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  • 1.
    Bergman, Christian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Swerea IVF AB, Stockholm.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moestam, Lena
    Volvo Trucks GTT, Gothenburg.
    A tool to assist and evalute workstation design2013In: Proceedings of NES 2013, 45th Nordic Ergonomics & Human Factors Society conference, Iceland, August 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It can be argued that it is common that industrial workstations are “built” rather than purposefully designed with user and task requirements in mind. Afterwards, built-in problems typically need to be corrected, causing undesired costs and efforts. With the objective to assist workstation designers in avoiding most problems already in the design phase, a design support tool is being developed. The paper argues the need for such a tool and presents the fundamental tool functionality. Expected advantages are more efficient and ergonomic workstations and a more efficient design process with built-in learning and documentation.

  • 2.
    Bergman, Christian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Swerea IVF AB, Gothernburg, Sweden.
    Moestam, Lena
    Volvo Group Trucks Operations, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A Library Based Tool to Assist the Generative Activity in Workstation Design2014In: Advances in Ergonomics in Design, Usability & Special Populations: Part II / [ed] Francisco Rebelo and Marcelo Soares, AHFE Conference , 2014, p. 206-214Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Brolin, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Case, Keith
    Inadequate presented information and its effect on the cognitive workload2011In: Manufacturing Sustainability: Proceedings of the 28th International Manufacturing Conference (IMC 28) / [ed] Geraghty, J & Young, P, 2011, p. 121-129Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Brolin, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Case, Keith
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Use of kitting to ease assemblers' cognitive workload2011In: Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Nordic Ergonomics Society Conference, University of Oulu , 2011, p. 77-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The higher level of product variation in the automotive industry leads to an increasing workload for the assembler that has to search, fetch and assemble all the variants. This puts high demands on the information that is given to the assembler to fulfil the assembly task. This paper describes the impact of information overload and sources, and their influence on the assembler. Through observations conducted in the Swedish automotive industry, the study has shown that the assembly personnel perceive the kit as structured information and that structured kits are able to present distinct information at a certain place to the assembler, which in turn reduces the searching, resulting in decreased cognitive workload.

  • 5.
    Brolin, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Case, Keith
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kitting as an information source in manual assembly2012In: Advances in Ergonomics in Manufacturing / [ed] Stefan Trzcieliński & Waldemar Karwowski, CRC Press, 2012, p. 346-353Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In manual assembly, a strategy to meet the goal of efficient production is the increased use of kitting as a material supply principle. Even though kitting is already implemented in industry, there are still uncertainties regarding the effects of introducing kits, particularly from a human factors perspective.

    This paper presents initial steps in the development of a method to be used for the evaluation of kitting. This from an information source point of view and for studying effects related to productivity and quality. The methodology is projected to act as a foundation for how to carry out a subsequent comprehensive case study. The purpose of the case study is to explore how kitting affects the cognitive workload compared to the ordinary material rack combined with part numbers used in the current manufacturing industry. This is done by measuring productivity; time spent on assembling a product, and quality; number of assembly errors. One step in the methodology development process, which is described in this paper, was to conduct a pilot study, primarily to test the methodology related to the selection of measurement parameters, as well as for getting experiences from running the methodology with real test subjects.

  • 6.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Information Flow and Product Quality in Human Based Assembly2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information is an important part of the manual assembly process. Information provides the user with the means to fulfil assembly tasks so that the right quality as well as high productivity are accomplished. This thesis addresses issues connected to information and information use in a modern manual assembly environment, and how these issues affect human operators, quality and productivity. The overall objectives of the research were to gain further knowledge on how attention affects the internal reject rate, to investigate these phenomena in industrial and laboratory environments and finally to propose a suitable evaluation method to be utilised at the design stage of an information system.

    Studies were performed with the purpose of investigating how the assembly personnel were affected by the information and how it affected quality and productivity. The studies were performed in an assembly plant and in the laboratory. Quantitative data collection included 10 days and nights of production where the information impact on quality was investigated. Connected to this study was a qualitative survey performed among 171 persons from the assembly personnel. The laboratory study took place during three days, approximately eight hours each day. It involved 30 persons, all experienced assembly workers from the reference assembly plant. The focus of this study was how information affected the personnel and thereby the productivity.

    The findings revealed that information affected the quality rates and productivity and that this can be linked to how the information is presented as well as when the information is presented. It was possible to link these findings to the outcome of a successful information search process, and to conclude that a use of an evaluation method or work process during the product lifecycle could have made it possible to avoid some of the problems connected to the information presentation. This is the basis for a proposed pragmatic evaluation method. The method was tested as a support system during the design of a prototype user interface to be used at the pilot plant.

