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  • 1.
    Alvarez Díaz, María Guadalupe
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Your Answer Will Make an Impression: Using Quiz Game Mechanics for the Collection of Visitor Data in a Museum2015In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications / [ed] Per Backlund, Skövde: IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the initial results from a project that aimed to collect visitor data at a traveling exhibition starting at the Regional Museum in Kristianstad, Sweden during 2014-2016. The project was intended also to contribute to the creation of an atmosphere “About time”, which was the subject of the exhibit. We built a system that was integrated as an interactable part of the exhibition by using elements of quiz game mechanics in combination with elements of data based tracking applications and elements of visual art installations. The data provides statistics which are used to visualize the current status of the visitors’ attitude toward specific questions about time, imprinting the visitors themselves an integral part of the exhibition. Visitors build a visual Game Ego when answering questions and at the same time provided statistical data that can be monitored and extracted from the system. The results show that we succeeded to some degree but more can be done towards incorporating game design elements to engage the user, such as feedback and challenge.

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    Your answer will make
  • 2.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Bai, Hua
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Bankler, Victor
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Zhang, Ran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Teaching cardiovascular health through a purposeful game2022In: Collection of materials: II International Scientific and Practical Internet Conference "Innovative Solutions in Economy, Business, Public Communications and International Relationships", April 21, 2022, Dnipro: Volume 2, Dnipro: Університет митної справи та фінансів / Universytet mytnoyi spravy ta finansiv , 2022, Vol. 2, p. 5p. 391-396Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Games for health is one of the most prominent areas for serious games, i.e. games with a purpose beyond only entertainment. The purpose of a health game may be to inform about health related issues; promote healthy lifestyles and even to drive behavioral change. This paper outlines the initial game design considerations and some future research directions for a game focusing on cardiovascular health. As the overall aim of the project is to promote a healthy lifestyle through diet and physical activity to prevent future cardiovascular disease, we focused on “taking care of your heart” as the basis for the game. Hence we call the game Happy Heart and use a heart symbol as a non-playable character (NPC) that the player needs to take care of. To some extent we are inspired by the electronic Tamagochi toys (Bandai) where players need to take care of a digital pet. The heart symbol is universal and is also an ideograph that expresses the concept of love and as such it transcends language barriers.

    The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCD) is rapidly increasing across the world. Today they are the main drivers of morbidity, disability, and mortality in low- and middle income countries (LMICs), and are expected to increase due to unhealthy lifestyles in the wake of ongoing societal changes [1]. Among the major risk factors in many LMICs are poor diet, insufficient physical activity, tobacco and alcohol consumption, and exposure to hazardous substances, e.g. from air pollution. LMICs currently contribute three quarters of the deaths from NCD.

    Among the NCD, cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of hospitalization in Nepal [1]. Digitalization and collaboration with the education sector (e.g. community schools) in health promotion interventions could further improve children’s behavior by targeting factors that affect their lifestyle outside the family environment [4]. Hence, the Digital Game Based Learning approach.

  • 3.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Spelforskning i Sverige: LevelUp projektrapport2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten bygger på tre delstudier med olika datainsamlingstekniker:

    • En bibliometristudie av svensk spelforskning baserad på data från Scopus respektive SwePub.
    • En enkätstudie över svenska spelforskningsmiljöer.
    • En intervjustudie om svenska spelforskarmiljöer.

    Bibliometristudiens ansats har varit bred. Materialet inkluderar därmed även poster som endast har en perifer koppling till spel, men returnerar i fallet SwePub färre än 3000 poster. Spelforskning bedrivs på många lärosäten i Sverige och publiceras inom många ämnesområden. Totalt 95 forskare har en publicering som omfattar 10 eller fler spelpublikationer1. Det finns starka lokala kluster av forskare som sampublicerar men sampubliceringen mellan svenska och nordiska lärosäten är inte så omfattande. Jämfört med Finland har Sverige färre publikationer med ett tydligt fokus på spelforskning.

