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  • 1.
    Kirkpatrick, Graeme
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    How gaming became sexist: a study of UK gaming magazines 1981-19952017In: Media Culture and Society, ISSN 0163-4437, E-ISSN 1460-3675, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 453-468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer gaming was not born sexist but was codified as an exclusively male practice as it peeled itself away from the rest of the burgeoning computer culture in the mid-1980s. This article traces the development of gaming's gender bias through a discourse analysis of gaming magazines published in the United Kingdom between 1981 and 1995. In their early years (1981-1985), these publications present a milieu that was reflective on gender issues and concerned to include female participants. However, from 1987, the rhetorical framing of computer games, gaming and gamer performance was increasingly gender-exclusive and focused on the re-enforcement of stereotypically masculine values, albeit that much of this discourse had a humorous and ironic inflection. The article presents this as the gender-biased articulation of gaming discourse. Instead of viewing the gendering of computer games as something they inherited from previous kinds of games and activities, the article argues that the political economy of the gaming industry in the second half of the 1980s created specific conditions under which games and gaming were coded as exclusively masculine.

  • 2.
    Kirkpatrick, Graeme
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ludefaction: fracking of the radical imaginary2015In: Games and Culture: A Journal of Interactive Media, ISSN 1555-4120, E-ISSN 1555-4139, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 507-524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the idea of ludefaction as the negative underside of ludification. The project of transforming human practices into games to “enhance” their performance is related to new management and technology design practices that have been dominant since the 1980s. Studies suggest that this is an ambivalent process through which work comes to seem more attractive even as it makes more intense and invasive demands on its human subject. Beyond this, however, ludefaction grasps the way in which gamification intensifies exploitation in the, probably unprecedented, development of allowing power to tap into the radical imaginary, that is, the facility we have for creating an alternative, better world. A comparison of games with relational art is presented to clarify the stakes and suggest negative principles for progressive game design.

  • 3.
    Kirkpatrick, Graeme
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The Formation of Gaming Culture: UK Gaming Magazines, 1981-19952015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The book describes how games played on computers became computer games. By analysing the first gaming magazines it shows how a culture of reception and appreciation was produced around games produced for home computers and circulated in the hobbyist culture of 'bedroom coding'.

1 - 3 of 3
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf