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  • 1.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    Region Västra Götaland, 40544, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    How to Successfully Apply Critical Success Factors in Healthcare Information Systems Development?: A Story from the Field2012Inngår i: Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Information Systems, Barcelona, Spain 2012, Association for Information Systems, 2012, s. Paper 220-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have focused on retrospectively identifying critical success factors (CSFs) for healthcare information system (HIS) development projects. In this paper the central question is how in advance selected CSFs can be applied in the best way. An action research study has been carried out in a large Swedish healthcare organization during 2010 and 2011 where the application of four CSFs has been planned, documented and reflected upon. Challenges are identified that may arise when tailoring general CSFs to situational circumstances. For example, the self-evident CSF of ?having a clear and accepted objective? becomes tricky and complex in practice when facing 15 autonomous boards that all need to support the project. Similar insights are gained for other CSFs. More research is needed to illuminate the complexities of how to apply CSFs. Another important observation is that different CSFs strengthen one another, which implies that they should be applied and analysed in concert rather than isolated. Finally, healthcare practitioners need to be aware that CSFs are very helpful, but that tailoring general CSFs to the unique situation of the HIS development project requires much effort and continuous reflection from a holistic perspective embedded in systems thinking.

  • 2.
    Andler, Sten F.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Fredin, Mikael
    Saab Microwave Systems AB, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    George Mason Univ., USA.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Svenson, Pontus
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    SMARTracIn: a concept for spoof resistant tracking of vessels and detection of adverse intentions2009Inngår i: Sensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Technologies for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense VIII / [ed] Edward M. Carapezza, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2009, s. 73050G-1-73050G-9, artikkel-id 73050GKonferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of maritime surveillance systems is to detect threats earlyenough to take appropriate actions. We present the results ofa study on maritime domain awareness performed during the fallof 2008. We analyze an identified capability gap of worldwidesurveillance in the maritime domain, and report from a userworkshop addressing the identified gap. We describe a SMARTracIn conceptsystem that integrates information from surveillance systems with background knowledgeon normal conditions to help users detect and visualize anomaliesin vessel traffic. Land-based systems that cover the coastal watersas well as airborne, space-borne and ships covering open seaare considered. Sensor data are combined with intelligence information fromship reporting systems and databases. We describe how information fusion,anomaly detection and semantic technology can be used to helpusers achieve more detailed maritime domain awareness. Human operators area vital part of this system and should be activecomponents in the fusion process. We focus on the problemof detecting anomalous behavior in ocean-going traffic, and a roomand door segmentation concept to achieve this. This requires theability to identify vessels that enter into areas covered bysensors as well as the use of information management systemsthat allow us to quickly find all relevant information.

  • 3.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Molly
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Johansson, Björn J.E.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Community resilience towards disruptions in the payment system2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management / [ed] Z Franco, J.J. González, J. H. Canós, Valencia, Spain: ISCRAM, 2019, Vol. 16, s. 1070-1076Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study where nine Swedish citizens were interviewed about their concerns and expectations, from a customer perspective, in relation to a 10 day disruption in the payment system. The purpose of the study was to understand the customer’s perspective in order to provide input to the development of a simulation environment. This simulation environment aims at allowing different stakeholders to experience how a disruption in the payment system affects the local community and thereby create understanding of how resilience is built and affected. The research questions were: What do customers expect to get access to? When? What are customers prepared for? How does this differ among different customer groups? The results indicate some understanding of how such a crisis affects the local community and what the informants expects to happen. The respondents represented a diversity of socio-economic backgrounds from rural and urban parts of the municipality.

  • 4.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Linköping University.
    Using a mixed-methods assessment approach in a gaming-simulation environment to increase resilience2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 36th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE 2018), ACM Digital Library, 2018, s. 1-4, artikkel-id 20Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructures for fuel, food, transport and the payment system become inceasingly entangled. Disruptions in the payment system can quickly lead to cascading effects and even the responses of actors in the various sectors are interrelated, which can cause escalation if the collaborative responses are not well-aligned. Our contribution to the track of Human Factors and simulation discusses how gaming-simulation can be used as a training environment where groups of practitioners can learn to develop in-depth understanding of system behaviour (i.e. cascading effects of disruptions) and learn how to develop collaborative resilience across many different critical infrastructures. More specifically, our paper focuses on the development and application of a mixed-methods assessment approach in the simulation-game. The assessment method captures qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of resilience and team-work. It can be used to assess the value of our simulation-game and to increase insight in what collective resilience actually implies.

