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  • 1.
    Amorim, Joni A.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Hendrix, Maurice
    Coventry University Technology Park, Coventry, UK.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Llinas, James
    State University of New York at Buffalo, USA.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Försvarshögskolan, Militärvetenskapliga institutionen (MVI), Ledningsvetenskapliga avdelningen (LVA).
    Brodin, Martin
    Actea Consulting, Sweden.
    Cyber Security Training Perspectives2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building comprehensive cyber security strategies to protect people, infrastructure and assets demands research on methods and practices to reduce risks. Once the methods and practices are identified, there is a need to develop training for the manystakeholders involved, from security experts to the end user. In thispaper, we discuss new approaches for training, which includes the development of serious games for training on cyber security. The identification of the theoretical framework to be used for situation and threat assessment receives special consideration.

  • 2.
    Amorim, Joni A.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Yano, Edgar T.
    Department of Computer Science, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, São José dos Campos, Brazil.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Combitech, SAAB Group, Skövde.
    Awareness and training: Identification of relevant security skills and competencies2014In: Engineering Education in a Technology-Dependent World: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Claudio da Rocha Brito, Melany M. Ciampi, Guimarães: INTERTECH , 2014, , p. 57p. 37-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to identify needed skills and competencies for privacy and security, we propose a systematic process that maps privacy and security threats to related controls that are required to prevent, detect or remove such threats. This work suggests how to apply the process, while discussing how games and simulations can be used both to develop the desired behavior and to monitor the current competency level.

  • 3.
    Amorim, Joni A.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Saab Training Systems, Saab AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Saab Training Systems, Saab AB Skövde, Sweden.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Privacy and Security in Cyberspace: Training Perspectives on the Personal Data Ecosystem2013In: European Intelligence and Security Informatics Conference (EISIC), Proceedings CD / [ed] Joel Brynielsson and Fredrik Johansson, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 139-142, article id 6657140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing understanding that privacy is an essential component of security. In order to decrease the probability of having data breaches, the design of information systems,  processes  and  architectures  should  incorporate considerations  related  to  both  privacy  and  security.  This incorporation may benefit from the offering of appropriate training. In this way, this paper intends to discuss how to better offer training while considering new developments that involve both multimedia production and the “gamification” of training. The paper suggests the use in conjunction of two frameworks: the EduPMO Framework, useful for the management of large scale projects  that  may  involve  a  consortium  of  organizations developing multimedia for the offering of training, and the Game Development Framework, useful for the identification of the main components of the serious game for training on privacy by design to be developed as part of the training offering.

  • 4.
    Andler, Sten F.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Fredin, Mikael
    Saab Microwave Systems AB, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    George Mason Univ., USA.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Nilsson, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Svenson, Pontus
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    SMARTracIn: a concept for spoof resistant tracking of vessels and detection of adverse intentions2009In: Sensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Technologies for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense VIII / [ed] Edward M. Carapezza, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2009, p. 73050G-1-73050G-9, article id 73050GConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of maritime surveillance systems is to detect threats earlyenough to take appropriate actions. We present the results ofa study on maritime domain awareness performed during the fallof 2008. We analyze an identified capability gap of worldwidesurveillance in the maritime domain, and report from a userworkshop addressing the identified gap. We describe a SMARTracIn conceptsystem that integrates information from surveillance systems with background knowledgeon normal conditions to help users detect and visualize anomaliesin vessel traffic. Land-based systems that cover the coastal watersas well as airborne, space-borne and ships covering open seaare considered. Sensor data are combined with intelligence information fromship reporting systems and databases. We describe how information fusion,anomaly detection and semantic technology can be used to helpusers achieve more detailed maritime domain awareness. Human operators area vital part of this system and should be activecomponents in the fusion process. We focus on the problemof detecting anomalous behavior in ocean-going traffic, and a roomand door segmentation concept to achieve this. This requires theability to identify vessels that enter into areas covered bysensors as well as the use of information management systemsthat allow us to quickly find all relevant information.

  • 5.
    Atif, Yacine
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Ding, Jianguo
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Jeusfeld, Manfred
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Yuning, Jiang
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Brax, Christoffer
    CombiTech AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    CombiTech AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Cyber-Threat Intelligence Architecture for Smart-Grid Critical Infrastructures Protection2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructures (CIs) are becoming increasingly sophisticated with embedded cyber-physical systems (CPSs) that provide managerial automation and autonomic controls. Yet these advances expose CI components to new cyber-threats, leading to a chain of dysfunctionalities with catastrophic socio-economical implications. We propose a comprehensive architectural model to support the development of incident management tools that provide situation-awareness and cyber-threats intelligence for CI protection, with a special focus on smart-grid CI. The goal is to unleash forensic data from CPS-based CIs to perform some predictive analytics. In doing so, we use some AI (Artificial Intelligence) paradigms for both data collection, threat detection, and cascade-effects prediction. 