    Enkätstudien visar att spelforskarmiljöerna oftast består av ett antal forskare med olika ämnesmässig bakgrund där de själva definierar sig som spelforskare snarare än att organisationen som sådan gör det. Miljöerna har sammantaget och högt räknat runt 30 aktiva doktorander men siffran är osäker. 94% av respondenterna anger att deras forskning ligger inom ”spel för andra områden än underhållning” och endast 6% anger ”spelteknikfokus”. 44% anger ”spelbranschen”. Det är tydligt att spel för just underhållning inte ligger fokus för svensk spelforskning. Detta är remarkabelt då den svenska datorspelsindustrin är en multimiljardindustri fokuserad på just spel som underhållning. Det finns alltså en mycket stor diskrepans mellan industri och svensk spelforskning.

    Intervjustudien ger en bild av att spelforskningen bedrivs inom splittrade miljöer, av forskare med olika ämnesmässig bakgrund. Det finns en tydlig upplevd brist på forskningsfinansiering inom adekvata områden och det finns brister i de finansieringsinstrument som finns idag. Detta påverkar såväl vilken typ av forskning som kan bedrivas inom spel och rekryteringen av forskarstuderande. Respondenterna är överlag mycket positivt inställda till idén om en nationell forskarskola. Flera ser också Svenska Spelforskarrådet som en viktig aktör för att stärka svensk spelforskning både nationellt och internationellt.

    Rekommendationer:

    • Det bör finnas en tydligare egen hemvist för forskning och utbildning inom spel för att tydliggöra kärnan i området.
    • Fokus för forskningen behöver förändras så att spel för underhållning kommer mer i fokus.
    • Finansieringsinstrumenten för spelforskning behöver förändras för att möjliggöra en sådan förändring.
    • En nationell forskarskola inom spel bör inrättas.
    • Det finns anledning att lära av framgångsrika miljöer i Finland och Danmark.
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  • 4.
    Bai, Hua
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    A Model for Balancing Clarity and Appeal in Serious Game Visuals2023In: Proceedings of the 17th European Conference on Games Based Learning, Academic Conferences International Limited , 2023, p. 46-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In serious game development, graphic design needs to be eye-catching, while also depicting subject matter content in a responsible, accurate, and clear way. Previous research has shown that abstract and symbolic game visuals seem to be preferable for learning and providing an engaging experience. Our research focuses on describing the challenges involved in creating effective visual communication through game graphics in cross cultures. In particular, we’re interested in examining if certain styles of visual communication are more or less effective between different cultural demographics. To examine this, we have created a serious game which aims to promote healthy food and nutrition habits to teenagers in both Nepalese and Swedish schools and by doing so also motivate behavioral changes toward healthier eating habits. We are currently conducting studies to see whether preferences and image recognition differ between the two demographical spheres. This paper will only discuss the exploratory study done in Nepal. Ultimately, this paper aims to contribute development guidelines that can aid developers in creating more effective visual communication in their serious games, and we primarily focus on exploring what we call the compromise of ‘clarity’ and ‘appeal’ in the creation of game graphics. We present an initial model for choosing at what level in terms of realism/abstraction and taxonomic hierarchy the graphical components of serious games optimally should be produced in order to solve the dilemma of precise, unmistakable, yet appealing visuals in serious games. It all comes down to two primary decisions: defining the taxonomic hierarchy of the items to depict, and choosing the style in which to depict them. With a better understanding of when different game visuals are more or less appropriate, both in terms of style and in which objects are represented, game developers will be able to balance production costs better while also creating something that strikes the compromise between clarity and appeal.

