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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Research Proposal: Strategy for Platform Independent Testing2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work addresses problems associated with software testing in a Model Driven Development (MDD) environment. Today, it is possible to create platform independent models that can be executed and therefore, dynamically tested. However, when developing safety-critical software systems there is a requirement to show that the set of test cases covers the structure of the implementation. Since the structure of the implementation might vary depending on e.g., compiler and target language, this is normally done by transforming the design model to code, which is compiled and executed by tests until full coverage of the code structure is reached. The problem with such approach is that testing becomes platform dependent. Moving the system from one platform to another becomes time-consuming since the test activities to a large extent must start again for the new platform. To meet the goals of MDD, we need methods that allow us to perform structural coverage analysis on platform independent models in a way that covers as much as possible of the the structure of any implementation. Moreover, such method must enable us to trace specific test artifacts between the platform independent model and the generated code. Without such trace a complete analysis must be done at code level and much of the advantage of MDD is lost. 

    We propose a framework for structural coverage analysis at a platform independent level. The framework includes: (i ) functionality for generation of test requirements, (ii ) creation of structural variants with respect to the translation to code, and (iii ) traceability between test artifacts at different design levels. The proposed framework uses a separate representation for structural constructs involved in coverage criteria for software in safety-critical systems. The representation makes it possible to create variants of structural constructs already at the top design level. These variants represent potential differences in the structure at lower design levels, e.g., target language or executable object code. Test requirements are then generated for all variants, thus covering the structure of different implementations. Test suites created to satisfy these test requirements are therefore, robust to different implementations.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    UML Associations: Reducing the gap in test coverage between model and code2016In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development / [ed] Slimane Hammoudi, Luis Ferreira Pires, Bran Selic & Philippe Desfray, SciTePress, 2016, Vol. 1, p. 589-599Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the overall problem of estimating the quality of a test suite when testing is performed at aplatform-independent level, using executable UML models. The problem is that the test suite is often requiredto fulfill structural code coverage criteria. In the avionics domain it is usually required that the tests achieve100% coverage according to logic-based coverage criteria. Such criteria are less effective when applied toexecutable UML models than when they are applied to code because the action code found in such modelscontains conditions in navigation and loops that are not explicit and therefore not captured by logic-basedcoverage criteria. We present two new coverage criteria for executable UML models, and we use an industrialapplication from the avionics domain to show that these two criteria should be combined with a logic-basedcriterion when testing the executable UML model. As long as the coverage is less than 100% at the modellevel, there is no point in running the tests at the code level since all functionality of the model is not yet tested,and this is necessary to achieve 100% coverage at the code level.

  • 3.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Offutt, Jeff
    Software Engineering, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, United States.
    Model transformation impact on test artifacts: An empirical study2012In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Model-Driven Engineering, Verification and Validation, MoDeVVa 2012, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2012, p. 5-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development environments that support Model-Driven Development often focus on model-level functional testing, enabling verification of design models against their specifications. However, developers of safety-critical software systems are also required to show that tests cover the structure of the implementation. Unfortunately, the implementation structure can diverge from the model depending on choices such as the model compiler or target language. Therefore, structural coverage at the model level may not guarantee coverage of the implementation. We present results from an industrial experiment that demonstrates the model-compiler effect on test artifacts in xtUML models when these models are transformed into C++. Test artifacts, i.e., predicates and clauses, are used to satisfy the structural code coverage criterion, in this case MCDC, which is required by the US Federal Aviation Administration. The results of the experiment show not only that the implementation contains more test artifacts than the model, but also that the test artifacts can be deterministically enumerated during translation. The analysis identifies two major sources for these additional test artifacts. © 2012 ACM.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Lindström, Birgitta
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Offutt, Jeff
    Software Engineering, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030-4444, United States.
    Transformation rules for platform independent testing: An empirical study2013In: Proceedings of the Sixth IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2013, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 202-211Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most Model-Driven Development projects focus on model-level functional testing. However, our recent study found an average of 67% additional logic-based test requirements from the code compared to the design model. The fact that full coverage at the design model level does not guarantee full coverage at the code level indicates that there are semantic behaviors in the model that model-based tests might miss, e.g., conditional behaviors that are not explicitly expressed as predicates and therefore not tested by logic-based coverage criteria. Avionics standards require that the structure of safety critical software is covered according to logic-based coverage criteria, including MCDC for the highest safety level. However, the standards also require that each test must be derived from the requirements. This combination makes designing tests hard, time-consuming and expensive to design. This paper defines a new model that uses transformation rules to help testers define tests at the platform independent model level. The transformation rules have been applied to six large avionic applications. The results show that the new model reduced the difference between model and code with respect to the number of additional test requirements from an average of67% to 0% in most cases and less than 1% for all applications. © 2013 IEEE.

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