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  • 1.
    Carlsson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Halmstad Univ, Sch Social & Hlth Sci, SE-30118 Halmstad, Sweden / Univ Orebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, SE-70182 Orebro, Sweden / Halmstad Cty Hosp, SE-30185 Halmstad, Sweden .
    Ziegert, Kristina
    Halmstad Univ, Sch Social & Hlth Sci, SE-30118 Halmstad, Sweden .
    Sahlberg-Blom, Eva
    Univ Örebro, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, SE-70182 Örebro, Sweden .
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Maintaining power: Women's experiences from labour onset before admittance to maternity ward2012In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 86-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: in Sweden pregnant women are encouraged to remain at home until the active phase of labour. Recommendation is based on evidence, that women who seek care and are admitted in the latent phase of labour are subjected to more obstetric interventions and suffer more complications than women who remain at home until the active phase of labour. The aim of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of how women, who remain at home until the active phase of labour, experience the period from labour onset until admission to labour ward. Method: interviews were conducted with 19 women after they had given birth to their first child. A Constructivist Grounded theory method was used. Findings: 'Maintaining power' was identified as the core category, explaining the women's experience of having enough power, when the labour started. Four related categories: to share the experience with another', to listen to the rhythm of the body', to distract oneself and to be encased in a glass vessel', explained how the women coped and thereby maintained power. Conclusions: the first time mothers in this study, who managed to stay at home during the latent phase of labour, had a sense of power that was expressed as a driving force towards the birth, a bodily and mental strength and the right to decide over their own bodies. This implies that women who maintain power have the ability to make choices during the birth process. The professionals need to be sensitive, supportive and respectful to women's own preferences in the health-care encounter, to promote the existing power throughout the birthing process. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Ekström, Anette
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Process-Oriented Breastfeeding Training Program for Healthcare Professionals to Promote Breastfeeding2010In: Proceedings of the Second Biannual Uppsala Symposium on lactation research in mammals and humans: The mammary gland in health and disease with particular focus on the mammary gland close post partum including indicators of inflammation and pathogens of the mammary gland / [ed] Sigrid Agenäs, Gunilla Hallberg, Elisabeth Kylberg, Karin Perss on Waller & Bodil Ström Holst, Uppsala: CRU , 2010, p. 9-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The impact of giving an infant food other than breast milk depends on several factors. Evidence to date supports the recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding for six months.

    The aim of the this study was to evaluate the effect of a process-oriented training in support during childbirth and breastfeeding for midwives and postnatal nurses in relation to  the time of initial breastfeeding session, introduction of breast milk substitute and solids effects on  the duration of breastfeeding.

    Materials and methods: Ten municipalities in Sweden were randomized to either intervention (IG) or control groups (CGA and CGB). The intervention included a process-oriented training program* for midwives and postnatal nurses in the intervention municipalities. Primiparas (n=540) who were living at either site were asked to respond to questionnaires at three days, three and nine months postpartum. Data collection for mothers in CGA (n=162) started before effects of the intervention could be studied, CGB (n=172) was collected simultaneously with the IG (n=206).

    Results: Preliminary results showed that fewer infants in the IG received breast milk substitute (the first week of life) without medical reasons (p=0.01) and were older (3.8 months) when breast milk substitute was introduced after discharge compared with the infants in the control groups (CGA 2.3 months p= 0.01 and CGB 2.5 months p= 0.03).

    Discussion and Conclusion: A process-oriented training program for midwives and postnatal nurses (by changed attitudes among health staff and changing mothers self imaging) reduced the number of infants who got breastmilk substitute during the first week without medical reasons and delayed the introduction of breast milk substitute after the first week.

     

  • 3.
    Ekström, Anette
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    A process-oriented breastfeeding training program for healthcare professionals to promote breastfeeding: an intervention study2012In: Breastfeeding medicine : the official journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine, ISSN 1556-8342, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 85-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of process-oriented training in supportive breastfeeding counseling for midwives and postnatal nurses on the time lapse between the initial breastfeeding session, introduction of breastmilk substitutes and solids, and the duration of breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: Ten municipalities in Sweden were randomized to either the intervention or control groups. The intervention included a process-oriented training program for midwives and postnatal nurses in the intervention municipalities. Primiparas (n=540) living in either an intervention or control municipality were asked to participate in a longitudinal study to evaluate the care given. Data collection for control group A (CGA) (n=162) started before the intervention was initiated. Data for control group B (CGB) (n=172) were collected simultaneously with the intervention group (IG) (n=206). The mothers responded to questionnaires at 3 days, 3 months, and 9 months postpartum. Results: As a result of the process-oriented training program for midwives and postnatal nurses, the IG mothers had a significantly longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding, even if the initial breastfeeding session did not occur within 2 hours after birth, than the corresponding group of CGA mothers (p=0.01). Fewer infants in the IG received breastmilk substitutes (in the first week of life) without medical reasons compared with the control groups (p=0.01). The IG infants were significantly older (3.8 months) when breastmilk substitutes were introduced (after discharge from the hospital) compared with the infants in the control groups (CGA, 2.3 months, p=0.01; CGB, 2.5 months, p=0.03). Conclusion: A process-oriented training program for midwives and postnatal nurses was associated with a reduced number of infants being given breastmilk substitutes during the 1st week without medical reasons and delayed the introduction of breastmilk substitutes after discharge from the hospital.

  • 4.
    Ekström, Anette
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Matthiesen, Ann-Sofi
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Statistics, University of Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Widström, Ann-Marie
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Breastfeeding attitudes among counselling health professionals: Development of an instrument to describe breastfeeding attitudes2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 33, no 5, p. 353-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of the study was to develop an instrument that can be used for accurate assessment of nurses' and midwives' attitudes toward breastfeeding in a group of midwives, maternity-nursing staff and postnatal nurses experienced in breastfeeding counselling. Method: An instrument based on WHO standards was developed to measure breastfeeding attitudes. In all, 168 healthcare professionals filled in the instrument. A factor analysis using maximum likelihood and varimax rotation was performed. Spearman's correlation was used to correlate factorial dimensions and self-described interest in breastfeeding. Results: By means of factor analysis four factors were identified: the "regulating" factor focused on regulating the mothers' breastfeeding management, the "facilitating" factor focused on making it easy for mothers to manage their breastfeeding, the "disempowering" factor focused on giving advice, disregarding the needs of the mother being counselled, and the "breastfeeding antipathy" factor focused on insufficient, basic, breastfeeding knowledge and aversive reactions to breastfeeding. Midwives rated higher on the facilitating factor and breastfeeding antipathy factor and lower on the regulating factor than postnatal nurses. Breastfeeding interest was positively correlated with the facilitating factor, and negatively with the disempowering factor and the breastfeeding antipathy factor. Conclusion: This instrument provides a picture of health professionals' attitudes towards breastfeeding. Four factors were identified in order of importance: regulating, facilitating, disempowering, and breastfeeding antipathy factors. Harmful attitudes were identified and suggested a need for educational programmes to help health professionals to reconcile damaging values, in order to improve breastfeeding counselling

  • 5.
    Ekström, Anette
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    A Mother's feelings for Her Infant Are Strengthened by Excellent Breastfeeding Counseling and Continuity of Care2006In: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 118, no 2, p. e309-e314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE. Continuous support during the childbirth process ultimately may strengthen the mother's self-esteem and her capacity to interact with and nurture her infant and also may improve paternal involvement in general. In the present study, we investigated whether mothers, who were attended by midwives and nurses who had had a process-oriented training program in breastfeeding counseling, perceived stronger maternal feelings for their infant than mothers who had received only routine care.

