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  • 1.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Evaluating the Performance of TEWA Systems2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is in military engagements the task of the air defense to protect valuable assets such as air bases from being destroyed by hostile aircrafts and missiles. In order to fulfill this mission, the defenders are equipped with sensors and firing units. To infer whether a target is hostile and threatening or not is far from a trivial task. This is dealt with in a threat evaluation process, in which the targets are ranked based upon their estimated level of threat posed to the defended assets. Once the degree of threat has been estimated, the problem of weapon allocation comes into the picture. Given that a number of threatening targets have been identified, the defenders need to decide on whether any firing units shall be allocated to the targets, and if so, which firing unit to engage which target. To complicate matters, the outcomes of such engagements are usually stochastic. Moreover, there are often tight time constraints on how fast the threat evaluation and weapon allocation processes need to be executed. There are already today a large number of threat evaluation and weapon allocation (TEWA) systems in use, i.e. decision support systems aiding military decision makers with the threat evaluation and weapon allocation processes. However, despite the critical role of such systems, it is not clear how to evaluate the performance of the systems and their algorithms. Hence, the work in thesis is focused on the development and evaluation of TEWA systems, and the algorithms for threat evaluation and weapon allocation being part of such systems. A number of algorithms for threat evaluation and static weapon allocation are suggested and implemented, and testbeds for facilitating the evaluation of these are developed. Experimental results show that the use of particle swarm optimization is suitable for real-time target-based weapon allocation in situations involving up to approximately ten targets and ten firing units, while it for larger problem sizes gives better results to make use of an enhanced greedy maximum marginal return algorithm, or a genetic algorithm seeded with the solution returned by the greedy algorithm.

  • 2.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    A Bayesian network approach to threat evaluation with application to an air defense scenario2008In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion, FUSION 2008, Cologne, 30 June 2008–3 July 2008, IEEE Computer Society, 2008, p. 1352-1358Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a precise description of the threat evaluation process is presented. This is followed by a review describing which parameters that have been suggested for threat evaluation in an air surveillance context throughout the literature, together with an overview of different algorithms for threat evaluation. Grounded in the findings from the literature review, a threat evaluation system have been developed. The system is based on a Bayesian network approach, making it possible to handle imperfect observations. The structure of the Bayesian network is described in detail. Finally, an analysis of the system’s performance as applied to a synthetic scenario is presented.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    A Comparison between Two Approaches to Threat Evaluation in an Air Defense Scenario2008In: Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence: 5th International Conference, MDAI 2008 Sabadell, Spain, October 30-31, 2008. Proceedings, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2008, p. 110-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Threat evaluation is a high-level information fusion problem of high importance within the military domain. This task is the foundation for weapons allocation, where assignment of blue force (own) weapon systems to red force (enemy) targets is performed. In this paper, we compare two fundamentally different approaches to threat evaluation: Bayesian networks and fuzzy inference rules. We conclude that there are pros and cons with both types of approaches, and that a hybrid of the two approaches seems both promising and viable for future research.

     

  • 4.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Suite of Metaheuristic Algorithms for Static Weapon-Target Allocation2010In: GEM 2010: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Methods / [ed] Hamid R. Arabnia, Ray R. Hashemi, Ashu M. G. Solo, CSREA Press, 2010, p. 132-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of allocating defensive weapon resources to hostile targets is an optimization problem of high military relevance. The need for obtaining the solutions in real-time is often overlooked in existing literature. Moreover, there  does not exist much research aimed at comparing the performance of different  algorithms for weapon-target allocation. We have implemented a suite of  metaheuristic algorithms for solving the static weapon-target allocation problem, and compare their real-time performance on a large set of problem instances using the open source testbed SWARD. The compared metaheuristic algorithms are ant colony optimization, genetic algorithms, and particle swarm optimization. Additionally, we have compared the quality of the generated allocations to those generated by a well-known maximum marginal return algorithm. The results show that the metaheuristic algorithms perform well on small- and medium-scale problem sizes, but that real-time requirements limit their usefulness for large search spaces.

  • 5.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    A survivability-based testbed for comparing threat evaluation algorithms2008In: Proceedings of the 2nd Skövde Workshop on Information Fusion Topics (SWIFT 2008), Skövde: University of Skövde , 2008, p. 22-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Threat evaluation is the process in which threat values are assigned to detected targets, based upon the inferred capabilities and intents of the targets to inflict damage to blue force defended assets. This is a high-level information fusion process of high importance, since the calculated threat values are used as input when blue force weapon systems are allocated to the incoming targets, a process often referred to as weapon allocation. Threat values can be calculated from a number of different parameters, such as the position of the closest point of approach (CPA) with respect to blue force defended assets, time required to reach the CPA, the target’s velocity, and its type. A number of algorithms for calculating threat values have been suggested throughout literature, however, criteria to evaluate the performance of such algorithms seem to be lacking. In this paper, we discuss different ways to assess the performance of threat evaluation algorithms. In specific, we describe how threat evaluation algorithms can be compared to each other, using a survivability criterion. Survivability is measured by running the threat evaluation algorithms on simulated scenarios and using the resulting threat values as input to a weapon allocation module. Depending on how well the threat evaluation is performed, the ability of the blue force weapon systems to eliminate the incoming targets will vary (and thereby also the survivability of the defended assets).