    The major contribution of this research is the connection between attention and quality as well as the connection between attention and productivity. Knowledge regarding the importance of presenting the information at the right time must also be regarded as an important and proven contribution.

  • 7.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Intuitiv montering2012In: Teknik och tillväxt, no 2, p. 24-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Swerea IVF AB, Stockholm.
    Bergman, Christian
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moestam, Lena
    Volvo Trucks GTT, Gothenburg.
    Lean and its impact on workplace design2013In: Proceedings of NES 2013, 45th Nordic Ergonomics & Human Factors Society conference, Iceland, August 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean analyses and following corrections of workstations are typically performed reactively, i.e. solving problems that already exist. However, there are benefits of enhanced proactivity related to the consideration of lean and human factors, as this would reduce the need for updating workstations. The approach presented here utilises a company specific, reactive lean evaluation methodology, but applied proactively, in the workstation design phase. Results gave that many assessment items in fact can be proactively addressed. This way, ergonomic and lean workstations that support quality, performance and wellbeing for a diversity of workers, can be built right the first time.

  • 9.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    De Vin, Leo
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Case, Keith
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Attention, Interpreting, Decision-Making and Acting in Manual Assembly2006In: IMC23, 2006, p. 165-172Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    De Vin, Leo
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Case, Keith
    Parameters Affecting Quality in Manual Assembly of Engines2005In: IMC 22: challenges facing manufacturing : proceedings of the 22nd International Manufacturing Conference, 31st August to 2nd September 2005 / [ed] John Vickery, Dublin: Institute of Technology Tallaght , 2005, p. 395-402Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Variants = Customer value?2010In: Standards News Magazine, no 2, p. 17-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    De Vin, Leo
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Case, Keith
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Piamonte, Paul
    Volvo Technology Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ergonomics Analysis in a Virtual Environment2006In: Proceedings of the International Manufacturing Conference, IMC 23, 2006, p. 165-172Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK / Volvo Powertrain Sweden, Skövde, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    De Vin, Leo J.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Case, Keith
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Piamonte, Paul
    Volvo Technology Corporation, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Ergonomics analysis in a virtual environment2007In: International Journal of Manufacturing Research, ISSN 1750-0591, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 198-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation can support the design of an ergonomic workplace by enabling early assessment of ergonomic conditions in a virtual environment. An important feature is the possibility to study alternative solutions or the effect of improvements from an ergonomics perspective. To be able to conduct an efficient and reliable evaluation in a virtual environment, an objective analysis method is essential. Such an analysis method should be integrated in the simulation software, and support a company's everyday ergonomics work process. In order to gain from existing ergonomics knowledge within a company, the possibility to implement such wisdom in the current simulation software becomes important. This paper presents an implementation work done with the purpose of integrating an established ergonomics work process into a virtual environment. It describes the benefits of an ergonomics work process where simulation and evaluation at early stages of a design process are key factors. The paper will also describe the integration process, i.e., the technical issues as well as the change in work methods.

  • 14.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Lämkull, Dan
    Volvo Car Corporation, Manufacturing Engineering, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    De Vin, Leo J.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Case, Keith
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Reduction of ergonomics design flaws through virtual methods2007In: Proceedings of the 39th annual Nordic Ergonomic Society Conference, Lysekil, Sweden, October 1-3, 2007 (NES 2007) CD-ROM, Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A work method for product and production system development that includes virtual methods for ergonomics analysis is presented and argued.The proposed work method is described and illustrated with an example,which the authors believe shows how a virtual work method can contribute to a better workplace design, and thereby, if utilised, would have prevented some of the design flaws that existed in the actual final product design in the example. This paper will also present the outcome, gain, and setbacks that are connected to the use of virtual work analysis methods within a design process.