    METHODS. In a previous study, an intervention that included a process-oriented program on breastfeeding counseling for health professionals and continuity in family classes through childbirth was conducted. The 10 largest municipalities were classified in pairs that were similar in size and had similar figures of breastfeeding duration. The municipalities were randomized pairwise to either an intervention or a control group. The present study is a follow-up study on women's feelings for their infants in relation to the kind of care that they had had and was undertaken between April 2000 and January 2003. The sampling frame was based on women who were cared for at either the intervention clinic or control clinics. The mothers at the control clinics had received standard routine care and had attended family classes through the point of birth. Data collection for control group A started before effects of the intervention could be studied. Data for control group B were collected simultaneously with data collection for the intervention group (n = 540). The mothers responded to 3 questionnaires at 3 days and at 3 and 9 months postpartum. Background data of the mothers were collected. The perception of support that was provided by the health professionals and the perception of mother–infant relationship and feelings for the infant were rated on Likert scales.

    RESULTS. At 3 days postpartum, both the intervention group and control group B versus the control group A thought that their understanding of the infant was better, they perceived more strongly that the infant as their own, and they enjoyed more breastfeeding and resting with the infant. Although there was no significant difference between the intervention group and control group B at 3 days and 3 months observation, mothers in the intervention group talked more to their infant, perceived their infant to be more beautiful than other infants, and perceived more strongly that the infant was their own than did the mothers in control group B at 9 months observation. In addition, the mothers in the intervention group felt significantly more confident with the infant and felt the infant to be closer than did the mothers in control group B.

    CONCLUSION. A process-oriented breastfeeding training program for antenatal midwives and postnatal nurses that included an intervention that guaranteed continuity of care strengthened the maternal relationship with the infant and the feelings for the infant.

  • 6.
    Ekström, Anette
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Process-oriented training in breastfeeding attitudes and continuity of care improve mothers perception of support2007In: Health Education Research Trends / [ed] Peter R. Hong, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2007, p. 211-225Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Ekström, Anette
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Widström, Ann-Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Breastfeeding support from partners and grandmothers: Perceptions of Swedish women2003In: Birth, ISSN 0730-7659, E-ISSN 1523-536X, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 261-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Support from the mother’s network of relatives, friends, and professional caregivers during childbirth is likely to be important for breastfeeding success. Few studies have been conducted to examine mothers’ perceptions of breastfeeding support. The objective of this study was to describe breastfeeding support and feelings of confidence of primiparas and multiparas in relation to duration of breastfeeding. Methods: Mothers who

    delivered vaginally were eligible for inclusion. After receiving a questionnaire when their children were 9 to 12 months of age, 194 primiparas and 294 multiparas responded to questions on

    breastfeeding history and on perceived and overall breastfeeding support and feelings of confidence. Results: Feelings of overall breastfeeding support were correlated with duration of

    exclusive breastfeeding in both primiparas (p < 0.001) and multiparas (p < 0.001). Multiparas who knew how long they were breastfed as a child showed a longer duration of exclusive

    (p ¼ 0.006) and total (p ¼ 0.007) breastfeeding than multiparas who did not know. The time during which the partner was present after labor was correlated with the duration of exclusive

    (p < 0.001) and total breastfeeding (p ¼ 0.002) in primiparas. Feelings of confidence when the baby was 6 to12 months old, as retrospectively rated on a visual analog scale, was correlated

    with feelings of confidence in the partner during childbirth in both primiparas (p < 0.001) and multiparas (p < 0.001) and the experience of overall breastfeeding support (primiparas,

    p ¼ 0.002; multiparas, p < 0.001). Both groups were more content with breastfeeding information they received from midwives in the maternity wards, compared with that from antenatal midwives and postnatal nurses (p < 0.001). Conclusions: A helpful support strategy for mothers with respect to breastfeeding outcome is for health professionals to discuss the grandmother’s perception of breastfeeding with the mother. It is important for perinatal

    caregivers to provide an environment that enables the family to stay together after delivery. A helpful support strategy for health professionals might be to mobilize grandmothers with positive breastfeeding perception to provide support for their daughters’ breastfeeding. (BIRTH 30:4 December 2003)

  • 8.
    Ekström, Anette
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Widström, Ann-Marie
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Does Continuity of Care by Well-Trained Breastfeeding Counselors Improve a Mother´s Perception of Support?2006In: Birth, ISSN 0730-7659, E-ISSN 1523-536X, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 123-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Social support has been shown to be greatly important for breastfeeding success. The objective of this study was to investigate if mothers who were attended by midwives and nurses specially trained in breastfeeding counseling perceived better continuity of care and emotional and informative breastfeeding support than mothers who received only routine care. Method:Ten municipalities, each with an antenatal center and child health center, in southwest Sweden were randomized either to intervention or control municipalities. The intervention included a process-oriented training in breastfeeding counseling and continuity of care at the antenatal and child health centers. Primiparas were asked to evaluate the care given, and those living in the control municipalities were divided into control groups A and B. Data collection took place at different points in time for the two control groups. The 540 mothers responded to 3 questionnaires at 3 days and at 3 and 9 months postpartum. The perception of support provided by the health professionals and from the family classes was rated on Likert scales. Results:Intervention group mothers rated the breastfeeding information given during the family class as significantly better during pregnancy than both control groups, and better than control group B mothers at 3 months postpartum; compared with both control groups, intervention group mothers perceived that they received significantly better overall support and that postnatal nurses provided better information about breastfeeding and the baby's needs. At 9 months, intervention group mothers were more satisfied with knowledge about social rights, information about the baby's needs, and their social network than control group B mothers. Both intervention group and control group B mothers perceived better overall support than control group A during pregnancy. At 3 and 9 months, intervention group mothers perceived that postnatal nurses were more sensitive and understanding compared with both control groups. Conclusions:After implementation of a process-oriented breastfeeding training program for antenatal midwives and postnatal nurses that included an intervention guaranteeing continuity of care, the mothers were more satisfied with emotional and informative support during the first 9 months postpartum. The results lend support to family classes incorporating continuity of care. (BIRTH 33:2 June 2006)

