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  • 1.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. University West, Sweden.
    Roos, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    The American Dream in a Swedish Representative Sample: Personality Traits Predict Life Outcomes Better than Childhood Background2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The American Dream is that any individual, not regarding family background, can achieve what they desire, in terms of life, economic liberty, and happiness. An indication of the American dream would be if individual adult personality traits predicted life outcomes better than childhood background.

    A sample of the Swedish population, representative in age, sex, and occupation (N = 5,280) was 2012 measured on adult personality traits, childhood socioeconomic status (SES), and 3 life outcomes – education, income, and life outcome satisfaction.

    Childhood SES accounted for almost twice the disattenuated variance (22%) compared to personality (12%) in educational attainment, while personality accounted for almost twice the variance (12%) compared to childhood SES (7%) in annual income. Life outcome satisfaction was only predicted by personality (37%) and not by childhood SES (0%). Moreover, particularly the traits extraversion and neuroticism showed a full compensating catch-up effect on high childhood SES in annual income.

    Expressions of personality may be growing in predictive importance and constitute a societal trademark of the American dream being present. Sweden is a renowned progressive, individualistic, and egalitarian country, which could make the results of wide-reaching interest. 

  • 2.
    Roos, John M.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Gothenburg, Sweden / University West, Sweden.
    The Personality Map of Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that personality traits are unevenly distributed geographically, with some traits being more prevalent in certain places than in others. The majority of research in this field has focused on cross-national comparisons, while less attention has been given to variations in personality traits within countries (Rentfrow, Kokela & Lamb, 2015).

    More recently, regional personality differences have been mapped in both United States and Great Britain (Rentfrow, Gosling, Jokela, Stillwell, Kosinki & Potter, 2013; Rentfrow, Kokela & Lamb, 2015). The aim of the present study is to map regional personality differences in Sweden.

    Using a representative sample of Swedish residents (N = 6154), we mapped the geographical distribution of the Big Five Personality traits across eight national areas (e.g. Stockholm, East Middle Sweden, South Småland and the Islands, South Sweden, West Sweden, North Middle Sweden, Middle Norrland and Upper Norrland).

    The result revealed statistically significant associations on national areas and the degree of agreeableness [F (7, 6154) = 4.63, p < .01, partial ƞ² =.005]. Employing the Bonferroni post-hoc test, significant differences (p < .01) were found between South Sweden (M = 2.74) and the Upper Norrland (M = 2.93), and between South Sweden and North Middle Sweden (M = 2.88). Descriptive statistics illustrate a stepwise change toward higher degree of agreeableness, from the South of Sweden to the North of Sweden (Figure 1).

    The result revealed statistically significant associations on national areas and the degree of conscientiousness (F (7, 6164) = 2,51, p < .05, partial ƞ² =.003). Employing the Bonferroni post-hoc test, significant (p < .05) differences were found only between Stockholm (M = 2.94) and the Upper Norrland (M = 3.06). 

    Insights about regional personality differences within a nation are useful, because such differences are associated with political, economic, social and health outcomes and thereby linked to a regions history, culture and ability to change.

  • 3.
    Roos, John Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Veryday, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. University College West, Sweden / University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Non-verbal personality assessment with 10 cartoon-like portrayals2015In: ECPA 13th European Conference on Psychological Assessment, Zurich, July 22-25, 2015: Book of abstracts / [ed] Willibald Ruch, 2015, p. 78-79Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a non-verbal personality assessment that consists of 10 cartoon-like portrayals, one for each factor in the five-factor model of personality and their counterparts (i.e. open-minded, conscientious, extravert, agreeable, and neurotic; versus close-minded, impulsive, introvert, antagonistic, and emotionally stable). The assessment has been constructed in collaboration with graphic designers at an international top-ranking design and innovation agency, Veryday. Unlike existing personality assessments, this assessment is developed for interviews and combines the respondent´s perceived self and ideal self rather than only focusing on the ECPA13 Zurich 79 Paper Sessions respondent´s self-reported perceived self. The aim of the assessment is to provide insight into gaps that reside in incongruity between the respondent´s perceived self and ideal self and thereafter focusing the interview on how to bridge the gap(s). The portrayals have been validated through 156 undergraduate students at Stockholm University. The content validity was verified via tag clouds of top-of-mind words and the criterion validity was verified via the verbal assessment criterion, HP5i. The preliminary analyses are promising in terms of reshaping and adjusting established personality assessments into non-verbal tools for interview settings in therapy and user-studies. However, the assessment need to be further validated and discussed with experts in the field of psychological assessments.

