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  • 1.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    et al.
    Linköping University / Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping.
    Backe, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Karlstad University.
    Ekberg, Joakim
    Linköping University.
    Janson, Staffan
    Karlstad University.
    Timpka, Toomas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Linköping University / Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping.
    Is "Football for All" Safe for All?: Cross-Sectional Study of Disparities as Determinants of 1-Year Injury Prevalence in Youth Football Programs2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 8, p. e43795-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Football (soccer) is endorsed as a health-promoting physical activity worldwide. When football programs are introduced as part of general health promotion programs, equal access and limitation of pre-participation disparities with regard to injury risk are important. The aim of this study was to explore if disparity with regard to parents’ educational level, player body mass index (BMI), and self-reported health are determinants of football injury in community-based football programs, separately or in interaction with age or gender.

    Methodology/Principal Findings: Four community football clubs with 1230 youth players agreed to participate in the cross-sectional study during the 2006 season. The study constructs (parents’ educational level, player BMI, and self-reported health) were operationalized into questionnaire items. The 1-year prevalence of football injury was defined as the primary outcome measure. Data were collected via a postal survey and analyzed using a series of hierarchical statistical computations investigating associations with the primary outcome measure and interactions between the study variables. The survey was returned by 827 (67.2%) youth players. The 1-year injury prevalence increased with age. For youths with parents with higher formal education, boys reported more injuries and girls reported fewer injuries than expected; for youths with lower educated parents there was a tendency towards the opposite pattern. Youths reporting injuries had higher standardized BMI compared with youths not reporting injuries. Children not reporting full health were slightly overrepresented among those reporting injuries and underrepresented for those reporting no injury.

    Conclusion: Pre-participation disparities in terms of parents’ educational level, through interaction with gender, BMI, and self-reported general health are associated with increased injury risk in community-based youth football. When introduced as a general health promotion, football associations should adjust community-based youth programs to accommodate children and adolescents with increased pre-participation injury risk.

  • 2.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Shabnam, Jahan
    Independent Researcher, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Andrews-Chavez, Johanna
    Tufts University, Boston, USA.
    Mårtensson, Lena B.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Timpka, Toomas
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Economic empowerment of women and utilization of maternal delivery care in Bangladesh2012In: International Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 2008-7802, E-ISSN 2008-8213, Vol. 3, no 9, p. 628-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Maternal mortality is a major public health problem in low-income countries, such as Bangladesh. Women's empowerment in relation to enhanced utilization of delivery care is underexplored. This study investigates the associations between women's economic empowerment and their utilization of maternal health care services in Bangladesh. Methods: In total, 4925 women (15-49 years of age) with at least one child from whole Bangladesh constituted the study sample. Home delivery without skilled birth attendant and use of institutional delivery services were the main outcome variables used for the analyses. Economic empowerment, neighborhood socioeconomic status, household economic status, and demographic factors were considered as explanatory variables. The chi square test and unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were applied at the collected data. Results: In the adjusted model, respondent's and husband's education, household economic status, and residency emerged as important predictors for utilization of delivery care services. In the unadjusted model, economically empowered working and microfinanced women displayed more home delivery. Conclusion: The current study shows that use of delivery care services is associated with socioeconomic development and can be enhanced by societies that focus on general issues such as schooling, economic wellbeing, and gender-based discrimination.

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