  • 5. Blasch, Erik
    et al.
    Valin, Pierre
    Bosse, Eloi
    Nilsson, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Shahbazian, Elisa
    Implication of Culture: User Roles in Information Fusion for Enhanced Situational Understanding2009Inngår i: Information Fusion, 2009. FUSION '09. 12th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, s. 1272-1279Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Fusion coordinates large-volume data processing machines to address user needs. Users expect a situational picture to extend their ability of sensing events, movements, and activities. Typically, data is collected and processed for object location (e.g. target identification) and movement (e.g. tracking); however, high-level reasoning or situational understanding depends on the spatial, cultural, and political effects. In this paper, we explore opportunities where information fusion can aid in the selection and processing of the data for enhanced tacit knowledge understanding by (1) display fusion for data presentation (e.g. cultural segmentation), (2) interactive fusion to allow the user to inject a priori knowledge (e..g. cultural values), and (3) associated metrics of predictive capabilities (e.g. cultural networks). In a simple scenario, cultural information impacts on situational understanding from deception is demonstrated using the Technology-Emotion-Culture-Knowledge (TECK) attributes of the Observer-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) model.

  • 6.
    Boström, Henrik
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Andler, Sten F.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Brohede, Marcus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Johansson, Ronnie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Nilsson, Marie
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Persson, Anne
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    On the Definition of Information Fusion as a Field of Research2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A more precise definition of the field of information fusion can be of benefit to researchers within the field, who may use uch a definition when motivating their own work and evaluating the contribution of others. Moreover, it can enable researchers and practitioners outside the field to more easily relate their own work to the field and more easily understand the scope of the techniques and methods developed in the field. Previous definitions of information fusion are reviewed from that perspective, including definitions of data and sensor fusion, and their appropriateness as definitions for the entire research field are discussed. Based on strengths and weaknesses of existing definitions, a novel definition is proposed, which is argued to effectively fulfill the requirements that can be put on a definition of information fusion as a field of research.

  • 7.
    Jaber, Amanda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn .J.E.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bergsten, Linnea
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Evaluating the observation protocol of the Team Resilience Assessment Method for Simulation (TRAMS)2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management / [ed] Z Franco, J.J. González, J. H. Canós, Valencia, Spain: ISCRAM, 2019, Vol. 16, s. 218-229Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work in progress paper presents an initial evaluation of the observation protocol of the Team Resilience Assessment Method for Simulation (TRAMS) conducted in a crisis response simulation project. TRAMS isdesigned to assess the resilience of crisis response teams. The TRAMS observation protocol uses six coreresilience functions from the Systemic Resilience Model as its theoretical foundation. Three independentobservers used the protocol during a pilot study and six actual simulation games. Strategies relating to three outof six core resilience functions could be identified. The observations made were distributed similarly among theobservers, indicating that the components of the TRAMS protocol are stable enough to continue developing theprotocol. This study describes changes made to the protocol since the original design, and describes how thestrategies relating to the six core resilience functions can be identified in the simulation games.

  • 8.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jaber, Amanda
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    The lack of preparedness for payment disruptions in local community core businesses2018Inngår i: ISCRAM 2018 Conference Proceedings – 15th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Kees Boersma, Brian Tomaszeski, Rochester, NY (USA): Rochester Institute of Technology , 2018, s. 904-913Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important infrastructures for society is the payment system. If this system malfunctions, it can lead to disruptions in other critical infrastructures. By developing resilience i.e. the ability to recover or resist different disruptions in complex dynamic systems, as well as analyzing and raising awareness about it, such events can hopefully be handled better. The purpose of this study is to gain an insight into the different sectors’ ways of dealing with disturbances in the payment system. Six participants from the food, fuel and bank sectors were interviewed using semi-structured questions. The interviews were conducted and data was analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. The results indicate a low level of resilience maturity among these organizations when it comes to handle long-term disruptions in the payment systems. The results provide valuable input to the project and a better understanding of payment infrastructure resilience.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Evaluating Team Resilience in Simulator-Based Crisis Management Training2018Inngår i: ISCRAM 2018 Conference Proceedings – 15th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Managemen / [ed] Kees Boersma, Brian Tomaszeski, Rochester, NY (USA): Rochester Institute of Technology , 2018, s. 914-923Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, there is a lack of assessment approaches for evaluation of resilient capabilities in simulation games. This paper presents work-in-progress to create such an instrument to be used in crisis management simulation games for the fuel, food, and finance sectors. The “Team Resilience Assessment Method for Simulation” (TRAMS) is based on the Systemic Resilience Model and departs from the assumption that resilient crisis management teams will be able to develop strategies for assuring that anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, and learning are established and maintained in their respective organizations as well as in the crisis management team. A prototype version of the TRAMS, based on the experiences of representatives from the involved sectors and firmly related to resilience theory, is presented and discussed. The TRAMS instrument will be tested in 30 planned simulations games including participants from the fuel, food, and finance sectors.

  • 10.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Using simulation games to assess critical infrastructure resilience in case of payment disruptions2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 7th Resilience Engingeering Association (REA) International Symposium, Liege, Belgium, 26-29 June 2017, 2017, s. 1-7Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a theoretical outline, and a tentative assessment approach, for resilience in the fuel, food, and finance systems needed to create a gaming simulation environment. The purpose of developing the simulation gaming environment is to provide team-training to decision-makers in handling crisis situations in a multi-organisational context. Gaming simulation aims at representing reality and enabling an individual actor or a group of actors to experience the dynamics of the simulated system. The concept of core values and resilience value networks will be used to guide the simulation approach so that all core functions of a resilient system, as well as coping strategies, will be addressed in the gaming sessions.

