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  • 1.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    Region Västra Götaland, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    How to Successfully Apply Critical Success Factors in Healthcare Information Systems Development?: A Story from the Field2012In: Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Information Systems, Barcelona, Spain 2012, Association for Information Systems, 2012, article id Paper 220Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have focused on retrospectively identifying critical success factors (CSFs) for healthcare information system (HIS) development projects. In this paper the central question is how in advance selected CSFs can be applied in the best way. An action research study has been carried out in a large Swedish healthcare organization during 2010 and 2011 where the application of four CSFs has been planned, documented and reflected upon. Challenges are identified that may arise when tailoring general CSFs to situational circumstances. For example, the self-evident CSF of ?having a clear and accepted objective? becomes tricky and complex in practice when facing 15 autonomous boards that all need to support the project. Similar insights are gained for other CSFs. More research is needed to illuminate the complexities of how to apply CSFs. Another important observation is that different CSFs strengthen one another, which implies that they should be applied and analysed in concert rather than isolated. Finally, healthcare practitioners need to be aware that CSFs are very helpful, but that tailoring general CSFs to the unique situation of the HIS development project requires much effort and continuous reflection from a holistic perspective embedded in systems thinking.

  • 2.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    Department of Engineering Science, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Svensson, Ann
    School of Business Economics and IT, University West, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    How to Apply and Manage Critical Success Factors in Healthcare Information Systems Development?2023In: Systems, E-ISSN 2079-8954, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies on Critical Success Factors (CSFs) in Healthcare Information Systems (HIS) development projects have traditionally often been limited to retrospectively identifying CSFs in a finished project. In this paper, we focus on how to prospectively apply and manage CSFs in HIS projects. Based on a holistic perspective and systems thinking, an inductive research strategy was applied and a single in-depth case study was conducted. The findings include detailed descriptions that contribute to further understanding of how to prospectively apply and manage CSFs in HIS projects. The analysis reveals that CSFs must be applied differently and managed on various system levels. Furthermore, it shows how interactions exist between different system levels, both in the case of a specific CSF and between different CSFs on various system levels. Our analysis framework and findings indicate new directions for future research: how to prospectively apply and manage CSFs in HIS development projects can now be investigated both in a more holistic way and more in detail. Finally, healthcare practitioners can use the descriptions as practical checklists for guiding them in how to realize situational adaptation of CSFs in HIS projects across different system levels.

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    fulltext
  • 3.
    Andler, Sten F.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Fredin, Mikael
    Saab Microwave Systems AB, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per M.
    George Mason Univ., USA.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Nilsson, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Svenson, Pontus
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    SMARTracIn: a concept for spoof resistant tracking of vessels and detection of adverse intentions2009In: Sensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Technologies for Homeland Security and Homeland Defense VIII / [ed] Edward M. Carapezza, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2009, p. 73050G-1-73050G-9, article id 73050GConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of maritime surveillance systems is to detect threats earlyenough to take appropriate actions. We present the results ofa study on maritime domain awareness performed during the fallof 2008. We analyze an identified capability gap of worldwidesurveillance in the maritime domain, and report from a userworkshop addressing the identified gap. We describe a SMARTracIn conceptsystem that integrates information from surveillance systems with background knowledgeon normal conditions to help users detect and visualize anomaliesin vessel traffic. Land-based systems that cover the coastal watersas well as airborne, space-borne and ships covering open seaare considered. Sensor data are combined with intelligence information fromship reporting systems and databases. We describe how information fusion,anomaly detection and semantic technology can be used to helpusers achieve more detailed maritime domain awareness. Human operators area vital part of this system and should be activecomponents in the fusion process. We focus on the problemof detecting anomalous behavior in ocean-going traffic, and a roomand door segmentation concept to achieve this. This requires theability to identify vessels that enter into areas covered bysensors as well as the use of information management systemsthat allow us to quickly find all relevant information.

  • 4.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Linköping University.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Coping with large disruptions in the payment system: stakeholder experience from stakeholder workshops and computer based simulation gaming exercises2020In: Proceedings of the 2020 the 3rd International Conference on Computers in Management and Business (ICCMB 2020) Session - Computer and Mobile Technology, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020, p. 141-145Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe a work in progress where a mixed methods approach is used to increase insight into what kind of consequences a temporal disruption or total breakdown of the payment system creates for a large variety of societal actors and to increase insight in how their collaborative behaviour can be guided to be more resilient. This approach includes data from different types of data collections; workshop with high-level decisionmakers from involved sectors, interviews with citizens, representatives from the fuel, foods, and finance sectors, as well as experiences from 15 simulation game exercises with stakeholders. The triangulated and aggregated outcomes of the different data collections resulted in a set of recommendations on how to cope with disruptions in the card payment system.

  • 5.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Molly
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johansson, Björn J.E.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Community resilience towards disruptions in the payment system2019In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management / [ed] Z Franco, J.J. González, J. H. Canós, Valencia, Spain: ISCRAM, 2019, Vol. 16, p. 1070-1076Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study where nine Swedish citizens were interviewed about their concerns and expectations, from a customer perspective, in relation to a 10 day disruption in the payment system. The purpose of the study was to understand the customer’s perspective in order to provide input to the development of a simulation environment. This simulation environment aims at allowing different stakeholders to experience how a disruption in the payment system affects the local community and thereby create understanding of how resilience is built and affected. The research questions were: What do customers expect to get access to? When? What are customers prepared for? How does this differ among different customer groups? The results indicate some understanding of how such a crisis affects the local community and what the informants expects to happen. The respondents represented a diversity of socio-economic backgrounds from rural and urban parts of the municipality.

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    Berggren_etal_ISCRAM2019_1788
  • 6.
    Berggren, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Linköping University.
    Using a mixed-methods assessment approach in a gaming-simulation environment to increase resilience2018In: Proceedings of the 36th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE 2018), ACM Digital Library, 2018, p. 1-4, article id 20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructures for fuel, food, transport and the payment system become inceasingly entangled. Disruptions in the payment system can quickly lead to cascading effects and even the responses of actors in the various sectors are interrelated, which can cause escalation if the collaborative responses are not well-aligned. Our contribution to the track of Human Factors and simulation discusses how gaming-simulation can be used as a training environment where groups of practitioners can learn to develop in-depth understanding of system behaviour (i.e. cascading effects of disruptions) and learn how to develop collaborative resilience across many different critical infrastructures. More specifically, our paper focuses on the development and application of a mixed-methods assessment approach in the simulation-game. The assessment method captures qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of resilience and team-work. It can be used to assess the value of our simulation-game and to increase insight in what collective resilience actually implies.