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  • 6.
    Blais, Curtis
    et al.
    MOVES Institute Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA.
    Gustavson, Paul
    SimVentions, Inc, Fredericksburg, VA, USA.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Reichenthal, Steven
    Boeing Corporation, Miraloma, Anaheim, CA, USA.
    An Architecture for Demonstrating the Interplay of Emerging SISO standards2006In: Fall Simulation Interoperability Workshop (FallSIW): 10-15 September 2006, Orlando, 2006, p. 441-451Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) focuses on facilitating simulation interoperability across government and non-government applications worldwide. A number of standards are emerging that will individually have great impact on the development and operation of simulation systems, as well as interoperation across simulation systems and command and control systems. More importantly, when these standards are applied together, they represent a set of capabilities and technologies which can revolutionize the simulation industry, radically improving the way we develop and deliver interoperable systems.

    Each of the following standards addresses specific needs that have been shortcomings in M&S interoperability in the past: (1) the Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) provides a way to represent the coalition battle management doctrine within a Command and Control environment to enable unambiguous expression of plans and orders for live, constructive, and robotic forces; (2) the Military Scenario Definition Language (MSDL) provides a common way to describe a scenario, including initialization information, that can be shared across multiple systems; (3) the Base Object Model (BOM) standard provides a way to identify piece parts of a simulation or model that can be used as building blocks for composing larger model sets; (4) the Simulation Reference Markup Language (SRML) provides a platform-independent way to represent behavior models which can be rendered quickly and easily (at runtime) by a simulation; and (5) the Distributed Interactive Simulation Extensible Markup Language (DIS-XML) initiative provides a way to represent DIS Protocol Data Units using XML to enhance interchange of dynamic entity state and entity interactions across diverse systems.

    This paper gives a brief overview of these key standardization efforts, and explores how each standard can interplay with other standards. The paper lays out an abstract architecture for demonstration of the composition of prototype versions of these products to show the community how they will be employed in the future and what benefits will accrue. The paper proposes a plan of action to implement the architecture for demonstration and discussion at the Spring 2007 Simulation Interoperability Workshop.

  • 7.
    Blais, Curtis
    et al.
    MOVES Institute, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, United States.
    Gustavsson, Paul
    SimVentions, Inc, Fredericksburg, VA, United States.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Saab Training Systems and Information Fusion, Skövde, Sweden / Coalition Battle Management Language Standardization, SISO, United States.
    Reichental, Steven
    Boeing Corporation, Anaheim, CA, United States / Logistics organization, Anaheim, CA, United States.
    Design and Development of an Architecture for Demonstrating the Interplay of Emerging SISO Standards2007In: Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization - Spring Simulation Interoperability Workshop 2007, 07 Spring SIW, 2007, p. 302-309Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) focuses on facilitating simulation interoperability across government and non-government applications worldwide. A number of standards are emerging that will individually have great impact on the development and operation of simulation systems, as well as interoperation across simulation systems and command and control systems. Taken together, however, the emerging standards represent a set of capabilities and technologies which can revolutionize the simulation industry, radically improving the way we develop and deliver interoperable systems.

    In the Fall 2006 Simulation Interoperability Workshop, an architecture for demonstrating the interplay of several current and emerging SISO standards was presented. The following standards were selected for development of an initial demonstration system: (1) the Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) for unambiguous expression of plans and orders for live, constructive, and robotic forces; (2) the Military Scenario Definition Language (MSDL) for describing a scenarios that can be shared across multiple systems; (3) Base Object Models (BOMs) for specifying building blocks for composing larger model sets; (4) the Simulation Reference Markup Language (SRML) for platform-independent representation of executable behavior models; and (5) the Distributed Interactive Simulation Extensible Markup Language (DIS-XML) initiative for representing DIS Protocol Data Units in XML to enhance interchange of dynamic entity state and entity interactions across diverse systems in web-based network centric architectures.

    This paper discusses how the framework can be used by the SISO community as a means for educating the community on emerging standards and as a platform for demonstration of new concepts and capabilities as a precursor to a new standardization effort. It describes work performed to design and develop an initial test case demonstrating the integration of these standards, including problems encountered, problem resolutions, lessons learned, and future work.