  • 11.
    Johansson, Ronnie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    van Laere, JoeriHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.Mellin, JonasHögskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Proceedings of the 3rd Skövde Workshop on Information Fusion Topics (SWIFT 2009)2009Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Larsson, Aron
    et al.
    Risk and Crisis Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden / Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Olsson, Leif
    Risk and Crisis Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Agent based simulation of a payment system for resilience assessments2017Inngår i: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM), IEEE, 2017, s. 314-318Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide an agent based simulation model of the Swedish payment system. The simulation model is to be used to analyze the consequences of loss of functionality, or disruptions of the payment system for the food and fuel supply chains as well as the bank sector. We propose a gaming simulation approach, using a computer based role playing game, to explore the collaborative responses from the key actors, in order to evoke and facilitate collective resilience.

  • 13.
    Lennerholt, Christian
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi.
    Data Access and Data Quality Challenges of Self Service Business Intelligence2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) / [ed] Paul Johannesson, Pär Ågerfalk, Remko Helms, Association for Information Systems, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-service Business Intelligence (SSBI) is an upcoming trend that allows non-technical casual users to use BI in a self-reliant manner without the support of technical power users. Many organisations struggle to utilize the potential of SSBI and experience data-related and user-related SSBI implemen- tations challenges. This study aimed at exploring data-related SSBI challenges by conducting and analysing a total of 30 qualitative interviews with 5 BI consultants and 10 customer representatives involved in 2 SSBI implementation project teams. Analysis of the interviews revealed five challenges related to “Access and use of data” and four challenges related to “Data quality” that differ consid- erably from SSBI challenges commonly discussed in literature. Awareness of these challenges can help practitioners to avoid unnecessary obstacles when implementing and using SSBI. They can also guide SSBI researchers to simplify the implementation process of SSBI.

  • 14.
    Lennerholt, Christian
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Söderström, Eva
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Implementation challenges of Self Service Business Intelligence: A literature review2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hilton Waikoloa Village, Hawaii, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2018, Vol. 51, s. 5055-5063, artikkel-id 0633Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a traditional Business Intelligence (BI) system, power users serve less experienced casual users. Power users analyze and gather data requested by casual users, and produce the reports and visualizations that casual users base their decisions on. When data volumes and the usage frequency of a traditional BI system increase, power users have problems serving all the requests from casual users. The Self Service Business Intelligence (SSBI) approach can enable users to be more self-reliant and less dependent on power users. Although SSBI promises more benefits compared to a traditional BI system, many organizations fail to implement SSBI. The literature review presented in this paper discusses six SSBI challenges related to "Access and use of data" and four challenges related to "Self-reliant users". Awareness of these ten challenges can help practitioners avoid common pitfalls, when implementing SSBI, as well as guide SSBI researchers in focusing on their future research efforts.

  • 15.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Susi, Tarja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Formalising Distributed Cognition into a Tool to Capture Information Fusion Processes2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the second Skövde Workshop on Information Fusion Topics (SWIFT 2008) / [ed] H. Boström, R. Johansson, Joeri van Laere, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2008, s. 34-38Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented research is motivated by the limited ability of current methods to capture the nature of information fusion processes. Fusion processes typically include both humans and technology, hence, there is a need for a new way to analyse such processes. With the aid of distributed cognition, the interaction between decision makers and IF technology can be captured more clearly, and thereby critical bottlenecks can be identified which may require further automation. Application of the tool may advance the research area of information fusion.

  • 16.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Experts´Views on User Activities in Information Fusion System Development Processes2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 3rd Skövde Workshop on Information Fusion Topics (SWIFT 2009) / [ed] Ronnie Johansson, Joeri van Laere and Jonas Mellin, University of Skövde , 2009, s. 33-38Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     The role of the user in information fusion has gained increasing attention during the last years. However, looking at the research performed within the community it remains difficult to acquire a good understanding of the role of users, especially in terms of the information fusion system development process. To address this, a questionnaire was distributed during FUSION 2009 conference which aimed to explore these issues. Here, we present an initial analysis of the responses obtained. A consensus was found regarding how users have been incorporated in the development process. Specifically, they are seen as part of the concept generation phase, the requirement gathering phase or the evaluation phase rather than of the design phase. Also, the typical activities performed with users were found to be interviews and using users as advisers. However, results from the questionnaire also indicated that a consensus regarding what information is needed from users for automating a manual information fusion process is still lacking. The reasons for, and implications of this lack are discussed in the light of current research.

