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  • 1.
    Eek, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Varför samarbeta?: om hur människor fattar beslut2005In: Perspektiv på Högskolan i Skövde, ISSN 1653-8242, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Eek, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Prosocials prefer equal outcomes to maximizing joint outcome2006In: British Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0144-6665, E-ISSN 2044-8309, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 321-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Existing theories of social value orientations posit that prosocials maximize joint outcomes whereas proselfs maximize outcomes to themselves. Three studies employing a total of 157 undergraduates were conducted to test the alternative hypothesis that prosocials prefer equal outcomes to maximizing joint outcome. In study 1 participants completed the Triple-Dominance Measure of Social Values in which a fourth alternative that distributed the largest joint outcome unequally was added to the alternative that distributed the outcomes equally. In accordance with the hypothesis, prosocials preferred the equal-outcome alternative to the joint-outcome alternative. Study 2 confirmed and extended these results by demonstrating that prosocials preferred equal outcomes to larger joint outcomes that were unequally distributed but provided both with larger outcomes. Study 3 demonstrated that in a modified prisoner's dilemma game, a preference for equal outcomes to a larger joint outcome resulted in that prosocials cooperated when they believed or knew that the other cooperated, and defected when they believed or knew that the other defected.

  • 3.
    Eek, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Rikner, Klas
    Centre for Public Sector Research, Göteborg University, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden / Vårdal Institute, Göteborg, Sweden.
    What determines people's decisions whether or not to report sick?2005In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 533-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish employees who are temporarily absent from work are compensated for the loss of income from the governmentally regulated sickness insurance. During the 1990s, when the societal costs for covering sickness absence raised dramatically, the sickness insurance underwent several changes, which raised questions about how people reacted to the changes made. This article is based on a survey where individuals were asked several questions about whether they would go to work or report sick, given that they actually felt ill. Respondents were asked the same questions under different hypothetical compensations. The results indicated strong effects of factors related to the financial loss of being absent on the propensity to report sick.

  • 4.
    Eek, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Selart, Marcus
    Department of Strategy and Management, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Breiviksveien 40, N-5045 Bergen, Norway.
    Is there a pro-self component behind the prominence effect?: Individual resource allocation decisions with communities as potential beneficiaries2005In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 429-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important problem for decision-makers in society deals with the efficient and equitable allocation of scarce resources to individuals and groups. The significance of this problem is rapidly growing since there is a rising demand for scarce resources all over the world. Such resource dilemmas belong to a conceptually broader class of situations known as social dilemmas. In this type of dilemma, individual choices that appear "rational" often result in suboptimal group outcomes. In this article we study how people make monetary allocation decisions between the community where they live and a neighbouring community, with the aim of finding out to what extent these decisions are subject to biased over-weighting. The manuscript reports four experiments that deal with the way individuals make such allocation decisions when the potential beneficiaries are such communities. The specific goal of these experiments is to gauge the amount of bias in the weights that people assign to the various beneficiaries. Taken together, the results from all the four experiments suggest that making the gain of the neighbouring community prominent to a higher extent de-biases the outcomes (the prominence effect) compared to when own community gain is made prominent. Place identity is discussed as a potentially important factor in this connection. Hence, it may be argued that there seems to be some kind of a pro-self component that is able to explain a large part of the variance observed for the prominence effect. Connections between such a factor and in-group favouritism are discussed. A strength of the study was that these major results appeared to be quite robust when considered as task effects, as the salience of the manipulated context factors in the studies (in terms of reliable main or interaction effects) did not distort them.

  • 5.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Eek, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Effects of Group Goal and Resource Valence on Allocation Preferences in Public Good Dilemmas2007In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 803-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has not been conclusive as to whether people prefer different or identical allocation principles in distributions of positive and negative outcomes. Thus, in this study, the question of whether or not group goal accounts for preferred allocation of positive and negative outcomes was posed. As hypothesized for division of surpluses, the results showed that relationship-oriented goals predicted preferences for equality, whereas performance oriented goals predicted preferences for equity. Moreover, the results were the same for allocation of deficits. This suggests that people implicitly have different orientations, or goals, in mind in group situations that similarly influence the way they prefer to allocate positive and negative outcomes. The results also showed that participants allocating deficits deviated to a larger extent from the allocation principles than did participants allocating surpluses.

  • 6.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Eek, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. Psykologiska Institutionen, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Promoting Cooperation in Social Dilemmas via Fairness Norms and Group Goals2008In: New Issues and Paradigms in Research on Social Dilemmas / [ed] Anders Biel, Daniel Eek, Tommy Gärling, Mathias Gustafsson, New York: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2008, p. 72-92Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Loukopoulos, Peter
    et al.
    Swiss Institute of Technology, Zürich, Switzerland / Natural and Social Science Interface, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Zentrum CHN J73.1, Universitätstrasse 22, CH-8092 Zürich, Switzerland.
    Eek, Daniel
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fujii, Satoshi
    Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152, Japan.
    Palatable punishment in real-world social dilemmas: Punishing others to increase cooperation among the unpunished2006In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 1274-1290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social-dilemma research has shown that imposing sanctions on defection may increase cooperation, a principle behind attempts to solve real-world social dilemmas. Yet sanctioning systems are often difficult to implement: They are unpopular and often have large surveillance and enforcement costs. A new sanctioning system, intentionally punishing defection intermittently for some but not all group members, is shown to increase cooperation among those not punished, a finding labeled the spillover effect. This study suggests that the effect cannot be attributed simply to cooperative tendencies, as factors affecting cooperation do not affect the effect's size. The benefits of such a sanctioning system, which preserves the characteristics of social dilemmas, could include minimization of surveillance and enforcement costs, and greater public acceptability.

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