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  • 1.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Comparing Multi-Objective Approaches for Air Route Planning in Hostile Environments2015In: CD-ROM Proceedings of The 12th International Conference on Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence, 2015, p. 60-71Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Route planning for aircraft that should fly in hostile environmentscan be regarded as a multi-objective optimization problem, where the route should enable the aircraft to accomplish its mission tasks with a minimum risk exposure and minimum fuel consumption. This work compares different approaches for multi-objective route planning that have been suggested in the literature regarding their formulation of objectives as well as how they handle the decision maker’s preferences. It is concluded that most route planners minimize threat exposure and route length, but can also include altitude and flight dynamics constraints. Preferences regarding the objectives can be included in the route planning algorithms with weights or priorities. An alternative approach is that the route planner suggests a number of routes and thereafter lets the decision maker select the best one.

  • 2.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Tina.Erlandsson@saabgroup.com.
    Coordinated Target Assignment and Route Planning for Air Team Mission Planning2016In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference / [ed] Zdravko Markov and Ingrid Russell, Palo Alto, California: AAAI Press, 2016, p. 38-43Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning air missions for a team flying in hostile environmentsis a complex task, since multiple interrelated goalsneed to be considered, e.g., performing the mission tasks andavoiding enemy fire. The target assignment and route planningfor the team should therefore be performed in a coordinatedway. The mission planner suggested in this work combinesgenetic algorithms and particle swarm optimization inorder to solve these two problems in an interconnected manner.Simulations are used for testing and analyzing the approach.It is concluded that the mission planner is able tosuggest suitable plans in complex scenarios with three interrelatedobjectives: low risk exposure, high mission effectivenessand short route length.

  • 3.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Situation Analysis for Fighter Aircraft Combat Survivability2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fighter pilots operate in environments where an erroneous decision may have fatal consequences. A tactical decision support system (TDSS) could aid the pilots to analyze the situation and make correct decisions. The TDSS can, for instance, highlight important information and suggest suitable actions. The aim of this thesis is to provide a situation analysis model of combat survival that can be utilized in a TDSS.

    The first part of this thesis describes an analysis of what the model needs to describe and how it can be used. It is concluded that the model should evaluate the outcome of different actions with respect to combat survival. This evaluation can guide the pilot’s decision making, so that actions leading to dangerous situations are avoided. The analysis also highlights the need of handling uncertainties, both measurement precision uncertainty regarding the locations and capabilities of the threats (enemies) and inference uncertainties regarding the prediction of how the threats will act.

    Finally, arguments for focusing the rest of the work on a single fighter aircraft and threats located on the ground are presented. The second part of the thesis suggests a model, which describes the survivability, i.e., the probability that the aircraft can fly a route without being hit by fire from ground-based threats. Thus, the model represents the inference uncertainty, since it describes the probability of survival. The model’s characteristics are discussed, e.g., that the model is implementable and can be adapted to describe different kinds of ground-based threats. Uncertainty in terms of measurement precision influences the estimate of the survivability. Two different ways of representing this is discussed: calculating the worst case scenario or describing the input as random variables and the resulting survivability as a random variable with a probability distribution. Monte Carlo simulations are used for estimating the distribution for survivability in a few illustrative scenarios, where the input is represented as random variables. The simulations show that when the uncertainty in input is large, the survivability distribution may be both multimodal and mixed. Two uncertainty measures are investigated that condense the information in the distributions into a single value: standard deviation and entropy. The simulations show that both of these measures reflect the uncertainty. Furthermore, the simulations indicate that the uncertainty measures can be used for sensor management, since they point out which information that is the most valuable to gather in order to decrease the uncertainty in the survivability.

    Finally, directions for future work are suggested. A number of TDSS functions that can be developed based on the model are discussed e.g., warnings, countermeasure management, route-planning and sensor management. The design of these functions could require extending the threat model to incorporate airborne threats and the effects of countermeasures. Further investigations regarding the uncertainty in the model are also suggested.

  • 4.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Department of Decision Support and Autonomy, Saab AB, Sweden.
    Helldin, Tove
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Information Fusion supporting Team Situation Awareness for Future Fighting Aircraft2010In: FUSION 2010: 13th international Conference on Information Fusion, 26-29 July 2010, EICC, Edinburgh, UK, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. Article number 5712064-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the military aviation domain, the decisionmaker, i.e. the pilot, often has to process huge amounts of information in order to make correct decisions. This is further aggravated by factors such as time-pressure, high workload and the presence of uncertain information. A support system that aids the pilot to achieve his/her goals has long been considered vital for performance progress in military aviation. Research programs within the domain have studied such support systems, though focus has not been on team collaboration. Based on identified challenges of assessing team situation awareness we suggest an approach to future military aviation support systems based on information fusion. In contrast to most previous work in this area, focus is on supporting team situation awareness, including team threat evaluation. To deal with these challenges, we propose the development of a situational adapting system, which presents information and recommendations based on the current situation.