  • 7.
    Bergsten, Linnea
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Linköping University.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University.
    Larsson, Aron
    Stockholm University.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University.
    Designing engaging computer based simulation games for increasing societal resilience to payment system2020In: Proceedings of the 2020 the 3rd International Conference on Computers in Management and Business (ICCMB 2020) Session - Computer and Mobile Technology, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020, p. 166-172Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large or lengthy disruptions to the card payment system are threats that can cause crisis in society, especially in countries where other payment options are scarce. This paper presents a study that provides suggestions on how to improve a simulation game used to increase societal resilience to payment system disruptions. Questionnaires and interviews have been used to investigate how 16 participant in crisis exercises experience realism, relevance and validity in such exercises. Suggestions on how to improve the simulation game are provided, such as improvements to the graphical interface and introducing supporting roles from the exercise management.

  • 8. Blasch, Erik
    et al.
    Valin, Pierre
    Bosse, Eloi
    Nilsson, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Shahbazian, Elisa
    Implication of Culture: User Roles in Information Fusion for Enhanced Situational Understanding2009In: Information Fusion, 2009. FUSION '09. 12th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 1272-1279Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Fusion coordinates large-volume data processing machines to address user needs. Users expect a situational picture to extend their ability of sensing events, movements, and activities. Typically, data is collected and processed for object location (e.g. target identification) and movement (e.g. tracking); however, high-level reasoning or situational understanding depends on the spatial, cultural, and political effects. In this paper, we explore opportunities where information fusion can aid in the selection and processing of the data for enhanced tacit knowledge understanding by (1) display fusion for data presentation (e.g. cultural segmentation), (2) interactive fusion to allow the user to inject a priori knowledge (e..g. cultural values), and (3) associated metrics of predictive capabilities (e.g. cultural networks). In a simple scenario, cultural information impacts on situational understanding from deception is demonstrated using the Technology-Emotion-Culture-Knowledge (TECK) attributes of the Observer-Orient-Decide-Act (OODA) model.

  • 9.
    Boström, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Brohede, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johansson, Ronnie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Nilsson, Marie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    On the Definition of Information Fusion as a Field of Research2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A more precise definition of the field of information fusion can be of benefit to researchers within the field, who may use uch a definition when motivating their own work and evaluating the contribution of others. Moreover, it can enable researchers and practitioners outside the field to more easily relate their own work to the field and more easily understand the scope of the techniques and methods developed in the field. Previous definitions of information fusion are reviewed from that perspective, including definitions of data and sensor fusion, and their appropriateness as definitions for the entire research field are discussed. Based on strengths and weaknesses of existing definitions, a novel definition is proposed, which is argued to effectively fulfill the requirements that can be put on a definition of information fusion as a field of research.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    de Wijse-van Heeswijk, Marieke
    et al.
    Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Rouwette, Etiënne
    Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Case Study Report on Facilitation Interventions to Increase Learning Effectiveness in Game Simulations2023In: Simulation for Participatory Education: Virtual Exchange and Worldwide Collaboration / [ed] M. Laura Angelini; Rut Muñiz, Cham: Springer, 2023, 1, p. 87-114Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two extreme case studies are highlighted in this follow-up chapter (this is a practical case study following up on Chap. 4 with a theoretical base) on how facilitators can enhance learning via interventions. Case study 1 consists of a positive open simulation game (learning results and goals achieved), containing optimized conditions for learning and several facilitated interventions per game phase. The open simulation game case study delivered learning early on in the gameplay and resulted in mainly third-order learning (learning to learn, a well-developed role perspective on how one can add value from their role). Case study 2 consists of a negative rule-based simulation game (goals were not achieved, few learnings) with diminished learning conditions and the lack of impact of facilitated interventions per game phase. The learning results of the negative case study 2 were limited because participants did not perceive the game as useful and experienced the mainly content-oriented interventions by the facilitator not as helpful. The extraneous cognitive load resulting from the gameplay disturbed the effect of the process interventions by the facilitator, so participants did not learn from the guidance the facilitator tried to provide. Discussing these two opposite extreme case studies provides an overview of what conditions favour learning and what interventions contribute to learning. In the previous chapter, it was highlighted that facilitators can enhance learning complexity reduction (or attenuation) and skill enlargement (amplification). In the case studies, the types of interventions performed are highlighted and explained so they provide two contextualized examples of how interventions added or left out have effect on learning combined with the internal conditions of the rule-based and the open simulation game.

  • 11.
    Jaber, Amanda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn .J.E.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Bergsten, Linnea
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Evaluating the observation protocol of the Team Resilience Assessment Method for Simulation (TRAMS)2019In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response And Management / [ed] Z Franco, J.J. González, J. H. Canós, Valencia, Spain: ISCRAM, 2019, Vol. 16, p. 218-229Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work in progress paper presents an initial evaluation of the observation protocol of the Team Resilience Assessment Method for Simulation (TRAMS) conducted in a crisis response simulation project. TRAMS isdesigned to assess the resilience of crisis response teams. The TRAMS observation protocol uses six coreresilience functions from the Systemic Resilience Model as its theoretical foundation. Three independentobservers used the protocol during a pilot study and six actual simulation games. Strategies relating to three outof six core resilience functions could be identified. The observations made were distributed similarly among theobservers, indicating that the components of the TRAMS protocol are stable enough to continue developing theprotocol. This study describes changes made to the protocol since the original design, and describes how thestrategies relating to the six core resilience functions can be identified in the simulation games.

