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  • 1.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Production Engineering, Componenta, Nossebro, Sweden.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Production Engineering, Arkivator AB, Falköping, Sweden.
    Systemic change management: An opportunity for manufacturing organizations2008In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: FAIM 2008 / [ed] Leo J. de Vin, 2008, Vol. 1, p. 654-659Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines potential opportunities at two SMEs (small to medium-sized enterprises) to improve the decision making process for change in their manufacturing organizations. Present procedures of the decision making process for manufacturing system development have been studied by applying feedback systems thinking. A framework for systemic change management is proposed utilizing a bottom-up perspective to acknowledge individual competence and creativity. In conclusion applying system principles facilitates an environment for proactive developments towards a learning organization.

  • 2.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    On System Dynamics as an Approach for Manufacturing Systems Development2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improvement work in manufacturing industry usually focuses on the utilisation of equipment. System dynamics simulation is a potential tool for increasing the utilisation of systems. By using group model building and simulation it facilitates a common view and better informed decisions for change. However, a gap between theory and practice of how to implement these projects is identified, consequently the major question for this thesis. The approach for solving this problem used industrial case studies with action research character; including modelling and interviews affecting the actors in the studied systems. Together with literature studies these efforts contribute with identifying how system dynamics projects can be performed for manufacturing systems development. It is shown that the support for how to implement system dynamics projects is unsatisfying and general. During the research progress a framework of guidelines has crystallised in order to bridge the presented gap of this thesis. Finally, the results are considered to make it easier to support manufacturing systems development using system dynamics.

  • 3.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Towards strategic development of maintenance and its effects on production performance: A hybrid simulation-based optimization framework2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing maintenance in manufacturing within an economical short-termism framework and taking the consequential long-term cost effects into account is hard. The increasing complexity of managing maintenance and its impact on the business results calls for more advanced methods to support long-term development through effective activities in the production system environment. This problem-based design science research has evolved into the novel concept of a hybrid simulation-based optimization (SBO) framework which integrates multi-objective optimization (MOO) with system dynamics (SD) and discrete-event simulation (DES) respectively. The objective is to support managers in their decision-making on the strategic and operational levels for prioritizing activities to develop maintenance and production performance.

    To exemplify the hybrid SBO framework this research presents an SD model for the study of the dynamic behaviors of maintenance performance and costs, which aims to illuminate insights for the support of the long-term strategic development of maintenance practices. The model promotes a system view of maintenance costs that includes the dynamic consequential costs as the combined result of several interacting maintenance levels throughout the constituent feedback structures. These levels range from the applied combination of maintenance methodologies to the resulting proactiveness in production, such as the ratio between planned and unplanned downtime, in continuous change based on the rate of improvements arising from root-cause analyses of breakdowns. The model creation and validation process have been supported by two large maintenance organizations operating in the Swedish automotive industry. Experimental results show that intended changes can have both short-term and longterm consequences, and that the system may show both obvious and hidden dynamic behavioral effects.

    The application of MOO distinguishes this work from previous research efforts that have mixed SD and DES. It presents a unique methodology to support more quantitative and objective-driven decision making in maintenance management, in which the outcome of an SD+MOO strategy selection process forms the basis for performance improvements on the operations level. This is achieved by framing the potential gains in operations in the DES+MOO study, as a result of the applied strategy in the SD model. All in all, this hybrid SBO framework allows pinpointing maintenance activities based on the analysis of the feedback behavior that generates less reactive load on the maintenance organization.

  • 4.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Machine Strategy Evaluation Using Group Model Building in System Dynamics2014In: System Dynamics Society: Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference of the System Dynamics Society / [ed] Pål Davidsen and Etiënne A. J. A. Rouwette, 2014, p. 24 s.-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling projects, in order to build richer understanding of the dynamics of real-world

    phenomena in manufacturing systems, benefit from utilizing System dynamics group model

    building. This paper describes a project utilizing such method in order to identify the

    interrelated dynamics of aging machinery equipment, competence development, and level of

    automation for accurate manufacturing systems development. These central aspects were

    identified by the project group during modeling and were considered vital in order to

    approach the proper Machine Strategy for the system of interest. Aspects of attention in the

    study also considered participants’ learning of the system of interest, participants’

    perception upon model results, and the comparison between utilizing group model building

    and the traditional modeler-client approach. It is shown that System dynamics group model

    building has potential use in manufacturing, and indeed that more efforts are needed for

    successful use in projects. For that reason the need of a framework for supporting system

    dynamics projects in manufacturing is identified.

