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  • 1.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Strategic Knowledge Management Issues when Designing Knowledge Repositories2007In: Proceedings of the 15th European Conference on Information Systems, ECIS 2007, Association for Information Systems, 2007, p. 528-539Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge forms an important asset in modern organisations. In order to gain and sustain competitive advantage knowledge has to be managed. One aspect of doing this is to build knowledge repositories. In this paper we extend the strategic knowledge management framework to betters suit the process of constructing knowledge repositories. The extended framework highlights, for example, the impact of organizational culture and the importance of distinguishing between the individual and organizational knowledge processes and relating them to each other. The application of the extended framework to analyze a case in the public health care sector revealed a number of important aspects in the preparation and implementation of a knowledge management project. In particular we highlight the importance of having a strategic vision and making the dual relationship between usage and design explicit when implementing a knowledge repository.

  • 2.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Supporting Knowledge Evaluation to Increase Quality in Electronic Knowledge Repositories2010In: International Journal of Knowledge Management, ISSN 1548-0666, E-ISSN 1548-0658, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 23-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge forms an important asset in modern organizations. In order to gain and sustain competitive advantage knowledge has to be managed. One aspect of this is to use Electronic Knowledge Repositories (EKR) to enhance knowledge sharing, reuse and learning. The success of an EKR is dependent on the quality of its content. For knowledge to be stored in an EKR, it has to be captured. One crucial part of the capture process is to evaluate whether the identified knowledge should be incorporated in the EKR or not. Therefore, to increase quality in an EKR, the evaluation stage of the capture process must be successfully carried out. Based on an interpretive field study and an extensive literature review, this paper identifies and characterizes Critical Success Factors (CSF) in the evaluation stage and presents guidance aiming to support implementation of the evaluation stage with the purpose to increase the quality of an EKR. In particular, the guidance supports the decision whether identified knowledge should be stored or not and it highlights the importance of performing evaluation addressing correctness, relevance, protection and redundancy. The characterization of the capture process contributes mainly to KM theory, and the guidance to KM practice.

  • 3.
    Aggestam, Lena
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Evaluation criteria to increase information quality in electronic knowledge repositories2008In: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Association for Information Systems, 2008, p. 1814-1825Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge forms an important asset in modern organisations. In order to gain and sustain competitive advantage knowledge has to be managed. One aspect of this is to use Electronic Knowledge Repositories (EKRs) in order to enhance knowledge sharing, reuse and learning. The success of an EKR is dependent on the quality of its content. For knowledge to be stored in an EKR, it has to be captured. One crucial part of the capture process is to evaluate whether the identified knowledge should be incorporated in the EKR or not. Therefore, to increase information quality in an EKR, the evaluation stage of the capture process must be successfully performed. This paper characterizes Critical Success Factors (CSF) for knowledge evaluation and presents six evaluation criteria to guide the evaluation stage in order to increase information quality in EKR:s. In particular we highlight the importance of performing evaluation addressing correctness, relevance, protection and redundancy.

     

  • 4.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Letting the students create and the teacher play: Expanding the roles in serious gaming2011In: MindTrek '11: Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments, ACM Press, 2011, p. 63-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe four player roles in game-based learning and training, namely student player, student author, teacher player and teacher author. By this, we want to emphasise the creative and collaborative nature of gameplay, such as in-game feedback, scenario creation and “puckstering“, that put students and teachers, not on opposite sides of a spectrum, but as members of a community of practice with varying degrees of expertise. Using these four player roles as a basis for analysis, we have observed training sessions for vocational education within military and rescue contexts. The result is multifaceted insights into both the strengths and draw-backs of incorporating these roles into a serious game.

