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  • 1.
    Grindal, Mats
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Offutt, Jeff
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Andler, Sten F
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    An Evaluation of Combination Strategies for Test Case Selection2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we present the results from a comparative evaluation of five combination strategies. Combination strategies are test case selection methods that combine interesting values of the input parameters of a test object to form test cases. One of the investigated combination strategies, namely the Each Choice strategy, satisfies 1-wise coverage, i.e., each interesting value of each parameter is represented at least once in the test suite. Two of the strategies, the Orthogonal Arrays and Heuristic Pair-Wise strategies both satisfy pair-wise coverage, i.e., every possible pair of interesting values of any two parameters are included in the test suite. The fourth combination strategy, the All Values strategy, generates all possible combinations of the interesting values of the input parameters. The fifth and last combination strategy, the Base Choice combination strategy, satisfies 1-wise coverage but in addition makes use of some semantic information to construct the test cases.

    Except for the All Values strategy, which is only used as a reference point with respect to the number of test cases, the combination strategies are evaluated and compared with respect to number of test cases, number of faults found, test suite failure density, and achieved decision coverage in an experiment comprising five programs, similar to Unix commands, seeded with 131 faults. As expected, the Each Choice strategy finds the smallest number of faults among the evaluated combination strategies. Surprisingly, the Base Choice strategy performs as well, in terms of detecting faults, as the pair-wise combination strategies, despite fewer test cases. Since the programs and faults in our experiment may not be representative of actual testing problems in an industrial setting, we cannot draw any general conclusions regarding the number of faults detected by the evaluated combination strategies. However, our analysis shows some properties of the combination strategies that appear significant in spite of the programs and faults not being representative. The two most important results are that the Each Choice strategy is unpredictable in terms of which faults will be detected, i.e., most faults found are found by chance, and that the Base Choice and the pair-wise combination strategies to some extent target different types of faults.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 2.
    Grindal, Mats
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Offutt, Jeff
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Andler, Sten F.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Combination Testing Strategies: A Survey2005Inngår i: Software testing, verification & reliability, ISSN 0960-0833, E-ISSN 1099-1689, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 167-199Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Combination strategies are test case selection methods that identify test cases by combining values of the different test object input parameters based on some combinatorial strategy. This survey presents 16 different combination strategies, covering more than 40 papers that focus on one or several combination strategies. This collection represents most of the existing work performed on combination strategies. This survey describes the basic algorithms used by the combination strategies. Some properties of combination strategies, including coverage criteria and theoretical bounds on the size of test suites, are also included in this description. This survey paper also includes a subsumption hierarchy that attempts to relate the various coverage criteria associated with the identified combination strategies

  • 3.
    Grindal, Mats
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Offutt, Jeff
    Information and Software Engineering, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.
    Mellin, Jonas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Handling Constraints in the Input Space when Using Combination Strategies for Software Testing2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares seven different methods for handling constraints in input parameter models when using combination strategies to select test cases. Combination strategies are used to select test cases based on input parameter models. An input parameter model is a representation of the input space of the system under test via a set of parameters and values for these parameters. A test case is one specific combination of values for all the parameters. Sometimes the input parameter model may contain parameters that are not independent. Some sub-combinations of values of the dependent parameters may not be valid, i.e., these sub-combinations do not make sense. Combination strategies, in their basic forms, do not take into account any semantic information. Thus, invalid sub-combinations may be included in test cases in the test suite. This paper proposes four new constraint handling methods and compares these with three existing methods in an experiment in which the seven constraint handling methods are used to handle a number of different constraints in different sized input parameter models under three different coverage criteria. All in all, 2568 test suites with a total of 634,263 test cases have been generated within the scope of this experiment.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Andler, Sten F.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Offutt, Jeff
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. George Mason University, Fairfax VA, USA.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Mutating Aspect-Oriented Models to Test Cross-Cutting Concerns2015Inngår i: 2015 IEEE 8th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2015 - Proceedings, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, s. Article number 7107456-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Grindal, Mats
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Offutt, Jeff
    George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.
    Using an Existing Suite of Test Objects: Experience from a Testing Experiment2004Inngår i: ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes: SECTION: Workshop on empirical research in software testing papers, 2004, Vol. 29, s. 1-3Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This workshop paper presents lessons learned from a recent experiment to compare several test strategies. The test strategies were compared in terms of the number of tests needed to satisfy them and in terms of faults found. The experimental design and conduct are discussed, and frank assessments of the decisions that were made are provided. The paper closes with a summary of the lessons that were learned.