     

  • 17.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Susi, Tarja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Information fusion in practice: A distributed cognition perspective on the active role of users2012Inngår i: Information Fusion, ISSN 1566-2535, E-ISSN 1872-6305, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 60-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, the focus of most information fusion research has been on computational aspects, as illustrated by, for example, different versions of the JDL data fusion model. Consequently, the human user has mainly been conceived as a relatively passive recipient of fused information. However, the importance of understanding the active role of human information processing in information fusion is gaining increasing recognition, as also reflected in discussions of a "level 5" in the JDL model. This paper presents a case study of the interaction between human and machine information processing in a maritime surveillance control room. A detailed analysis of cognitive processes and information flows involved in identifying and tracking moving vessels illustrates how machines and human operators collaboratively perform fusion in a highly distributed fashion. The theoretical framework of distributed cognition provides an alternative or complementary way of analysing information fusion systems/processes that more clearly reveals the actual complexities of the interaction between human and machine information processing in practice. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Berggren, Peter
    Swedish Defence Research Agency Command and Control Systems Man-Systems-Interaction Linköping.
    Kylesten, Birgitta
    Swedish Defence Research Agency Command and Control Systems Man-Systems-Interaction Linköping.
    A user study of the Impact matrix, a fusion based decision support for enhanced situation awareness2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion 2008 (FUSION 2008), IEEE conference proceedings, 2008, s. 440-447Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     Today’s asymmetric threats put new challenges on military decision making. As new technology develops we have new possibilities to support decision making in such environments. However, it is important that the tools developed take into account users’ (commanders’) decision needs. This paper presents some initial user studies of Swedish commanders testing a prototype application developed to answer these new challenges introduced by asymmetric threats. The application aids commanders by supporting situation awareness in terms of providing an overview of incoming intelligence reports and displaying probabilities of future events. The user study focuses on how the tool can support commanders’ daily decision making activities. The results indicate that the general concept could be useful for Swedish commanders and analysts, but some suggestions for improvements are made. The issues found in this study will inform the continuing evaluation of this tool.

     

  • 19.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Edlund, Johan
    Saab Systems Järfälla, Sweden.
    Extracting rules from expert operators to support situation awareness in maritime surveillance2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2008), IEEE Press, 2008, s. 908-915Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     In maritime surveillance, supporting operators’ situation awareness is a very important issue for enabling the possibility to detect anomalous behaviour. We present a user study which conceptualises knowledge to be implemented in a rulebased application aiming at supporting situation awareness. Participatory observations were used as a method for extracting operators’ knowledge. The result of the user study is in the form of a number of identified rules emerging from organisational factors, group thinking and individual experience. A description of the rule-based prototype is presented a long with the result from the user study. This is also discussed together with the applicability of rule based systems and how to support situation awareness.

     

  • 20.
    Söderström, Eva
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Backlund, Per
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    University College of Borås, Sweden.
    Combining work process models to identify training needs in the prehospital care process2014Inngår i: Perspectives in Business Informatics Research: 13th International Conference, BIR 2014, Lund, Sweden, September 22-24, 2014. Proceedings / [ed] Björn Johansson, Bo Andersson & Nicklas Holmberg, Springer, 2014, s. 375-389Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The prehospital process is complex and covers a wide range of locations, healthcare personnel, technologies and competences. Enabling high quality holistic training is hence a challenge. Process models are efficient tools for representing reality, but no single modeling approach can cover the complexity of prehospital care. In our research, we have investigated the possibility to combine various process modeling techniques in order to identify training components and as many perspectives of the prehospital process as possible. Results show that combining different approaches and adapting them based on the need at hand is a successful strategy for enabling an of the prehospital care process from multiple perspectives, including identification of holistic, realistic and engaging training components.  Future work can utilize our results to build training scenarios that can be implemented in training using for example simulation.

  • 21.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Challenges for IF performance evaluation in practice2009Inngår i: Information Fusion, 2009. FUSION '09. 12th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, s. 866-873Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a literature analysis of 52 publications on the topic of information fusion performance evaluation. The aim is to identify whether information fusion researchers are aware of the problematic nature of performance evaluation in practice, which is substantially different from performance evaluation in test environments. As expected, only 6% of the publications do actually report on studies conducted in practice, and therefore more such studies are needed. However, 58% of the publications do critically reflect on the problematic nature of performance evaluation in practice. As ground truth is lacking in practice, there is a need for (a set of) performance measures which are both comprehensive and adaptable to domain or situation context and changing circumstances over time. More studies need to address the overall question how multiple performance measures can function in concert and how exactly can be judged whether adaptation has been an improvement or not.