  • 9.
    Ekström, Anette
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Widström, Ann-Marie
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Duration of Breastfeeding in Swedish Primiparous and Multiparous Women2003In: Journal of Human Lactation, ISSN 0890-3344, E-ISSN 1552-5732, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 172-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the effects of sociodemographicfactors and maternity ward practices on the duration of breastfeedingin Swedish primiparas (n = 194) and multiparas (n = 294), consecutivelyselected from hospital birth files for 3 months, who respondedto a questionnaire 9 to 12 months after childbirth. The impactof sociodemographic data and maternity ward practices on exclusiveand any breastfeeding were examined. Smoking and supplementationwithout medical reasons influenced the duration of both exclusiveand any breastfeeding negatively, whereas early first breastfeedinginfluenced the duration of both exclusive and any breastfeedingpositively, and parity had no significant influence. Late hospitaldischarge influenced the duration of exclusive breastfeedingpositively, and higher maternal age influenced the durationof any breastfeeding positively. These variables altogetherexplained 11.4% (P <.001) of the variance in the durationof exclusive breastfeeding and 8.2% (P <.001) of the durationof any breastfeeding

  • 10.
    Ekström, Anette
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Widström, Ann-Marie
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Process-oriented training in breastfeeding alters attitudes to breastfeeding in health professionals2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 424-431Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to measure the attitudes of antenatal midwives and postnatal nurses to breastfeeding before and after common, process-oriented breastfeeding training. Method: Antenatal centres and child-health centres in 10 municipalities were randomized to either an intervention or a control group. The antenatal midwives and postnatal nurses in the intervention group were together given process-oriented breastfeeding training and were, in addition, asked to develop a common breastfeeding policy. A previously developed instrument was used to measure the effects of a training programme on breastfeeding attitudes among midwives and postnatal nurses. It consisted of four scales measuring a person's attitudes toward breastfeeding in four dimensions: regulating, facilitating, disempowering, and breastfeeding-antipathy attitudes. A mean score was calculated for each individual on these four dimensional scales. The higher the score, the stronger the attitude. Results: After one year, the intervention group reduced their scores on the regulating scale when compared with the control group (p<0.001). The intervention group decreased their scores on the regulating scale and increased their scores on the facilitating scale over the first year after training. The control group also significantly increased their scores on the facilitating scale. When the results were analysed profession-wise, the postnatal nurses in the intervention group decreased their scores on the regulating and disempowering scales and increased their scores on the facilitating scale. In contrast, the midwives in the intervention group decreased their scores only on the breastfeeding antipathy scale. The control group midwives decreased their scores on the disempowering scale. No differences were found among the postnatal nurses in the control group. Conclusion: Process-oriented breastfeeding training made both antenatal midwives and postnatal nurses better disposed to breastfeeding; postnatal nurses in particular improved their attitudes. Attitudes to breastfeeding tended to be stable over time, but process-oriented training lowered the scores a little on the regulating scale, suggesting that after this kind of training counsellors would find it less necessary to schedule and control the mothers' breastfeeding behaviour.

  • 11.
    Handlin, Linda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agriculture, Skara, Sweden.
    Jonas, Wibke
    Department of Women and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Petersson, Maria
    Department of Molecular Medicine, Endocrine and Diabetes Unit, Karolinska University Hospital/Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ejdebäck, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Ransjö-Arvidsson, Anna-Berit
    Department of Women and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Women and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agriculture, Skara, Sweden.
    Effects of Sucking and Skin-to-Skin Contact on Maternal ACTH and Cortisol Levels During the Second Day Postpartum - Influence of Epidural Analgesia and Oxytocin in the Perinatal Period2009In: Breastfeeding Medicine, ISSN 1556-8253, E-ISSN 1556-8342, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 207-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: In this study we made a detailed analysis of the mothers' release pattern of adreno-corticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol during a breastfeeding session during the second day postpartum and related these patterns to maternal oxytocin levels as well to the duration of sucking and the duration of skin-to-skin contact before sucking the breast. Furthermore, we investigated if epidural analgesia and oxytocin administration during and after labor influenced the release pattern of ACTH and cortisol.

    Methods: Sixty-three primiparae were included in the study. Fourteen received oxytocin intramuscularly postpartum, nine received oxytocin infusion, 14 received epidural analgesia combined with oxytocin infusion, and six received epidural analgesia alone. Twenty mothers did not receive any of these medical interventions. Blood samples were analyzed for ACTH and cortisol by enzyme-linked immunoassay.

    Results: Both ACTH and cortisol levels fell significantly during the breastfeeding session. A significant negative relationship was found between oxytocin and ACTH levels, but not between oxytocin and cortisol levels. A contact before onset of sucking was significantly and negatively associated with lower cortisol levels, but not with ACTH levels. Cortisol levels differed significantly between mothers having received epidural analgesia with and without oxytocin.

    Conclusions: Breastfeeding is associated with a decrease of ACTH and cortisol levels. Skin-to-skin contact contributes to this effect. ACTH correlated negatively with the duration of sucking and median oxytocin levels, whereas cortisol levels correlated inversely with the duration of skin-to-skin contact preceding sucking, suggesting a partial dissociation between the mechanisms regulating ACTH and cortisol release. In addition, medical interventions in connection with birth influence the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis 2 days after birth.

  • 12.
    Handlin, Linda
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Jonas, Wibke
    Karolinska Institute.
    Ransjö-Arvidson, Anna-Berit
    Karolinska Institute.
    Petersson, Maria
    Karolinska University Hospital.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre.
    Influence of Common Birth Interventions on Maternal Blood Pressure Patterns During Breastfeeding 2 Days After Birth2012In: Breastfeeding Medicine, ISSN 1556-8253, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 93-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study investigated possible influences of medical interventions during labor on maternal blood pressure during a breastfeed 2 days postpartum.

    Subjects and Methods: Sixty-six primiparae with normal deliveries were consecutively recruited. Blood pressure was measured at –5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes during a morning breastfeed 2 days postpartum. Five treatment groups were formed based on the medical interventions received during labor: Non-medicated mothers (Control group, n=21); mothers receiving epidural analgesia (EDA) with oxytocin (OT) stimulation (EDAOT group, n=14); mothers receiving EDA without OT stimulation (EDAnon-OT group, n=7); mothers receiving OT stimulation only (OT intravenously [iv] group, n=9); and mothers receiving 10 IU of OT intramuscularly (im) only (OT im group, n=15).

