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  • 1.
    Karlsson, Ingvar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Törnblom, KjellUniversity of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.Vermunt, Rïel
    Proceedings of the 4th Nordic Conference on Group and Social Psychology 27-28 May 20042004Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Gholamzadehmir, Maedeh
    University of Sussex, Sussex House, Brighton, United Kingdom.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Predicting Reactions to Procedural Injustice via Insights from Resource Theory2012In: Handbook of social resource theory: theoretical extensions, empirical insights, and social applications / [ed] Kjell Törnblom, Ali Kazemi, New York: Springer, 2012, p. 373-381Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifting focus from distributive to procedural justice, this chapter by Ali Kazemi, Maedeh Gholamzadehmir, and Kjell Törnblom starts from the proposition that in a situation of procedural injustice, restoration of justice will be attempted via behaviors that are isomorphic with the resource with which the violated procedural rule is isomorphic. An empirical illustration corroborated in large this novel line of reasoning and showed that when the procedural rule of voice was violated, restoration of justice was attempted via status isomorphic behaviors. This is consistent with Foa’s proposal that people prefer to retaliate a loss via a resource class proximal rather than distal to the lost resource. The proposition that inaccuracy is isomorphic with information, that is, a universalistic resource received mixed support. The notion that procedural injustice has implications for discrete emotions was supported. Regardless of the resource of deprivation, the denial of voice had greater impact than inaccuracy of decisions which, in turn, suggests a greater impact of particularistic (i.e., status) than of universalistic (i.e., information) resource deprivation.

  • 3.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Perceived fairness of six allocation decision rules in the context of hiring and firing2011In: The individual and the group - Future challenges: proceedings from the 7th GRASP conference, University of Gothenburg, May 2010 / [ed] Jacobsson, C. & Rapp Ricciardi, M., University of Gothenburg , 2011, p. 44-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managers decide daily about recruiting new people into their organization and sometimes in times of economic turmoil they decide to let people go. The issue of fairness is at the heart of these decisions. In the present study we are interested in exploring the perceived fairness of six decision rules in the context of hiring and firing. 306 participants responded to one of two different versions of a scenario based questionnaire. Half of the participants answered questions about the fairness of six allocation decision rules by which hiring for a job took place, and the other half rated the same rules for firing. In general, contribution rules were deemed much fairer than the equality rules. In the case of hiring, respondents considered the contribution of ability as the fairest rule while in the firing condition the contribution of effort was rated as the fairest rule.

  • 4.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Rättvist ledarskap2009In: Välbefinnande i arbetslivet: socialpsykologiska perspektiv / [ed] Ali Kazemi, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2009, 1, p. 37-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, KjellDepartment of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Social Justice Research2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Törnblom, KjellUniversity of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Social Justice Research2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Törnblom, KjellUniversity of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Social Justice Research2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Törnblom, KjellUniversity of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Social Justice Research2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Törnblom, KjellUniversity of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Social Justice Research2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Törnblom, KjellUniversity of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Social Justice Research2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Törnblom, KjellUniversity of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Social Justice Research2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Social Psychology of Justice: Origins, Central Issues, Recent Developments, and Future Directions2008In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 209-234Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an overview of some selected aspects of social psychological theory and research on justice in the allocation of social resources. We start with a brief outline of the origins of systematic inquiries of justice in social psychology. Six central issues in social justice theory and research are discerned and discussed (the definition, dimensionality, and criteria of justice, the salience of the justice motive, the importance of justice, the formation of justice judgments, the cognitive and behavioral reactions to injustice, and the cross-cultural generality of justice considerations). A selective overview of recent applications, developments, and areas of interest are also presented, and some avenues for future research are suggested.

  • 16.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Third-Party Allocation of Rewards: The Effects of Categorization and Request for Justice2014In: Small Group Research, ISSN 1046-4964, E-ISSN 1552-8278, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 435-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study shows that categorization of reward recipients into different entities affects distributive preferences by third-party non-recipient allocators. Rewards were allocated more equally to members of one group than to members of two dyads or to independent recipients. Moreover, allocators who were explicitly requested to allocate rewards justly were more egalitarian than those who were not requested to do so. More interestingly, rewards were allocated more equally between members in each of two dyads and between independent recipients, when a just allocation request was made, than when such a request was not made. This implies that a request for just allocation modifies the effects of recipient entity categorization toward more equal reward allocations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  • 17.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Mikula, Gerold
    University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
    Justice: Social Psychological Perspectives2015In: International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences / [ed] James D. Wright, Oxford: Elsevier, 2015, 2, p. 949-955Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the concept of justice from a social psychological perspective. The authors begin by briefly outlining some theoretical precursors of current social psychological research on justice. Another part is devoted to an overview of theories and empirical research in the areas of distributive and procedural justice. The article furthermore addresses interactional justice, why people care about justice, and reactions to injustice in the context of which individual differences in conceptions of justice are briefly discussed. The article ends by discussing some current trends, social applications, and some future challenges in social psychological inquiries of social justice.