  • 8.
    Blais, Curtis
    et al.
    MOVES Institute Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA.
    Turnitsa, Chuck
    Virginia Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Center (VMASC) Old Dominion University, Suffolk, VA, USA.
    Gustavsson, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    A Strategy for Ontology Research for the Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) Product Development Group2006In: Fall Simulation Interoperability Workshop (FallSIW): 10-15, September 2006, Orlando, FL, US, 2006, p. 11-22Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Battle Management Language (BML) is defined as an unambiguous language for command and control of live, simulated, and robotic forces. BML has enjoyed a long history of analysis and prototype development since the mid-1990’s. From the Fall of 2004 through the Fall of 2005, the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) sponsored a Study Group to define the requirement for a Coalition BML (C-BML) to serve the needs of the US and international communities. In March 2006, the SISO Standards Advisory Council approved initiation of a Product Development Group (PDG) to generate a standard and guidance document for C-BML. The CBML PDG kicked off its activities at the Spring 2006 Simulation Interoperability Workshop in Huntsville, Alabama. The PDG has laid out a 3-phase development effort: (1) specify a sufficient data model to unambiguously define a set of military orders using the Command and Control Information Exchange Data Model (C2IEDM) as a starting point; (2) develop a formal grammar (lexicon and production rules) to formalize the definition of orders, requests, and reports; (3) develop a formal battle management ontology to enable conceptual interoperability across software systems. While a Drafting Group begins work on the Phase I standard and guidance documents, research teams in the PDG are continuing to explore and develop approaches that will meet the Phase II and Phase III product development objectives. With respect to development of a formal ontology for C-BML, there has been considerable discussion and disagreement regarding the value of pursuing this line of research. While it is generally accepted that encoding higher levels of semantic description into data models holds promise for greater capability in software to understand and work with the data, no explicit plan for how to do this in C-BML or what its value is for C-BML development, implementation, and employment has been clearly articulated. This paper seeks to clarify the discussion by describing a research plan and progress made to date toward defining the Phase III C-BML products dealing with development of a formal ontology for C-BML.

  • 9.
    Fooladvandi, Farzad
    et al.
    Saab Microwave Systems, Training systems and Information Fusion Skövde, Sweden.
    Brax, Christoffer
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Saab Microwave Systems.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Saab Microwave Systems, Training systems and Information Fusion Skövde, Sweden.
    Fredin, Mikael
    Saab Microwave Systems, Training systems and Information Fusion Skövde, Sweden.
    Signature-based activity detection based on Bayesian networks acquired from expert knowledge2009In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2009), ISIF , 2009, p. 436-443Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The maritime industry is experiencing one of its longest and fastest periods of growth. Hence, the global maritime surveillance capacity is in a great need of growth as well. The detection of vessel activity is an important objective of the civil security domain. Detecting vessel activity may become problematic if audit data is uncertain. This paper aims to investigate if Bayesian networks acquired from expert knowledge can detect activities with a signature-based detection approach. For this, a maritime pilot-boat scenario has been identified with a domain expert. Each of the scenario’s activities has been divided up into signatures where each signature relates to a specific Bayesian network information node. The signatures were implemented to find evidences for the Bayesian network information nodes. AIS-data with real world observations have been used for testing, which have shown that it is possible to detect the maritime pilot-boat scenario based on the taken approach.

     

  • 10.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Modelling, Formalising, and Implementing Intent in Command and Control Systems2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Intent is a fundamental element in military Command and Control (C2) systems. The ability for a commander to communicate Intent is vital to lead subordinates so that the overall mission is completed in the best possible way. However, the expressiveness of Intent is limited in current C2 systems. The current data exchange models are not capable of representing Intent in a machine interpretable format.

    An essential problem to overcome before Intent can be inserted into C2 systems, is to define it to a sufficient level of detail, since different definitions of Intent exist. If this problem can be overcome, the next problem is to represent Intent in such a way that it fits with existing C2 formalisms. The final problem is to what degree the proposed representation of Intent can be inserted into existing and future C2 systems.

    This thesis presents how to model and formalise Intent to such a degree that it can be communicated and automatically processed in military C2 systems. The contributions are: a literature review over Intent in C2; a model that captures and relates Intent to key information elements and processes in C2; a formalisation of Intent into a computational tractable representation covering the information elements defined in the developed model; an implementation of the model and formalism into an architectural design for Intent in C2 systems; and a series of demonstrations of the implementation in current C2 systems and simulators that show that the suggested model, formalism and implementation is suitable to represent Intent to such degree that Intent can be represented, exchanged, visualised and executed within current and forthcoming C2 systems.

  • 11.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Modeling and Simulation, Sensor and Information Networks, Ericsson Microwave Systems AB, Skövde, Sweden / De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.
    Björk, Åsa
    Modeling and Simulation, Sensor and Information Networks, Ericsson Microwave Systems AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Modeling and Simulation, Sensor and Information Networks, Ericsson Microwave Systems AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Planstedt, Tomas
    Modeling and Simulation, Sensor and Information Networks, Ericsson Microwave Systems AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Towards Service Oriented Simulations2004In: Fall Simulation Interoperability Workshop 2004: FallSIW 04, 2004, p. 219-229Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the effort to provide simulation support to the future Network Based Defence (NBD)1 that are currently being applied by the Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF), the authors opinion is that simulation should be treated as any other services and use the same architectural requirements addressed in the SwAF Enterprise Architecture (FMA)2 and in subsidiary documents.