    Results: Baseline diastolic, but not systolic, blood pressure differed between the groups as displayed by significantly lower diastolic blood pressure in the EDAnon-OT group compared with the Control group, the OT iv group, and the EDAOT group (p=0.045, p=0.041, and p=0.024, respectively). Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure fell significantly during the breastfeeding session in the Control group (p=0.001 and p=0.004, respectively), the OT im group (p=0.006 and p=0.001, respectively), and the EDAOT group (p=0.028 and p=0.002, respectively), and the fall in diastolic blood pressure tended to be significant in the OT iv group (p=0.050). The duration of skin-to-skin contact before breastfeeding correlated positively with the decrease in systolic blood pressure in the OT im group (Rs=0.540, p=0.046).

    Conclusion: Administration of EDA during labor lowers baseline diastolic blood pressure and abolishes the fall in blood pressure in response to a breastfeed 2 days after birth.

  • 13.
    Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sociodemographic background, lifestyle and psychosocial conditions of swedish teenage mothers and their perception of health and social support during pregnancy and childbirth2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 415-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Among Swedish pregnant teenage girls it is unusual to continuepregnancy and to choose to have a baby. Swedish teenage motherscan therefore be expected to differ from adult mothers, at agroup level. The aim of this study was to describe and compareteenage mothers who were giving birth in hospital with adultmothers as to sociodemographic background, perception of healthand social support. Methods: A descriptive comparative studywas conducted over one year, in a county in south-western Sweden,which comprised a group of all teenage mothers aged 15—19,who gave birth at hospital (study group n=97) and the same numberof adult mothers aged 25—29, matched for parity and birthof a baby closest to the index mother (reference group). Bothgroups answered a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic variables,lifestyle, health, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and support.Information on the mothers' pregnancy and delivery was obtainedfrom their maternal health and delivery charts. Results: Teenagemothers had more often been exposed to a difficult family situation,had more often experienced school failure than adult mothers,and showed health-risk behavior. Teenage mothers perceived lesssupport, had lower self-esteem, and more depressive symptomsthan adult mothers. Conclusions: Teenage mothers differed fromadult mothers regarding family situation and health behavioras well as perception of support, self-esteem, and depressivesymptoms, which may negatively influence their ability to copewith parenthood. Efforts should be made early in pregnancy tomeet both health and support needs of teenage mothers.

  • 14.
    Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nissen, Eva
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Teenage Childbearing in Sweden – Depressive Symptoms among Teenage Mothers, Influencing Factors, Perception of Support and Self-Esteem – A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study2012In: Journal of Nursing & Care, ISSN 2167-1168, Vol. 1, no 6, p. [art no] 123-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Ahlberg, Beth Maina
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Becoming and Being a Teenage Mother: How Teenage Girls in South Western Sweden View Their Situation2005In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Vol. 26, no 7, p. 591-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim in this study was to describe the perspectives, experiences, and reasonings about becoming and being a teenage mother by Swedish teenage girls. Twenty pregnant and parenting teenage girls, aged 15 to 19 years, were interviewed. The teenagers described a pattern of early childbirth in their families, lack of opportunity in life, and ambivalence in contraceptive use as reasons for becoming a teenage mother . They experienced being pregnant and a teenage mother as both a positive transition into adulthood but also as a physiological and psychological hardship. Furthermore, the teenagers emphasized the importance of supportive relationships with families, friends, and society as a prerequisite for successful parenting. The results of our study may be viewed as generating a working hypothesis that can be transferred to other settings on the basis of the information gathered.

  • 16.
    Hertfelt Wahn, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    von Post, Iréne
    Department of Caring Science, Åbo Akademi, Vasa, Finland.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    A description of Swedish midwives' reflections on their experience of caring for teenage girls during pregnancy and childbirth2007In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 269-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    to describe Swedish midwives' reflections on their experiences of caring for teenage girls during pregnancy and childbirth.

    Design

    a hermeneutical approach was used, with focus-group discussions as the method of data collection.

    Setting

    three focus-group discussions were conducted in a county comprising urban, suburban and rural districts in south-western Sweden.

    Participants

    a voluntary sample of 24 midwives, aged 32–61 years, who were caring for women in different birth settings, participated in 2004.

    Findings

    two main themes, with three sub-themes each, were generated by the midwives: (1) the teenage mother, as ‘teenagers who are proud of becoming mothers’, ‘teenagers who are unprepared for becoming mothers’ and ‘teenagers with an immigrant background’, and (2) ‘the midwives’ wish to care for the teenage mother’, as ‘taking the teenage mother seriously’, ‘being an important person for the teenage mother’, and ‘being a help for the teenage mother’.

    Key conclusions and implications for practice

    the findings provide some understanding of the unique characteristics of caring for teenage mothers. For the midwives, the most important aspects of caring for the teenage mother included taking the teenage mother seriously, allowing the midwife herself to become an important person for the teenage mother, and being a help to the mother. This help requires the midwife to balance the different needs of each teenage mother.

  • 17.
    Jonas, W.
    et al.
    Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Heath Care, Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Linda M.
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agriculture, Skara, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Heath Care, Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ejdebäck, Mikael
    University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Ransjö-Arvidson, A. B.
    Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Heath Care, Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agriculture, Skara.
    Effects of Intrapartum Oxytocin Administration and Epidural Analgesia on the Concentration of Plasma Oxytocin and Prolactin, in Response to Suckling During the Second Day Postpartum2009In: Breastfeeding Medicine, ISSN 1556-8253, E-ISSN 1556-8342, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 71-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Oxytocin and prolactin stimulate milk ejection and milk production during breastfeeding. The aim of the present study was to make a detailed analysis of maternal release of oxytocin and prolactin in response to breastfeeding during the second day postpartum in mothers who had received oxytocin either intravenously for stimulation of labor or intramuscularly for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage and/or epidural analgesia or those who had received no such treatment in connection with birth.

    Methods: In a descriptive comparative study plasma oxytocin and prolactin concentrations were measured in response to suckling during the second day postpartum in women who had received intravenous intrapartum oxytocin (n = 8), intramuscular postpartum oxytocin (n = 13), or epidural analgesia, either with (n = 14) or without (n = 6) intrapartum oxytocin infusion, and women who received none of these interventions (n = 20). Hormone levels were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay.

    Results: All mothers showed a pulsatile oxytocin pattern during the first 10 minutes of breastfeeding. Women who had received epidural analgesia with oxytocin infusion had the lowest endogenous median oxytocin levels. The more oxytocin infusion the mothers had received during labor, the lower their endogenous oxytocin levels were during a breastfeeding during the second day postpartum. A significant rise of prolactin was observed after 20 minutes in all women, but after 10 minutes in mothers having received oxytocin infusion during labor. In all women, oxytocin variability and the rise of prolactin levels between 0 and 20 minutes correlated significantly with median oxytocin and prolactin levels.

