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  • 1.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Emerging work Practices in a Systems Development Project: Observations On a Distributed Development Project2006In: Proceedings of AIS SIGSAND European Symposium on Systems Analysis and Design: Practice and Research / [ed] Michael Lang, Briony J. Oates, Keng Siau, Galway: Centre for Innovation and Structural Change (CISC), J. E. Cairnes Graduate School of Business & Public Policy, National University of Ireland , 2006, p. 15-27Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Chakravarthy, Sharma
    University of Florida, Gainsville, USA.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Extending Active Capability Mechanisms for Context Based Subscriptions1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest has increased recently in synthesizing solutions to CIS problems by using results from the database and distributed AI communities. Such synthesis is not without its difficulties; results do not always transfer seamlessly to a new, complex domain. In this paper we highlight the difficulties encountered in our attempts to use event detection and subscription mechanisms (proposed in current active databases) for the problem of efficient result sharing in CIS. A solution to such problems is described, in the form of a refined, context based subscription mechanism.

  • 3.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Chakravarthy, Sharma
    University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Result Sharing Among Agents Using Reactive Rules1997In: Cooperative Information Agents: First International Workshop, CIA'97, Kiel, Germany, February 26-28, 1997, Proceedings / [ed] Peter Kandzia, Matthias Klusch, 1997, p. 126-137Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper critically analyse the use of active databases as an enabling technology for result sharing as defined in the DAI literature. In particular, we demostrate how ECA (Event-Condition-Action) rules can be used for supporting result shared cooperation. Further, we demonstrate how composite events as defined within active databases can help a problem solving agent to precisely specify when to take responsive action to multiple result notifications.

  • 4.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Chakravarthy, Sharma
    University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Task Sharing Among Agents Using Reactive Rules1997In: Proceedings of CoopIS 97: 2nd IFCIS Conference on Cooperative Information Systems / [ed] Arbee L.P. Chen, Wolfgang Klas, Munindar P. Singh, IEEE Computer Society, 1997, p. 56-65Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordination and collaboration are naturally used by groups for carrying out activities and solving problems that require cooperation. However, getting a set of computer agents to do the same has been a problem-primarily addressed by the AI community and recently by the database community as workflow and process management problems. Not surprisingly, the problem has been addressed at different levels of abstraction by the two communities. It is evident that there is a need for bringing the two approaches together to develop cooperative information systems. This paper argues for the use of active databases as an enabling technology for cooperative information systems, details a novel approach for supporting task sharing (a key cooperation strategy within cooperative information systems) using active capability, and elaborates on a methodology for mapping task-shared protocols expressed in high-level speech acts to event-condition-action rules.

  • 5.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Chakravarty, Sharma
    University of Florida, Gainsville, USA.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Coordination Among Agents Using Reactive Rules1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coordination and collaboration are naturally used by groups for carrying out activities and solving problems that require cooperation. However, getting a set of computer agents to do that same has been a problem -- primarily addressed by the AI community and recently by the database community as workflow and process management problems (e.g. in business processes, electronic commerce, logistics).

    Not surprisingly, the problem has been addressed at different levels of abstraction by the two communities. Coordination protocols (both static and dynamic) as well as task and result sharing have been investigated by the AI community; system level support as well as specification and execution of relaxed notions of transaction (sometimes termed an activity) have been addressed by the database community. It is evident that combining the two will provide an effective unified solution for a class of problems that require cooperation. This paper classifies problems addressed in the AI and database literature according to degree of coordination and collaboration. It reports on work done by the authors in utilising the reactive paradigm to synthesize, from the yechniques in these areas, a common framework for the support of multi-agent problem solving, workflow, and process management. In addition to resolving the terminology used by different groups, task sharing is used to demonstrate the approach described. It is accomplished by creating either static or dynamic plans that are coordinated by ECA rules -- both pre-defined and dynamically created. The paper details the applicability of ECA rules in this domain, their adequacy, and a prototype implementation.

  • 6.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Logical Events and ECA Rules1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach to support event-condition-action rules and logical events in an object-oriented environment. Previous approaches in active object-oriented databases support either traditional event-condition-action rules or logical events. We see the need to integrate these two concepts in order to efficiently support specialization of events.

  • 7.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    On Developing Reactive Object-Oriented Databases1992In: IEEE Data Engineering Bulletin, Vol. 15, no 1-4, p. 31-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper outlines the ongoing work in Reactive Object-oriented Database Systems between the Departments of Computer Science in the University of Exeter(UK) and the University of Skovde(Sweden). The group is currently designing a monitoring system based on a reactive object oriented database with the objective of supporting efficient interaction between the active DBMS and applications (including intelligent systems). Initial work has centered on a prototype reactive object-oriented system built on top of ONTOS, a commercial OODBMS which has C++ as its base language. The prototype is referred to as ACOOD (ACtive Object Oriented Database system). We briefly discuss this prototype, showing how reactive behaviour has been incorporated into a full OODBMS albeit with some restrictions. We also outline our plans for its future extensions, and how these are motivated.