     

  • 6.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A testbed based on survivability for comparing threat evaluation algorithms2009In: Intelligent Sensing, Situation Management, Impact Assessment, and Cyber-Sensing: Proceedings of SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing 2009 -- Volume 7352 / [ed] John F Koegel Buford, SPIE , 2009, p. Article ID 73520C-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Threat evaluation is the process in which threat values are assigned to detected targets, based upon the inferred capabilities and intents of the targets to inflict damage to blue force defended assets. This is a high-level information fusion process of high importance, since the calculated threat values are used as input when blue force weapon systems are allocated to the incoming targets, a process often referred to as weapon allocation. Threat values can be calculated from a number of different parameters, such as the position of the closest point of approach (CPA) with respect to blue force defended assets, time required to reach the CPA, the target's velocity, and its type. A number of algorithms for calculating threat values have been suggested throughout literature, however, criteria to evaluate the performance of such algorithms seem to be lacking. In this paper, we discuss different ways to assess the performance of threat evaluation algorithms. In specific, we describe an implemented testbed in which threat evaluation algorithms can be compared to each other, based on a survivability criterion. Survivability is measured by running the threat evaluation algorithms on simulated scenarios and using the resulting threat values as input to a weapon allocation module. Depending on how well the threat evaluation is performed, the ability of the blue force weapon systems to eliminate the incoming targets will vary (and thereby also the survivability of the defended assets). Our obtained results for two different threat evaluation algorithms are presented and analyzed.

  • 7.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    An empirical investigation of the static weapon-target allocation problem2009In: Proceedings of the 3rd Skövde Workshop on Information Fusion Topics (SWIFT 2009) / [ed] Ronnie Johansson, Joeri van Laere and Jonas Mellin, University of Skövde , 2009, p. 63-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The allocation of weapons to targets (such as missiles and hostile aircrafts) is a well-known resource allocation problem within the field of operations research. It has been proven that this problem, in general, is NP-complete. For this reason, optimal solutions to the static weapon-target allocation (WTA) problem can not be obtained in real-time for large-scale problems. We try to find the limit for how large problems that can be solved optimally in real-time by exhaustive search algorithms through running empirical experiments. We also propose a heuristic genetic algorithm for solving larger-scale problems.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Detection of vessel anomalies: A Bayesian network approach2007In: Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP 2007), IEEE Computer Society, 2007, p. 395-400Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe a data mining approach for detection of anomalous vessel behaviour. The suggested approach is based on Bayesian networks which have two important advantages compared to opaque machine learning techniques such as neural networks: (1) possibility to easily include expert knowledge into the model, and (2) possibility for humans to understand and interpret the learned model. Our approach is implemented and tested on synthetic data, where initial results show that it can be used for detection of single-object anomalies such as speeding.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Implementation and integration of a Bayesian Network for prediction of tactical intention into a ground target simulator2006In: Proceedings of the 9th IEEE International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2006), Florence, Italy, July 10–13, 2006, IEEE Computer Society, 2006, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prediction of the enemy's intention is a main issue of threat analysis, and, hence, will be an important part of the C2-systems of tomorrow. A technique that can be useful for this kind of predictions is Bayesian networks (BNs). We have developed a BN for prediction of the enemy's tactical intention, and the implemented BN has been integrated into a ground target simulation framework. The general problem of how to find appropriate prior distributions for BNs has been addressed by developing a tool for data collection, which may make it easier to come up with appropriate prior distributions, by learning conditional probability tables from collected cases, i.e. parameter learning

  • 10.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Performance Evaluation of TEWA Systems for Improved Decision Support2009In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence (MDAI 2009) / [ed] Vicenç Torra, Yasuo Narukawa, Masahiro Inuiguchi, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 205-216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In air defense situations, decision makers have to protect defended assets through assigning available firing units to threatening targets in real-time. To their help they have decision support systems known as threat evaluation and weapon allocation (TEWA) systems. The problem of performance evaluation of such systems is of great importance, due to their critical role. Despite this, research on this problem is close to non-existing. We are discussing the use of survivability and resource usage cost as comparative performance metrics, which can be used for comparing the effectiveness of different system configurations, by using simulations. These metrics have been implemented into a testbed, in which we have performed some comparative experiments. Our results show that changes of individual parts of the threat evaluation and weapon allocation system configuration can have a large effect on the effectiveness of the system as a whole, and illustrate how the metrics and the testbed can be used.