  • 5.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Tina.Erlandsson@saabgroup.com.
    Marcus, Carina
    Saab AB.
    Boström, Per
    Saab AB.
    Distributed and Collaborative Sensing for Providing Situation and Option Awareness2016In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference / [ed] Zdravko Markov and Ingrid Russell, Palo Alto, California: AAAI Press, 2016, p. 704-704Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teams of manned and unmanned aircraft have the opportunityto gather a huge amount of information regardingthe situation at hand. Together they can cover larger areasas well as sensing the same objects from different directionsenabling triangulation using combination of activeand/or passive sensors as well as image recognition. Combiningthis data with intelligence, maps and weather informationhas the potential of providing both the teams andthe commanders with situation awareness. This informationshould aid the decision makers to identify possibleoptions and anticipate their consequences, which is alsoknown as option awareness. A number of challenges needto be resolved in order to actualize this scenario. Thecommander who is interested in the entire battlespaceneeds to decide how to distribute the teams in air. Eachteam needs to collaborate to perform its tasks, taking intoaccount the members’ capabilities and resources, such assensor and communication ranges. The teams should alsorequest support from each other when needed. At all levels,there is a trade-off between gathering valuable informationand avoiding risk exposure. In this initial work, we elaborateon the opportunities and challenges with distributedand collaborative sensing with the aim of providing situationand option awareness for both commanders and pilots.

  • 6.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Aeronautics, Saab AB, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    An Air-to-Ground Combat Survivability Model2015In: Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation: Applications, Methodology, Technology, ISSN 1557-380X, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 273-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survivability model can be a useful component of a tactical support system able to aid fighter pilots to assess the risk of getting hit by enemy fire from ground-based threats. This work identifies three desirable properties of such a model: it should allow for evaluating actions; it should enable domain experts to incorporate their knowledge; and it should represent uncertainties both regarding the locations of the threats as well as their future actions. A survivability model issuggested, which calculates the probability that the aircraft can fly a route unharmed and allows for routes of different lengths to be compared. A domain expert can describe the threats by specifying the risk of getting hit at a position of the route without having to consider the earlier actions of the aircraft and the threats. Three different threat models are suggested and compared. The influence of uncertainties regarding the positions of the threats is studied by calculating the probability density function for the survivability. Different representations that take into account both the uncertainty regarding the present and future situation are discussed. The results indicate that the suggested survivability model could be a useful component of a future tactical support system, even though some further development is needed.

  • 7.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Aeronautics, SAAB AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Calculating Uncertainties in Situation Analysis for Fighter Aircraft Combat Survivability2012In: Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2012), IEEE Computer Society, 2012, p. 196-203Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of situation analysis is to assess the relevant objects in the surroundings and interpret their relations and their impact in order for a decision maker to achieve situation awareness and be able to make suitable decisions. However, the information regarding the relevant objects is typically uncertain, which will induce uncertainty in the result from the situation analysis. If the kinematic states of the objects are estimated with a tracking filter, the estimates can be considered as random variables. Furthermore, the situation analysis algorithm is a function of these estimates entailing that the result from the situation analysis is random variable. This paper studies the fighter aircraft domain and a situation analysis algorithm that calculates the combat survivability, i.e., the probability that the aircraft can a fly a route inside hostile territory without getting hit by enemy fire. The survivability of different routes can be compared in order to decide where to fly. However, the uncertainties regarding the threats' positions imply that the survivability is uncertain and can be desribed as a random variable with a distribution. The unscented transform (UT) is here used for calculating the mean and standard deviation (std) of the survivability in a few scenarios with threats located on the ground. Simulations show that the position uncertainties affect both the mean and std of the survivability and that UT gives similar estimates as a Monte Carlo (MC) approach. UT therefore seems to be a promising approach for calculating the uncertainty in the survivability, which is more computational efficient than MC.

  • 8.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Comparing Air Mission Routes from a Combat Survival Perspective2013In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth International Florida Artificial Intelligence Research Society Conference / [ed] Chutima Boonthum-Denecke and G. Michael Youngblood, AAAI Press, 2013, p. 58-63Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An aircraft flying inside hostile territory is exposed to the risk of getting detected and tracked by the enemy’s sensors,  and  subsequently  hit  by  its  weapons.  This paper  describes  a  combat  survivability  model  that can be used for assessing the risks associated with a mission route. In contrast to previous work, the model describes both the risk of getting tracked and the risk of getting hit, as well as the dependency between these risks.  Three  different  ways  of  using  the  model  for comparing routes from a combat survival perspective are  suggested.  The  survivability  for  the  end  point, i.e., the probability of flying the entire route without getting hit, is a compact way of summarizing the risks. Visualizing  how  the  risks  vary  along  the  route  can be  used  for  identifying  critical  parts  of  the  mission. Finally, assigning weights to different risks allow the opportunity to take preferences regarding risk exposure into account.