  • 8.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Foster, Lou
    Valparaiso University, USA.
    Systematic Treatment of Events and Rules1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current prototype Active Object-Oriented database systems introduce powerful event and rule specification languages. We contend that this is not in general done in a uniform and integral manner. We present a modified design for an ACtive Object-Oriented DBMS (ACOOD) currently under development at the University of Skovde. The design emphasises the key concepts being investigated, namely Events and Rules as 1st Class (ER1C). It is important because it addresses the key issue of inheritance, something not prominent in current prototype systems with a fully developed event specification system. Key features in the design are that it has a unifying concept of primitive event and of behaviour, and achieves uniformity and power with respect to inheritance. It further relates this to event specification languages for composite events, guaranteeing orthogonality of features. The paper emphasises modeling concepts, and the design is therefore of relevance to all active, object-oriented database systems. It seeks to explore the wider implications and underpinnings of current active O-O suggestions rather than enriching event and/or rule specification languages.

  • 9.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    ACOOD Essentials1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the active object-oriented database system ACOOD developed at the universities of Skövde and Exeter. ACOOD adds active functionality on top of the commercially available Ontos DB. The active behaviour is modelled by using Event-Condition-Action (ECA) rules. ACOOD offers all essential functionality associated with an active database. The semantics and user interface have been clearly defined in order to produce a prototype that can be used to develop database applications. The historical background of active databases and the development of ACOOD are covered in the paper together with a detailed description of the latest, redesigned version of the system. There is also a discussion of experience gained through the work with ACOOD and a comparison with similar systems.

  • 10.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Chakravarthy, Sharma
    The University of Texas at Arlington, USA.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    A Holistic Approach to the Evaluation of Data Warehouse Maintenance Policies2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research community is addressing a number of issues in response to increased reliance of organisations on data warehousing. Most work addresses individual aspects related to incremental view maintenance, propagation algorithms, consistency requirements, performance of OLAP queries etc. There remains a need to consolidate relevant results into a cohesive framework for data warehouse maintenance. Although data propagation policies, source database characteristics, and user requirements have been addressed individually, their co-dependencies and relationships have not been explored. In this paper, we present a comprehensive, cost-based framework for evaluating data propagation policies against data warehouse requirements and source database characteristics. We formalize data warehouse specification along the dimensions of freshness (or staleness), response time, storage, and computation cost and classify source databases according to their data propagation capabilities. A detailed cost model is presented for a representative set of policies. A prototype implementation has allowed an exploration of the various trade-offs. The results presented in this paper are for a single source, but the approach and the framework are extensible. Current work is addressing a broader class of sources and a more detailed data warehouse specification that includes multiple sources.

  • 11.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Chakravarthy, Sharma
    The University of Texas at Arlington, USA.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Data Integration in Heterogeneous Environments: Multi-Source Policies, Cost Model and Implementation2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research community is addressing a number of issues in response to an increased reliance of organisations on data warehousing. Most work addresses aspects related to the internal operation of a data warehouse server, such as selection of views to materialise, maintenance of aggregate views and performance of OLAP queries. Issues related to data warehouse maintenance, i.e. how changes to autonomous sources should be detected and propagated to a warehouse, have been addressed in a fragmented manner.

    We have shown earlier that a number of maintenance policies based on source characteristics and timing are relevant and meaningful to single source views. In this report we detail how this work has been extended for multiple sources. We focus on exploring policies for data integration from heterogeneous sources. As the number of policies is very large, we first analyse their behaviour intuitively with respect to broader source and policy characteristics. Further, we extend the single source cost model to these policies and incorporate it into a Policy Analyser for Multiple sources (PAM). We use this to analyse the effect of source characteristics and join alternatives on various policies. We have developed a Testbed for Maintenance of Integrated Data (TMID). We report on experiments conducted to validate the policies that are recommended by the tool, and confirm our initial analysis. Finally, we distil a set of heuristics for the selection of multi-source policies based on quality of service and other requirements.

  • 12.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Chakravatsky, Sharma
    Computer Science and Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington, USA.
    Lings, Brian
    Department of Computer Science, University of Exeter, UK.
    Maintenance policy selection in heterogeneous data warehouse environments: A heuristics-based approach2003In: DOLAP '03: Proceedings of the 6th ACM international workshop on Data warehousing and OLAP, 2003, p. 71-78Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Gelati, Gionata
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Exeter, UK.
    A Benchmark Comparison of Maintenance Policies in a Data Warehouse Environment2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A data warehouse contains data originating from autonomous sources. Various maintenance policies have been suggested which specify when and how changes to a source should be propagated to the data warehouse. Engström et al.(HS-IDA-TR-00-001) present a cost-based model which makes it possible to compare and select policies based on quality of service as well as system properties. This paper presents a simulation environment for benchmarking maintenance policies. The main aim is to compare benchmark results with predictions from the cost-model. We report results from a set of experiments which all have a close correspondence with the cost-model predictions. The process of developing the simulation environment and conducting experiments has, in addition, given us valuable insights into the maintenance problem, which are reported in the paper.