  • 22.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Wandering Through Crisis and Everyday Organizing; Revealing the Subjective Nature of Interpretive, Temporal and Organizational Boundaries2013Inngår i: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 17-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of a 6-year action research study on developing crisis management preparedness in Swedish municipalities reveal strong connections rather than sharp distinctions between crisis and non-crisis on interpretive, temporal and organizational dimensions. Confusion and debate about what is labelled as a crisis, when everyday ends and crisis begins, and who and who are not involved, may illuminate different views on what the scale, scope and inherent complexity of our' system is in crisis and in non-crisis. Crises are not only a brutal audit for the practitioners involved, but also for the scientific theories that explain crisis behaviour. Current definitions of crisis understate the subjective nature of interpretations of crisis and organizing. To better understand the muddiness of organizing, crisis management researchers might aim for portraying more feed-forward messiness in crisis study descriptions and applying less hindsight bias in their analyses. Such images could help practitioners realize that organizing is more complex and less controllable than currently might be pictured and assumed. A deeper exploration of concepts like duality, competing values and complex adaptive systems could serve both practitioners and researchers.

  • 23.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Aggestam, Lena
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för handel och företagande. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningsspecialiseringen Framtidens Företagande.
    Understanding champion behaviour in a health-care information system development project – how multiple champions and champion behaviours build a coherent whole2016Inngår i: European Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0960-085X, E-ISSN 1476-9344, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 47-63Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Champions are commonly suggested as a means of promoting the adoption of information systems. Since there are many different definitions of the concepts of champion and champion behaviour in the literature, practitioners and researchers may be confused about how to exactly use these concepts. A qualitative analysis of a single case study in a Swedish health-care organisation enabled us to explain how different champion behaviours relate to each other and how multiple champions interact. Combining our rich case observations with an analysis of champion literature reveals how champion behaviours form a coherent and meaningful whole in which networks of different types of champions at different levels in an organisation utilise their network of relations, their knowledge of the organisation and their insight into strategic decision-making politics to time and orchestrate the framing of innovations and the involvement of the right people. In conclusion, championing is a complex performance of contextually dependent collective social interaction, varying over time, rather than a heroic act of one individual promoting an idea. Future studies need to focus more on how the relations between different champions and their behaviours develop across innovations and over time, in order to develop a richer understanding of championing.

  • 24.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för informations- och kommunikationssystem.
    Lindqwister, Towe
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för informations- och kommunikationssystem.
    Wiberg, Christer
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Challenges for critical infrastructure resilience: cascading effects of payment system disruptions2017Inngår i: / [ed] Tina Comes, Frédérick Bénaben, Chihab Hanachi, Matthieu Lauras, Aurélie Montarnal, ISCRAM, 2017, Vol. 14, s. 281-292, artikkel-id 1464Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructures become more and more entangled and rely extensively on information technology. Adeeper insight into the relationships between critical infrastructures enables the actors involved to more quicklyunderstand the severity of information technology disruptions and to identify robust cross-functional mitigatingactions. This study illustrates how and why disruptions in the payment system in Sweden could create cascadingeffects in other critical infrastructures with potentially severe consequences for many citizens, governmentinstitutions and companies. Data from document studies, interviews and workshops with field experts revealseven challenges for collective cross-functional critical infrastructure resilience that need to be dealt with: 1)Shortage of food, fuel, cash, medicine; 2) Limited capacity of alternative payment solutions; 3) Cities are morevulnerable than the countryside; 4) Economically vulnerable groups in society are more severely affected; 5)Trust maintenance needs; 6) Crisis communication needs; 7) Fragmentation of responsibility for criticalinfrastructures across many actors.

  • 25.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Kallin, Susanne
    Combitech AB, Sundbyberg, Sweden.
    A simulation-game to explore collective critical infrastructure resilience2018Inngår i: Safety and Reliability – Safe Societies in a Changing World: Proceedings of ESREL 2018, June 17-21, 2018, Trondheim, Norway / [ed] S. Haugen, A. Barros, C. van Gulijk, T. Kongsvik, J. Vinnem, London: CRC Press, 2018, s. 1305-1312, artikkel-id 688Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience of interdependent infrastructures increasingly depends on collaborative responses from actors with diverse backgrounds that may not be familiar with cascade effects into areas beyond their own sector. A simulation-game can enable societal actors to obtain a deeper understanding of the interdependencies between their infrastructures and their respective crisis responses. Following a design science approach, a simulation-game has been developed that combines role-playing simulation and computer simulation. The simulation-game challenges participants to address the interaction between payment disruptions, food and fuel supply, security problems (riots, robberies) and communication challenges (preventing hoarding). A number of crucial design choices were handled while developing the simulation-game. The main design challenges were: How to validate an unthinkable escalation scenario?; How to give the simulation a sufficient level of detail on all aspects and keep the complexity graspable so it can be played instantly?; and How much time should each playing round take?