    The choice so far for simulation is the High Level Architecture (HLA). During the author’s participation in ongoing work supporting NBD, questions have gradually been raised if HLA is the simulation path to walk. In the Core Enterprise Services (CES) and FMA Services IT-Kernel, core services are specified and HLA do address a lot of non-simulation specific services giving unwanted redundancy. However, the services already defined may with some enhancements deliver the same services addressed within CES and FMA Services IT-Kernel. Furthermore, HLA also comes with the Federation Development and Execution Process (FEDEP) that introduce process methodology to build HLA federations. Basically FEDEP is a software development process for distributed systems. The Next Generation HLA could be more than just a simulation standard if it utilizes the FMA ideas and avoids the green HLA elephant3.

    In this paper the authors present the ongoing work, as it stands today, with Service Oriented Simulations, that is an outlook for simulation using the architectural structuring, services, components and infrastructures concepts evolving in FMA and with the Global Information Grid (GIG) Enterprise Services (GES) in mind. The focus is to identify simulation services that encapsulate the core features of simulation. Thereby reducing redundancy in methodology and service as well as enabling interoperable simulation support for the whole system lifecycle – Acquisition, Development, Training, Planning, In-the-Field decision support, System removal – within NBD, entailing that the architecture for simulation is uniform regardless of its application and giving end-users the capability to focus on what to simulate instead of how to simulate.

  • 12.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    et al.
    Research and Concept Development, M&S and Information Fusion, Ericsson, Ericsson, Skövde, Sweden.
    Brax, Christoffer
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    An Agent Architecture for Multi-Hypothesis Intention Simulation: An Ontology Driven Interoperabilty Architecture2006In: The 10th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics (WMSCI 2006), International Institute of Informatics and Systemics, 2006, Vol. 4, p. 77-82Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    et al.
    Training Systems and Information Fusion, Saab, Skövde, Sweden.
    Hieb, Michael
    Center of Excellence for C4I George Mason University, VA, USA.
    Eriksson, Patric
    De Montfort University, Leicester, UK ; Gothia Science Park, Skövde, Sweden.
    Moore, Philip
    Faculty of Computing Sciences & Engineering, De Montfort University, Leicester, UK.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Machine Interpretable Representation of Commander's Intent2008In: Proceedings of the 13th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (13th ICCRTS), 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Network-Centric approach envisioned in the Global Information Grid enables the interconnection of systems in a dynamic and flexible architecture to support multi-lateral, civilian and military missions. Constantly changing environments require commanders to plan for missions that allow organizations from various nations and agencies to join or separate from the teams performing the missions, depending on the situation, as missions unfold. The uncertainty within an actual mission, and the variety of potential organizations that support the mission after it is underway, makes Command Intent (CI) a critical concept for the mission team. With new and innovative information technologies, CI can now be made available to the team of organizations in a coalition environment. Using a flexible and linguistically based approach for representing CI allows Intent to be interpreted and processed by all participants – both humans and machines. CI representations need to be able to express mission team’s purpose, the anticipated End-State of the mission and desired key tasks. In this work, the expression of CI is developed to enable the structure and dynamics of collaboration support.

  • 14.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    et al.
    Security and Defense Solutions/Training and Simulation, Saab, Sweden.
    Hieb, Michael R.
    Center of Excellence for C4I, George Mason University, United States.
    Moore, Philip
    De Montfort University, United Kingdom.
    Eriksson, Patric
    Gothia Science Park, Skövde, Sweden / De Montfort University, United Kingdom.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Operations Intent and Effects Model2011In: The Journal of Defence Modeling and Simulation: Applications, Methodology, Technology, ISSN 1548-5129, E-ISSN 1557-380X, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 37-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military missions in the 21st century are characterized by combinations of traditional symmetric conventional warfare, irregular warfare, and operations other than war. The inherent uncertainty in an actual mission and the variety of potential organizations (e.g. multi-agency, non-governmental, private volunteer, international, international corporations) from several countries that support the mission makes collaboration and co-ordination a key capability for command and control. The ability to communicate and automatically process intent and effects is vital in order for a commander to cooperate with other organizations and agencies and lead subordinates in such a way that the overall mission is completed in the best possible way, including exploitation of fleeting opportunities, i.e. enable for self-synchronization amongst teams and allow for subordinate initiatives. However, intent and effects are often absent in the current and forthcoming digitalized information models, and if intent and effects are present it is likely to be found that the representations are made as free-text fields based on natural language. However, such messages are very difficult to disambiguate, particularly for automated machine systems. The overall objective for the Operations Intent and Effects Model is to support operational and simulated systems by a conceptual intent and effects model and a formalism that is human and machine interpretable.