  • 14.
    Engström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    Department of Computer Science, University of Exeter, UK.
    Evaluating Maintenance Policies for Externally Materialised Multi-source Views2003In: New Horizons in Information Management: 20th British National Conference on Databases / [ed] G. Goos, J. Hartmanis, J. van Leeuwen, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2003, p. 140-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many applications data from distributed, autonomous, and heterogeneous sources need to be imported and materialised in a (client) system external to those sources. As changes are committed in the sources, the externally materialised view must be updated to reflect those changes. A maintenance policy determines when and how to conduct updates. As sources may not be cooperating maintenance of externally materialised views is different from traditional view maintenance. Previous studies on maintenance of externally materialised views have been heavily focused on algorithms that ensure view consistency. There are, however, other aspects of maintenance that, when considered, can affect choice of consistency algorithm. If, for example, auxiliary views are maintained in the view client it is possible to ensure strong consistency without complex algorithms.

    In our previous work we have studied how to select a maintenance policy for a single source view. In this paper we extend the work to evaluating maintenance policies for externally materialised views based on several sources. We explore views that are defined as the join of two independent sources, identifying the solution space in terms of possible policies, their implications for consistency and their required source capabilities. We use a testbed system to evaluate policy performance. The work confirms that the earlier results on single source maintenance extend to the multi-source situation. In addition we show that the consistency preserving algorithms suggested in the literature are not always required. Actually, in all situations explored it has proved more efficient to use auxiliary views than policies which requires consistency preserving algorithms.

  • 15.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Responsiveness as a measure for assessing the health of OSS ecosystems2010In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Building Sustainable Open Source Communities (OSCOMM 2010) / [ed] Hammouda, I., Tampere: Tampere University of Technology, 2010, p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The health of an Open Source ecosystem is an important decision factor when considering the adoption of Open Source software or when monitoring a seeded Open Source project. In this paper we introduce responsiveness as a qualitative measure of the quality of replies within mailing lists, which can be used for assessing ecosystem health. We consider one specific metric of responsiveness in this paper, and that is the response time of follow-up messages in mailing lists. We also describe a way for characterising the nature of communication in messages with short and long response times. The approach is tested in the context of the Nagios project, and we particularly focus on the responsiveness for contributors acting in their professional roles as core developers. Our contribution is a step towards a deeper understanding of voluntary support provided in mailing lists of OSS projects.

  • 16.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Social Network Analysis of the Nagios Community2009In: Proceedings of the Open Source Workshop: OSW 2009, University of Skövde, Sweden , 2009, p. 9-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The health of an Open Source ecosystem is an important decision factor when considering the adoption of Open Source software. In this paper we assess ecosystem health of the Nagios community using an approach involving analysis of social networks derived from mailing lists. Our investigation focuses on the extent to which core developers act as mediators between participants of the mailing lists.

  • 17.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The Nagios community: An extended quantitative analysis2010In: Open Source Software: New Horizons: 6th International IFIP WG 2.13 Conference on Open Source Systems, OSS 2010, Notre Dame, IN, USA, May 30 – June 2, 2010. Proceedings / [ed] Pär Ågerfalk, Cornelia Boldyreff, Jesús M. González-Barahona, Gregory R. Madey, John Noll, Berlin: Springer, 2010, p. 85-96Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The health of an Open Source ecosystem is an important decision factor when considering the adoption of an Open Source software or when monitoring a seeded Open Source project. In this paper we assess the ecosystem health using approaches involving domain analysis and social network analysis of mailing lists for the Nagios project. We elaborate approaches for how involvement of different roles can be analysed through quantitative analysis, specifically focusing on core developers and professional providers. Our contribution is a step towards a deeper understanding of professional involvement in professional Open Source ecoystems.

  • 18.
    Gustavsson, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Combitech AB, Sweden.
    Beekveld, Marcel
    Philips Applied Technologies, Netherlands.
    Integrating proprietary and open-source tool chains through horizontal interchange of XMI models2007In: IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance, 2007: ICSM 2007, IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 521-522Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model driven development has several advantages over traditional development, including simplified maintenance. We demonstrate an architecture which, through model driven engineering, allows heterogeneous distributed development of components in a mechatronics application. Key to the approach is an architecture which allows automated and dynamic component integration, together with model sharing through the transformation of XMI files.

  • 19.
    Gustavsson, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Combitech AB, Sweden.
    Beekveld, Marcel
    Philips Applied Technologies, The Netherlands.
    Simplifying maintenance by using XSLT to unlock UML models in a distributed development environment2007In: IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance, 2007: ICSM 2007, IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 465-468Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    XMI is a standardized format for model interchange between tools. However, XMI-based interchange currently has one great disadvantage: an XMI file exported from one tool is unlikely to import correctly into a different tool. This makes XMI unusable for moving models around in a heterogeneous development environment, leading to increased maintenance problems. We suggest using specialized XSLT transformations to bridge between the XMI dialects of tools, and report on an industrial case study in which the technique has been successfully applied.