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  • 5.
    Bai, Hua
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Zhang, Ran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Game graphics and effective learning: A review of visual communication research in serious games2022In: Proceedings of the International Conferences Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction 2022, Game and Entertainment Technologies 2022 / [ed] Katherine Blashki, IADIS Press, 2022, p. 165-173Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The visuals of a game is a crucial element when it comes to providing good player experiences. Visuals are also an incredibly complex subject in a game context since different modes of visual representation can be more or less “appropriate” for different settings. For example, while one can look at photo-realism as an impressive feature of a game due to its technical complexity and functionally accurate representation of real-world objects, it might still not be a fitting choice for different audiences, or for different pedagogical strategies. Serious game research seldom focuses on understanding the design of these components or their applicability to different types of learning, and it more often focuses on games’ mechanics and how well they manage to capture subject matter content while still being engaging. The aim of this paper is to explore the gap in visual communication research, describing what studies tend to focus on providing some valuable context. This review was conducted on papers that dealt with visual aspects of serious games. The results show that visual communication is rarely addressed in serious game development research. Future research would benefit from taking visual communication in detail to facilitate the effectiveness of serious games.

  • 6.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Dahlin, Carl-Johan
    ius information AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Game-Based Approach to Support Social Presence and Awareness in Distributed Project-Based Learning2014In: International Journal of Games Based Learning, ISSN 2155-6849, E-ISSN 2155-6857, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important factor for success in project-based learning (PBL) is that the involved project groups establish an atmosphere of social interaction in their working environment. In PBL-scenarios situated in distributed environments, most of a group's work-processes are mediated through the use of production-focused tools that are unconcerned with the important informal and social aspects of a project. On the other hand, there are plenty of tools and platforms that focus on doing the opposite and mainly support informal bonding (e.g., Facebook), but these types of environments can be obtrusive and contain distractions that can be detrimental to a group's productivity and are thus often excluded from working environments. The aim of this paper is to examine how a game-based multi-user environment (MUVE) can be designed to support project-based learning by bridging the gap between productivity-focused and social software. To explore this, the authors developed a game-based MUVE which was evaluated in a PBL-scenario. The result of the study revealed several crucial design elements that are needed to make such a MUVE work effectively, and that the acceptance towards game-based MUVEs is high, even with a rudimentary execution.

  • 7. Calleja, Gordon
    et al.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Hjarvard, Stig
    Hillesund, Terje
    Institutt for medie-, kultur- og samfunnsfag, Universitetet i Stavanger, Norge.
    Bruun, Hanne
    Filmbranschen i Norge under förändring2008In: Norsk Medietidsskrift, ISSN 0804-8452, E-ISSN 0805-9535, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 150-167Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Kristensen, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Roger Caillois and Marxism: A Game Studies Perspective2017In: Games and Culture: A Journal of Interactive Media, ISSN 1555-4120, E-ISSN 1555-4139, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 381-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors look at Caillois’ reflections on the dichotomy between work and leisure in relation to Marxism, whose dialectics are shown to influence the milieu under which Caillois developed his ideas. The contribution interrogates this labor/play dialectic while looking at recent literature on games being produced within the current capitalist and neoliberal system, focusing on phenomena like “playbour” and on key elements discussed in these theories, from the affordances and limitations of technology to the immaterial technological tools used by gamers and game makers. The article argues that looking at Caillois in relation to Marxism would provide an interesting critical perspective, one that has been underexplored by current approaches. The authors note that contemporary concerns on capitalism and games are far from being at odds with Caillois’ distinction between labur and play and suggest that the influence of Marxism on Caillois’ writings would provide an interesting terrain of further discussion.

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  • 9.
    Kristensen, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Roger Caillois e il Marxismo: La prospettiva dei Game Studies2023In: Reset: Politicia e Videogiochi / [ed] Matteo Bittanti, Milano: Mimesis edizioni, 2023, 1, p. 99-133Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Rambusch, Jana
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Susi, Tarja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ekman, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Literary Excursion Into the Hidden (Fan) Fictional Worlds of Tetris, Starcraft, and Dreamfall2009In: Breaking New Ground: Innovation in Games, Play, Practice and Theory, Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) , 2009, Vol. 5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss a part of participatory culture that so far has not received much attention in the academic world; it is the writing and reading of game fan fiction. The focus in this paper is on fan fiction, based on three different games that represent three different game genres: Tetris, StarCraft and Dreamfall: The Longest Journey. The aim is to advance our understanding of how players experience and understand the game environment, and promote further research interest in fan fiction based on computer games. We do this by discussing narrative elements in the above mentioned computer games, and the fan fiction that is based on them.