  • 9.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Aeronautics, SAAB AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Threat Assessment for Missions in Hostile Territory - From the Aircraft Perspective2013In: Proceedings of the 16th international conference on information fusion (FUSION 2013), IEEE Press, 2013, p. 1856-1862Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10. Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Uncertainty Measures for Sensor Management in a Survivability Application2011In: Informatik 2011 / [ed] Heiss, H-U., Pepper, P., Schlingloff, H. and Schneider, J., Bonner Köller Verlag , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When flying a mission, a fighter pilot is exposed to the risk of being hit by enemy fire. A tactical support system can aid the pilot by calculating the survivability of a given route, which is the probability that the fighter pilot can fly the route with-out being hit. The survivability estimate will be uncertain due to uncertainty in the information about threats in the area. In this paper, we investigate the uncertainty in the estimate of the survivability and compare two different measures of uncertainty; standard deviation and entropy. Furthermore, we discuss how these measures can be used for sensor management and discuss a few issues that need to be addressed in the design of a sensor management system in a fighter aircraft.

  • 11.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    et al.
    Aeronautics/Electronic Defence Systems, SAAB AB, Linköping/Göteborg, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Nordlund, Per-Johan
    Aeronautics/Electronic Defence Systems, SAAB AB, Linköping/Göteborg, Sweden.
    Warston, Håkan
    Aeronautics/Electronic Defence Systems, SAAB AB, Linköping/Göteborg, Sweden.
    Modeling Fighter Aircraft Mission Survivability2011In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2011), IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 999-1006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fighter aircraft flying a mission is often exposed to ground-based threats such as surface-to-air missile (SAM) sites. The fighter pilot needs to take actions to minimize the risk of being shot down, but at the same time be able to accomplish the mission. In this paper we propose a survivability model, which describes the probability that the aircraft will be able to fly a given route without being hit by incoming missiles. Input to this model can consist of sensor measurements collected during flight as well as intelligence data gathered before the mission. This input is by nature uncertain and we therefore investigate the influence of uncertainty in the input to the model. Finally we propose a number of decision support functions that can be developed based on the suggested model such as countermeasure management, mission planning and sensor management.

  • 12.
    Helldin, Tove
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    Saab Aeronautics, Sweden.
    Automation Guidelines for Introducing Survivability Analysis in Future Fighter Aircraft2012In: ICAS 2012 CD-ROM Proceedings: 28th Congress of the International Council of the Aeronautical Sciences, 23 - 28 September 2012, Brisbane, Australia, Optimage Ltd. , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pilots of fighter aircraft are often exposed to the risk of being hit by enemy fire from ground-based threats. It has been argued that the pilots could be aided by a tactical support system that automatically assesses the danger posed by such threats and analyzes the survivability of the mission. It has also been argued that the automation design of such system must be properly adapted according to the pilots' needs. In this paper, empirical results are presented regarding the characteristics of an operator-centered survivability support system in the fighter aircraft domain, where both the development of the system and its automation design are discussed. The results indicate a strong potential for the survivability model and the automation guidelines within the fighter aircraft domain, but also a need for further refinements of the model and the guidelines to reflect the specific characteristics of the domain.

  • 13.
    Helldin, Tove
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Decision support system in the fighter aircraft domain: the first steps2011Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Helldin, Tove
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Supporting Fighter Pilot Decision Making through Team Option Awareness2015In: Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics: 12th International Conference, EPCE 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings / [ed] Don Harris, Springer, 2015, p. 345-355Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fighter pilots must often make decisions fast, under time-pressure and based on uncertain or incomplete data. Thus, decision-making in this envi-ronment poses several challenges on the pilots such as how to fulfil the goal of the mission, while at the same time limit the potential costs and risks taken to fulfil this goal. Another challenge involves the dynamic coordination of actions within the team of pilots needed to succeed with the mission efficiently. This paper discusses challenges and opportunities of introducing a decision-support tool in the fighter aircraft, aiding the pilots determine the best course(s) of ac-tion with regard to the team’s resources, opportunities and the possible risks in-volved. To do so, we apply the concept of option awareness, guiding the future development of decision support in the fighter aircraft domain.

  • 15.
    Helldin, Tove
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Erlandsson, Tina
    Department of Data Fusion and Tactical Control, Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Situational Adapting System supporting Team Situation Awareness2010In: Unmanned/Unattended Sensors and Sensor Networks VII: Proceedings of SPIE Security & Defence 2010 / [ed] Edward M. Carapezza, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2010, p. Article No. 78330S-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military fighter pilots have to make suitable decisions fast in an environment where continuously increasing flows of information from sensors, team members and databases are provided. Not only do the huge amounts of data aggravate the pilots’ decision making process: time-pressure, presence of uncertain data and high workload are factors that can worsen the performance of pilot decision making. In this paper, initial ideas of how to support the pilots accomplishing their tasks are presented. Results from interviews with two fighter pilots are described as well as a discussion about how these results can guide the design of a military fighter pilot decision support system, with focus on team cooperation.

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