  • 5.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Galar, Diego
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wickelgren, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    A path forward: Systems thinking maintenance as part of shift in mind on added value2015In: / [ed] Sulo Lahdelma & Kari Palokangas, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The purpose and novelty with this recently started research is the introduction of a modelling concept that aims to include the interdependencies maintenance have with financial figures, customer behavior, and production, using systems thinking. It suggests on a path forward in acknowledging short- and long term effects from maintenance on the production system and its financial results. Using systems thinking modelling enables learning on consequences from strategies and policies on the studied system; enabling evaluation of future scenarios supporting decision makers in defining sustainable strategies of action on the policy-level. This paper provides a brief outline of the thoughts behind the research project and points the direction for future research by first introducing aspects regarding the problem and possibilities to address, then briefly introduce different modelling approaches that in part address the problem, which is summarized into a path forward, and finally includes an example of a model by the author of a machine strategy problem that connects the physical assets and actions with financial costs.

  • 6.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Galar, Diego
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Wickelgren, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    In Need for Better Maintenance Cost Modelling to Support the Partnership with Manufacturing2016In: Current Trends in Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety: An Industry Perspective / [ed] Uday Kumar, Alireza Ahmadi, Ajit Kumar Verma & Prabhakar Varde, Springer, 2016, 1, p. 263-282Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of maintenance consequential costs has to be dealt with in manufacturing and is core of this paper. The need of sustainable partnership between manufacturing and maintenance is addressed. Stuck in a best practice thinking, applying negotiation as a method based on power statements in the service level agreement, the common best possible achievable goal is put on risk. Instead, it may enforce narrow minded sub optimized thinking even though not intended so. Unfortunately, the state of origin is not straightforward business. Present maintenance cost modelling is approached, however limits to its ability to address the dynamic complexity of production flows are acknowledged. The practical problem to deal with is units put together in production flows; in which downtime in any unit may or may not result in decreased throughput depending on its set up. In this environment accounting consequential costs is a conundrum and a way forward is suggested. One major aspect in the matter is the inevitable need of shift in mind, from perspective thinking in maintenance and manufacturing respectively towards shared perspectives, nourishing an advantageous sustainable partnership.

  • 7.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Jägstam, Mats
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kinnander, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bridging a Methodological Gap in Using System Dynamics in Manufacturing2009In: Proceedings of The International 3’rd Swedish Production Symposium, SPS’09 / [ed] B.-G. Rosén, The Swedish Production Academy , 2009, p. 19-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of manufacturing systems is dependent on human decision making. One important factor in the decision making process is the organisational ability to transform available information into useful knowledge. The ability is generally limited by the organisation's level of competence and use of methods. However, real systems are not simple and straightforward but dynamically complex and difficult to interpret in order to perform successful change. One tool for diagnosing and solving complex business problems is system dynamics. It is interesting for its capability to acknowledge dynamic complexity.

    This paper presents a framework of guidelines that facilitates implementing a system dynamics project for manufacturing systems development. It is the result of industrial case studies, supporting verification of the framework contents. This is presented in order to improve using system dynamics as a decision support in manufacturing. And it may bridge a gap between academic theory and industrial practice.