  • 18.
    Kazemi, Ali
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Törnblom, Kjell Yngve
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Sweden2013In: Sociology of Work: An Encyclopedia / [ed] Vicki Smith, Sage Publications, 2013, p. 849-854Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Kimmo, Eriksson
    et al.
    School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    A New Look at Individual Differences in Perceptions of Unfairness: The Theory of Maximally Unfair Allocations in Multiparty Situations2015In: Social Justice Research, ISSN 0885-7466, E-ISSN 1573-6725, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 401-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has demonstrated that unfairness judgments of resource allocations become more complex when there are more than two recipients. In order to explain some of this complexity, we propose a set of psychological mechanisms that may underlie four different choices of maximally unfair resource allocations (MUA): Self-Single-Loser, Self-One-Loser-of-Many, Self-Single-Winner, and Self-One-Winner-of-Many. From this psychological theory, several predictions are derived and tested in vignette studies involving a total of 708 participants recruited online using MTurk. As predicted by our theory, (1) choices of MUA where there is a single loser were much more common when the allocated resource was of negative rather than positive valence, and (2) the amount of egoistic bias individuals exhibited when judging the unfairness in receiving a small rather than a large share in a non-extreme multi-party allocation was predicted by their choices of MUA. These findings suggest that an individual’s choice of MUA reveals some generally relevant principles of how unfairness is perceived in multi-party allocations. This opens up new lines of inquiry, especially regarding research on social dilemmas and social value orientation.

  • 20.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Rättvisa i fördelning av sociala: en förutsättning för en väl fungerande organisation och lojala medarbetare2005In: Perspektiv på högskolan i Skövde, ISSN 1653-8242, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 9-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Social Justice Research2007Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Jasso, Guillermina
    Department of Sociology, New York University, 295 Lafayette Street, New York, NY 10012-9605, United States.
    Vermunt, Riël
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Theoretical Integration and Unification: A Focus on Justice2007In: Social Justice Research, ISSN 0885-7466, E-ISSN 1573-6725, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 263-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A commonly shared goal among scientists is to reach the ‘holy grail’ of theoretical integration or unification. We list several examples of such attempts within sociology and psychology in general and, more specifically, within the subarea of social justice. A distinction is made between the seemingly interchangeable terms integration and unification. We note the scarcity of work concerned with untangling the meaning of theoretical integration, with differentiating among forms of integration, and with mapping the variety of ways in which integration might be accomplished. The five articles published in this issue of Social Justice Research, and here briefly reviewed, address these and related questions and/or exemplify theoretical integration with a focus on justice.

  • 23.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Advances in Justice Conflict Conceptualization: A New Integrative Framework2012In: Justice and Conflicts: Theoretical and Empirical Contributions / [ed] Kals, E. & Maes, J., Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 21-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A thorough understanding of conflicts is crucial as conflicts may be destructive to the welfare of individuals, groups, and societies. Conflicts are closely related to justice concerns in that perceived injustices give rise to conflicts and destructive conflicts give rise to injustices. However, the notion of conflicts is rather underdeveloped and the definition of it often taken for granted in justice theory and research. In this chapter we propose a useful conceptualization and classification of justice conflicts. Specially, five types of conceptual distributive justice conflicts, five types of social distributive justice conflicts, and three types of a mixture of both are defined and described. Some of these basic types, in turn, encompass two or more subtypes of conflict. These result in different dilemmas and processes, the natures of which are likey to have important implications for conflict resolution. The present chapter highlights several shortcomings of current conceptualizations of justice conflict, and provides a new integrated framework for a more systematic approach.