  • 6.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Nilsson, Robert
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Ericsson, AnnMarie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Grindal, Mats
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Andler, Sten F.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Eftring, Bengt
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Offutt, Jeff
    George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.
    Six Issues in Testing Event-Triggered Real-Time Systems2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Verification of real-time systems is a complex task, with problems coming from issues like concurrency. A previous paper suggested dealing with these problems by using a time-triggered design, which gives good support both for testing and formal analysis. However, a

    time-triggered solution is not always feasible and an event-triggered design is needed. Event-triggered systems are far more difficult to test than time-triggered systems.

    This paper revisits previously identified testing problems from a new perspective and identifies additional problems for event-triggered systems. The paper also presents an approach to deal with these problems. The TETReS project assumes a model-driven development

    process. We combine research within three different fields: (i) transformation of rule sets between timed automata specifications and ECA rules with maintained semantics, (ii) increasing testability in event-triggered system, and (iii) development of test case generation methods for event-triggered systems.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Offutt, Jeff
    George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA.
    Andler, Sten F.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Testability of Dynamic Real-Time Systems: An Empirical Study of Constrained Execution Environment Implications2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation: ICST 2008, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2008, s. 112-120Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time systems must respond to events in a timely fashion; in hard real-time systems the penalty for a missed deadline is high. It is therefore necessary to design hard real-time systems so that the timing behavior of the tasks can be predicted. Static real-time systems have prior knowledge of the worst-case arrival patterns and resource usage. Therefore, a schedule can be calculated off-line and tasks can be guaranteed to have sufficient resources to complete (resource adequacy). Dynamic real-time systems, on the other hand, do not have such prior knowledge, and therefore must react to events when they occur. They also must adapt to changes in the urgencies of various tasks, and fairly allocate resources among the tasks. A disadvantage of static real-time systems is that a requirement on resource adequacy makes them expensive and often impractical. Dynamic realtime systems, on the other hand, have the disadvantage of being less predictable and therefore difficult to test. Hence, in dynamic systems, timeliness is hard to guarantee and reliability is often low. Using a constrained execution environment, we attempt to increase the testability of such systems. An initial step is to identify factors that affect testability. We present empirical results on how various factors in the execution environment impacts testability of real-time systems. The results show that some of the factors, previously identified as possibly impacting testability, do not have an impact, while others do.

  • 8.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Offutt, Jeff
    George Mason University, United States.
    Baral, Kesina
    George Mason University, United States.
    Márki, András
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsmiljön Informationsteknologi.
    Message from the TestEd 2020 Chairs2020Inngår i: 2020 IEEE 13th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops: 23–27 March 2020 Porto, Portugal, IEEE, 2020, artikkel-id 9155714Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Offutt, Jeff
    George Mason University, Fairfax VA, USA.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Andler, Sten F.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Using mutation to design tests for aspect-oriented models2017Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 81, s. 112-130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Context: Testing for properties such as robustness or security is complicated because their concerns are often repeated in many locations and muddled with the normal code. Such “cross-cutting concerns” include things like interrupt events, exception handling, and security protocols. Aspect-oriented (AO) modeling allows developers to model the cross-cutting behavior independently of the normal behavior, thus supporting model-based testing of cross-cutting concerns. However, mutation operators defined for AO programs (source code) are usually not applicable to AO models (AOMs) and operators defined for models do not target the AO features. Objective: We present a method to design abstract tests at the aspect-oriented model level. We define mutation operators for aspect-oriented models and evaluate the generated mutants for an example system. Method: AOMs are mutated with novel operators that specifically target the AO modeling features. Test traces killing these mutant models are then generated. The generated and selected traces are abstract tests that can be transformed to concrete black-box tests and run on the implementation level, to evaluate the behavior of the woven cross-cutting concerns (combined aspect and base models). Results: This paper is a significant extension of our paper at Mutation 2015. We present a complete fault model, additional mutation operators, and a thorough analysis of the mutants generated for an example system. Conclusions: The analysis shows that some mutants are stillborn (syntactically illegal) but none is equivalent (exhibiting the same behavior as the original model). Additionally, our AOM-specific mutation operators can be combined with pre-existing operators to mutate code or models without any overlap.