  • 8.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Production Engineering and Production Preparation, Arkivator AB, Falköping, Sweden .
    Jägstam, Mats
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Näsström, C.
    Production Engineering and Production Preparation, Arkivator AB, Falköping, Sweden.
    Cutting Tool Management: A Dynamic Assessment of Opportunities for Improvement2008In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: FAIM 2008 / [ed] Leo J. de Vin, 2008, Vol. 2, p. 1084-1091Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lack of time due to daily problems in need of attention restrains proper assessments of improvement opportunities. There is neither proper support at hand to deal with the dynamic complexity of human activity and systems in use. This paper explores if system dynamics simulation can be used to model tooling problems on a management problem level at a manufacturer and evaluates its use. System dynamics is a methodology designed to aid understanding of dynamically complex problems and increases decision making impact. The results focus on the achieved models which prove to have sense behaviour despite lack of thorough data. In conclusion the applied method provides with an analysis of complex problem situations applicable for a decision support, otherwise performed through good guessing. Main characteristics from reality have been included in model and an experimental laboratory to test future policies on achieved.

  • 9.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science.
    Investigating Maintenance Performance: A Simulation Study2016In: Proceedings of the 7th Swedish Production Symposium, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance can be performed in multiple procedures, and it is hard to justify investments in preventive work. It is a complex equation between the inherent complexity of maintenance and its tight dependencies with production, but also the aspect of direct cost and consequential costs from activities. A model is presented that quantify dynamics of maintenance performance in order to enable a systems analysis on the total of consequences from different strategies. Simulation offers experimenting and learning on how performance is generated. The model is based on parts of previous research on maintenance modelling, system dynamics, maintenance theory, and mapping of practical information flows in maintenance. Two experiments are presented that both take off from a reactive strategy of maintenance performance, and implement two different strategies for preventive maintenance. Using the model enriches the analysis on how the aspects of maintenance performance work together with different maintenance strategies.

  • 10.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    A hybrid simulation-based optimization framework for supporting strategic maintenance to improve production performance2019In: European Journal of Operational Research, ISSN 0377-2217, E-ISSN 1872-6860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing maintenance and its impact on business results is increasingly complex, calling for more advanced operational research methodologies to address the challenge of sustainable decision-making. This problem-based research has identified a framework of methods to supplement the operations research/management science literature by contributing a hybrid simulation-based optimization framework (HSBOF), extending previously reported research.

    Overall, it is the application of multi-objective optimization (MOO) with system dynamics (SD) and discrete-event simulation (DES) respectively which allows maintenance activities to be pinpointed in the production system based on analyzes generating less reactive work load on the maintenance organization. Therefore, the application of the HSBOF informs practice by a multiphase process, where each phase builds knowledge, starting with exploring feedback behaviors to why certain near-optimal maintenance behaviors arise, forming the basis of potential performance improvements, subsequently optimized using DES+MOO in a standard software, prioritizing the sequence of improvements in the production system for maintenance to implement.

    Studying literature on related hybridizations using optimization the proposed work can be considered novel, being based on SD+MOO industrial cases and their application to a DES+MOO software.

  • 11.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Justifying Maintenance Studying System Behavior: A Multipurpose Approach Using Multi-objective Optimization2017In: 35th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society 2017: Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA 16 - 20 July 2017 / [ed] J. Sterman, N. Repenning, Curran Associates, Inc., 2017, Vol. 2, p. 1061-1081Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial maintenance includes rich internaldynamic complexity on how to deliver value. While the technical development hasprovided with applicable solutions in terms of reliability and condition basedmonitoring, managing maintenance is still an act of balancing, trying to pleasethe short-termism from the economic requirements and simultaneously address thenecessity of strategic and long-term thinking. By presenting an analysis tojustify maintenance studying system behavior, this paper exemplifies thecontribution of the combined approach of a system dynamics maintenanceperformance model and multi-objective optimization. The paper reveals howinsights from the investigation, of the near optimal Pareto-front solutions inthe objective space, can be drawn using visualization of performance ofselected parameters. According to our analysis, there is no return back to thesingle use of system dynamics; the contribution to the analysis of exploringsystem behavior, from applying multi-objective optimization, is extensive.However, for the practical application, the combined approach is not areplacement – but a complement. Where the interpretation of the visualizedPareto-fronts strongly benefits from the understanding of the model dynamics, inwhich important nonlinearities and delays can be revealed, and thus facilitateon the selected strategical path for implementation.