  • 15.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    et al.
    Saab, Sweden ; C4I Center, George Mason University, United States.
    Hieb, Michael R.
    C4I Center, George Mason University, United States.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    De Montfort University, United Kingdom.
    Eriksson, Patric
    De Montfort University, United Kingdom.
    Formalizing operations intent and effects for network-centric applications2009In: Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS: 5-8 January 2009 Waikoloa, Big Island, Hawaii / [ed] Ralph H. Sprague Jr., IEEE Computer Society, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Network-Centric approach enables systems to be interconnected in a dynamic and flexible architecture to support multi-lateral, civilian and military missions. Constantly changing environments require commanders to plan for more flexible missions that allow organizations from various nations and agencies to join or separate from the teams performing the missions, depending on the situation. The uncertainty inherent in an actual mission, and the variety of potential organizations that support the mission after it is underway, makes Command Intent (CI) a critical concept for the mission team. Both humans and computerized decision support services need to have the ability to communicate and interpret a shared CI. This paper presents the Operations Intent and Effects Model (OIEM) - a model that relates CI to Effects, and supports both traditional military planning and Effects Based Operation. In the provided example the suggested Command and Control Language is used to express Operations Intent and Effects. © 2009 IEEE.

  • 16.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Planstedt, Tomas
    Modeling and Simulation, Ericsson Microwave Systems AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Gunnar
    Modeling and Simulation, Ericsson Microwave Systems AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Modeling and Simulation, Ericsson Microwave Systems AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Björk, Åsa
    Modeling and Simulation, Ericsson Microwave Systems AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Service Oriented Simulations Concept2005In: Proceedings of the 10th Simulation conference and exhibition: SimTecT, 2005, p. 533-538Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the effort to provide simulation support to the future Network Based Defence (NBD) that are currently being applied by the Swedish Armed Forces (SwAF), and the similair work within US and NATO, the authors opinion is that simulation should be treated as any other services, existing in the operational systems. Meaning that architecture should be conformant between the operational and simulated systems, for a start use the same infrastructure. The choice so far for simulation is the High Level Architecture (HLA). During the author’s participation in ongoing work supporting NBD, questions have gradually been raised if HLA is the simulation path to walk. In the Core Enterprise Services (CES) and Swedish Armed Force Enterprise Architecture (FMA) Services IT-Kernel, core services are specified and HLA do address a lot of non-simulation specific services giving unwanted redundancy. However, the services already defined may with some enhancements deliver the same services addressed within FMA Services ITKernel. The Next Generation HLA could be more than just a simulation standard if it utilizes the FMA ideas. In this paper the authors present the ongoing work, as it stands today, with Service Oriented Simulations, that is an outlook for simulation using the architectural structuring, services, components and infrastructures concepts evolving in FMA and Global Information Grid (GIG). The focus of the work is to enable interoperable simulation support for the whole system lifecycle – Acquisition, Development, Training, Planning, In-the-Field decision support, System removal – within NBD, entailing that the architecture for simulation is uniform regardless of its application and giving end-users the capability to focus on what to simulate instead of how to simulate.

  • 17.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Wemmergård, Joakim
    Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, SMART-lab., Stockholm, Sweden.
    Garcia, Johnny J.
    General Dynamics/AIS, Suffolk, VA, United States.
    Norstedt Larsson, Madeleine
    Ericsson, Security Solution M and S and Information Fusion, Skövde, Sweden.
    Expanding the management language smorgasbord towards standardization of Coalition - Crisis Management Language (C-CML)2006In: Spring SIW 2006, 2006, p. 1-12Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Just as the present revolution in military affairs has formed the thoughts of joint and coalition forces between national and international militaries, a future revolution is also facing civilian authorities and agencies. Exchanging commander intent and collecting, fusing, and sharing a common operational picture between commanders and grassroots from various civilian authorities/agencies is not easily done. Laws prohibit information exchange, systems are not intended to share information and there is no or little formal training between authorities/agencies.

    For both simulated and real world operations, an unambiguous language to describe a commander's intent in Crisis Management is needed. The resemblance with the ongoing standardization of the Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) is striking. In this paper the idea to form a CML aligned with C-BML is presented. The ongoing standardization effort of a Societal Security1 standard within the frame of ISO/TC-223 and the Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) is introduced. The authors identifies some potential research topics and propose that the work in defining a Crisis Management Language, which is aligned with and benefits from the accomplishments of the ongoing C-BML standardization, is performed under the embracement of SISO.

  • 18.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Wemmergård, Joakim
    Swedish Defence Materiel Administration, SMART-Lab, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Garcia, Johnny J.
    General Dynamics, AIS, Suffolk, VA, United States.
    Norstedt Larsson, Madeleine
    Ericsson, Security Solution, M and S and Information Fusion, Skövde, Sweden.
    Expanding the management language smorgasbord towards standardization of Crisis Management Language (CML)2006In: Euro SIW 2006, SISO - Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization , 2006, p. 1-14Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Just as the present revolution in military affairs has formed the thoughts of joint and coalition forces between national and international militaries, a future revolution is also facing civilian authorities and agencies. Exchanging commander intent and collecting, fusing, and sharing a common operational picture between commanders and grassroots from various civilian authorities/agencies is not easily done. Laws prohibit information exchange, systems are not intended to share information and there is no or little formal training between authorities/agencies.