    Conclusion: Oxytocin, released in a pulsatile way, and prolactin were released by breastfeeding during the second day postpartum. Oxytocin infusion decreased endogenous oxytocin levels dose-dependently. Furthermore, oxytocin infusion facilitated the release of prolactin. Epidural analgesia in combination with oxytocin infusion influenced endogenous oxytocin levels negatively.

  • 18.
    Jonas, W.
    et al.
    Department of Women and Child Health, Division for Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institute, Retzius Väg 13a, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wiklund, I.
    KIDS Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Institute, Danderyds Hospital, 18288 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Ransjö-Arvidson, A.-B.
    Department of Women and Child Health, Division for Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Karolinska Institute, Retzius Väg 13a, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    Department of Animal Environment and Health, Swedish University of Agriculture, Box 234, 532 23 Skara, Sweden.
    Newborn skin temperature two days postpartum during breastfeeding related to different labour ward practices2007In: Early Human Development, ISSN 0378-3782, E-ISSN 1872-6232, Vol. 83, no 1, p. 55-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    To investigate (1) the skin temperature pattern in newborns two days after birth in connection to breastfeeding and to examine (2) if the administration of epidural analgesia (EDA) and oxytocin (OT) infusion during labour influences this parameter at this point of time.

    Method

    Forty-seven mother–infant pairs were included in the study: nine mothers had received OT stimulation during labour (OT group), 20 mothers had received an EDA and OT during labour (EDA group), while 18 mothers had received neither EDA nor OT stimulation during labour (control group). A skin temperature electrode was attached between the newborn's shoulder blades. The newborn was placed skin-to-skin on the mother's chest and covered with a blanket. The temperature was recorded immediately after the newborn was put on the mother's chest and at 5, 10, 20 and 30 min.

    Results

    The temperature measured when the newborns were put skin-to-skin on their mothers' chest was significantly higher in the infants of the EDA group (35.07 °C) when compared to the control group (34.19 °C, p = 0.025). Skin temperature increased significantly (p = 0.001) during the entire experimental period in the infants belonging to the control group. The same response was observed in infants whose mothers received OT intravenously during labour (p = 0.008). No such rise was observed in infants whose mothers were given an EDA during labour.

    Conclusion

    The results show that the skin temperature in newborns rises when newborns are put skin-to-skin to breastfeed two days postpartum. This effect on temperature may be hampered by medical interventions during labour such as EDA.

  • 19.
    Jonas, Wibke
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Reprod & Perinatal Hlth Care, Dept Women & Child Hlth, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Ransjö-Arvidson, A. B.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Reprod & Perinatal Hlth Care, Dept Women & Child Hlth, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Matthiesen, A. S.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Reprod & Perinatal Hlth Care, Dept Women & Child Hlth, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    Swedish Univ Agr, Dept Anim Environm & Hlth, Skara, Sweden.
    Influence of oxytocin or epidural analgesia on personality profile in breastfeeding women: a comparative study2008In: Archives of Women's Mental Health, ISSN 1434-1816, E-ISSN 1435-1102, Vol. 11, no 5-6, p. 335-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women undergo physiological and psychological changes during pregnancy, labor and lactation. The psychological adaptations can be affective, cognitive and behavioral and can be measured by dimensional personality instruments. This study aims to compare (1) the personality profile in mothers after birth with a normative group of non-lactating women and to examine (2) whether the personality profile differs 2 days, 2 months and 6 months after birth between mothers who have been exposed to epidural anesthesia, oxytocin administration or neither. Sixty-nine primiparae were assigned to four groups: mothers having received oxytocin infusion during labor (OT iv group, n=9), mothers having received epidural analgesia with/without oxytocin infusion (EDA group, n=23), mothers having received 10 iU oxytocin intramuscularly after birth (OT im group, n=15) and mothers having received none of these treatments (unmedicated group, n=22). At 2 days and 2 and 6 months postpartum mothers completed the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). The unmedicated, the OT iv- and OT im groups scored significantly lower on anxiety and aggression related scales and higher on the socialization subscale during the entire observation period when compared with a normative group. These differences were not observed in the EDA group 2 days postpartum. At´2 and 6 months postpartum, the scores of the EDA group had changed significantly and were almost similar to the KSP scores of the other groups. ANCOVA analysis revealed that OT infusion, over and above the effects of EDA, was associated with decreased levels of several anxiety and aggression subscales. We conclude that women who received exogenous oxytocin during labor show similar positive personality traits during breastfeeding such as reduction in anxiety and aggression and increasing socialization, including maternal behavior, that have previously been ascribed to endogenous oxytocin. More importantly, these effects were not seen at 2 days postpartum in women who received epidural anesthesia during labor.

  • 20.
    Jonas, Wibke
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Women & Child Hlth, Div Reprod & Perinatal Hlth Care, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Ransjö-Arvidson, A. B.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Women & Child Hlth, Div Reprod & Perinatal Hlth Care, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wiklund, I.
    Danderyd Hosp, Div Obstet & Gynecol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henriksson, P.
    Danderyd Hosp, Div Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    Swedish Univ Agr, Inst Anim Hlth, Skara, Sweden.
    Short- and Long-Term Decrease of Blood Pressure in Women During Breastfeeding2008In: Breastfeeding Medicine, ISSN 1556-8253, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 103-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: The benefits of breastfeeding for infants are well known. Recently data have started to emerge showing that breastfeeding may also induce positive effects in the mother. This study aimed to investigate the pattern of maternal blood pressure before, during, and after a breastfeed 2 days postpartum. Additionally,blood pressure during the following 25-week breastfeeding period was investigated.Methods: Sixty-six primiparae with normal deliveries were consecutively recruited. Blood pressure was measured at –5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes in connection with a morning breastfeed. Thirty-three women continued to measure blood pressure before and after breastfeeding for 25 weeks.Results: Blood pressure fell significantly in response to breastfeeding 2 days after birth. The fall in systolic and diastolic blood pressure amounted to 8.8 (SD=11.00) and 7.7 (SD=9.3) mm Hg, respectively. During the 25-week follow-up period a significant fall of basal blood pressure (systolic, df=3, F=7.843, p<0.001; diastolic, df=3, F=5.453, p=0.002) was observed. The total fall in systolic and diastolic blood pressure amounted to a mean of 15 (SD=10.4) mm Hg and 10 (SD=9.7) mm Hg, respectively. In addition, blood pressure fell significantly in response to individual breastfeeding sessions during the entire observation period.Conclusions: In conclusion, both systolic and diastolic blood pressures fall during a breastfeeding session, and pre-breastfeeding blood pressure decreased during at least the first 6 months of a breastfeeding period in a homelike environment. This study lends further support to the health-promoting effects of breastfeeding.