  • 12.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Jönköping University, School of Engineering, Sweden.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Quantitative analysis of a conceptual system dynamics maintenance performance model using multi-objective optimisation2018In: Journal of Simulation, ISSN 1747-7778, E-ISSN 1747-7786, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 171-189Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Relating strategic time horizons and proactiveness in equipment maintenance: a simulation-based optimization study2018In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 72, p. 1293-1298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying sustainable strategies to develop maintenance performance within the short-termism framework is indeed challenging. It requires reinforcing long-term capabilities while managing short-term requirements. This study explores differently applied time horizons when optimizing the tradeoff between conflicting objectives, in maintenance performance, which are: maximize availability, minimize maintenance costs, and minimize maintenance consequence costs. The study has applied multi-objective optimization on a maintenance performance system dynamics model that contains feedback structures that explains reactive and proactive maintenance behavior on a general level. The quantified results provide insights on how different time frames are conditional to enable more or less proactive maintenance behavior in servicing production.

  • 14.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Aslam, Tehseen
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Towards strategic development of maintenance and its effects on production performance by using system dynamics in the automotive industry2018In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 200, p. 151-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing maintenance within an economical short-termism framework, without considering the consequential long-term cost effect, is very common in industry. This research presents a novel conceptual system dynamics model for the study of the dynamic behaviors of maintenance performance and costs, which aims to illuminate insights for the support of the long-term, strategic development of manufacturing maintenance. By novel, we claim the model promotes a system's view of maintenance costs that include its dynamic consequential costs as the combined result of several interacting maintenance levels throughout the constituent feedback structures. These range from the applied combination of maintenance methodologies to the resulting proactiveness in production, which is based on the rate of continuous improvements arising from the root cause analyses of breakdowns. The purpose of using system dynamics is to support the investigations of the causal relationships between strategic initiatives and performance results, and to enable analyses that take into consideration the time delays between different actions, in order to support the sound formulation of policies to develop maintenance and production performances. The model construction and validation process has been supported by two large maintenance organizations operating in the Swedish automotive industry. Experimental results show that intended changes can have both short and long-term consequences, and that obvious and hidden dynamic behavioral effects, which have not been reported in the literature previously, may be in the system. We believe the model can help to illuminate the holistic value of maintenance on the one hand and support its strategic development as well as the organizational transformation into proactiveness on the other.

  • 15.
    Ruiz-Amurrio, Maria
    et al.
    MGEP, Dept Mecan Prod & Ind, Arrasate Mondragon, Spain.
    Elorza, Unai
    MGEP, Dept Mecan Prod & Ind, Arrasate Mondragon, Spain.
    Linnéusson, Gary
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Zabaleta-Etxebarria, Noemi
    MGEP, Dept Mecan Prod & Ind, Arrasate Mondragon, Spain.
    Identification of the factors which influence employee commitment using systems thinking = Identificación de factores que influyen en el compromiso de los empleados utilizando pensamiento sistemico2018In: DYNA, ISSN 0012-7361, Vol. 93, no 5, p. 504-511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In our increasingly globalised economy, managing continuous change and remaining competitive has become a central issue for organisations in the industrial sector. Building a sustainable competitive advantage through effective decision making and the use of decision making tools has been widely studied [1,2]. The success of a company will be dependent on the skills of the workers, their capacity for learning, and adapting to special and evolving client necessities. Culture change via, communication and participation are the elements of change identified for engineering companies [3]. Thus, the main objective of this research is to understand the behaviour of commitment, the variables that influence it and the variables that are influenced by it. Commitment is considered a key factor due to its influence on performance. The methodology that was followed was based on the modelling methodology proposed by Sterman [4]. The first step was the problem definition, the second step was data collection. The purpose was to define the feedback loops of which the conceptual model (CM) is composed. Thirdly, conceptual model definition was developed. As a result, the outcome that is achieved through this research is a conceptual model. The main function of this model is to facilitate the understanding of the behaviour of commitment through Systems Thinking tools. This research contributes to both Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) and Systems Thinking (ST) fields of study. The most notable contribution for ST is the fact of combining more than one input source (Literature + Group Model Building + prior research) for the conceptual model definition. The combination of these input sources for an ST model is not common in the scientific community. Moreover, the use of ST in SHRM is limited.

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