  • 15.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Möller, S.
    Volvo Information Technology AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    De Vin, Leo
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Sundin, A.
    National Institute for Working Life - West, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Case, Keith
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    A Roadmap Towards Cost Calculation Methods Connected to Ergonomics Analysis and Simulation2005In: Ergonomics as a tool in future development and value creation : proceedings: NES2005 in Oslo - Norway, Nordic Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Conference, 10-12 October 2005 / [ed] Bo Veiersted, Knut Inge Fostervold, Kristian S. Gould, Oslo: Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2005, p. 312-316Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    De Vin, Leo J.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Case, Keith
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    The impact of information presentation on work environment and product quality: A case study2008In: Ergonomics is a lifestyle = Vinnuvistfræði er lífstíll: NES 2008 : abstracts, Kópavogur: Vinnuvistfræðifélag Íslands , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Swerea IVF.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Nylén, Ulf
    University of Skövde, External Relations and Communication Office.
    Flexibel montering möter industrins utmaningar2013In: Teknik och tillväxt, no 3, p. 5-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Case, Keith
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    De Vin, Leo J.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    An assembly line information system study2008In: Advances in manufacturing technology - XXII: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Manufacturing Research (ICMR2008) / [ed] Kai Cheng, Harris Makatsoris & David Harrison, Uxbridge: Brunel University , 2008, p. 181-188Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    et al.
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden / Product and Production Development Department, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Fässberg, Tommy
    Product and Production Development Department, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brolin, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire, England.
    Gullander, Per
    Swerea IVF AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Production complexity and its impact on manning2011In: Manufacturing Sustainability: Proceedings of the 28th International Manufacturing Conference (IMC 28) / [ed] J. Geraghty, P. Young, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Harlin, Ulrika
    et al.
    Department of Product Realization, Swerea IVF AB, Sweden / Department of Product and Production development, Chalmers University, Sweden.
    Gullander, Per
    Department of Product Realization, Swerea IVF AB, Sweden.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Department of Product Realization, Swerea IVF AB, Sweden.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moestam, Lena
    AB Volvo, Sweden.
    Flexible balancing of assembly systems and its impact on performance and human factors – a scenario-based analysis2013In: Proceedings of NES 2013, 45th Nordic Ergonomics & Human Factors Society conference, Iceland, August 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased production complexity challenges traditional methods for planning  and  preparation  of  assembly.  This  paper  addresses alternative approaches for assembly line balancing and an assembly plant  area  was  studied  in  a  cross-disciplinary  scenario-based analysis. Results show that the complexity in products, operations, flow, and organisation increases setting new demands on developing line balancing methods, including meeting the requirements and understanding the impact, e.g. competences, organization, support functions. Further research is suggested for increase knowledge of what impact different line balancing concepts has on performance, human work and working conditions as well as development of strategies and guiding principles for dynamic planning.

  • 21.
    Högberg, Dan
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Limkull, Dan
    De Vin, Leo
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Case, Keith
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Örtengren, Roland
    Hansson, Lars
    Berlin, Cecilia
    Towards Dynamic Ergonomics Analysis of Work Sequences inVirtual Environments2007In: the 17th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, FAIM 2007, 2007, p. 581-588Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Thorvald, Peter
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Case, Keith
    Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Syntax and Sequencing of Assembly Instructions2012In: Advances in Usability Evaluation: Part II / [ed] Francesco Rebelo & Marcelo M. Soares, CRC Press, 2012, p. 266-275Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Minimalism of design is a concept often found in Human-computer interaction (HCI). It is a concept that emphasizes the presentation of as little information as possible to reduce the perceptual strain and visual search of the subject. However, in a manufacturing context, such as in manual assembly, state of the art information presentation is rarely minimalistic. Rather, organizations tend to push out as much information as possible without necessarily concerning themselves with how this information is presented to, or perceived by, the worker. This leads to a situation that is far from ideal from an HCI perspective, likely to reduce human performance and wellbeing, in turn negatively affecting overall production system performance. Obviously, there are several potential ways of addressing this issue. Perhaps the most evident way is to simply reduce the amount of information that is presented and only present the essentials. This paper will investigate and discuss how information presentation can be minimized without reducing the information content through information syntax and layout.

  • 23.
    Thorvald, Peter
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    de Vin, Leo
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Case, Keith
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Demands on technology from a human automatism perspective in manual assembly2008In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing, FAIM2008, Skövde, Sweden, June 30 - July 2 / [ed] Leo J. De Vin, Amos H. C. Ng, Peter Thorvald, W. G. Sullivan & M. M. Ahmad, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2008, p. 632-638Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Thorvald, Peter
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Bäckstrand, Gunnar
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    de Vin, Leo
    Case, Keith
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Information Presentation in Manual Assembly – A Cognitive Ergonomics Analysis2008In: Ergonomics is a lifestyle = Vinnuvistfræði er lífstíll: NES 2008 : abstracts, Kópavogur: Vinnuvistfræðifélag Íslands , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In current practice, information is often presented to the operators under the false belief that more information leads to better quality. However, one must consider the cognitive capacity limitations of the human operator and design information systems based on these constraints. Important questions include what medium to use; audio, visual, paper based or computer screen systems? Also the syntax in terms of symbols and text, together with information content and the formatting of the system are important factors that will require much focus to result in a good information system. The paper describes a case where paper-based assembly instructions of a major automotive company have been studied, focusing on information design and cognitive ergonomics in information seeking behaviour. Within the case study, the paper-based information system has been evaluated with two focuses: automatic information behaviour (automatism) and consistency of information presentation in the operator graphical user interface (GUI). It is suggested that systems that do not offer clear and easy-to-find entry points to information will eventually cause quality issues in production.

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