    For both simulated and real world operations, an unambiguous language to describe a commander's intent in Crisis Management is needed. The resemblance with the ongoing standardization of the Coalition Battle Management Language (C-BML) is striking. In this paper the idea to form a CML aligned with C-BML is presented. The ongoing standardization effort of a Societal Security1 standard within the frame of ISO/TC-223 and the Emergency Data Exchange Language (EDXL) is introduced. The authors identifies some potential research topics and propose that the work in defining a Crisis Management Language, which is aligned with and benefits from the accomplishments of the ongoing C-BML standardization, is performed under the embracement of SISO.

  • 19.
    Lagervik, Charlie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. Ericsson Research and Concept Development M&S and Information Fusion, Skövde, Sweden.
    A System Theoretical Approach to Situation Awareness and Architecture2006In: International Command and Control Research and Technical symposium: 11th ICCRTS, 2006, p. 16 s.-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper executes a comparison of the theories by Ackoff and Bedny & Meister for situation awareness (SA). The comparison gives a conceptual design for the common part of SA. An example of an architecture that uses the concepts is presented. The conceptual design involves concepts like conscious and unconscious processes, gnostic activity, active and passive memory and dynamic processes. The design captures the ideas presented by Ackoff for adoption and learning, and is intended to work with social systems as described by Ackoff. The aim of the paper is to fill the hole of conceptual general designs for SA systems. This paper presents a conceptual definition of SA and the comparison result between the two theories. The conceptual design is then used in the development of an Agent Architecture for Multi-Hypothesis Intention Simulation. Suggested future research is presented.

  • 20.
    Lagervik, Charlie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Norstedt-Larsson, Madeleine
    Ericsson Security Solutions, Skövde, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    A System Theoretical Approach to Situation Awareness: A Holistic View of Purposeful Elements2006In: 9th International Conference on Information Fusion: IEEE ISIF, IEEE, 2006, p. 1-7Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper executes a comparison of the theories by Ackoff and Bedny & Meister for situation awareness (SA). The comparison gives a conceptual design for the common part of SA, a design that involves concepts like conscious and unconscious processes, gnostic activity, active and passive memory and dynamic processes. The design captures the ideas presented by Ackoff for adoption and learning, and is intended to work with social systems as described by Ackoff. The aim of the paper is to fill the need of conceptual general designs for SA systems. As result a definition of SA is presented, the result of the comparison of theories is presented, discussed and summarized in a conceptual design

  • 21.
    Mellin, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Pozzer, Cesar
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Heldal, Ilona
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Combitech/Saab Box 46, 541 21 Skövde - Sweden.
    Using Imprecise Computation for Virtual and Constructive Simulations2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 Winter Simulation Conference / [ed] A. Tolk, S. Y. Diallo, I. O. Ryzhov, L. Yilmaz, S. Buckley, & J. A. Miller, IEEE Press, 2014, p. 4043-4044Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we raise three critical questions that must be investigated to ameliorate composability ofvirtual simulation models and to enable adoption of systematic and stringent real-time techniques toenable more scalable simulation models for virtual and constructive simulation. The real-time techniquesin question enable us to separate between policies and mechanisms and, thus, the simulation engine candecide dynamically how to run the simulation given the existing resources (e.g., processor) and the goalsof the simulation (e.g., sufficient fidelity in terms of timing and accuracy). The three critical questionsare: (i) how to design efficient and effective algorithms for making dynamic simulation model designdecisions during simulation; (ii) how to map simulation entities (e.g., agents) into (real-time) tasks; and(iii) how to enable a divide and conquer approach to validating simulation models.

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  • 22.
    Niklasson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Dahlbom, Anders
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brax, Christoffer
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kronhamn, Thomas
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Smedberg, Martin
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Warston, Håkan
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). Saab Microwave Systems, Skövde, Sweden.
    A Unified Situation Analysis Model for Human and Machine Situation Awareness2007In: INFORMATIK 2007: Informatik trifft Logistik: Band 2: Beiträge der 37. Jahrestagung der Gesellschaft für Informatik e.V. (GI) 24. - 27. September 2007 in Bremen / [ed] Otthein Herzog, Karl-Heinz Rödiger, Marc Ronthaler, Rainer Koschke, Bonn: Gesellschaft für Informatik , 2007, p. 105-109Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Niklasson, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johansson, Fredrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Dahlbom, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL).
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, Skövde Artificial Intelligence Lab (SAIL). University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kronhamn, Thomas
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Smedberg, Martin
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Warston, Håkan
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Product Development, Saab Microwave Systems, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Extending the scope of Situation Analysis2008In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2008), Cologne, Germany, June 30–July 3, 2008, IEEE Press, 2008, p. 454-461Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of technology to assist human decision making has been around for quite some time now. In the literature, models of both technological and human aspects of this support can be identified. However, we argue that there is a need for a unified model which synthesizes and extends existing models. In this paper, we give two perspectives on situation analysis: a technological perspective and a human perspective. These two perspectives are merged into a unified situation analysis model for semi-automatic, automatic and manual decision support (SAM)2. The unified model can be applied to decision support systems with any degree of automation. Moreover, an extension of the proposed model is developed which can be used for discussing important concepts such as common operational picture and common situation awareness.