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    Jaber_etal__ISCRAM2019_1714
  • 12.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jaber, Amanda
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Crisis response during payment disruptions – the themes of TRAMS2020In: Proceedings of the 17th ISCRAM Conference / [ed] Amanda Lee Hughes; Fiona McNeill; Christopher Zobel, Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management (ISCRAM) , 2020, p. 264-275Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A qualitative analysis of observation protocols and audio recordings from 14 crisis response exercises has been conducted revealing eight themes reoccurring in multi-disciplinary team discussions about crisis response to large disruptions to the card payment system. The themes were: Coordinate and collaborate, Payment options, Cash circulation, Fuel and transportation, Security, Inform, communicate and the media, Hoarding and rationing, and Vulnerable groups. The analysis suggest that Swedish society is vulnerable to disruptions in the card payment services, largely due to a low diversity in payment options, the lack of prepared back up solutions for payment, and insufficient cash flows to support a cash only scenario. A longer (several days) disruption in the card payment system will demand coordinating mechanisms for information management, available payment options, and preparedness for rapid establishment of cash flows. Today, these mechanisms do not exist. Simulation exercises with stake-holders are an important mean for increasing awareness about these vulnerabilities and the challenges associated with coping with them. © 2020 Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management, ISCRAM. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Jaber, Amanda
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    The lack of preparedness for payment disruptions in local community core businesses2018In: ISCRAM 2018 Conference Proceedings – 15th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Kees Boersma, Brian Tomaszeski, Rochester, NY (USA): Rochester Institute of Technology , 2018, p. 904-913Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important infrastructures for society is the payment system. If this system malfunctions, it can lead to disruptions in other critical infrastructures. By developing resilience i.e. the ability to recover or resist different disruptions in complex dynamic systems, as well as analyzing and raising awareness about it, such events can hopefully be handled better. The purpose of this study is to gain an insight into the different sectors’ ways of dealing with disturbances in the payment system. Six participants from the food, fuel and bank sectors were interviewed using semi-structured questions. The interviews were conducted and data was analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. The results indicate a low level of resilience maturity among these organizations when it comes to handle long-term disruptions in the payment systems. The results provide valuable input to the project and a better understanding of payment infrastructure resilience.

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    Johansson_2018_ISCRAM_PrepardenessPaymentDisruptions
  • 14.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    et al.
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Berggren, Peter
    Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Empowering resilient crisis response training through purposefully designed boundary objects in a simulation-gaming exercise approach: Supporting ad-hoc team interaction2021In: ECCE 2021: Proceedings of the 32nd European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics: "Designing Virtual and Physical Interactive Systems" / [ed] Patrizia Marti, Oronzo Parlangeli, Annamaria Recupero, New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2021, p. 1-6, article id 3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on experiences of creating resilience-empowering simulation-gaming exercises concerning disruptions in the payment system. The aim of the exercises was to utilize gaming-simulation as a training environment where teams of practitioners can learn to develop in-depth understanding of systemic interaction (i.e., cascading effects of disruptions) and learn how to develop collaborative resilience across many different critical infrastructures. Interaction between different stakeholders in the payment system, such as business owners, banks, municipality crisis managers are considered as the foundation for building collaborative resilience. Designing the exercises in such a way that they encourage and support such interactions are therefore seen as a primary design goal. This paper describes lessons learned from the process of conducting the 17 exercises in terms of creating a well-balance simulation and an immersive experience. 

  • 15.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Evaluating Team Resilience in Simulator-Based Crisis Management Training2018In: ISCRAM 2018 Conference Proceedings – 15th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Managemen / [ed] Kees Boersma, Brian Tomaszeski, Rochester, NY (USA): Rochester Institute of Technology , 2018, p. 914-923Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, there is a lack of assessment approaches for evaluation of resilient capabilities in simulation games. This paper presents work-in-progress to create such an instrument to be used in crisis management simulation games for the fuel, food, and finance sectors. The “Team Resilience Assessment Method for Simulation” (TRAMS) is based on the Systemic Resilience Model and departs from the assumption that resilient crisis management teams will be able to develop strategies for assuring that anticipation, monitoring, response, recovery, and learning are established and maintained in their respective organizations as well as in the crisis management team. A prototype version of the TRAMS, based on the experiences of representatives from the involved sectors and firmly related to resilience theory, is presented and discussed. The TRAMS instrument will be tested in 30 planned simulations games including participants from the fuel, food, and finance sectors.

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    Johansson_2018_ISCRAM_EvaluatingTeamResilience
  • 16.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Using simulation games to assess critical infrastructure resilience in case of payment disruptions2017In: Proceedings of the 7th Resilience Engingeering Association (REA) International Symposium, Liege, Belgium, 26-29 June 2017, 2017, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a theoretical outline, and a tentative assessment approach, for resilience in the fuel, food, and finance systems needed to create a gaming simulation environment. The purpose of developing the simulation gaming environment is to provide team-training to decision-makers in handling crisis situations in a multi-organisational context. Gaming simulation aims at representing reality and enabling an individual actor or a group of actors to experience the dynamics of the simulated system. The concept of core values and resilience value networks will be used to guide the simulation approach so that all core functions of a resilient system, as well as coping strategies, will be addressed in the gaming sessions.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Johansson, Ronnie
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Brohede, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Klingegård (Nilsson), Maria
    Folksam, Sweden ; Integrated Transport Research Lab, Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    On the Definition and Scope of Information Fusion as a Field of Research2022In: ISIF Perspectives on Information Fusion, ISSN 2831-4824, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 3-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A definition of information fusion (IF) as a field of research can benefit researchers within the field, who may use such a definition when motivating their own work and evaluating the contributions of others. Moreover, it can enable researchers and practitioners outside the field to more easily relate their own work to the field and more easily understand the scope of IF techniques and methods. Based on strengths and weaknesses of existing definitions, a definition is proposed that is argued to effectively fulfill the requirements that can be put on a definition of IF as a field of research. Although the proposed definition aims to be precise, it does not fully capture the richness and versatility of the IF field. To address that limitation, we highlight some topics to explore the scope of IF, covering the systems perspective of IF and its relation to ma-chine learning, optimization, robot behavior, opinion aggregation, and databases.

  • 18.
    Johansson, Ronnie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    van Laere, JoeriUniversity of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.Mellin, JonasUniversity of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proceedings of the 3rd Skövde Workshop on Information Fusion Topics (SWIFT 2009)2009Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Larsson, Aron
    et al.
    Risk and Crisis Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden / Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Department of Computer and Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Olsson, Leif
    Risk and Crisis Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Agent based simulation of a payment system for resilience assessments2017In: 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM), IEEE, 2017, p. 314-318Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide an agent based simulation model of the Swedish payment system. The simulation model is to be used to analyze the consequences of loss of functionality, or disruptions of the payment system for the food and fuel supply chains as well as the bank sector. We propose a gaming simulation approach, using a computer based role playing game, to explore the collaborative responses from the key actors, in order to evoke and facilitate collective resilience.