  • 4.
    Roos, John Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Centre for Consumer Research, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Personality traits and Internet usage across generation cohorts: Insights from a nationally representative study2018In: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies examining the relationship between personality and Internet usage have usually used small and non-representative samples. In the present study, we examine the relationship between the Five Factor Model of Personality and Internet usage in a large nationally representative Swedish sample (N = 1694). Neuroticism was negatively associated with overall Internet usage, whereas extraversion and openness to experience were shown to be positively associated with overall Internet usage. However, exploring these associations across categories of Internet usage and generation cohorts revealed some other interesting patterns. Specifically, neuroticism was negatively associated with using the Internet for activities relating to information and duties but not for leisure and social activities. Extraversion was positively associated with using the Internet for leisure and social activities among DotNets (born 1977–1999), whereas among Dutifuls (born 1910–1945) and Baby Boomers (born 1946–1964) extraversion was positively associated with using the Internet for information and duty activities. Openness to experience was positively associated with Internet usage but only among Baby Boomers. Conscientiousness was a significant predictor of Internet usage only for DotNets and GenXers (born 1965–1976). In these cohorts, conscientiousness was positively associated with using the Internet for information and duty activities but negatively associated with using the Internet for leisure and social activities. Apparently, understanding the relationship between personality and Internet usage is not possible without considering the modifying role of categories of Internet usage and generation cohorts. The implications of the results for theory and practice are discussed in detail.

  • 5.
    Roos, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The winner takes IT all: Swedish digital divides in global internet usage2018In: Digital Transformation and Global Society / [ed] Daniel A. Alexandrov, Alexander V. Boukhanovsky, Andrei V. Chugunov, Yury Kabanov, Olessia Koltsova, Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 859, p. 3-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, we examined the influence of personality factors and demographic factors on Internet usage. Personality was defined from the Five Factor Model of personality in terms of Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism, while demographic factors were defined as gender, age and socioeconomic status (e.g. income and educational attainment). The results from a large, representative Swedish sample (N = 1,694) show that global Internet usage can be explained by a high degree of Extraversion, young age and high socioeconomic status. Our findings are consistent with some previous studies, but in contrast with others. We discuss contrasting results in terms of different study designs, cultures and time periods of Internet development. The results are discussed in terms of the “rich get richer model” and digital divides, and what broader implication our findings might have for society. The study may help facilitate our understanding regarding future challenges in the Internet design. 

  • 6.
    Roos, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Centre for Consumer Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Business Administration and Textile Management, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Kajonius, Petri J.
    Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, University West, Sweden.
    Expert validity on non-verbal personality characters2017In: 14th Conference on Psychological Assessment, July 5-8, 2017, Lisbon, Portugal: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Paula Ferreira, Aristides Ferreira, Inês Afonso, & Ana Margarida Veiga Simão, Lisbon: Faculty of Psychology of the University of Lisbon , 2017, p. 81-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Roos, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Mapping the Relationship between Personality and Electronic Commerce in a Representative Swedish sample2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: According to previous research, a high degree of Openness and Neuroticism, and a low degree of Agreeableness are personality determinants of online shopping. This study aims to explore the relationship between the five factor model of personality and online shopping in a Swedish context.

    Methods: 5238 individuals in a representative sample of the Swedish population responded to a survey including measures of the five personality factors (HP5i, 15 items) and online shopping. (3686 individuals were included in the analysis).

    Results: A logistic regression analysis was conducted to test if personality factors (ranging from 1 = completely disagree to 4 = completely agree) predicted online shopping. The dependent variable was buying online at least one time per month. Gender, age and monthly income were control variables. Our findings indicated that online shopping was significantly (p < .05) associated with a high degree of Openness (e.g. open to feelings/emotions) and high degree of Extraversion (e.g. positive emotional experiences).

    Discussion and Conclusion: People high on Openness might like to shop online because online shopping offers them an adventure, variety and new ideas. People high on extraversion might be motivated to purchase online for their need of excitability. The findings propose that online shopping primarily is triggered by emotions and affect rather than reasoning and cognition.

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