  • 24.
    Pozzer, Cesar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Amorim, Joni A.
    Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP Cidade Universitária "Zeferino Vaz", 13.083-970 Campinas, Brazil.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Combitech/Saab, Skövde, Sweden.
    Mellin, Jonas
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Heldal, Ilona
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Azevedo, Anibal T.
    Universidade Estadual de Campinas - UNICAMP Cidade Universitária "Zeferino Vaz" - 13.083-970 Campinas, Brazil.
    Imprecise Computation as an Enabler for Complex and Time Critical HLA Simulation Networks2014In: Proceedings of Simulation Interoperability Workshop, 2014, p. 171-179Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A trend over the past years is that simulation systems for training are being connected in simulation networks, allowing the interaction of teams spread in distributed sites. By combining interconnected simulation systems the simulation complexity increases and may affect time-critical simulation tasks in a negative way. As a consequence, the training simulation objectives may not be met. The same problem may occur when performing, for example, mission rehearsal on site, since available computation resources are usually very limited in this scenario, or for a joint fires scenario, where the large and complex functional chain (including intelligence, C2, forward observer, pilots, etc.) may overload existing resources. In this work, the technique of imprecise computation in real-time systems (ICRS) to preserve time-critical simulation tasks is presented. The ICRS technique allows time-critical tasks to produce quicker solutions for approximate results and saves computational resources. This paper discusses the main advantages of theICRS technique by a review of the commonly used optimization concepts built upon imprecise computation field. Thepaper ends with presenting a work-in-progress: an architectural solution for aligning ICRS with the High Level Architecture (HLA), standardized as the IEEE 1516-series.

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  • 25.
    Rego, Izabel de Moraes Sarmento
    et al.
    Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil .
    Amorim, Joni de Almeida
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Saab Group, Sweden .
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Centre of Excellence in C4I, George Mason University (GMU), USA.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Multimedia production projects: Relevant issues and possible models for mobile learning2015In: International Handbook of E-Learning Volume 2: Implementation and Case Studies / [ed] Mohamed Ally and Badrul H. Khan, New York: Routledge, 2015, p. 69-76Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Riveiro, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Combitech AB.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Bengstsson, Mats
    Saab Training Systems, Saab AB, Huskvarna, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Pär
    Saab Training Systems, Saab AB, Huskvarna, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Wallinius, Martin
    Saab Training Systems, Saab AB, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Enhanced Training through Interactive Visualization of Training Objectives and Models2016In: Proceedings of the STO-MP-MSG-143, Ready for the Predictable, Prepared for the Unexpected: M&S for Collective Defence in Hybrid Environments and Hybrid Conflicts, NATO Science & Technology Organization (STO) , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military forces operate in complex and dynamic environments [1] where bad decisions might have fatal consequences. A key ability of the commander, team and individual warfighter is to quickly adapt to novel situations. Live, Virtual and Constructive training environments all provide elements of best practices for this type of training. However, many of the virtual training are designed without thorough consideration of the effectiveness and efficiency of embedded instructional strategies [2], and without considering the cognitive capabilities and limitations of trainees. As highlighted recently by Stacy and Freeman [3], large military training exercises require a significant commitment of resources, and to net a return on that investment, training scenarios for these events should systematically address well-specified training objectives, even if they often, do not.

    In order to overcome these shortcomings with both Live and Virtual training systems and following our previous work [4,5,6], this paper presents a design solution for a proof-of-concept prototype that visualizes and manages training objectives and performance measures, at individual and collective levels. To illustrate its functionality we use real-world data from Live training exercises. Finally, this paper discusses how to learn from previous training experiences using data mining methods in order to build training models to provide instructional personalized feedback to trainees.

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  • 27.
    Tiberg, Jesper
    et al.
    Vehco (www.vehco.com), Gothenburg, Sweden ; JPB Solutions (www.jpbs.se), Sweden.
    Brax, Christoffer
    Applied Research and Concept Development, M&S and Information Fusion, Ericsson, Skövde, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Towards Hypothesis Evaluation in Command and Control Systems2006In: Proceedings of SAIS 2006: The 23rd Annual Workshop of the Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society / [ed] Michael Minock; Patrik Eklund; Helena Lindgren, Umeå: Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society - SAIS , 2006, p. 97-102Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focus on situation prediction in data fusion systems. A hypothesis evaluation algorithm based on artificial neural networks is introduced. It is evaluated and compared to an algorithm based on Bayesian networks which is commonly used. It is also compared to a simple "dummy" algorithm. For the tests, a computer based model of the environment, including protected objects and enemy objects, is implemented. The model handles the navigation of the enemy objects and situational data is extracted from the environment and provided for the hypothesis evaluation algorithms. It was the belief of the author that ANNs would be suitable for hypothesis evaluation if a suitable data representation of the environment were used. The representation requirements include pre processing of the situational data to eliminate the need for variable input size to the algorithm. This because ANNs poorly handles this; the whole network have to be retrained each time the amount of input data changes. The results show that ANNs performed best of the three and hence seems to be suitable for hypothesis evaluation.