  • 10.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Pettersson, Paul
    Mälardalen University, Västeras, Sweden.
    Offutt, Jeff
    George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, United States.
    Generating Trace-Sets for Model-Based Testing2007Inngår i: Proceedings 18th IEEE International Symposiumon Software Reliability Engineering: ISSRE 2007 / [ed] Lisa O’Conner, IEEE, 2007, s. 171-180Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-checkers are powerful tools that can find individual traces through models to satisfy desired properties. These traces provide solutions to a number of problems. Instead of individual traces, software testing needs sets of traces that satisfy coverage criteria. Finding a trace set in a large model is difficult because model checkers generate single traces and use a lot of memory. Space and time requirements of modelchecking algorithms grow exponentially with respect to the number of variables and parallel automata of the model being analyzed. We present a method that generates a set of traces by iteratively invoking a model checker. The method mitigates the memory consumption problem by dynamically building partitions along the traces. This method was applied to a testability case study, and it generated the complete trace set, while ordinary model-checking could only generate 26%.

  • 11. Nilsson, Robert
    et al.
    Offutt, Jeff
    Department of Information and Software Engineering, George Mason University, Fairfax, United States.
    Andler, Sten F.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Mutation-Based Testing Criteria for Timeliness2004Inngår i: Proceedings of the 28th Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference, 2004. COMPSAC 2004, IEEE conference proceedings, 2004, s. 306-311Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Nilsson, Robert
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Offutt, Jeff
    Information and Software Engineering, George Mason University, Fairfax Virginia, USA.
    Mellin, Jonas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Test case generation for mutation-based testing of timeliness2006Inngår i: Electronical Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, ISSN 1571-0661, E-ISSN 1571-0661, Vol. 164, nr 4, s. 97-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal correctness is crucial for real-time systems. Few methods exist to test temporal correctness and most methods used in practice are ad-hoc. A problem with testing real-time applications is the response-time dependency on the execution order of concurrent tasks. Execution order in turn depends on execution environment properties such as scheduling protocols, use of mutual exclusive resources as well as the point in time when stimuli is injected. Model based mutation testing has previously been proposed to determine the execution orders that need to be verified to increase confidence in timeliness. An effective way to automatically generate such test cases for dynamic real-time systems is still needed. This paper presents a method using heuristic-driven simulation to generate test cases.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Nilsson, Robert
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Offutt, Jeff
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Mellin, Jonas
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Test case generation for testing of timeliness: Extended version2005Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporal correctness is crucial for real-time systems. There are few methods to test temporal correctness and most methods used in practice are ad-hoc. A problem with testing real-time applications is the response-time dependency on the execution order of concurrent tasks. Execution orders in turn depends on scheduling protocols, task execution times, and use of mutual exclusive resources apart from the points in time when stimuli is injected. Model-based mutation testing has previously been proposed to determine the execution orders that need to be tested to increase confidence in timeliness. An effective way to automatically generate such test cases for dynamic real-time systems is still needed. This paper presents a method using heuristic-driven simulation for generation of test cases.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 14.
    Offutt, Jeff
    et al.
    Software Engineering, George Mason University, Fairfax, USA.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Baral, Kesina
    Software Engineering, George Mason University, Fairfax, USA.
    Teaching an International Distributed Discussion-Based Course2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2019 International Conference on Frontiers in Education: Computer Science & Computer Engineering (FECS'19) / [ed] Hamid R. Arabnia, Leonidas Deligiannidis, Fernando G. Tinetti, Quoc-Nam Tran, CSREA, Computer Science Research, Education, and Applications Press , 2019, s. 149-154Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Small discussion-based courses pose several challenges. Low enrollments make the course difficult to justify and can restrict active discussions. Impromptu discussions are hard to encourage. Students come to class tired, not well prepared, reluctant to speak out, or not able to verbalize abstract thoughts fast enough to fully engage. Sometimes a few students dominate the discussions while other students stay silent. This paper describes a novel teaching model that was created to allow one professor to teach the same course at multiple universities. As the course design emerged, the asynchronous online distributed nature of the course turned out to not only solve the initial problem, but also other challenges of discussion-based courses. Instructors and students found this model led to more engagement, increased learning, and higher performance.

1 - 14 of 14
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