  • 20.
    Hagen, Ivar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Berndtsson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Chakravarthy, Sharma
    Computer and Information Science and Engineering Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.
    Lings, Brian
    Department of Computer Science, University of Exeter, UK.
    Challenges for ECA Rule Designers when Implementing Coordination Protocols1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present lessons learned from an implementation of a task shared cooperation protocol using event-condition-action (ECA) rules in the active database ACOOD. In particular we present details of challenges for ECA rule designers when supporting advanced forms of coordination protocols.

  • 21.
    Lennerholt, Christian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Architectural issues in opening up the advantages of open source in product development companies2008In: Proceedings: 32nd Annual IEEE International Computer Software and Applications Conference: COMPSAC 2008, IEEE Computer Society, 2008, p. 1226-1227Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many product development companies are seeking to remain competitive by reconsidering their development strategies, realising the importance of focusing effort on software innovation. Open Source Software is seen by an increasing number of people as a feasible approach to utilising valuable commodity software development and maintenance, allowing them to concentrating on differentiated software. However, such a change presents new challenges. This paper proposes a three-level approach to preparing a company for leveraging the advantages of Open Source Software. The proposal is motivated through a case study in a company which could be seen as an examplar of the current state of the art in Open Source adoption in complex domains.

  • 22.
    Lindqvist, Edvin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Distributed Development in an Intra-national, Intra-organisational Context: An Experience Report2006In: International Conference on Software Engineering: Proceedings of the 2006 international workshop on Global software development for the practitioner: GSD’06, ACM Press, 2006, p. 80-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports from a study investigating distributed development in an intra-national and intra-organisational company context. The study gives an insight into issues related to, and strategies for successful distributed development seen in a project at Ericsson Microwave Systems. We conclude that regular, informal communication is the single most important factor for success in the project, with important roles in improving motivation and coordination. The leader's role in setting clear and transparent project priorities, and the use of iterative development methods with regular deliverables between sites, are identified as key elements of success. The context of the study is a relatively undemanding but common distributed development context, and the issues raised and strategies found to be effective are likely to be relevant to broader distributed development enterprises.

  • 23.
    Lings, Brian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Sch. of Eng., Comp. Sci. and Math., University of Exeter.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Method in Action and Method in Tool: some implications for CASE2004In: ICEIS 2004: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems / [ed] I. Seruca, J. Filipe, S. Hammoudi, J. Cordeiro, INSTICC Press, 2004, p. 623-628Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Lings, Brian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    On Transferring a Method into a Usage Situation2004In: Information Systems Research: Relevant Theory and Informed Practice / [ed] Bonnie Kaplan, Duane P. Truex III, David Wastell, A. Trevor Wood-Harper, Janice I. DeGross, Springer, 2004, p. 535-553Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Lings, Brian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ågerfalk, Pär J.
    Lero - University of Limerick, Ireland / Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Fitzgerald, Brian
    Lero - University of Limerick, Ireland.
    A reference model for successful Distributed Development of Software Systems2007In: Second IEEE International Conference on Global Software Engineering, 2007. ICGSE 2007, IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 130-139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed development (DD) of software systems is an issue of increasing significance for organisations today, all the more so given the current trend towards globalisation. In this paper we present a reference model which can be used as a reference point for any company wishing to review their own DD scenario. This is particularised in two forms, one as an exemplar model for a global (GSD) development scenario and one as a particularisation of this for intra-national DD scenarios. By drawing from eight case-studies on DD, we present ten general strategies for successful DD together with our reference model which characterises an ideal DD situation.

  • 26.
    Lings, Brian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ågerfalk, Pär J.
    University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Brian
    University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
    Ten Strategies for Successful Distributed Development2006In: The Transfer and Diffusion of Information Technology for Organizational Resilience: IFIP TC8 WG 8.6 International Working Conference, June 7–10, 2006, Galway, Ireland / [ed] Brian Donnellan, Tor J. Larsen, Linda Levine, Janice I. DeGross, Springer, 2006, p. 119-137Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of the field of distributed development of software systems and applications (DD). Based on an analysis of the published literature, including its use in different industrial contexts, we provide a preliminary analysis that structures existing DD knowledge, indicating opportunities but identifying threats to communication, coordination, and control caused by temporal distance, geographical distance, and socio-cultural distance. An analysis of the case and field study literature has been used to identify strategies considered effective for countering the identified threats. The paper synthesizes from these a set of 10 general strategies for successful DD which, if adopted, should lead to increased company resilience.