  • 20.
    Larsson, Aron
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    A Simulation-Game for Resilience Assessments in a Payment System Disruption Scenario2022In: International Journal of Knowledge and Systems Science (IJKSS), ISSN 1947-8208, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 1-25, article id 79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a quantitative agent-based simulation model of the everyday payment system used to simulate the business and consumer consequences of loss of functionality, or disruptions of the payment system for the food and fuel retailing markets as well as the bank sector in order to address resilience. The simulation model is used in a gaming simulation approach that couples a role-playing game with the simulation model in order to provide crisis management team-training to decision-makers in a multi-organisational context. Drawing primarily on resilience engineering and crisis response, the concepts of core values, coping strategies, and resilience value networks were used to guide the design of the simulation model. The ultimate aim of this study is to explore the collaborative responses from the key actors during the disruption scenario in order to evoke and facilitate collective resilience.

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  • 21.
    Lennerholt, Christian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Data access and data quality challenges of self-service business intelligence2019In: Proceedings of the 27th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS) / [ed] Paul Johannesson, Pär Ågerfalk, Remko Helms, Association for Information Systems, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-service Business Intelligence (SSBI) is an upcoming trend that allows non-technical casual users to use BI in a self-reliant manner without the support of technical power users. Many organisations struggle to utilize the potential of SSBI and experience data-related and user-related SSBI implemen- tations challenges. This study aimed at exploring data-related SSBI challenges by conducting and analysing a total of 30 qualitative interviews with 5 BI consultants and 10 customer representatives involved in 2 SSBI implementation project teams. Analysis of the interviews revealed five challenges related to “Access and use of data” and four challenges related to “Data quality” that differ consid- erably from SSBI challenges commonly discussed in literature. Awareness of these challenges can help practitioners to avoid unnecessary obstacles when implementing and using SSBI. They can also guide SSBI researchers to simplify the implementation process of SSBI.

  • 22.
    Lennerholt, Christian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Söderström, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Implementation challenges of Self Service Business Intelligence: A literature review2018In: Proceedings of the 51st Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hilton Waikoloa Village, Hawaii, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2018, Vol. 51, p. 5055-5063, article id 0633Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a traditional Business Intelligence (BI) system, power users serve less experienced casual users. Power users analyze and gather data requested by casual users, and produce the reports and visualizations that casual users base their decisions on. When data volumes and the usage frequency of a traditional BI system increase, power users have problems serving all the requests from casual users. The Self Service Business Intelligence (SSBI) approach can enable users to be more self-reliant and less dependent on power users. Although SSBI promises more benefits compared to a traditional BI system, many organizations fail to implement SSBI. The literature review presented in this paper discusses six SSBI challenges related to "Access and use of data" and four challenges related to "Self-reliant users". Awareness of these ten challenges can help practitioners avoid common pitfalls, when implementing SSBI, as well as guide SSBI researchers in focusing on their future research efforts.

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    fulltext
  • 23.
    Lennerholt, Christian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Söderström, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Success factors for managing the SSBI challenges of the AQUIRE framework2023In: Journal of Decision Systems, ISSN 1246-0125, E-ISSN 2116-7052, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 491-512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-service business intelligence (SSBI) enables all users, including those with limited technical skills, to perform business intelligence (BI) tasks without the support of BI experts. SSBI reduces pressure on BI experts, gives more freedom to self-reliant users and speeds up decision-making. Recent research has illustrated how organisations experience numerous challenges when trying to obtain SSBI benefits. The AQUIRE framework organises 37 identified SSBI challenges in five categories: Access and use of data, Data Quality, User Independence, creating Reports and Education. SSBI literature does poorly address how these challenges can be tackled. This research study aimed to identify strategies on how to manage those 37 SSBI challenges. The performed case study includes 24 semi-structured interviews with respondents from two organisations which have been heavily involved in SSBI implementation. The results reveal how nine identified SSBI success factors are related to the 37 AQUIRE challenges and how they can be addressed over time.

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  • 24.
    Lennerholt, Christian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Söderström, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    User Related Challenges of Self-Service Business Intelligence2020In: Proceedings of the 53rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences , 2020, p. 188-197Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-service Business Intelligence (SSBI) is an upcoming trend allowing non-technical casual users to use Business Intelligence (BI) in a self-reliant manner without the support of technical power users. Many organizations struggle to utilize the potential of SSBI and experience data-related and user-related SSBI implementations challenges. This study aimed at exploring user-related SSBI challenges by conducting and analyzing a total of 30 qualitative interviews with 5 BI consultants and 10 customer representatives involved in 2 SSBI implementation project teams. Analysis of the interviews revealed ten challenges related to “self-reliant users”, seven challenges related to “creating SSBI reports” and five challenges related to “SSBI education”, which differ considerably from SSBI challenges commonly discussed in literature. Awareness of these 22 challenges can help practitioners to avoid unnecessary obstacles when implementing and using SSBI, and guide SSBI researchers in simplifying the implementation process of SSBI.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Lennerholt, Christian
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Söderström, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    User-Related Challenges of Self-Service Business Intelligence2021In: Information systems management, ISSN 1058-0530, E-ISSN 1934-8703, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 309-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-service Business Intelligence (SSBI) allows non-technical users to use Business Intelligence in a self-reliant manner without the support of technical users. Many organizations struggle to utilize the potential of SSBI and experience implementation challenges. This study aims to explore user-related SSBI challenges by conducting 30 qualitative interviews with 2 SSBI implementation projects. Analysis revealed challenges that can help practitioners to avoid unnecessary obstacles when implementing and using SSBI, and guide researchers in simplifying the implementation process.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 26.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Susi, Tarja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Formalising Distributed Cognition into a Tool to Capture Information Fusion Processes2008In: Proceedings of the second Skövde Workshop on Information Fusion Topics (SWIFT 2008) / [ed] H. Boström, R. Johansson, Joeri van Laere, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2008, p. 34-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presented research is motivated by the limited ability of current methods to capture the nature of information fusion processes. Fusion processes typically include both humans and technology, hence, there is a need for a new way to analyse such processes. With the aid of distributed cognition, the interaction between decision makers and IF technology can be captured more clearly, and thereby critical bottlenecks can be identified which may require further automation. Application of the tool may advance the research area of information fusion.