  • 11.
    Shakya, Dayana
    et al.
    Kathmandu Medical College, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Flodin, Karin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thapa, Dip Raj
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    Bankler, Jon Victor
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Bai, Hua
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Subedi, Madhusudan
    Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Lalitpur, Nepal.
    Ng, Nawi
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Oli, Natalia
    Kathmandu Medical College, Nepal.
    Vaidya, Abhinav
    Kathmandu Medical College, Nepal.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Krettek, Alexandra
    University of Skövde, School of Health Sciences. University of Skövde, Digital Health Research (DHEAR).
    Gaming the Way to Cardiovascular Health in Nepal: A Digital Approach in Adolescents2023In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 147, no 1, article id AP641Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Susi, Tarja
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Torstensson, Niklas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    "Can you send me a photo?": A Game-Based Approach for Increasing Young Children’s Risk Awareness to Prevent Online Sexual Grooming2019In: DiGRA '19 - Proceedings of the 2019 DiGRA International Conference: Game, Play and the Emerging Ludo-Mix / [ed] Akinori Nakamura, Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a game-based approach for raising young children's online risk awareness, to decrease the risk of becoming the subject of sexual grooming. Hidden in the Park is an adventure game, including a classic game board and a tablet with Augmented Reality-technology. The game mechanics are based on data from true grooming processes. The game's target group is children aged 8-10 years. This paper describes the game development, from a prototype to an approved release version that will be released as a non-profit product during 2019. We describe the creation of the game mechanics, the iterative development process, and game evaluation. 25 pupils in the target group participated, but the ages 7-12 (n=70) were included to evaluate whether the game would suit the intended target group. Results show that the game is fun and engaging but that it also raise questions concerning online activities.

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  • 13.
    Torstensson, Niklas
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Susi, Tarja
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Wizard of Oz and the design of a multi-player mixed reality game2020In: HCI in Games: Second International Conference, HCI-Games 2020, Held as Part of the 22nd HCI International Conference, HCII 2020, Copenhagen, Denmark, July 19–24, 2020, Proceedings / [ed] Xiaowen Fang, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 218-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the use of the WOz method in the development of a prototype for a multi-player mixed reality game for children. It is an adventure game with hidden treasures, clues to hiding places, and information that should not be revealed. The game design, however, includes deceptive elements aimed at luring players to give up information. The game’s underlying intent is to raise children’s online risk awareness. The WOz was used in the early developmental stage to evaluate and explore the game concept, and to find a way to synchronise and integrate different in-game processes. We describe four central game mechanics for which the wizarding proved to be highly useful. We also discuss some ethical aspects related to the method a such as well as to the game design. In sum, we found the WOz method as such to be very useful for game design and development.

  • 14.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Computer games as playground and stage2006In: CyberGames 2006: International Conference on Game Research and Development / [ed] Kevin K. W. Wong, Lance C. C. Fung, Peter Cole, Edmond C. Prakash, Abdennour El Rhalibi, Murdoch University, 2006, p. 62-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the environment in computer games is discussed from a narratological and ludological perspective focused on the idea of environmental affordances and their inflictions on game play. The basic terminology used stems from Roger Caillois, Michail Bakhtin, James J. Gibson and Ulf Wilhelmsson respectively. The conclusion drawn in the paper is that the environment in games, free play and computer games serve as a playground and stage of purposeful objects that propose affordances and constraints upon the Game Ego manifestation within the game.

  • 15.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Datorspel som lekplats och skådeplats: Rummets roll i lek och narration2007In: Datorsplandes Dynamik: Lekar och roller i en digital kultur, Studentlitteratur, 2007, p. 137-154Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Film as virtual time space reconstruction2007In: The Virtual: Designing Digital Experience: A Conference 2006 / [ed] Patrik Hernwall, Handen: School of Communication, Technology and Design, Södertörn University College , 2007, p. 310-318Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Game Ego presence in video and computer games2008In: Extending Experiences: Structure, analysis and design of computer game player experience / [ed] Olli Leino, Hanna Wirman, Amyris Fernandez, Rovaniemi: Lapland University Press , 2008, p. 58-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Game Ego presence in video and computer games discusses the narrative experience from computer games from the perspective of the player agency within the game environment. Ludology and narratology are discussed as are the cultural and scientific dimensions of games and play in general as well as computer and video games in particular in order to broaden the perspective on games and narratives respectively. The central idea is that the Game Ego is the bodily based function that allows the player to exert control and interact with the game environment through a tactile motor/kinesthetic link. The concept of a Game Ego is based on experientialist cognitive theory and the work of George Lakoff and Mark Johnson.