  • 26.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    De Vreede, G. J.
    Department of Information Systems and Quantitative Analysis, University of Nebraska at Omaha, 1110 South 67th Street, Omaha, NE, 68182, United States / Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, University of Delft, PO Box 5015, 2600 GA Delft, Netherlands.
    Sol, H. G.
    Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, University of Delft, PO Box 5015, 2600 GA Delft, Netherlands / Faculty of Management and Organisation, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV, Groningen, Netherlands.
    A social simulation game to explore future coordination in knowledge networks at the Amsterdam Police Force2006Inngår i: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 17, nr 6, s. 558-568Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The 32 autonomous neighbourhood teams of the Amsterdam Police Force need to utilise each other's knowledge and expertise to deal with the variety and complexity of their daily work assignments. However, despite the creation of organisation wide knowledge networks, communication, co-ordination and knowledge sharing between the neighbourhood teams is disappointing. We conducted an action research to investigate how co-ordination in the knowledge networks could be improved with the help of information and communication technologies (ICTs). This article reflects on the choice of co-ordination perspectives and modelling techniques. The above problem is conceptualised and made operational in different ways in research on network co-ordination, knowledge co-ordination and co-ordination of distributed work. The article demonstrates how our initial focus on capturing quantitative measures of the co-ordination problem in a computer simulation was problematic in this case. Instead a social simulation-game that focused on the qualitative issues of this co-ordination problem was developed and played. We conclude that the choice of theoretical perspectives and modelling techniques strongly affected the results of both phases of our action research. Furthermore the article argues that more attention to qualitative issues in co-ordination is required to better understand the impact of ICT-support on co-ordination.

  • 27.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    de Vreede, Gert Jan
    University of Nebraska, Omaha, USA.
    Sol, H.
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Developing paradoxical guidelines for communities of practice in organizations2006Inngår i: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Information Systems, ECIS 2006, Association for Information Systems, 2006, artikkel-id 159Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    de Vreede, Gert Jan
    University of Nebraska, Omaha, AR, United States.
    Sol, Henk G.
    Universities of Groningen and Delft, Netherlands.
    Designing simulation-games for organizational prototyping2006Inngår i: Advances in Information Systems Development: Bridging the Gap between Academia and Industry: Volume 1 / [ed] Anders G. Nilsson, Remigijus Gustas, Wita Wojtkowski, W. Gregory Wojtkowski, Stanisław Wrycza, Jože Zupančič, Springer, 2006, Vol. 1, s. 373-385Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ICT provide opportunities to improve organizational performance. However, many organizations still struggle with integrating new organizational structures, new work practices and ICT, because information systems (and other tools) that support organizational work processes are embedded in the existing culture and work practices. The adoption of ICT by an organization is a complex interaction between task-, technology-, group internal system-, and organizational context factors. Organizational prototyping helps to develop ‘embedded’ information systems. It involves managing a dual process of both adapting the tool to the organization and adapting the work practice to conditions of the tool. In an action research study at the Amsterdam Police Force we developed two simulation-games that served as ‘organizational prototypes’ and supported the analysis and improvement of coordination practices and the integration of (new) ICT in these coordination practices. The first game has been played 9 20 times with 8-15 policemen; the second game has been played 2 times with a similar number of policemen. In this paper we reflect on the design of the games. We explain how and why we have dealt with issues like for instance complexity of the game, number of players, degree of realism, amount of time for reflection, time pressure, et cetera. Next we show the impact of these design choices for the game execution and game results. Finding the right balance between realism/validity on one hand and not too much complexity on the other hand proofs to be the major design challenge. Furthermore some surprising results were that distributed work can perfectly be simulated in one location, that computer support does not distract from learning objectives when the technology functions properly, and that time constraints may inhibit learning.

  • 29.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Combitech AB, Skövde.
    Analyzing the Implications of Design Choices in Existing Simulation-Games for Critical Infrastructure Resilience2018Inngår i: Simulation Gaming: Applications for Sustainable Cities and Smart Infrastructures: 48th International Simulation and GamingAssociation Conference, ISAGA 2017Delft, The Netherlands, July 10–14, 2017Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Heide Karen Lukosch, Geertje Bekebrede, Rens Kortmann, Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 10825, s. 15-23Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A literature study has identified the major impacts of importantdesign choices in simulation models and simulation-games that model criticalinfrastructure resilience. The four major groups of design choices discussed inthis article are: (1) the chosen learning goal (system understanding or collaborationtraining), (2) realism and time scale of the scenario, (3) design of playerroles and communication rules, (4) number of action alternatives, replay-abilityand richness of performance feedback while playing. Researchers and practitionerswho build simulation-games for studying critical infrastructure resiliencecan use the accumulated insights on these four aspects to improve the quality oftheir game design and the quality of the simulation models the game participantsinteract with.

  • 30.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Cultivating a longitudinal learning process through recurring crisis management training exercises in twelve Swedish municipalities2019Inngår i: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 38-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study illustrates how crisis management capability is developed in series ofrecurring exercises, rather than in one single exercise. Over one hundred table-topand role-playing exercises were performed and evaluated in a longitudinal cross-caseaction research study in 12 Swedish municipalities. By consciously adapting trainingformats, municipalities were lead through three learning phases: obtaining roleunderstanding (phase 1: knowing what to do), developing information managementskills (phase 2: knowing how to do it), and mastering self-reflection in regular time-outs (phase 3: knowing when and why to do something). This final learning out-come, being able to concurrently execute, evaluate, and reorganize an ongoing crisismanagement performance, may be the most valuable capability of a crisis manage-ment organization when crisis strikes.