  • 27.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Experts' Views on User Activities in Information Fusion System Development Processes2009In: Proceedings of the 3rd Skövde Workshop on Information Fusion Topics (SWIFT 2009) / [ed] Ronnie Johansson, Joeri van Laere, Jonas Mellin, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2009, p. 33-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of the user in information fusion has gained increasing attention during the last years. However, looking at the research performed within the community it remains difficult to acquire a good understanding of the role of users, especially in terms of the information fusion system development process. To address this, a questionnaire was distributed during FUSION 2009 conference which aimed to explore these issues. Here, we present an initial analysis of the responses obtained. A consensus was found regarding how users have been incorporated in the development process. Specifically, they are seen as part of the concept generation phase, the requirement gathering phase or the evaluation phase rather than of the design phase. Also, the typical activities performed with users were found to be interviews and using users as advisers. However, results from the questionnaire also indicated that a consensus regarding what information is needed from users for automating a manual information fusion process is still lacking. The reasons for, and implications of this lack are discussed in the light of current research.

     

  • 28.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Susi, Tarja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Information fusion in practice: A distributed cognition perspective on the active role of users2012In: Information Fusion, ISSN 1566-2535, E-ISSN 1872-6305, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 60-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, the focus of most information fusion research has been on computational aspects, as illustrated by, for example, different versions of the JDL data fusion model. Consequently, the human user has mainly been conceived as a relatively passive recipient of fused information. However, the importance of understanding the active role of human information processing in information fusion is gaining increasing recognition, as also reflected in discussions of a "level 5" in the JDL model. This paper presents a case study of the interaction between human and machine information processing in a maritime surveillance control room. A detailed analysis of cognitive processes and information flows involved in identifying and tracking moving vessels illustrates how machines and human operators collaboratively perform fusion in a highly distributed fashion. The theoretical framework of distributed cognition provides an alternative or complementary way of analysing information fusion systems/processes that more clearly reveals the actual complexities of the interaction between human and machine information processing in practice. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 29.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berggren, Peter
    Swedish Defence Research Agency Command and Control Systems Man-Systems-Interaction Linköping.
    Kylesten, Birgitta
    Swedish Defence Research Agency Command and Control Systems Man-Systems-Interaction Linköping.
    A user study of the Impact matrix, a fusion based decision support for enhanced situation awareness2008In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion 2008 (FUSION 2008), IEEE conference proceedings, 2008, p. 440-447Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Today’s asymmetric threats put new challenges on military decision making. As new technology develops we have new possibilities to support decision making in such environments. However, it is important that the tools developed take into account users’ (commanders’) decision needs. This paper presents some initial user studies of Swedish commanders testing a prototype application developed to answer these new challenges introduced by asymmetric threats. The application aids commanders by supporting situation awareness in terms of providing an overview of incoming intelligence reports and displaying probabilities of future events. The user study focuses on how the tool can support commanders’ daily decision making activities. The results indicate that the general concept could be useful for Swedish commanders and analysts, but some suggestions for improvements are made. The issues found in this study will inform the continuing evaluation of this tool.

     

  • 30.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Edlund, Johan
    Saab Systems Järfälla, Sweden.
    Extracting rules from expert operators to support situation awareness in maritime surveillance2008In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION 2008), IEEE Press, 2008, p. 908-915Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     In maritime surveillance, supporting operators’ situation awareness is a very important issue for enabling the possibility to detect anomalous behaviour. We present a user study which conceptualises knowledge to be implemented in a rulebased application aiming at supporting situation awareness. Participatory observations were used as a method for extracting operators’ knowledge. The result of the user study is in the form of a number of identified rules emerging from organisational factors, group thinking and individual experience. A description of the rule-based prototype is presented a long with the result from the user study. This is also discussed together with the applicability of rule based systems and how to support situation awareness.

     

  • 31.
    Söderström, Eva
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    University College of Borås, Sweden.
    Combining work process models to identify training needs in the prehospital care process2014In: Perspectives in Business Informatics Research: 13th International Conference, BIR 2014, Lund, Sweden, September 22-24, 2014. Proceedings / [ed] Björn Johansson; Bo Andersson; Nicklas Holmberg, Springer, 2014, p. 375-389Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prehospital process is complex and covers a wide range of locations, healthcare personnel, technologies and competences. Enabling high quality holistic training is hence a challenge. Process models are efficient tools for representing reality, but no single modeling approach can cover the complexity of prehospital care. In our research, we have investigated the possibility to combine various process modeling techniques in order to identify training components and as many perspectives of the prehospital process as possible. Results show that combining different approaches and adapting them based on the need at hand is a successful strategy for enabling an of the prehospital care process from multiple perspectives, including identification of holistic, realistic and engaging training components.  Future work can utilize our results to build training scenarios that can be implemented in training using for example simulation.

  • 32.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Challenges for IF performance evaluation in practice2009In: Information Fusion, 2009. FUSION '09. 12th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 866-873Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a literature analysis of 52 publications on the topic of information fusion performance evaluation. The aim is to identify whether information fusion researchers are aware of the problematic nature of performance evaluation in practice, which is substantially different from performance evaluation in test environments. As expected, only 6% of the publications do actually report on studies conducted in practice, and therefore more such studies are needed. However, 58% of the publications do critically reflect on the problematic nature of performance evaluation in practice. As ground truth is lacking in practice, there is a need for (a set of) performance measures which are both comprehensive and adaptable to domain or situation context and changing circumstances over time. More studies need to address the overall question how multiple performance measures can function in concert and how exactly can be judged whether adaptation has been an improvement or not.

  • 33.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Wandering Through Crisis and Everyday Organizing; Revealing the Subjective Nature of Interpretive, Temporal and Organizational Boundaries2013In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 17-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of a 6-year action research study on developing crisis management preparedness in Swedish municipalities reveal strong connections rather than sharp distinctions between crisis and non-crisis on interpretive, temporal and organizational dimensions. Confusion and debate about what is labelled as a crisis, when everyday ends and crisis begins, and who and who are not involved, may illuminate different views on what the scale, scope and inherent complexity of our' system is in crisis and in non-crisis. Crises are not only a brutal audit for the practitioners involved, but also for the scientific theories that explain crisis behaviour. Current definitions of crisis understate the subjective nature of interpretations of crisis and organizing. To better understand the muddiness of organizing, crisis management researchers might aim for portraying more feed-forward messiness in crisis study descriptions and applying less hindsight bias in their analyses. Such images could help practitioners realize that organizing is more complex and less controllable than currently might be pictured and assumed. A deeper exploration of concepts like duality, competing values and complex adaptive systems could serve both practitioners and researchers.