  • 18.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    On Bikers at War: Transformations of Non-Fictional and Fictional Conflicts from Hamlet to Sons of Anarchy: Men of Mayhem2022In: Representing Conflicts in Games: Antagonism, Rivalry, and Competition / [ed] Björn Sjöblom; Jonas Linderoth; Anders Frank, Routledge, 2022, 1, p. 30-45Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses how conflicts are transformed from real life, via narratives to a game. It explores four types of conflicts: intergroup, intragroup, interpersonal and intrapersonal derived from a material consisting of three cultural artefacts that are interconnected: Shakespear’s dramaThe Tragedy of Hamlet, the TV-series Sons of Anarchy and the table top game Sons of Anarchy: Men of Mayhem. The fundamental and underlining question in this chapter is what the board game medium is capable of preserving from a Shakespearean drama and real life conflicts. For each step in the transformation the conflicts take on a slightly different form. The world, objects agents and events undergo changes and conflicts are presented in terms of motivation, how they are initiated and how they are turned into events such as direct war player versus player. In the stepwise transformation from Hamlet to Men of Mayhem the characters as such disappear and only function as emblematic objects rather than agents. The main finding of the chapter is that there is no room for intrapersonal and intragroup conflicts in the game. Social structures and social conflicts are the common denominators between non-fiction, narrative and the game.

  • 19.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Roger Caillois ur en narratologs perspektiv2008In: Human IT, ISSN 1402-1501, E-ISSN 1402-151X, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 110-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The classic work Les jeux et les hommes (2001/1958) by the French sociologist Roger Caillois is put in analytical relation to the fields of narratology and dramaturgy, mainly by a comparison to some thoughts and ideas in Mats Ödeen´s Dramatiskt berättande (1988). The purpose is to highlight in what way Caillois´s theory can be applied to the study of narratives and to identify analogies between narrations and games. The emphasis of the article is on a description of narratives bases on Caillois´s concept of game. Caillois´s six criteria for game and play as process and phenomenon are systematically investigated: voluntarity, separation in time and space from ordinary life, unpredictability, improductivity, regulated by rules, and fictional. The article concludes that these parameters are valid definitional criteria for narratives as well.

  • 20.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    What is a Computer/Video game experience?2007In: The Virtual: Designing Digital Experience: A Conference 2006 / [ed] Patrik Hernwall, Handen: School of Communication, Technology and Design, Södertörn University College , 2007, p. 34-50Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    What is a Game Ego: or How the embodied mind plays a role in computer game environments2006In: Affective and Emotional Aspects of Human-Computer Interaction: Game-Based and Innovative Learning Approaches, IOS Press, 2006, p. 45-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What is a Game Ego (or How the embodied mind plays a role in computer game environments) addresses questions concerning why and how a computer game player identifies her or himself with a Game Ego in computer game environments. The theoretical framework used to address these questions is drawn mainly from three fields of research: film theory (including theories on narration and narratives) theories on visual perception (which are also applicable to sound) and finally experientialist cognitive theory. The central claims of this paper are: the process of identification with a manifestation of a Game Ego has a bodily basis. The Game Ego is primarily a bodily based function that enacts a point of being within the game environment through a tactile motor/kinesthetic link. The human conceptual system shows a relationship to the motor system of the human body and is tightly connected to the emotional system so that no clear-cut boundary can be drawn between them. The more direct and immediate the control of this agent is, the stronger the identification is as well.