  • 24.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    ETH Zürich, Department of Environmental Systems Science, USYS TdLab, Switzerland.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Distributive Justice: Revisiting Past Statements and Reflecting on Future Prospects2015In: The Oxford Handbook of Justice in the Workplace / [ed] Russell S. Cropanzano & Maureen L. Ambrose, New York: Oxford University Press, 2015, p. 15-50Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter starts with brief discussions of the whens and whys of justice reasoning and acting, after which descriptions of several distributive justice theories are provided. These are analyzed on the basis of four dimensions: type of justice motivation, orientation of justice behavior, the source of justice behavior initiation, and the source of justice behavior direction. We suggest that the overemphasis in the distributive justice literature on the three principles of equity, equality, and need, ought to be tempered by finer distinctions among the varieties of each and increased attention to additional principles and combinations of principles. The chapter ends by outlining suggestions for future research. Four issues are featured: the nature of the object (social resource) that is distributed and the focus of justice judgments, how the way the resource was produced may affect its allocation and justice judgment, how justice relates to various types of conflict, and why people sometimes do not react to perceived injustices.

  • 25.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, AliUniversity of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Handbook of social resource theory: theoretical extensions, empirical insights, and social applications2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Introduction. Social Resource Theory: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow2012In: Handbook of social resource theory: theoretical extensions, empirical insights, and social applications / [ed] Kjell Törnblom, Ali Kazemi, New York: Springer, 2012, p. 1-12Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following a Foreword by Morton Deutsch and an Introductory chapter, this handbook presents five parts containing a total of 26 chapters and concludes with an Envoi by Elaine Hatfield and Richard Rapson. The introductory Part I contains two chapters: In Chap. 2 Foa and Foa present the basic framework of their social resource theory, and Chap. 3 spells out a number of issues that may need to be addressed for its further development. Part II contains seven chapters discussing various conceptual and theoretical elaborations of SRT. The five chapters of Part III describe attempts at theory integrations between SRT and other models and theories. Part IV features six chapters describing various applications of SRT on different levels, from the organizational to cross-cultural. Finally, the six chapters of Part V focus on various justice aspects in the distribution of different kinds of resources. This simplified characterization of the chapters conceals the fact that many of them would also fit under other parts of this book; the contents of each chapter are certainly more varied and richer than indicated here.

  • 27.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Justice Judgments of Physical Abuse and Theft: The Importance of Outcome and Procedure2010In: Social Justice Research, ISSN 0885-7466, E-ISSN 1573-6725, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 308-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perceived justice of a situation is frequently a function of both outcome and procedure, but the importance of each may vary when making justice judgments. This study investigated the impact of type and severity of offence, social relationship and status on the perceived importance of the outcome and procedure for justice judgments. The outcome was considered more important than the procedure for judgments of both theft and physical abuse, regardless of offence severity, status of the offender and the victim-perpetrator social relationship. Both outcome and procedure were viewed as more important for judgments of physical abuse than theft. Data obtained for exploratory purposes yielded no correlation between ratings of justice and importance, indicating that the two are not aspects of the same construct. Integrations with work within criminology are discussed.

  • 28.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, AliUniversity of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Social Justice Research2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, AliUniversity of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Social Justice Research2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, AliUniversity of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Social Justice Research2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, AliUniversity of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Social Justice Research2013Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, AliUniversity of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Social Justice Research2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, AliUniversity of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Social Justice Research2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, AliUniversity of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Social Justice Research2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, AliUniversity of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Social Justice Research2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, AliUniversity of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Social Justice Research2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, AliUniversity of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Social Justice Research2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, AliUniversity of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Social Justice Research2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, AliUniversity of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Social Justice Research2011Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Some Conceptual and Theoretical Issues in Resource Theory of Social Exchange2012In: Handbook of social resource theory: theoretical extensions, empirical insights, and social applications / [ed] Kjell Törnblom, Ali Kazemi, New York: Springer, 2012, p. 33-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter by Törnblom and Kazemi discusses a number of issues in SRT which seem to benefit from further developments. Specifically, they ask whether the Foas’ resource classification meets the criteria for a typology, whether there are other dimensions than concreteness and particularism and whether the Foas’ six resource classes can be categorized into subclasses. Törnblom and Kazemi further discuss the validity of some of the exchange rules that the Foas formulated. They also extend the Foas’ two basic behavioral modes of giving and taking into four basic modes of exchange (i.e., giving-giving, giving-requesting, requesting-giving, and requesting-requesting), and this opens up for a host of further distinctions when additional facets like resource valence and resource type are included. Additional issues discussed in this chapter involve the production and acquisition of resources, different types of linkages between the production, acquisition, possession, and provision of resources, and finally the relevance of SRT to the topics of social justice, social exclusion, well-being, social dilemmas, social comparisons, and volunteering. Some of these issues are the focus of several chapters in this handbook.