  • 27.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Forssten, Bo
    TeliaSonera.
    Gamalielsson, Jonas
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Gustavsson, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Karlsson, Robert
    SSAB.
    Lennerholt, Christian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Mattsson, Anders
    Combitech.
    Olsson, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Exploring health within OSS ecosystems2009In: Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Building Sustainable Open Source Communities / [ed] Hammouda, Imed, Aaltonen, Timo, Capiluppi, Andrea., Tampere University of Technology , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open Source Software (OSS) is software which can be freely used, modified and redistributed, generally produced in a collaborative fashion by global communities of firms and individuals. In this paper we consider OSS ecosystems using an analytical device which we refer to as the OSS Stakeholder triangle. We believe that the OSS Stakeholder triangle constitues a useful means for analysing many aspects of Open Source ecosystems, including interaction between stakeholder roles and the overall health of an ecosystem.

  • 28.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Active Support for ER Modelling1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A commonly used methodology in the design of a database system is to use the ER Model for the conceptual design together with the RDM during the implementation phase. This methodology requires that a mapping between the two data models be performed.

    This paper addresses the `lost semantics' problem caused by the impedance mismatch between the two models and reports on a prototype system which has been developed in order to bridge this gap. The aim of the system is to provide a tool for preserving the semantics of a conceptually rich model when automatically translating it into a working system.

    The graph oriented approach suggested by Dogac [Dog90] makes use of the implicit information from the ER Schema when identifying the correct update propagations. They suggest a preprocessor which must be run on all applications for this automatic generation of relational code. We take this a stage further and suggest how, using the

    emerging active technology of new DBMS, the techniques can be used to provide full, automatic and centralised support for an ER design. Details of an initial prototype (for non-active systems) and a refined prototype (for the latest release of a system, with triggers) are provided.

    There are a number of aspects to the architecture which has been developed: it is multi-level, for targeting different database systems; it preserves the ER Model in the working system; it can be used for both active and passive database systems. The early (passive) prototype has been designed to run on top of the commercial RDBMS

    INFORMIX. Work on both the passive and active designs targets the commercial RDBMS INFORMIX; the active design uses a general intermediate form of ECA rule as a target for translation.

  • 29.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. School of Engineering, Computer Science and Mathematics, University of Exeter, England.
    Changing perceptions of CASE-technology2004In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 72, no 2, p. 271-280Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The level to which CASE technology has been successfully deployed in IS and software development organisations has been at best variable. Much has been written about an apparent mismatch between user expectations of the technology and the products which are developed for the growing marketplace. In this paper we explore how this tension has developed over time, with the aim of identifying and characterising the major factors contributing to it. We identify three primary themes: volatility and plurality in the marketplace; the close relationship between tools and development methods; and the context sensitivity of feature assessment. By exploring the tension and developing these themes we hope to further the debate on how to improve evaluation of CASE prior to adoption.

  • 30.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    How open are local government documents in Sweden?: A case for open standards2010In: Open Source Software: New Horizons: 6th International IFIP WG 2.13 Conference on Open Source Systems, OSS 2010, Notre Dame, IN, USA, May 30 – June 2, 2010. Proceedings / [ed] Pär Ågerfalk, Cornelia Boldyreff, Jesús M. González-Barahona, Gregory R. Madey, John Noll, Springer, 2010, p. 177-187Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is in Europe an increasing recognition of the need for governmental organisations to support and promote the effective curation of electronic data, including public documents, for easy public access and reuse. Such a vision can stand in stark contrast with reality. In this paper we address the question: to what extent are local government documents preserved electronically for discovery and re-use? Our goal is to establish the level to which calls for the greater use of open document standards is being heeded, and to understand the potential consequences of not heeding the advice. We find that availability of electronic copies of documents is very variable, and accessibility is poor. In particular, there is little evidence of policy to maintain electronic copies of documents, and little awareness of open standards and their importance in data curation. This is in stark contrast to state central Government policy. The study highlights a lack of strategy in organisations regarding the effective curation of electronic data.

  • 31.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. School of Engineering, Computer Science and Mathematics, University of Exeter, England.
    Method in Action and Method in Tool: a Stakeholder Perspective2004In: JIT. Journal of information technology (Print), ISSN 0268-3962, E-ISSN 1466-4437, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 215-223Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tool support for information systems (IS) development can be considered from many perspectives, and it is not surprising that different stakeholders perceive such tools very differently. This can contribute on one side to poor selection processes and ineffective deployment of CASE, and on another to inappropriate tool development. In this paper, the relationship between CASE-tools and IS development methods is considered from three stakeholder perspectives: concept developer, IS developer and product developer. These perspectives, and the tensions between them, are characterised within a 'stakeholder triangle'. Some of the major issues related to each tension are highlighted, and the triangle is then used to consider the importance, and implications for all stakeholders, of considering all tensions together. In particular, we suggest that the concept of 'method in action' be complemented by that of 'method in tool'. We believe that these insights will contribute to the continuing debate on how to reduce adoption failures.

