study expectations and to further validate the framework.

  • 9.
    Rosén, Julia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Speaking Properly with Robots2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a risk of genuine but norm-breaking phenomena related to human-robot interaction remaining invisible, since their rarity make observed instances dismissed as anecdotes. In this extended abstract we present observations related to bias in who is understood in vocal interactions with robots. Noting the fundamentally political and intersectional nature of the problem, we call for a strategy for documenting such comparatively rare or messy events to break the invisibility and facilitate accumulation of evidence.

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  • 10.
    Rosén, Julia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lamb, Maurice
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Investigating NARS: Inconsistent Practice of Application and Reporting2023In: Proceedings of the 2023 32nd IEEE International Conference on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), IEEE, 2023, p. 922-927Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Negative Attitude toward Robots Scale (NARS) is one of the most common questionnaires used in the studies of human-robot interaction (HRI). It was established in 2004, and has since then been used in several domains to measure attitudes, both as main results and as a potential confounding factor. To better understand this important tool of HRI research, we reviewed the HRI literature with a specific focus on practice and reporting related to NARS. We found that the use of NARS is being increasingly reported, and that there is a large variation in how NARS is applied. The reporting is, however, often not done in sufficient detail, meaning that NARS results are often difficult to interpret, and comparing between studies or performing meta-analyses are even more difficult. After providing an overview of the current state of NARS in HRI, we conclude with reflections and recommendations on the practices and reporting of NARS.

  • 11.
    Rosén, Julia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lamb, Maurice
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Is human-like speech in robots deception?2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this extended abstract is to discuss how speech and voice in robots could impact user expectations, and how we, within the human-robot interaction (HRI) research community, ought to handle human-like speech both in research and in the development of robots. Human-like speech refers to both emotions that are expressed through speech and the synthetic voice profile by the robot. The latter is especially important as artificial human-like speech is becoming indistinguishable from actual human speech. Together, these characteristics may cause certain expectations of what the robot is and what it is capable of which may impact both the immediate interactions between a user and robot, as well as a user's future interactions with robots. While there are many ethical considerations around robot designs, we focus specifically on the ethical implications of speech design choices as these choices affect user expectations. We believe this particular dimension is of importance because it not only effects the user immediately, but also the field of HRI, both as a field of research and design. The stance on deception may vary across the different domains that robots are used within; for example, there is a wider acknowledgment of deception in scientific research compared to commercial use of robots. Some of this variation may turn on technical definitions of deception for specific areas or cases. In this paper, we will take on a more general understanding of deception as an attempt to distort or withhold facts with the aim to mislead.

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  • 12.
    Rosén, Julia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Reporting of Ethical Conduct in Human-Robot Interaction Research2021In: Advances in Human Factors in Robots, Unmanned Systems and Cybersecurity: Proceedings of the AHFE 2021 Virtual Conferences on Human Factors in Robots, Drones and Unmanned Systems, and Human Factors in Cybersecurity, July 25-29, 2021, USA / [ed] Matteo Zallio; Carlos Raymundo Ibañez; Jesus Hechavarria Hernandez, Cham: Springer, 2021, p. 87-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) is progressively maturing into a distinct discipline with its own research practices and traditions. Aiming to support this development, we analyzed how ethical conduct was reported and discussed in HRI research involving human participants. A literature study of 73 papers from three major HRI publication outlets was performed. The analysis considered how often the following five principles of ethical conduct were reported: ethical board approval, informed consent, data protection and privacy, deception, and debriefing. These five principles were selected as they belong to all major and relevant ethical guidelines for the HRI field. The results show that overall, ethical conduct is rarely reported, with four out of five principles mentioned in less than one third of all papers. The most frequently mentioned aspect was informed consent, which was reported in 49% of the articles. In this work, we aim to stimulate increased acknowledgment and discussion of ethical conduct reporting within the HRI field.

  • 13.
    Rosén, Julia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    The Social Robot Expectation Gap Evaluation Framework2022In: Human-Computer Interaction: Technological Innovation: Thematic Area, HCI 2022 Held as Part of the 24th HCI International Conference, HCII 2022 Virtual Event, June 26 – July 1, 2022 Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Masaaki Kurosu, Cham: Springer Nature Switzerland AG , 2022, p. 590-610Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social robots are designed in manners that encourage users to interact and communicate with them in socially appropriate ways, which implies that these robots should copy many social human behaviors to succeed in social settings. However, this approach has implications for what humans subsequently expect from these robots. There is a mismatch between expected capabilities and actual capabilities of social robots. Expectations of social robots are thus of high relevance for the field of Human-Robot Interaction (HRI). While there is recent interest of expectations in the HRI field there is no widely adapted or well formulated evaluation framework that offers a deeper understanding of how these expectations affect the success of the interaction. With basis in social psychology, user experience, and HRI, we have developed an evaluation framework for studying users’ expectations of social robots. We have identified three main factors of expectations for assessing HRI: affect, cognitive processing, and behavior and performance. In our framework, we propose several data collection techniques and specific metrics for assessing these factors. The framework and its procedure enables analysis of the collected data via triangulation to identify problems and insights, which can grant us a richer understanding of the complex facets of expectations, including if the expectations were confirmed or disconfirmed in the interaction. Ultimately, by gaining a richer understanding of how expectations affect HRI, we can narrow the social robot expectation gap and create more successful interactions between humans and social robots in society. 