  • 34.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Aggestam, Lena
    University of Skövde, School of Business. University of Skövde, Enterprises for the Future.
    Understanding champion behaviour in a health-care information system development project – how multiple champions and champion behaviours build a coherent whole2016In: European Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0960-085X, E-ISSN 1476-9344, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 47-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Champions are commonly suggested as a means of promoting the adoption of information systems. Since there are many different definitions of the concepts of champion and champion behaviour in the literature, practitioners and researchers may be confused about how to exactly use these concepts. A qualitative analysis of a single case study in a Swedish health-care organisation enabled us to explain how different champion behaviours relate to each other and how multiple champions interact. Combining our rich case observations with an analysis of champion literature reveals how champion behaviours form a coherent and meaningful whole in which networks of different types of champions at different levels in an organisation utilise their network of relations, their knowledge of the organisation and their insight into strategic decision-making politics to time and orchestrate the framing of innovations and the involvement of the right people. In conclusion, championing is a complex performance of contextually dependent collective social interaction, varying over time, rather than a heroic act of one individual promoting an idea. Future studies need to focus more on how the relations between different champions and their behaviours develop across innovations and over time, in order to develop a richer understanding of championing.

  • 35.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för informations- och kommunikationssystem.
    Lindqwister, Towe
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Avdelningen för informations- och kommunikationssystem.
    Wiberg, Christer
    Combitech, Sweden.
    Challenges for critical infrastructure resilience: cascading effects of payment system disruptions2017In: / [ed] Tina Comes; Frédérick Bénaben; Chihab Hanachi; Matthieu Lauras; Aurélie Montarnal, ISCRAM, 2017, Vol. 14, p. 281-292, article id 1464Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructures become more and more entangled and rely extensively on information technology. Adeeper insight into the relationships between critical infrastructures enables the actors involved to more quicklyunderstand the severity of information technology disruptions and to identify robust cross-functional mitigatingactions. This study illustrates how and why disruptions in the payment system in Sweden could create cascadingeffects in other critical infrastructures with potentially severe consequences for many citizens, governmentinstitutions and companies. Data from document studies, interviews and workshops with field experts revealseven challenges for collective cross-functional critical infrastructure resilience that need to be dealt with: 1)Shortage of food, fuel, cash, medicine; 2) Limited capacity of alternative payment solutions; 3) Cities are morevulnerable than the countryside; 4) Economically vulnerable groups in society are more severely affected; 5)Trust maintenance needs; 6) Crisis communication needs; 7) Fragmentation of responsibility for criticalinfrastructures across many actors.

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  • 36.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Kallin, Susanne
    Combitech AB, Sundbyberg, Sweden.
    A simulation-game to explore collective critical infrastructure resilience2018In: Safety and Reliability – Safe Societies in a Changing World: Proceedings of ESREL 2018, June 17-21, 2018, Trondheim, Norway / [ed] S. Haugen, A. Barros, C. van Gulijk, T. Kongsvik, J. Vinnem, London: CRC Press, 2018, p. 1305-1312, article id 688Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience of interdependent infrastructures increasingly depends on collaborative responses from actors with diverse backgrounds that may not be familiar with cascade effects into areas beyond their own sector. A simulation-game can enable societal actors to obtain a deeper understanding of the interdependencies between their infrastructures and their respective crisis responses. Following a design science approach, a simulation-game has been developed that combines role-playing simulation and computer simulation. The simulation-game challenges participants to address the interaction between payment disruptions, food and fuel supply, security problems (riots, robberies) and communication challenges (preventing hoarding). A number of crucial design choices were handled while developing the simulation-game. The main design challenges were: How to validate an unthinkable escalation scenario?; How to give the simulation a sufficient level of detail on all aspects and keep the complexity graspable so it can be played instantly?; and How much time should each playing round take?

    Download full text (pdf)
    Laere_2018_SimulationGameCriticalInfrastructureResilience_ESREL2018
  • 37.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    De Vreede, G. J.
    Department of Information Systems and Quantitative Analysis, University of Nebraska at Omaha, 1110 South 67th Street, Omaha, NE, 68182, United States / Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, University of Delft, PO Box 5015, 2600 GA Delft, Netherlands.
    Sol, H. G.
    Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, University of Delft, PO Box 5015, 2600 GA Delft, Netherlands / Faculty of Management and Organisation, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV, Groningen, Netherlands.
    A social simulation game to explore future coordination in knowledge networks at the Amsterdam Police Force2006In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 558-568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 32 autonomous neighbourhood teams of the Amsterdam Police Force need to utilise each other's knowledge and expertise to deal with the variety and complexity of their daily work assignments. However, despite the creation of organisation wide knowledge networks, communication, co-ordination and knowledge sharing between the neighbourhood teams is disappointing. We conducted an action research to investigate how co-ordination in the knowledge networks could be improved with the help of information and communication technologies (ICTs). This article reflects on the choice of co-ordination perspectives and modelling techniques. The above problem is conceptualised and made operational in different ways in research on network co-ordination, knowledge co-ordination and co-ordination of distributed work. The article demonstrates how our initial focus on capturing quantitative measures of the co-ordination problem in a computer simulation was problematic in this case. Instead a social simulation-game that focused on the qualitative issues of this co-ordination problem was developed and played. We conclude that the choice of theoretical perspectives and modelling techniques strongly affected the results of both phases of our action research. Furthermore the article argues that more attention to qualitative issues in co-ordination is required to better understand the impact of ICT-support on co-ordination.