  • 31.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Susi, Tarja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Kommunal krisövning i teori och praktik2009Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Susi, Tarja
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Requirements for emergency management training from a 'passion for failures' perspective2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] B. van de Walle, P. Burghardt, and K. Niewenhuis, Brussels University Press , 2007, s. 449-456Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish municipalities are stimulated to conduct emergency management exercises in addition to developing crisis plans. These exercises tend to be grounded in an instrumental philosophy. There is too much focus on doing the exercise and too little attention for the implementation of lessons learned afterwards. A common experience is that the same 'mistakes' are discovered again and again in yearly exercises. Furthermore there is a paradoxical balance between empowering the organization in its learning process (positive feedback) and revealing the failures (negative feedback). In this paper we reflect on the learning process in a Swedish municipality in 2006 where two emergency management exercises were held and where a minor and a major crisis occured during the year. We argue that the longitudinal learning process should be the focus in stead of ad hoc exercises. In addition we develop some requirements for emergency management training from a 'passion for failures' perspective.

  • 33.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Evaluation of a workshop to capture knowledge from subject matter experts in maritime surveillance2009Inngår i: Information Fusion, 2009. FUSION '09. 12th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, s. 171-178Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a brainstorming workshop with subject matter experts that aimed at identifying potential anomalies for world wide maritime surveillance. An extensive description of the workshop process and output is presented. The evaluation consists of two parts. First, the output of the workshop is compared with the output of a similar workshop as presented in Roy [1]. Secondly, the methodological differences between capturing know-how of subject matter experts in a workshop versus observing daily work of operators, as applied in Nilsson et al [2], is discussed. The conclusions are that brainstorming workshops and field studies should be combined to compensate for their weaknesses. Also, the outcomes of both methods heavily depend on the selection of operators to be observed, respectively the selection of subject matter experts invited. A final recommendation is that multiple studies and workshops are needed until no ‘new’ anomalies are identified.

  • 34.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Hilletofth, Per
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle.
    Reflections on fusion systems requirements analysis for maintenance planning2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2nd Skövde Workshop on Information Fusion Topics (SWIFT 2008) / [ed] H. Boström, R. Johansson, Joeri van Laere, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2008, s. 5-8Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Implications of a Weickian perspective on decision-making for information fusion research and practice2007Inngår i: 10th International Conference on Information Fusion, 2007, IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, s. 1-8Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of information fusion is to support and improve decision making. However, theories of decision making differ significantly on their view of what a good decision actually is. Hence, depending on which decision making theory one (un)consciously adopts there are different requirements for information fusion as decision support Information fusion researchers and practitioners should therefore be more explicit about their assumptions regarding decision making by carefully describing their theoretical frameworks. To illustrate this point the 'theory of sensemaking' by Karl Weick is presented as one example of a decision making theory. Major differences between decision making assumptions in that theory and assumptions common in much information fusion research are highlighted. Implications and challenges for information fusion are discussed.

  • 36.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Vreede, Gert Jan
    Sol, Henk G.
    A coordination framework for analysis and improvement of ICT supported distributed work2005Inngår i: Proceedings of the IRIS28 / [ed] Eli Hustad, Björn E. Munkvold, Knut Rolland, Lief S. Flak, IRIS association , 2005, s. 1-19Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Information Systems and related disciplines there are numerous ways how coordination in organizations is defined and conceptualized. We argue that these disciplines and theories need to reach out to each other to develop an integrated understanding of coordination. In this paper we present a coordination framework that helps to analyze and improve coordination of distributed work from such an integrative perspective. In the framework we distinguish 4 main coordination choices for employees at the group level (concerning composition, commitment, contact and content) and 4 related coordination choices for managers at the organizational level (concerning competence, cohesiveness, connection and context). These dimensions enable us to explain why ICT both enhance and complicate coordination of distributed work. Our hypothesis is that ICT has a positive impact on the dimensions of composition and contact and a negative impact on the dimensions of commitment and content. We argue that the success or failure of ICT supported coordination largely depends on how employees and managers apply and use ICT. Consequently a neutral but critical attitude towards ICT support is needed. The validity and usefulness of the framework are shown by reflecting on its appliance in an action research study at the Amsterdam Police Force. We conclude that the coordination framework enables better understanding of coordination problems and improvements and supports a critical discussion of ICT opportunities and ICT threats. Further research will focus on the possibilities of integrating existing coordination theories and on the question how to determine when ICT benefits outweigh ICT costs.