  • 14.
    Rosén, Julia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lamb, Maurice
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Ethical Challenges in the Human-Robot Interaction Field2021In: ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction: The Road to a successful HRI: AI, Trust and ethicS - TRAITS Workshop / [ed] Alessandra Rossi ; Anouk van Maris ; Antonio Andriella ; Silvia Rossi, ACM Digital Library, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 15.
    Rosén, Julia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lamb, Maurice
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Digital Human Modeling Technology in Virtual Reality: Studying Aspects of Users’ Experiences2020In: DHM2020: Proceedings of the 6th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium, August 31 – September 2, 2020 / [ed] Lars Hanson, Dan Högberg, Erik Brolin, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2020, p. 330-341Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Reality (VR) could be used to develop more representative Digital Human Modeling (DHM) simulations of work tasks for future Operators 4.0. Although VR allows users to experience the manikin as rather realistic in itself, there are still several aspects that need to be considered when shifting from tasks performed in the real world into a virtual one, adding cognitive and user experience (UX) aspects. Currently, there is limited research of UX in VR. The overall aim was to gain deeper insights into how users’ experiences can ultimately help us to improve how VR can aid in DHM. A pilot study examined how users perceived and experienced actions performed by a humanoid hand (manikin) in VR. Users’ perceived presence indicates how well they are immersed in the virtual environment, and Proactive eye gaze (PEG) was used to measure the realism of the virtual hand. The obtained findings indicate some potentially surprising outcomes and some tentative explanations for these are discussed. The lessons learned from this pilot will be used as input to a future larger study that continues to highlight how UX aspects can be useful in a DHM context.

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  • 16.
    Rosén, Julia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lamb, Maurice
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Previous Experience Matters: An in-Person Investigation of Expectations in Human–Robot Interaction2024In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human–robot interaction (HRI) field goes beyond the mere technical aspects of developing robots, often investigating how humans perceive robots. Human perceptions and behavior are determined, in part, by expectations. Given the impact of expectations on behavior, it is important to understand what expectations individuals bring into HRI settings and how those expectations may affect their interactions with the robot over time. For many people, social robots are not a common part of their experiences, thus any expectations they have of social robots are likely shaped by other sources. As a result, individual expectations coming into HRI settings may be highly variable. Although there has been some recent interest in expectations within the field, there is an overall lack of empirical investigation into its impacts on HRI, especially in-person robot interactions. To this end, a within-subject in-person study () was performed where participants were instructed to engage in open conversation with the social robot Pepper during two 2.5 min sessions. The robot was equipped with a custom dialogue system based on the GPT-3 large language model, allowing autonomous responses to verbal input. Participants’ affective changes towards the robot were assessed using three questionnaires, NARS, RAS, commonly used in HRI studies, and Closeness, based on the IOS scale. In addition to the three standard questionnaires, a custom question was administered to capture participants’ views on robot capabilities. All measures were collected three times, before the interaction with the robot, after the first interaction with the robot, and after the second interaction with the robot. Results revealed that participants to large degrees stayed with the expectations they had coming into the study, and in contrast to our hypothesis, none of the measured scales moved towards a common mean. Moreover, previous experience with robots was revealed to be a major factor of how participants experienced the robot in the study. These results could be interpreted as implying that expectations of robots are to large degrees decided before interactions with the robot, and that these expectations do not necessarily change as a result of the interaction. Results reveal a strong connection to how expectations are studied in social psychology and human-human interaction, underpinning its relevance for HRI research.

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  • 17.
    Rosén, Julia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Richardson, Kathleen
    De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The Robot Illusion: Facts and Fiction2018In: Proceedings of Workshop in Explainable Robotics System (HRI), 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "To researchers and technicians working with robots on a daily basis, it is most often obvious what is part of the staging and not, and thus it may be easy to forget that illusions like these are not explicit and the that the general public may actually be deceived. Should the disclosure of the illusion be the responsibility of roboticists? Or should the assumption be that human beings, on the basis of their experiences as an audience in film, theatre, music or video gaming, assume the audience is able to enjoy the experience without needing to know everything in advance about how the illusion is created? Therefore, we believe that a discussion of whether or not researchers should be more transparent in what kinds of machines they are presenting is necessary. How can researchers present interactive robots in an engaging way, without misleading the audience?"

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