  • 38.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    de Vreede, Gert Jan
    University of Nebraska, Omaha, USA.
    Sol, H.
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Developing paradoxical guidelines for communities of practice in organizations2006In: Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Information Systems, ECIS 2006, Association for Information Systems, 2006, article id 159Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    de Vreede, Gert Jan
    University of Nebraska, Omaha, AR, United States.
    Sol, Henk G.
    Universities of Groningen and Delft, Netherlands.
    Designing simulation-games for organizational prototyping2006In: Advances in Information Systems Development: Bridging the Gap between Academia and Industry: Volume 1 / [ed] Anders G. Nilsson, Remigijus Gustas, Wita Wojtkowski, W. Gregory Wojtkowski, Stanisław Wrycza, Jože Zupančič, Springer, 2006, Vol. 1, p. 373-385Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ICT provide opportunities to improve organizational performance. However, many organizations still struggle with integrating new organizational structures, new work practices and ICT, because information systems (and other tools) that support organizational work processes are embedded in the existing culture and work practices. The adoption of ICT by an organization is a complex interaction between task-, technology-, group internal system-, and organizational context factors. Organizational prototyping helps to develop ‘embedded’ information systems. It involves managing a dual process of both adapting the tool to the organization and adapting the work practice to conditions of the tool. In an action research study at the Amsterdam Police Force we developed two simulation-games that served as ‘organizational prototypes’ and supported the analysis and improvement of coordination practices and the integration of (new) ICT in these coordination practices. The first game has been played 9 20 times with 8-15 policemen; the second game has been played 2 times with a similar number of policemen. In this paper we reflect on the design of the games. We explain how and why we have dealt with issues like for instance complexity of the game, number of players, degree of realism, amount of time for reflection, time pressure, et cetera. Next we show the impact of these design choices for the game execution and game results. Finding the right balance between realism/validity on one hand and not too much complexity on the other hand proofs to be the major design challenge. Furthermore some surprising results were that distributed work can perfectly be simulated in one location, that computer support does not distract from learning objectives when the technology functions properly, and that time constraints may inhibit learning.

  • 40.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Gudfinnsson, Kristens
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Continuous systematic situation monitoring: pitfalls and possibilities2022In: ISCRAM 2022 Conference Proceedings – 19th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] Rob Grace; Hossein Baharmand, Tarbes, France: ISCRAM , 2022, Vol. 19, p. 460-468, article id 2432Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Situation pictures are helpful to make sense of what is happening and to prevent further escalation. These situation pictures are typically text- or map-based and focus on the current effects of the crisis. For long-lasting transboundary crises that impact many critical infrastructures and different parts of society directly and indirectly, such situation pictures have limitations. Crisis management teams might benefit from continuous monitoring of societal performance indicators, so the current situation can easily be compared with historical and future data to reveal trends and escalations. This research project explored how a successful approach for systematic monitoring of indicators in crime prevention could be transferred to crisis management. Several pilot studies revealed nine challenging pitfalls and six promising possibilities. The findings of this study can inform future research on how continuous systematic situation monitoring can strengthen societal resilience.

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  • 41.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Peter
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Davis, Joanna
    Combitech AB, Sweden.
    Iterative Game Design to develop collective critical infrastructure resilience2019In: Simulation & gaming through times and across disciplines: past and future, heritage and progress: 50th ISAGA Anniversary Conference proceedings 2019 / [ed] Marcin Wardaszko, Warsaw: Kozminski University , 2019, p. 128-138, article id 140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resilience of interdependent infrastructures increasingly depends on collaborative responses from actors with diverse backgrounds that may not be familiar with cascade effects into areas beyond their own sector. A simulation-game can enable societal actors to obtain a deeper understanding of the interdependencies between their respective infrastructures and their respective crisis responses. Following a design science approach, a simulation-game has been developed that combines role-playing simulation and computer simulation. The simulation-game challenges participants to address the interaction between payment disruptions, food and fuel supply, security problems (riots, robberies) and communication challenges (preventing hoarding). The game has been played on 15 occasions with representatives from different sectors in society and the game design has been changed iteratively after each playing-session. The paper reflects on the impact of initial design choices and the effects on later modifications. Finally, it is discussed how the current version of the game serves multiple purposes: awareness raising, education of participants, model validation, identification of new mitigating actions, and development of collective critical infrastructure resilience in society.

  • 42.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ibrahim, Osama
    Stockholm University.
    Larsson, Aron
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall.
    Johansson, Björn
    Linköping University.
    Gustavsson, Per
    Combitech AB, Skövde.
    Analyzing the Implications of Design Choices in Existing Simulation-Games for Critical Infrastructure Resilience2018In: Simulation Gaming: Applications for Sustainable Cities and Smart Infrastructures: 48th International Simulation and GamingAssociation Conference, ISAGA 2017 Delft, The Netherlands, July 10–14, 2017 Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Heide Karen Lukosch; Geertje Bekebrede; Rens Kortmann, Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 10825, p. 15-23Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A literature study has identified the major impacts of importantdesign choices in simulation models and simulation-games that model criticalinfrastructure resilience. The four major groups of design choices discussed inthis article are: (1) the chosen learning goal (system understanding or collaborationtraining), (2) realism and time scale of the scenario, (3) design of playerroles and communication rules, (4) number of action alternatives, replay-abilityand richness of performance feedback while playing. Researchers and practitionerswho build simulation-games for studying critical infrastructure resiliencecan use the accumulated insights on these four aspects to improve the quality oftheir game design and the quality of the simulation models the game participantsinteract with.

  • 43.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Määttä, Peter
    Combitech AB.
    Mitigating Escalation of Cascading Effects of a Payment Disruption across other Critical Infrastructures: Lessons Learned in 15 Simulation-Games2019In: Proceedings of  the 14th International Conference on Critical Information Infrastructures Security (CRITIS) 2019, Linköping: Linköping University , 2019, Vol. 4, article id 9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A disruption in one critical infrastructure can quickly lead to cascading effects in several other ones. Much research has been done to analyze dependencies between different critical infrastructures, but little is known about how to mitigate escalation and cascading effects across several critical infrastructures, i.e. how to develop collective critical infrastructure resilience. This research presents the results of 15 simulation-games where groups of 6 to 8 field experts from different sectors were challenged to collaboratively manage a disruption in the payment system that quickly affected food distribution, fuel distribution, transport, health care et cetera. Teams discussed possible strategies, which next were implemented in a computer simulation. Teams could influence the sequence of events on 4 decision points during a 10 day scenario, and play the same scenario several times to test alternative solutions. Each simulation-game session lasted a full day. Data analysis involved the recorded team discussions as well as computer simulation logs of the implemented decisions and their impacts. The results show how escalation and the severity of cascading effects largely depends on the quality of the early crisis response and not so much on the initial disruption. Also, it is shown how cross sectorial collaboration is required. Responses where groups focus too much on cascading effects in one area lead too poor overall performance for society at large. Groups tend to overbalance their mitigating strategies initially, until they arrive at a more balanced strategy that covers challenges in several different critical infrastructures from an integral perspective.