  • 28.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för informations- och kommunikationssystem.
    Lindqwister, Towe
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för informations- och kommunikationssystem.
    Wiberg, Christer
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Challenges for critical infrastructure resilience: cascading effects of payment system disruptions2017In: / [ed] Tina Comes; Frédérick Bénaben; Chihab Hanachi; Matthieu Lauras; Aurélie Montarnal, ISCRAM, 2017, Vol. 14, p. 281-292, article id 1464Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructures become more and more entangled and rely extensively on information technology. Adeeper insight into the relationships between critical infrastructures enables the actors involved to more quicklyunderstand the severity of information technology disruptions and to identify robust cross-functional mitigatingactions. This study illustrates how and why disruptions in the payment system in Sweden could create cascadingeffects in other critical infrastructures with potentially severe consequences for many citizens, governmentinstitutions and companies. Data from document studies, interviews and workshops with field experts revealseven challenges for collective cross-functional critical infrastructure resilience that need to be dealt with: 1)Shortage of food, fuel, cash, medicine; 2) Limited capacity of alternative payment solutions; 3) Cities are morevulnerable than the countryside; 4) Economically vulnerable groups in society are more severely affected; 5)Trust maintenance needs; 6) Crisis communication needs; 7) Fragmentation of responsibility for criticalinfrastructures across many actors.

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  • 29.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Combitech AB, Skövde.
    Analyzing the Implications of Design Choices in Existing Simulation-Games for Critical Infrastructure Resilience2018In: Simulation Gaming: Applications for Sustainable Cities and Smart Infrastructures: 48th International Simulation and GamingAssociation Conference, ISAGA 2017 Delft, The Netherlands, July 10–14, 2017 Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Heide Karen Lukosch; Geertje Bekebrede; Rens Kortmann, Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 10825, p. 15-23Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A literature study has identified the major impacts of importantdesign choices in simulation models and simulation-games that model criticalinfrastructure resilience. The four major groups of design choices discussed inthis article are: (1) the chosen learning goal (system understanding or collaborationtraining), (2) realism and time scale of the scenario, (3) design of playerroles and communication rules, (4) number of action alternatives, replay-abilityand richness of performance feedback while playing. Researchers and practitionerswho build simulation-games for studying critical infrastructure resiliencecan use the accumulated insights on these four aspects to improve the quality oftheir game design and the quality of the simulation models the game participantsinteract with.

  • 30.
    Yano, Edgar Toshiro
    et al.
    ITA Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brazil.
    de Abreu, Welton
    ITA Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, Brazil.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    Combitech, Sweden ; Swedish National Defence College ; George Mason University, USA.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A framework to support the development of Cyber Resiliency with Situational Awareness Capability2015In: 20th ICCRTS Proceedings: C2, Cyber, and Trust, International Command and Control Institute , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cybersecurity success is essentially the result of an effective risk management process. However, this process is being challenged by the inherent complexity of systems, developed with vulnerable components and protocols, and the crescent sophistication of attackers, now backed by well-resourced criminal organizations and nations. With this scenario of uncertainties and high volume of events, it is essential the ability of cyber resiliency. Cyber resiliency is the ability of a system, organization, mission, or business process to anticipate, withstand, recover from, and adapt capabilities in the face of adversary conditions, stresses, or attacks on the cyber resources it needs to function. In the present work, it is presented a framework for cyber resiliency where a segmentation strategy and the Intrusion Kill Chain (IKC) attack model, developed by Lockheed-Martin, are central elements. Segmentation allows the construction of a layered defense, where the highest-priority assets are in the inner layers and the attackers are forced to surpass several layers to reach them. The IKC attack model is a model of seven phases that the attackers must perform to achieve their goals. Each segment is supposed to be designed with the best efforts to prevent, detect and contain an IKC. According to the Situational Awareness (SA) model of Endsley, the Level of Perception is achieved through sensors connected to the controls of prevention, detection and containment of IKC in different segments. The Level of Understanding is obtained by identifying the segments impacted by the attackers, and the Level of Projection by the identification of the next segments to be attacked and defense actions required to contain this advance. The use of the framework leads to the development of a structured set of defense mechanisms, and supports the development of SA capability to allow defenders to make correct decisions in order to maintain the mission even under a heavy attack

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