  • 21.
    Lilja, Gunilla
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Edhborg, Maigun
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Depressive mood in women at childbirth predicts their mood and relationship with infant and partner during the first year postpartum2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 245-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Depressive mood in women at childbirth predicts their mood and relationship with infant and partner during the first year postpartum Background: Although many studies have reported negative impact of maternal depressive symptoms on family relations, few studies have explored whether or not early depressive symptoms influence interfamily relationships. The aim was to describe first-time mothers feelings for their infant and partner during the first postpartum year in relation to maternal depressive symptoms. Research questions were addressed about: What is the prevalence of maternal depressive symptoms 10 days postpartum? How does maternal depressive symptoms on day 10 relate to her mood and feelings for the infant and partner at days 3 and 10, and at 6 and 12 months postpartum? Methods: A longitudinal study with first-time mothers, normal pregnancies, giving birth to healthy babies participated in the study; altogether, n = 419. Depressive symptoms were measured by Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 3 and 10 days. Additional questionnaires assessing the womans mood and relationship with her infant and partner were filled out at days 3 and 10, and at 6 and 12 months postpartum. Results: Twenty-two per cent of the women scored high on EPDS on day 10 postpartum. In addition, low mood seemed to remain prevalent over the babys first year, as confirmed by the mood scale at 6 and 12 months postpartum. Women with depressive symptoms showed less closeness, warmth and confidence as measured by the infant and partner relationship scales over the first year. Mothers with a high EPDS score on day 3 scored less optimal on the relationship scale to the infant at days 3 and 10, but not 6 or 12 months postpartum. Conclusions: To screen women for depressive symptoms, 10 days postpartum seems to be predictive of maternal assessment of maternalinfant relationship throughout the first year and enables early intervention.

  • 22.
    Olsson, Ann
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Danderyds Hospital, BB Stockholm AB, Stockholm, Sweden / Karolinska Institute, Danderyds Hospital, BB Stockholm, S-182 88 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Martina
    Nycomed AB, Lidingö, Sweden.
    Faxelid, Elisabeth
    Division of International Health, Department of Public Health Science, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Women´s thoughts about sexual life after childbirth: focus group discussions with women after childbirth2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 381-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To give birth and become a parent is a source of many emotions and expectations. Several studies show that women experience different problems after giving birth. It can bring many physical, emotional and social changes that may alter the woman’s sexual needs and impact on her relationship. The aim of this study was to elucidate how some women experienced their sexual life with their partner after giving birth. Methods: Twenty-seven women participated in six focus group discussions (FGDs). These discussions took place 3–24 months postdelivery. The midwives at their antenatal clinics selected them. A discussion guide with broad questions related to the subject was used and an observer took notes during the FGD. Results: Four themes were identified: body image after childbirth, how sexual patterns are altered following new stresses of family life, discordance of sexual desire with the partner and the necessity for reassurance. The women did not feel comfortable with the physical changes that had taken place and their body image. Childbirth meant less sleep and less free time; consequently, instead of having sex, women wanted to sleep or have time for themselves and that led to a changed sex pattern. Discordance of sexual desire with the partner was a problem but most of the women expressed confidence that their sexual desire would return shortly. Reassurance and confirmation that they were physically alright and back to normal was essential. Conclusion: New mothers are concerned with their body image and the ability to adapt to parenting. They need sensitive, professional counselling and reassurance about their body, as well as about sexual life after childbirth. This level of professional counselling is presently not widely available to new mothers, while midwives and gynaecologists

    should be the key persons to provide this service.

  • 23.
    Olsson, Ann
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Robertson, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Björklund, Anders
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Fatherhood in focus, sexual activity can wait: New fathers' experience about sexual life after childbirth2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 716-725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Becoming a parent is overwhelming for most men  and  women  and  alters  the  sexual  relationship  for many couples. Aim: To describe fathers’ experience about sexual life after childbirth within the first 6 months after childbirth. Method: A descriptive design, using content analysis with a qualitative approach, based on focus group discussions and one-to-one interviews. Participants: Eight  first-time  and  two  subsequent  fathers participated. Results: Three subthemes were identified: Struggling between stereotypes  and  personal  perceptions  of  male  sexuality  during transition to fatherhood; new frames for negotiating sex; a need to feel  safe  and  at  ease  in  the  new  family  situation. The over-arching  theme  emerged  as  ‘transition  to  fatherhood  brings sexual life to a crossroads’ and guided us to a deeper understanding  of  the  difficulties  men  experience  during  the transition  to  fatherhood.  To  get  sexual  life  working,  a number  of  issues  had  to  be  resolved,  such  as  getting involved in the care of the baby and the household and getting  in  tune  with  their  partners  in  regard  to  sexual desire. The men needed to be reassured and prepared for this new situation by health care professionals. Conclusions: New fathers in our study put the baby in focus in early parenthood and were prepared to postpone sex until  both  parties  were  ready,  although  they  needed reassurance to feel at ease with the new family situation. The fathers’ perceptions of sexual life extended to include all kinds of closeness and touching, and it deviated from the stereotype of male sexuality. This is important information for health care providers and midwives to be aware of for their encounters with men (and women) during the transition  to  fatherhood,  and  parenthood  and  can  contribute  to  caring  science  with  a  gender  perspective  on adjustment of sexual life after childbirth.