  • 44.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Johansson, Björn J. E.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Määttä, Peter
    Combitech, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mitigating Escalation of Cascading Effects of a Payment Disruption Across Other Critical Infrastructures: Lessons Learned in 15 Simulation-Games2020In: Critical Information Infrastructures Security: 14th International Conference, CRITIS 2019, Linköping, Sweden, September 23–25, 2019, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Simin Nadjm-Tehrani, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 110-121Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A disruption in one critical infrastructure can quickly lead to cascading effects in several other ones. Much research has been done to analyze dependencies between different critical infrastructures, but little is known about how to mitigate escalation and cascading effects across several critical infrastructures, i.e. how to develop collective critical infrastructure resilience. This research presents the results of 15 simulation-games where groups of 6 to 8 field experts from different sectors were challenged to collaboratively manage a disruption in the payment system that quickly affected food distribution, fuel distribution, transport, health care et cetera. Teams discussed possible strategies, which next were implemented in a computer simulation. Teams could influence the sequence of events on 4 decision points during a 10 day scenario, and play the same scenario several times to test alternative solutions. Each simulation-game session lasted a full day. Data analysis involved the recorded team discussions as well as computer simulation logs of the implemented decisions and their impacts. The results show how escalation and the severity of cascading effects largely depends on the quality of the early crisis response and not so much on the initial disruption. Also, it is shown how cross sectorial collaboration is required. Responses where groups focus too much on cascading effects in one area lead too poor overall performance for society at large. Groups tend to overbalance their mitigating strategies initially, until they arrive at a more balanced strategy that covers challenges in several different critical infrastructures from an integral perspective.

  • 45.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Cultivating a longitudinal learning process through recurring crisis management training exercises in twelve Swedish municipalities2019In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 38-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study illustrates how crisis management capability is developed in series ofrecurring exercises, rather than in one single exercise. Over one hundred table-topand role-playing exercises were performed and evaluated in a longitudinal cross-caseaction research study in 12 Swedish municipalities. By consciously adapting trainingformats, municipalities were lead through three learning phases: obtaining roleunderstanding (phase 1: knowing what to do), developing information managementskills (phase 2: knowing how to do it), and mastering self-reflection in regular time-outs (phase 3: knowing when and why to do something). This final learning out-come, being able to concurrently execute, evaluate, and reorganize an ongoing crisismanagement performance, may be the most valuable capability of a crisis manage-ment organization when crisis strikes.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    de Wijse-van Heeswijk, Marieke
    Radboud University, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
    Complexifying Facilitation by Immersing in Lived Experiences of on-the-fly Facilitation2021In: Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, Vol. 52, no 3, p. 346-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Describing the role of a facilitator often results in to-do lists resembling a recipe or a laundry list to follow. Such lists fail to grasp the inherent complexity of facilitation and are not very useful in guiding facilitators when, why and if they should intervene in the unfolding live performance of that day.

    Aim: To develop a deeper understanding of on-the-fly facilitation by analyzing rich empirical accounts of in-situ facilitation episodes.

    Intervention:Six facilitation episodes were through purposeful sampling selected from a body of hundreds of interventions in forty-seven performed crisis management training exercises in Swedish municipalities. Each full-day crisis management simulation-game had between fifteen and fifty participants involving politicians, administrative managers and crisis management staff.

    Method: An auto-hermeneutical phenomenological analysis of six lived experiences of facilitation episodes was conducted to understand what the facilitator observed and how a facilitation intervention was applied.

    Results: On-the-fly-facilitation is instantaneous, but draws simultaneously on awareness of the past, present and future. Facilitation needs are foreseen during design and they influence current attentiveness and coaching. Unfolding game-play needs to be grasped quickly. Potential future consequences of intervening or not intervening are evaluated within a limited window of opportunity. Due to these circumstances, facilitation is multi-skilled, arbitrary and fallible. Such muddiness of on-the-fly facilitation requires courage from the facilitator.

    Conclusions: In order to better understand how facilitation skills and roles actually are performed, the facilitation literature desperately needs a larger number of rich empirical accounts of interesting in-situ facilitation. Elaborate analysis of such lived experiences could develop understanding as to how available skills, situational circumstances as well as the unfolding interaction between players and facilitators actually develop into a facilitation intervention. This could generate more complex theoretical understanding of how to apply facilitation skills, in addition to theories that list what skills a facilitator should master.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Susi, Tarja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Kommunal krisövning i teori och praktik2009Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Kommunal krisovning i teori och praktik
  • 48.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Susi, Tarja
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Requirements for emergency management training from a 'passion for failures' perspective2007In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management / [ed] B. van de Walle, P. Burghardt, and K. Niewenhuis, Brussels University Press , 2007, p. 449-456Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish municipalities are stimulated to conduct emergency management exercises in addition to developing crisis plans. These exercises tend to be grounded in an instrumental philosophy. There is too much focus on doing the exercise and too little attention for the implementation of lessons learned afterwards. A common experience is that the same 'mistakes' are discovered again and again in yearly exercises. Furthermore there is a paradoxical balance between empowering the organization in its learning process (positive feedback) and revealing the failures (negative feedback). In this paper we reflect on the learning process in a Swedish municipality in 2006 where two emergency management exercises were held and where a minor and a major crisis occured during the year. We argue that the longitudinal learning process should be the focus in stead of ad hoc exercises. In addition we develop some requirements for emergency management training from a 'passion for failures' perspective.

  • 49.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Nilsson, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Evaluation of a workshop to capture knowledge from subject matter experts in maritime surveillance2009In: Information Fusion, 2009. FUSION '09. 12th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 171-178Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a brainstorming workshop with subject matter experts that aimed at identifying potential anomalies for world wide maritime surveillance. An extensive description of the workshop process and output is presented. The evaluation consists of two parts. First, the output of the workshop is compared with the output of a similar workshop as presented in Roy [1]. Secondly, the methodological differences between capturing know-how of subject matter experts in a workshop versus observing daily work of operators, as applied in Nilsson et al [2], is discussed. The conclusions are that brainstorming workshops and field studies should be combined to compensate for their weaknesses. Also, the outcomes of both methods heavily depend on the selection of operators to be observed, respectively the selection of subject matter experts invited. A final recommendation is that multiple studies and workshops are needed until no ‘new’ anomalies are identified.

  • 50.
    van Laere, Joeri
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Nilsson, Maria
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Hilletofth, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Reflections on fusion systems requirements analysis for maintenance planning2008In: Proceedings of the 2nd Skövde Workshop on Information Fusion Topics (SWIFT 2008) / [ed] H. Boström, R. Johansson, Joeri van Laere, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2008, p. 5-8Conference paper (Other academic)
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