  • 32.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    On mehod support for developing pre-usage evaluation frameworks for case-tools1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider the issue of providing method support for evaluation of CASE tools. The importance of this issue is indicated by the high percentage of CASE tools which are purchased but rarely or never used. We consider the issue of CASE evaluation, and report on an extensive study of related literature, the goal of which was to identify key issues in developing reliable frameworks for evaluation. A number of weaknesses were found in available method support for evaluation where the goal was successful adoption. These weaknesses are highlighted in the paper. The claims for a recently proposed method in this area are then analysed for impact in each of the highlighted areas. It is found that the qualitative approach used in the method, and its emphasis on iterative, holistic refinement, offer significant methodological advantage.

  • 33.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. School of Engineering, Computer Science and Mathematics, University of Exeter, England.
    On Understanding Evaluation of Tool Support for IS Development2004In: Ajis: Australasian Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 1449-8618, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 39-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluation of IS tools has received considerable attention in the literature, yet no consensus is apparent on characterising the important dimensions of an evaluation process. From an analysis of the literature, we identify a weakness in extant methods to support evaluation activities, and posit a framework for IS tool evaluation. We conclude that there is a need for enriched method support to deal with the complex socio-technical issues involved in the summative assessment of IS tools.

  • 34.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Open Document Formats for a Sustainable Swedish e-Government Strategy: Policy and Practice in Swedish Municipalities2010In: Electronic Government and Electronic Participation / [ed] Chappelet, J.-L., Linz: TRAUNER Verlag, 2010, p. 19-26Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong movement in Europe to promote effective e-Government, with directives and proposals at European and national levels. There is in particular recognition of the need for all governmental organisations to support easy public access to electronic copies of public documents, both for discovery and for reuse. In this paper we consider the extent to which local government documents in Sweden are being preserved electronically. We find that the high level vision stands in stark contrast with reality, with availability of electronic copies of documents very variable, and accessibility poor. In particular, we find little evidence of policy at local government level to maintain electronic copies of documents, and little awareness of the importance of open standards in data curation. The study highlights a lack of strategy, leading to significant electronic data loss even after only ten years.

  • 35.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Openness to Standard Document Formats in Swedish Public Sector Organisations2009In: Open Source Ecosystems: Diverse Communities Interacting: 5th IFIP WG 2.13 International Conference on Open Source Systems, OSS 2009, Skövde, Sweden, June 3-6, 2009. Proceedings / [ed] Cornelia Boldyreff, Kevin Crowston, Björn Lundell, Anthony I. Wasserman, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, 299, p. 320-329Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a strong movement in Europe to promote products that support open, well-documented standards. Directives and proposals at European and national levels have been developed in this area. There is in particular an increasing recognition of the need for governmental organisations to support and promote standard document formats. This vision can stand in stark contrast with the reality of those document formats which can currently be accepted and produced by those organisations. In this paper we address the question: to what extent can and do Swedish governmental organisations respond appropriately when presented with a document in a format that conforms to an open standard? We find that a small minority of organisations can actually do so, whereas all are willing and able to accept documents in a proprietary format. The study also highlights a lack of transparency in organisations regarding formats which should be accepted and used for communication with the general public.

  • 36.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    The use of Grounded Theory for evaluation and selection of CASE tools: A note on its applicability1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of evaluating CASE-tools and adopting a suitable tool for each specific situation within organisations is widely recognised as a difficult task. We view it as complex decision making involving a large number of factors. In this paper we address the problem in the light of the recently published ISO standard for evaluation and selection of CASE-tools. The contribution of this paper is threefold. Firstly, we provide a critique of selected parts of the standard, thereby describing our current interpretation of it. Secondly, we discuss the nature and difficulty of complex decision making, thereby relating our own experiences in the light of this standard. Thirdly, we stress the usability of a qualitative methodology within this framework, and motivate why Grounded Theory may be appropriate for use within this complex decision making process. In this way, we hope to illuminate the references to Grounded Theory which appear in an annexe to the standard. To support our standpoint, we provide empirical results from a commercial system in a related area that has applied Grounded Theory for complex decision making in diffuse domains.

  • 37.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Gustafsson, Per-Ola
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    CASE-tool support for organisational requirements: An experience report1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore the issue of evaluation related to the selection of CASE tools. In particular, we consider the criteria for assessment in the light of the 1995 ISO standard for evaluation and selection of CASE tools. The application area is information systems development for supporting quality control in the car manufacturing industry. We take the results of an empirically based study, in the form of a critical set of evaluation criteria, and use them in a pilot evaluation of two commercial CASE tools. It is found that the identified evaluation criteria give significant insights into the merits and demerits of the tools tested, and compare favorably for the task with the criteria identified in the standard. The pilot also allowed reflection on the criteria, and assisted in their further refinement.

  • 38.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Gustafsson, Per-Ola
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Method support for developing evaluation frameworks for CASE tool evaluation1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Whatever CASE tools are developed to support database applications development, the process of tool selection will continue to be a major factor influencing successful adoption. In this paper we consider the necessary organisational preparation for CASE tool selection, describing a method for the development of an evaluation framework which is based on application requirements. The proposed method offers organisations considering CASE tool adoption an important complement to current practice, as exemplified in the 1995 ISO standard for CASE tool evaluation. We report on a field study which exemplifies the use of this method in an organisational setting.