  • 24.
    Olsson, Ann
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Caring Science, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden / Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Robertson, Eva
    Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden / School of Health Science, University College of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Falk, Katarina
    The Red Cross University College, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Assessing women's sexual life after childbirth: the role of the postnatal check2011In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 195-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: to describe midwives' reflections on counselling women at the postnatal check with special focus on sexual life after childbirth. Design: qualitative descriptive study with focus group discussions as the method of data collection. Setting: antenatal clinics in Stockholm greater catchments' area. Participants: during 2006 and 2007, a voluntary sample of midwives from 10 different antenatal clinics were invited. Analysis: content analysis was undertaken through identification of codes, categories and themes. Findings: Two themes emerged: balancing between personal perceptions of the woman's needs and the health system restrictions and strategies for counselling about sexual life after childbirth'. The midwives tried to create a picture for themselves of the woman coming for the postnatal check and her needs before the consulation. This picture guided the midwives, but lack of time and knowledge restricted them when counselling on sexual life after childbirth. Two different strategies in counselling were identified, one task-oriented and one subject-oriented. Demands and time restrictions led midwives to distance themselves from their clients. A task-oriented approach was more visible in midwives' encounters with foreign-born women, where linguistic difficulties, cultural diversity and narrow time frames restricted the midwives' effectiveness and/or sensitivity as caregivers. In contrast, the subject-oriented strategy meant 'getting in tune', i.e. listening to the woman when she expressed her feelings and emotions, encouraging the woman to be an active participant in decisions involving her care. This strategy is used for women who arouse midwives' empathy and when there is some form of recognition and understanding. Conclusion: The picture created of the woman and her needs guided the midwives, but lack of knowledge and time limitations restricted counselling on sexual life after childbirth. Two counselling strategies were identified, one task-oriented and one subject-oriented. Balancing these two counselling strategies improves both the ethical aspects and the quality of the counselling. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Rådestad, Ingela
    et al.
    Malardalens Univ, Dept Caring Sci & Publ Hlth, S-63105 Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Olsson, Ann
    Karolinska Inst, Danderyd Hosp, Div Caring Sci, Dept Clin Sci, Solna, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Rubertsson, Christine
    Malardalens Univ, Dept Caring Sci & Publ Hlth, S-63105 Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Tears in the vagina, perineum, sphincter ani, and rectum and first sexual intercourse after childbirth: A Nationwide Follow-up2008In: Birth, ISSN 0730-7659, E-ISSN 1523-536X, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 98-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The first sexual intercourse after childbirth may be challenging for women, especially if the birth resulted in injuries in the genital area. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not tears in the vagina, perineum, sphincter ani, or rectum hindered sexual intercourse during the year after childbirth. Methods: We obtained information from 2,490 women in a population-based cohort identified at antenatal care. Information about first sexual intercourse was collected by means of a questionnaire sent 1 year after birth to the women and about women's tears reported in the population-based Swedish Medical Birth Register. Results: Adjusted relative risks with 95 percent confidence intervals for not having had sexual intercourse within 3 and 6 months, respectively, after childbirth were 1.5 (95% CI 1.2–1.8) and 1.6 (95% CI 1.2–2.3) for tears in the vagina, 1.4 (95% CI 1.1–1.6) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.1–2.1) for tears in the perineum, and 2.1 (95% CI 1.4–3.1) and 2.2 (95% CI 1.1–4.6) for tears in the sphincter ani and rectum. No statistically significant differences were found at 1-year follow-up. No associations between episiotomy and delay in resuming intercourse were found after adjusting the relative risks. Conclusions: Tears in the vagina, perineum, sphincter ani, or rectum are associated with a delay in women's resumption of sexual intercourse 6 months after childbirth in Sweden

  • 26.
    Seimyr, Louise
    et al.
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Berit
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Welles-Nyström, Barbara
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Antenatal maternal depressive mood and parental-fetal attachment at the end of pregnancy2009In: Archives of Women's Mental Health, ISSN 1434-1816, E-ISSN 1435-1102, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 269-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates if mothers and fathers have similar ways of thinking and feeling about their babies during late pregnancy and how aspects of parental-fetal attachment are related to maternal depressive mood. Two hundred and ninety-eight Swedish-speaking women at 30-32 weeks of gestation and partners (n=274) participated in the study. Socio-demographic background data were collected. Prenatal attachment was assessed with the maternal/paternal-fetal attachment scale (MFA/PFA), and depressive symptoms were assessed by the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS). MFA and PFA scores mirrored each other. After factor analysis, five different factors loaded somewhat differently for men were revealed as significant. These factors were (I) concerns about the fetus and health behavior, (II) mental preparation to take care of the unborn child, (III) experiences of pregnancy, (IV) experiences of fetal movements, and (V) naming of the baby. Factors III and IV were related to depressive symptoms. Mothers with slight depressive symptoms were somewhat less positive about the pregnancy but showed more attention to the fetal movements. Midwives should conduct interviews on the women's psychosocial history and use validated instruments, which may help them to identify problems with the psychosocial health of the mother and her partner as they journey through pregnancy and transition to parenthood.

  • 27.
    Takahashi, Yuki
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden / Japanese Red Cross Toyota Coll Nursing, Aichi, Japan.
    Jonas, Wibke
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden / Univ Toronto, Canada.
    Ransjo-Arvidson, Anna-Berit
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lidfors, Lena
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Uvnäs Moberg, Kerstin
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience. University of Skövde, The Systems Biology Research Centre. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Weight loss and low age are associated with intensity of rooting behaviours in newborn infants2015In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 104, no 10, p. 1018-1023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Little is known about the developing breastfeeding behaviour of newborn infants. This study describes infants' prebreastfeeding behaviour during the second day of life and explores possible associations with infant characteristics. Methods: We studied 13 mothers and healthy full-term infants after normal births. At 2448 hours of life, the newborns were placed in skin-to-skin contact with their mothers for breastfeeding and were video-filmed. The order, frequency and duration of predefined infant prefeeding behaviours and suckling were coded and analysed using computer-based video software. Results: Prefeeding behaviours occurred in the following order: rooting, hand to mouth movements, licking of the nipple and hand to breast to mouth movements. The infants started to suckle at a median of one to two minutes. Rooting was the most common behaviour, observed in 12 infants. The duration of rooting movements during the last minute before breastfeeding was inversely related to neonatal age (p = 0.001) and positively related to neonatal weight loss (p = 0.02) after birth. Conclusion: Infants exhibited a distinct sequence of prefeeding behaviours during the second day of life, and our findings suggest that rooting movements were governed by mechanisms involved in the regulation of food intake and weight gain.

  • 28.
    Thorstensson, Stina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Ekström, Anette
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    An exploration and description of student midwives' experiences in offering continuous labour support to women/couples2008In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 451-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: to explore and describe the student midwife's experiences in offering continuous labour support.Design: a qualitative research design was chosen. Each student midwife offered continuous labour support to five women/couples and wrote narratives about each of these occasions. Written narratives from 11 student midwives were analysed using qualitative content analysis.Findings: when student midwives offer continuous labour support to women/couples, they tyr to establish rapport. When this works, their presence, their sense of confidence and their ability to offer reassurance increase. If establishing rapport does not work, students experience a sense of powerlessness, a need for reassurance and a lack of confidence. Key conclusions: offering continuous labour support to women and/or their partners made the students aware of the importance of establishing rapport, and it made them realise the impact that their mere presence in the room could have. The students had a need for reassurance which could hamper their efforts to establish rapport. Experiencing a lack of confidence made students focus more strongly on their clinical skills and on their perceived role as a student midwife. Implications for practice: this study can initiate discussions about how student midwives learn to be supportive, as well as about the role models that students encounter during their clinical training in Sweden.