  • 22.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Everyone Is not a Gamer!: Developing Cultural Heritage Experiences for Diverse Audiences2020In: Visual Computing for Cultural Heritage / [ed] Fotis Liarokapis, Athanasios Voulodimos, Nikolaos Doulamis, Anastasios Doulamis, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 263-281Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serious games and gamification have been proposed as approaches to solve problems in various areas by utilizing game technologies, game design components and even fully fledged games. However, when games are applied in a context outside the gaming sphere where users are not used to game interfaces and game culture, this may cause problems. In the case of cultural heritage applications this may create confusion or even put people off if they don’t understand what to do to take part in the experience. This chapter contributes a synthesized retrospective overview of three successive research and development projects conducted at the University of Skövde since 2007 and will present theoretical frameworks, conceptual studies, and production models for cultural heritage experiences for diverse audiences. In particular, we present a detailed case of a cultural heritage site which has been enhanced by game design concepts and visualizations to provide a richer experience for visitors. The chapter will also show the importance of user experience testing as an integral part of the production cycle in order to ensure a pleasant and understandable visit for visitors with different backgrounds and experiences of video games.

  • 23.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Östblad, Per Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Accessible Game Culture using Inclusive Game Design: Participating in a visual culture that you cannot see2015In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications / [ed] Per Backlund, Red Hook, NY: IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 147-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present the result of an experiment, in which we compare the gaming experience between sighted players and visually impaired players playing the same game. Specifically we discuss whether they experience the same story construed from the plot elements that are either manifested by audio and graphics in the case of sighted players or primarily by audio in the case of visually impaired players. To this end, we have developed a graphical point-and-click adventure game for iOS and Android devices. The game has been designed to provide players with audio feedback that enables visually impaired players to interact with and experience the game, but in a manner that does not interfere with the overall appearance and functionality of the game, i.e. a design that is fully inclusive to both groups of players and that is as invisible for sighted players as possible without hindering visually impaired players to share the same gaming experience when it comes to story content. The study shows that the perception of the story were almost identical between the two groups. Generally it took visually impaired players a little longer to play the game but they also seem to listen more carefully to the dialogue and hence also build a slightly deeper understanding of the characters.

  • 24.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Östblad, Per Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Inclusive game design facilitating shared gaming experience2017In: Journal of Computing in Higher Education, ISSN 1042-1726, E-ISSN 1867-1233, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 574-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the result from a study comparing the perception and understanding of a game story between sighted and visually impaired players playing the same game. In particular, whether sighted and visually impaired players could experience and recount the same story construed from the plot elements that are either manifested by audio and graphics in the case of sighted players or pri- marily by audio in the case of visually impaired players. To this end, we have developed a graphical point-and-click adventure game for iOS and Android devices that aims to show how inclusive game design may be used to facilitate a shared gaming experience between sighted and visually impaired players. The game pro- vides players with audio feedback that enables visually impaired players to interact with and experience the game, but in a manner that does not interfere with the overall appearance and functionality of the game. Thus, it has been designed to be fully inclusive to both groups of players and to give the same gaming experience when it comes to story content. The game has been evaluated through formal user tests where subjects have been asked to play the first chapter of the game followed by an interview. The study shows that the perception of the story was almost identical between the two groups. Generally it took visually impaired players a little longer to play the game but they also seem to listen more carefully to the dialogue and hence also build a slightly deeper understanding of the characters. The study also shows that the sighted players did not respond negatively towards the inclusive game design employed in the game. 

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  • 25.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Kävrestad, Joakim
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Hur tillgängliggör vi högre utbildning för studenter med NPF-diagnoser?2022Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 26.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Susi, Tarja
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Torstensson, Niklas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Merging the Analogue and the Digital: Combining Opposite Activities in a Mixed Media Game2021In: Media and Communication, E-ISSN 2183-2439, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While much of the games research field for the last two decades has focused on digital games, this article draws attention to the benefits of combining analogue and digital game components to cater for a serious but fun game experience. In this case, the game design provides a set of game rules for players, where the goal is to win by finding another player’s hidden treasure. But, the game also includes deceptive characters, initially unknown to the players, whose goal is to lure the players to reveal information, which will make a player lose the game. Hence, the players and the unknown characters are involved in opposite but intertwined activities. To describe the differing activities we use the activity system model foundin Activity Theory. The theoretical conceptualisation, the game design and the play situation create what we term a zone of experience where young players can experience the consequences of sharing too much information. The game design mimics real world online interactions, but under safe off-line conditions. The zone of experience also creates the foundation for an ensuing activity that fits well within the concept of the zone of proximal development: A follow-up conversation under adult guidance of game experiences aimed at raising children’s online risk awareness.