  • 39.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Gustafsson, Per-Ola
    University of Skövde, Department of Computer Science.
    Qualitative methods in the evaluation of CASE-tools: Facilitating IS development for the manufacturing industry1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we address the issue of evaluation related to the selection of CASE tools. In particular, we consider the problem of developing criteria for assessment in the light of the recently published ISO standard for evaluation and selection of CASE tools. Earlier work identified a lack of methodological support for this important phase of the evaluation process, and suggested that a Grounded Theory approach would offer a sound basis for, and insights into this phase. We report on a case study which tests this claim in the context of a complex domain: information systems development for supporting quality control in the car manufacturing industry.

  • 40.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindqvist, Edvin
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Open source in Swedish companies: where are we?2010In: Information Systems Journal, ISSN 1350-1917, E-ISSN 1365-2575, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 519-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open Source (OS) is a phenomenon of increasing significance for organizations, offering the prospect of effective alternative business solutions and new business opportunities. A number of surveys have been conducted in various countries with the purpose of understanding the state of practice with respect to OS in companies. In this paper we report on a study of the perceptions of OS and the uptake of OS products and development models in Swedish companies. The study used purposeful sampling of companies that have an expressed intererst in OS, and the survey was conducted using a set of pre-prepared questions. Its goal was to investigate the extent to which OS has influenced business thinking, as seen from the standpoint of stakeholders. We found that uptake is much higher than reported in earlier studies, but as with previous studies, activity is still concentrated in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). There is increased evidence of interest beyond the simple use of OS components at the infrastructure level. Further, a significant proportion of the companies studied are supporting the OS community as well as benefiting from it. Support includes participation in existing projects and the release of new software under OS licenses. 

  • 41.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lindqvist, Edvin
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Perceptions and uptake of open source in Swedish organisations2006In: Open Source Systems: IFIP Working Group 2.13 Foundation on Open Source Software, June 8–10, 2006, Como, Italy / [ed] Ernesto Damiani, Brian Fitzgerald, Walt Scacchi, Marco Scotto, Giancarlo Succi, Springer, 2006, p. 155-163Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many different ways in which Open Source ideas can be adopted by business, and influence the way in which companies do business. A number of different surveys have been conducted in different countries with the purpose of understanding the state of practice with respect to Open Source in companies. A number of different business models have been observed, ranging from the use of Open Source infrastructure products to basing a company's entire business model on Open Source. In this paper we report on a study of the perceptions of Open Source and the uptake of open source products and development models in Swedish companies. We investigate this from the standpoint of stakeholders in those companies which have an expressed interest in Open Source, allowing a more in-depth analysis of the extent to which Open Source has influenced business thinking. From our analysis we find that uptake is much higher than reported in earlier studies, but is still concentrated in SMEs, consistent with the findings of previous studies. There is increased evidence of interest beyond,the simple use of OS components at the (LAMP) infrastructure level. In particular, a significant proportion of the companies are in a symbiotic relationship with the OS community, supporting both through participation in existing projects and the release of new software under OS licences.

  • 42.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lings, Brian
    School of Engineering, Computer Science and Mathematics, Department of Computer Science, University of Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Mattsson, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Combitech Systems AB, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ärlig, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Combitech Systems AB, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Taking steps to improve working practice: a company experience of method transfer2004In: Taking steps to improve working practice: a company experience of method transfer / [ed] Brian Fitzgerald & Eleanor Wynn, Springer, 2004, p. 173-178Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Persson, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Open Source in the embedded systems domain: company perceptions of trust and quality2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Persson, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Mattsson, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    UML model interchange in heterogeneous tool environments: an analysis of adoptions of XMI 22006In: ACM/IEEE 9th International Conference on Model Driven Engineering Languages and Systems: MoDELS 2006, 2006, p. 619-630Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterogeneous tool environments are often a reality and it is therefore increasingly important to be able to interchange model information between tools. This is not only true concerning the natural heterogeneity resulting from distributed development contexts; the need may also arise in a tool chain and for legacy reasons. Without this possibility, there is significantly reduced flexibility, and a danger of tool lock-in. In this study we explore the use of the standardised interchange format XMI for supporting interchange of model information between heterogeneous tools. We report on the current state regarding XMI version 2.0 and greater. We find that there seems to be better support for model interchange using XMI 2.0 than for earlier versions of XMI, and speculate that one contributing factor may be the recent integrations of the Eclipse platform in UML modelling tools.