  • 41.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    The relative importance of outcome and procedure for total justice judgments2009In: Dynamics Within and Outside the Lab: Proceedings from the 6th GRASP conference, Lund University, May 2008 / [ed] Stefan Jern & Johan Näslund, Lund: Lund University , 2009, p. 184-202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary justice theorists assume that a meaningful assessment of fairness in interpersonal encounters requires assessments of the outcome (the end result) as well as the procedure (the means) by which the outcome was accomplished. This study investigated the relative impact of four variables on the subjective importance of the outcome and procedure for total fairness evaluations, using a 2x2x2x2 factorial survey design: Type of offense (physical abuse vs. theft) x Severity of offense (moderate vs. serious) x Social relationship (particularistic vs. universalistic) x Status of the perpetrator relative to the victim (equal vs. superior). Results suggest that the outcome is considered more important than the procedure for fairness judgments of both offenses, regardless of their severity, relative status of the offender, and the social relationship within which the offense was committed. Furthermore, both outcome and procedure were viewed as more important when assessing the fairness of physical abuse as compared to theft. For the physical abuse offense, this was more likely to be the case when the status of the offender was superior to the status of the victim.

  • 42.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Toward a Resource Production Theory of Distributive Justice2007In: Distributive and procedural justice: research and social applications, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007, p. 39-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Vermunt, RiëlUniversity of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Distributive and procedural justice: research and social applications2007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Törnblom, Kjell Y.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Social Justice Research: Mission, Some Prospects, and Challenges2011In: Social Justice Research, ISSN 0885-7466, E-ISSN 1573-6725, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Törnblom, Kjell Y.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Vermunt, Riël
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Towards an Integration of Distributive Justice, Procedural Justice, and Social Resource Theories2007In: Social Justice Research, ISSN 0885-7466, E-ISSN 1573-6725, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 312-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to formulate new and more precise predictions regarding behavioral reactions to distributive and procedural injustice via insights from resource theory. The three theories share focus on discrepancies between actual and ideal states of existence as well as on psychological and behavioral reactions to discrepancy. But they also differ from each other in their conceptualizations and theorizing about these matters. Equity theory conceptualizes discrepancy as a perceived mismatch between inputs and outcomes; multiprinciple distributive justice and procedural justice theories view discrepancy as a mismatch between expected and applied distribution and procedural rules, respectively. Resulting feelings of inequity/injustice may trigger attempts to restore justice. Within the framework of resource theory, discrepancy concerns an inappropriate match between the nature of the provided and received resources. This leads to frustration which, in turn, may trigger attempts at retaliation. Limitations of the theories are discussed, with particular focus on their inability to match specific discrepancies with appropriate behavioral reactions. Behavioral predictions are based upon established congruence between behavioral reactions and violated procedural rules as well as type of inequity, as determined via their respective resource isomorphism. Limitations of the present integration attempt are discussed.

  • 46.
    Vermunt, Riël
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Leiden, Wassenaarseweg, Netherlands.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Törnblom, Kjell
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    The Salience of Outcome and Procedure in Giving and Receiving Universalistic and Particularistic Resources2012In: Handbook of social resource theory: theoretical extensions, empirical insights, and social applications / [ed] Kjell Törnblom, Ali Kazemi, New York: Springer, 2012, p. 397-405Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As Riël Vermunt, Ali Kazemi, and Kjell Törnblom point out in this chapter, resource allocations may be judged on the basis of the resulting final outcome and/or the procedures applied to arrive at the outcome. The focus of this chapter is on how attention to the outcome or procedure is affected by the nature of the allocated resource (universalistic versus particularistic) and the direction of allocation (when P is a provider versus a recipient). Results from a cross-national survey study involving respondents from Austria, Italy, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the USA showed that procedure was perceived as more focal in the allocation of universalistic as compared to particularistic resources. No differences were observed with regard to the salience of outcome. Interestingly, this held only true for resource providers; for resource recipients, this pattern was reversed. These and other findings suggest that the meaning of resource classes (in this study money and love) differ for providers and recipients in their judgments of allocation events. The authors conclude by discussing the implications of these findings for SRT and for future research.

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