     

  • 11.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Real-time Allocation of Defensive Resources to Rockets, Artillery, and Mortars2010In: FUSION 2010: 13th international Conference on Information Fusion, 26-29 July 2010, EICC, Edinburgh, UK, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. Article number 5712026-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The protection of defended assets such as military bases and population centers against ballistic weapons (e.g. rockets and mortars) is a highly relevant problem in the military conflicts of today and tomorrow. In order to neutralize threats of this kind, they have to be detected and engaged before causing any damage to the defended assets. We propose algorithms for solving the resource allocation problem in real-time, and empirically investigate their performance using the open source testbed SWARD. The results show that a particle swarm optimization algorithm produce high quality solution for small-scale problems, and that agenetic algorithm yields the best solutions for the largest tested problem instances.

  • 12.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Real-time Allocation of Firing Units To Hostile Targets2011In: Journal of Advances in Information Fusion, ISSN 1557-6418, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 187-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The protection of defended assets such as military bases and population centers against hostile targets (e.g., aircrafts, missiles, and rockets) is a highly relevant problem in the military conflicts of today and tomorrow. In order to neutralize threats of this kind, they have to be detected and engaged before causing any damage to the defended assets. We review algorithms for solving the resource allocation problem in real-time, and empirically investigate their performance using the open source testbed SWARD. The reults show that many of the tested algorithms produce high quality solutions for small-scale problems. A novel vaiant of particle swarm optimization seeded with an enhanced greedy algorithm is described and is shown to perform best for large instances of the real-time allocation problem.

  • 13.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    SWARD: System for Weapon Allocation Research & Development2010In: FUSION 2010: 13th international Conference on Information Fusion, 26-29 July 2010, EICC, Edinburgh, UK, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. Article number 5712067-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The allocation of firing units to hostile targets is an important process within the air defense domain. Many algorithms have been proposed for solving various weapon allocation problems, but evaluation of the performance of such algorithms is problematic, since it does not exist any standard scenarios on which to test the algorithms. It is to a large extent unknown how weapon allocation algorithms compare to each other when it comes to solution quality. We have developed the testbed SWARD, making it possible to systematically compare algorithm performance, and to support the development of new weapon allocation algorithms.

  • 14.
    Niklasson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Dahlbom, Anders
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brax, Christoffer
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kronhamn, Thomas
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Smedberg, Martin
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Warston, Håkan
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). Saab Microwave Systems, Skövde, Sweden.
    A Unified Situation Analysis Model for Human and Machine Situation Awareness2007In: INFORMATIK 2007: Informatik trifft Logistik: Band 2: Beiträge der 37. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. (GI) 24. - 27. September 2007 in Bremen / [ed] Otthein Herzog, Karl-Heinz Rödiger, Marc Ronthaler, Rainer Koschke, Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik , 2007, p. 105-109Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Niklasson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Dahlbom, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kronhamn, Thomas
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Smedberg, Martin
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Warston, Håkan
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Extending the scope of Situation Analysis2008In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2008), Cologne, Germany, June 30–July 3, 2008, IEEE Press, 2008, p. 454-461Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of technology to assist human decision making has been around for quite some time now. In the literature, models of both technological and human aspects of this support can be identified. However, we argue that there is a need for a unified model which synthesizes and extends existing models. In this paper, we give two perspectives on situation analysis: a technological perspective and a human perspective. These two perspectives are merged into a unified situation analysis model for semi-automatic, automatic and manual decision support (SAM)2. The unified model can be applied to decision support systems with any degree of automation. Moreover, an extension of the proposed model is developed which can be used for discussing important concepts such as common operational picture and common situation awareness.

  • 16.
    Riveiro, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Supporting Maritime Situation Awareness Using Self Organizing Maps and Gaussian Mixture Models2008In: Proceedings of the Tenth Scandinavian Conference on Artificial Intelligence (SCAI 2008) / [ed] Anders Holst, Per Kreuger, Peter Funk, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2008, p. 84-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime situation awareness is of importance in a lot of areas – e.g. detection of weapon smuggling in military peacekeeping operations, and harbor traffic control missions for the coast guard. In this paper, we have combined the use of Self Organizing Maps with Gaussian Mixture Models, in order to enable situation awareness by detecting deviations from normal behavior in an unsupervised way. Initial results show that simple anomalies can be detected using this approach.

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