  • 45.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Open source software in complex domains: Current perceptions in the embedded systems area2008In: Proceedings of the Fourteenth Americas conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2008, AIS Electronic Library (AISeL) , 2008, p. 3449-3455Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With Nokia´s 770 and N800 Internet Tablets heavily utlilising Open Source software, it is timely to ask whether - and if so to what extent - Open Source has made ingress into complex application domains such as embedded systems. In this paper we report on a qualitative study of perceptions of Open Source software in the secondary software sector, and in particular companies deploying embedded software. Although the sector is historically associated in Open Source software studies with uptake of embedded Linux. we find broader acceptance. The level of reasoning about Open Source quality and trust issues found was commensurate with that expressed in the literature. The classical strengths of Open Source, namely mass inspection, ease of conducting trials, longevity and source code access for debugging, were at the forefront of thinking. However, there was an acknowledgement that more guidelines were needed for assessing and incorporating Open Source software in products.

  • 46.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ågerfalk, Pär J.
    University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Brian
    University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland.
    The distributed open source software development model: Observations on communication, coordination and control2006In: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Information Systems, ECIS 2006, Göteborgs Universitet , 2006, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many reasons why an organisation should consider adopting distributed development of software systems and applications, including access to a larger labour pool and a broader skills base, cost advantages, and round the clock working. However, distributed development presents many challenges stemming from the complexity of maintaining good communication, coordination and control when teams are dispersed in time (e.g. across time zones) and space, as well as socio-culturally. The open source software (OSS) development model is distributed by nature, and many OSS developments are considered success stories. The question therefore arises of whether traditional distributed development models can be improved by transfer of successful practice from OSS development models. In this paper we compare OSS with traditional distributed development models using a framework-based analysis of the extant literature. From our analysis we find that the advantages of temporal and geographical distance dominate in OSS, rather than their associated problems. Further, socio-cultural distance is lowered by active developer selection. However, there is a challenge to satisfying project goals when personal goals dominate.

  • 47.
    Lundell, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Persson, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Learning through practical involvement in the OSS ecosystem: experiences from a Masters assignment,2007In: The Third International Conference on Open Source Systems OSS 2007, 2007, p. 289-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased awareness of and interest in Open Source has led to a number of university teaching initiatives, at both national and European level. In this paper we present experiences from a practical assignment designed to give students on an Open Source Masters course an insight into real involvement in Open Source projects. It discusses the motivations for the assignment, and how it was set up and executed. It reports on post facto student feedback, and reflects on a parallel, reduced exercise offered at undergraduate level. We find that the learning experience was both positive and valuable in that it gave real insight into Open Source participation, and also encouraged further participation in Open Source projects by students after the course had completed.

  • 48.
    Mattsson, Anders
    et al.
    Combitech AB, Sweden and University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Fitzgerald, Brian
    Univ Limerick, Lero Irish Software Engn Res Ctr, Limerick, Ireland .
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    An Approach for Modeling Architectural Design Rules in UML and its Application to Embedded Software2012In: ACM Transactions on Software Engineering and Methodology, ISSN 1049-331X, E-ISSN 1557-7392, Vol. 21, no 2, article id Article 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current techniques for modeling software architecture do not provide sufficient support for modeling architectural design rules. This is a problem in the context of model-driven development in which it is assumed that major design artifacts are represented as formal or semi-formal models. This article addresses this problem by presenting an approach to modeling architectural design rules in UML at the abstraction level of the meaning of the rules. The high abstraction level and the use of UML makes the rules both amenable to automation and easy to understand for both architects and developers, which is crucial to deployment in an organization. To provide a proof-of-concept, a tool was developed that validates a system model against the architectural rules in a separate UML model. To demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, the architectural design rules of an existing live industrial-strength system were modeled according to the approach.

  • 49.
    Mattsson, Anders
    et al.
    Combitech AB, P.O. Box 1017, SE-551 11 JÖNKÖPING, Sweden .
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Modelling architectural design rules in UML2008In: Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Exploring Modeling Methods for Systems Analysis and Design (EMMSAD'08), CEUR , 2008, p. 71-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current techniques for modelling software architecture do not support the modelling of architectural design rules, which are recognized as important design artefacts by current research in software architecture. This is a problem in the context of Model-Driven Development in which it is assumed that major design artecacts are represented as formal or semi-formal models. This paper addresses this problem by proposing how architectural design rules could be expressed in UML in a meta-model for the system model.

  • 50.
    Mattsson, Anders
    et al.
    Combitech AB, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Fitzgerald, brian
    Lero – the Irish Software Engineering Research Centre, University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Experiences from representing software architecture in a large industrial project using model driven development2007In: International Conference on Software Engineering: Proceedings of the Second Workshop on SHAring and Reusing architectural Knowledge Architecture, Rationale, and Design Intent, IEEE Computer Society, 2007, article id 4273346Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A basic idea of Model Driven Development (MDD) is to capture all important design information in a set of formal or semi formal models that are automatically kept consistent by tools. This paper reports on industrial experience from use of MDD and shows that the approach needs improvements regarding the architecture since there are no suggested ways to formalize design rules which are an important part of the architecture. Instead, one has to rely on time consuming and error prone manual interpretations, reviews and reworkings to keep the system consistent with the architecture. To reap the full benefits of MDD it is therefore important to find ways of formalizing design rules to make it possible to allow automatic enforcement of the architecture on the system model.

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