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    fulltext
  • 27.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Susi, Tarja
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Torstensson, Niklas
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Sjölin, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Tuori, Petri
    LBS Borås, Sweden.
    A Computer Game for an Enhanced Visitor Experience: Integration of Reality and Fiction2014In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Interfaces and Human Computer Interaction 2014 Game and Entertainment Technologies 2014 and Computer Graphics, Visualization, Computer Vision and Image Processing 2014 - Part of the Multi Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems, MCCSIS 2014 / [ed] Katherine Blashki; Yincai Xiao, IADIS Press, 2014, p. 149-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development of a computer game for enhanced visitor experiences of an adventure tour, in which the game is integrated. The game project was run 2011-2013 and included the development of an arcade style two player cooperative computer game, game controls, graphics, sound and music. The adventure tour takes place in an old military fortress where visitors participate in searching for gold that has been stolen. The tour starts with a 3D movie that provides the plot and introduces hero and villain characters. The story is then carried forth by a game master who brings the visitors on a tour along the fortress’ vaults, during which they also play the computer game. The adventure tour is structured by a semi-fictional framing story that interweaves history, physical environment, and hero and villain characters. To withhold interdependency in the overall design of the adventure tour and the game, Caillois’s (1958/2001) taxonomy for games was chosen as a basis, combined with narrative key elements carried across the adventure tour. The game was also designed to accord with the embodied nature of human activity, allowing players to engage their whole bodies in the gameplay. Initial game evaluation results indicate the game contributes to an enhanced visitor experience of the adventure tour.

  • 28.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wallén, Jacob
    Sweden.
    A Combined Model for the Structuring of Computer Game Audio2011In: Game Sound Technology and Player Interaction: Concepts and Developments / [ed] Mark Grimshaw, IGI Global, 2011, p. 98-132Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents a model for the structuring of computer game audio building on the IEZA-framework (Huiberts & van Tol, 2008), Murch’s (1998) conceptual model for the production of film sound, and the affordance theory put forth by Gibson (1977/1986). This model makes it possible to plan the audio layering of computer games in terms of the relationship between encoded and embodied sounds, cognitive load, the functionality of the sounds in computer games, the relative loudness between sounds, and the dominant frequency range of all the different sounds. The chapter uses the combined model to provide exemplifying analyses of three computer games—F.E.A.R., Warcraft III, and Legend of Zelda—. Furthermore, the chapter shows how a sound designer can use the suggested model as a production toolset to structure computer game audio from a game design document.

  • 29.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Wang, Wei
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Zhang, Ran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Shift from game-as-a-product to game-as-a-service research trends2022In: Service Oriented Computing and Applications, ISSN 1863-2386, E-ISSN 1863-2394, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 79-81Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Östblad, Per Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Brusk, Jenny
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Inclusive game design: audio interface in a graphical adventure game2014In: 9th Audio Mostly: A Conference on Interaction With Sound (AM '14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, New York, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2014, p. 8-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lot of video games on the market are inaccessible to players with visual impairments because they rely heavily on use of graphical elements. This paper presents a project aimed at developing a point-and-click adventure game for smart phones and tablets that is equally functional and enjoyable by blind and sighted players. This will be achieved by utilizing audio to give blind players all necessary information and enjoyment without graphics. In addition to creating the game, the aim of the project is to identify design aspects that can be applied to more types of games to include more players. This paper also presents a pilot study that has been conducted on an early version of the game and the preliminary findings are discussed.

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