  • 37.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Nohlberg, Marcus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Söderström, Eva
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lennerholt, Christian
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Current Situation Analysis of Information Security Level in Municipalities2018Inngår i: Journal of Information System Security, ISSN 1551-0123, E-ISSN 1551-0808, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 3-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipalities manage a significant part of society's services, and hence they also handle a vast amount of information. A municipality's activities include managing a significant part of society's services, and municipalities’ supply and management of information are, therefore, critical for society in general, and also for achieving the municipalities’ own operational goals. However, research shows weaknesses in the municipalities' work on information security, and there is a need to study and identify the current level of security.

    This paper presents the result from a GAP analysis mapping the current situation of Swedish municipalities' for systematic information security work, based on the demands made on municipalities from both research and social perspectives. The result shows that the information security level regarding the systematic security work is generally low, and that there is a need to implement adapted tools for Information Security Management Systems in order to support municipalities.

  • 38.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Nohlberg, Marcus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Söderström, Eva
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lennerholt, Christian
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Current Situation Analysis of Information Security Level in Municipalities2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the Annual Information Institute Conference / [ed] Gurpreet Dhillin, Spyridon Samonas, The Information Institute , 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipalities manage a significant part of society's services, and hence also handle a vast amount of information. A municipality's activities include managing a significant part of society's services, and the municipality's supply and management of information are, therefore, critical for society in general, but also for achieving the municipality's own operational goals. However, investigations show weaknesses in the municipalities' work on information security, and there is a need to study and identify the current level of security. This paper presents the result from a GAP analysis mapping the Swedish municipalities current situation for systematic information security work, based on the demands made on municipalities from both research and social perspectives. The result shows that the information security level regarding systematic security work is generally low and that there is a need for adapted tools for Information Security Management Systems in order to support municipalities.

  • 39.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Söderstöm, Eva
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Nohlberg, Marcus
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Lennerholt, Christian
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    van Laere, Joeri
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för informationsteknologi. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Informationsteknologi.
    Metod och kartläggning av informationssäkerhet för kommuner i Västra Götaland2016Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Information är ett viktigt arbetsverktyg för alla typer av verksamheter, inklusive kommunalverksamhet. Kommuner hanterar en betydande del av samhällets tjänster varför kommunensinformationsförsörjning blir en kritisk del för samhällets informationssäkerhet. En säkerinformationshantering är en verksamhetsfråga och omfattar därför hela kommunens verksamhet.Utredningar visar dock på brister hos kommunernas arbete med informationssäkerhet och det finnsett behov av att se över detta arbete och identifiera nuvarande säkerhetsnivå.Högskolan i Skövde och forskargruppen i Informationssystem fick i uppdrag av VästKom ochSkaraborgs femton kommuner att dels utveckla metoden för genomförande av en Gap-analys medutgångspunkt från det nationella metodstödet som finns på informationssäkerhet.se, dels praktisktgenomföra en Gap-analys utifrån metodutvecklingen i Skaraborgs femton kommuner. I arbetet medmetodutvecklingen ingick aktiviteterna att 1) uppdatera checklistan i Gap-analysen till ny version, 2)kommunanpassa vilka åtgärder som anses kritiska för en kommun samt anpassa de roller som ingår ianalysen till kommunal kontext, 3) utveckla ett förenklat IT-verktyg som stöd för analysarbetet.Projektet varade mellan april 2015 och januari 2016. Metodutvecklingen samt planering förkartläggningen hos kommunerna genomfördes under våren och själva kartläggningen genomfördesunder första delen av hösten. Analysarbetet och sammanställning av resultat har sedan pågått underresterande del av 2015 och presenterats och slutrapporterats under januari månad 2016.Resultatet av metodutvecklingen har genererat dels en uppdaterat checklista för genomförande aven Gap-analys där kritiska åtgärder för kommunerna har identifierats. Dessutom har enrollförteckning anpassad för kommunal kontext upprättats. Ett förenklat IT-verktyg har ocksåutformats mest i syfte att visa på vilka krav på design och övriga förbättringar som behövs för att fåett effektivt och användbart IT-stöd vid genomförande av en Gap-analys.Resultatet av kartläggningen i Skaraborgs femton kommuner visar generellt på att kommunerna harbrister vad gäller det systematiska informationssäkerhetsarbetet. Främst handlar bristerna om attfundamentet för ett systematiskt informationssäkerhetsarbete saknas i de flesta kommunerna, d v s.styrdokument, organisation och ansvar kring informationssäkerhetsarbetet brister. Dessutom visarkartläggningen på stort behov av ökad kompetens inom informationssäkerhetsområdet.Fortsatt arbete i form av samverkan mellan kommunerna i Västra Götaland ses som enframgångsfaktor. Det är unikt att ha gjort denna form av gemensamt arbete och därför finnspotential för att fortsätta arbetet med att införa ett systematiskt informationssäkerhetsarbete ikommunerna och då främst genom att samarbeta kring aktiviteter i ett införande av ettledningssystem för informationssäkerhet

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