  • 29. Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Graviditet, hormoner och känsloliv2005In: Psykosocial obstetrik: kropp och själ och barnafödande / [ed] Berit Sjögren, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2005, p. 181-196Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Velandia, Marianne
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Matthisen, Ann-Sofi
    Karolinska Insitute.
    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin
    University of Agricultural Sciences, Skara.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Onset of Vocal Interaction Between Parents and Newborns in Skin-to-Skin Contact Immediately After Elective Cesarean Section2010In: Birth, ISSN 0730-7659, E-ISSN 1523-536X, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 192-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cesarean  section  is  associated  with  delayed  mother-infant interaction  because  neither the mother nor the father routinely maintains skin-to-skin contact with  the  infant  after  birth. The  aim  of the  study was  to  explore  and compare  parent-newborn vocal interaction when the infant is placed in skin-to-skin contact either with the mother or the father immediately after a planned cesarean section.  Methods: A total of 37 healthy  infants  born  to  primiparas  were  randomized  to  30 minutes  of  skin-to-skin  contact either  with  fathers  or  mothers  after  an  initial  5 minutes  of  skin-to-skin  contact  with  the mothers after birth. The newborns’ and parents’ vocal interaction were recorded on a vid-eotape and audiotape. The following variables were explored: newborns’ and parents’ soliciting, newborns’ crying and whining, and parental speech directed to the other parent and to   the   newborn.  Results: Newborns’   soliciting   increased   over   time   (p = 0.032).   Both fathers  and  mothers  in  skin-to-skin  contact  communicated  more  vocally  with  the  newborn than did fathers (p = 0.003) and mothers (p = 0.009) without skin-to-skin contact. Fathers in skin-to-skin contact also communicated more with the mother (p = 0.046) and performed more  soliciting  responses  than  the  control  fathers  (p = 0.010).  Infants  in  skin-to-skin  con-tact  with  their  fathers  cried  significantly  less  than  those  in  skin-to-skin  contact  with  their mothers (p = 0.002) and shifted to a relaxed state earlier than in skin-to-skin contact with mothers (p = 0.029).  Conclusions: Skin-to-skin contact between infants and parents immediately after planned cesarean section promotes vocal interaction. When placed in skin-to-skin  contact  and  exposed  to  the  parents’  speech,  the  infants  initiated  communication  with soliciting calls with the parents within approximately 15 minutes after birth. These findings give reason to encourage parents to keep the newborn in skin-to-skin contact after cesarean section, to support the early onset of the first vocal communication.

  • 31.
    Warenius, Linnéa
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Pettersson, Karen O.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Höjer, Bengt
    Dalarna University, Dalarna, Sweden.
    Chishimba, Petronella
    Kitwe School of Nursing, Kitwe, Zambia.
    Faxelid, Elisabeth
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vulnerability and sexual and reproductive health among Zambian secondary school students2007In: Culture, Health and Sexuality, ISSN 1369-1058, E-ISSN 1464-5351, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 533-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to explore secondary school students' needs in relation to sexual and reproductive health in order to inform efforts to improve the quality of health services available to young people. The study involved data collection from 716 11-22-year-old students in four secondary schools in an urban area in Zambia. Students completed a questionnaire and were invited to write down any inquiries they had regarding sexuality and reproduction. Findings revealed that boys and girls lack adequate information about human reproduction and STIs, including HIV. To avoid misconceptions and myths, they also need clear information on contraceptives and masturbation. Responses indicate that young people would welcome guidance and support related to contraception, pregnancy, abortion and STIs/HIV, but also on love and relationships. Culture, religion and gender are important factors influencing sexuality and sexual abuse. These issues need to be taken into consideration when developing youth-friendly programmes for young people

  • 32.
    Warenius, Linnéa U.
    et al.
    Division of International Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Faxelid, Elisabeth A.
    Division of International Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Chishimba, Petronella N.
    Kitwe School of Nursing, Kitwe, Zambia.
    Musandu, Joyce O.
    Department of Nursing Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Ong'any, Antony A.
    Department of Nursing Sciences, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Nissen, Eva B.-M.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nurse-Midwives' Attitudes towards Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Needs in Kenya and Zambia2006In: Reproductive health matters, ISSN 0968-8080, E-ISSN 1460-9576, Vol. 14, no 27, p. 119-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescent sexuality is a highly charged moral issue in Kenya and Zambia. Nurse-midwives are the core health care providers of adolescent sexual and reproductive health services but public health facilities are under-utilised by adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes among Kenyan and Zambian nurse-midwives (n=820) toward adolescent sexual and reproductive health problems, in order to improve services for adolescents. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Findings revealed that nurse-midwives disapproved of adolescent sexual activity, including masturbation, contraceptive use and abortion, but also had a pragmatic attitude to handling these issues. Those with more education and those who had received continuing education on adolescent sexuality and reproduction showed a tendency towards more youth-friendly attitudes. We suggest that critical thinking around the cultural and moral dimensions of adolescent sexuality should be emphasised in undergraduate training and continuing education, to help nurse-midwives to deal more empathetically with the reality of adolescent sexuality. Those in nursing and other leadership positions could also play an important role in encouraging wider social discussion of these matters. This would create an environment that is more tolerant of adolescent sexuality and that recognises the beneficial public health effect for adolescents of greater access to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services.

  • 33.
    Widström, Ann-Marie
    et al.
    Division of Reproductive and Perinatal Health Care, Department of Woman's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Retzius väg 13 A, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lilja, Gunilla
    Division Nursing, Department of Neurobiology, Care Science and Society, Karolinska Institutet, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aaltomaa-Michalias, P.
    Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahllöf, A.
    Södersjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lintula, M.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nissen, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Newborn behaviour to locate the breast when skin-to-skin: a possible method for enabling early self-regulation2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 1, p. 79-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to provide a more detailed analysis of the infant’s behavioural sequence that begins immediately after birth and terminates with grasping the nipple, suckling and then falling asleep. Method:Twenty-eight full-term infants were videotaped immediately after birth. A video protocol was developed to examine infant behaviours identified from five random videotapes. Results:When birth crying had stopped, the babies showed a short period of relaxation and then successively became alert. They went through an ‘awakening phase’, an ‘active phase’ with movements of limbs, rooting activity and looking at the mother’s face, a ‘crawling phase’ with soliciting sounds, a ‘familiarization phase’ with licking of the areola, and a ‘suckling phase’ and last a ‘sleeping phase’. Five factors related to the time spent to locate the breast: more number of looks at the breast 10–20 min after birth (p < 0.0001); and exposure to meperidine (p = 0.0006) related to increased time. Early start of crawling (p = 0,0040); increased number of ‘soliciting sounds’ (p = 0.0022); and performing hand–breast–mouth movements (p = 0.0105) related to shorter time. Conclusion:  Inborn breastfeeding reflexes were depressed at birth, possibly because of a depressed sensory system. It is hypothesized that when the infant is given the option to peacefully go through the nine behavioural phases birth cry, relaxation, awakening, activity, crawling, resting, familiarization, suckling and sleeping when skin-to-skin with its mother this results in early optimalself-regulation.

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