  • 5.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Making the implicit explicit: Game-based training practices from an instructor perspective2012In: Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Games Based Learning (ECGBL'12), Reading: Academic Publishing International, 2012, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Bergman, Maria Elena
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Carlén, Urban
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Spelbaserad simulering för insatsutbildning: Slutrapport2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en avrapportering av projektet Spelbaserad simulering för insatsutbildning. Projektet syftar till att:

    • Studera hur serious games kan förstärka lärandemiljön i träning och utbildning
    • Praktiskt testa och analysera användningen av spelteknologi för att ta fram rekommendationer för konstruktion av träningssimulatorer
    • Skapa underlag för utveckling av Räddningsverkets utbildningsmetoder genom samarbete mellan forskare och praktiker

    Serious games och spelbaserad simulatorträning ses som en möjlighet att vidareutveckla undervisnings- och träningsmiljön inom räddningstjänst. Begreppet serious games definieras som att använda spel och spelteknik för att uppnå syften utöver ren underhållning. För att utnyttja områdets potential i största möjliga mån krävs en kombination av att utveckla och anpassa teknik så att den passar för ändamålet, detta kan till exempel innebära att utnyttja de möjligheter som modern spelteknik ger för att logga användarbeteende och resultat. Dessutom innefattar serious games en komponent av speldesign, det vill säga att utnyttja möjligheter som spel ger för att skapa en motiverande och engagerande lärandemiljö. Detta kan till exempel innebära att skapa tävlingsmoment och poängsystem som sporrar till upprepad användning. I projektet har vi utnyttjat såväl teknik- som speldesignskomponenten.

    Projektets syften har uppnåtts genom att producera och utvärdera ett prototypspel för insatsträning samt en modell för hur serious games kan användas i träning och utbildning. De huvudsakliga resultaten består av en spelprototyp av ett webbaserat spel för att träna beslutsfattande på taktisk nivå samt en pedagogisk modell för spelbaserad träning. Prototypen och modellen har testats på en distanskurs för Räddningsledarutbildning i regi av Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap (MSB). Utvärderingen visar på goda resultat vad gäller systemets användbarhet. Den pedagogiska potentialen har inte kunnat utvärderas fullt ut då prototypen inte blev en tillräckligt integrerad del i kursen där den utvärderades.

    Projektet visar att spelbaserad träning kan vara en möjlighet för pedagogisk utveckling med avseende på både teknik och pedagogisk kontext. I detta sammanhang är det viktigt att poängtera vikten av att genomföra och utvärdera pedagogiska anpassningar i samband med spelbaserad träning. Vidare har projektet har samarbetat med olika konstellationer av lärare och kursdeltagare vid MSB. En viktig lärdom är att tydliga resurser och organisatoriskt engagemang finns på plats i den här typen av samproducerande forskningsprojekt.

  • 7.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Krasniqi, Hanife
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Acceptance of Entertainment Systems in Stroke Rehabilitation2009In: Proceedings of IADIS Game and Entertainment Technologies 2009 (GET 2009), IADIS Press , 2009, p. 75-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Game-based tools for rehabilitation of different types of physical and cognitive impairments are becoming more and more popular. By introducing an element of fun, these systems aim at increasing patients' motivation to train and, from a further perspective, improve recovery rates. There is, however, a question whether such tools will be fully accepted by the intended target group. Earlier work on user acceptance has mainly focused on utility systems, i.e. systems used mainly in the work place. However, people use systems for different reasons and that makes it difficult to apply the same principles on systems with the main purpose to entertain. Serious games have characteristics from both utility and entertainment systems, which makes it interesting to study the acceptance of these kinds of systems. In this study, we have developed a home-based entertainment system for stroke rehabilitation, with focus on rehabilitation of motor impairments. By analysing the gaming behaviour and interview responses of five stroke patients, we investigate factors influencing user acceptance of this specific type of system. The results show that current models of acceptance are not sufficient to fully explain acceptance of serious games in general and serious games for rehabilitation in particular. Besides well-known factors, such as perceived usefulness, perceived ease-of-use and perceived enjoyment, other, more specific, factors also play a vital role in the acceptance of the system.

  • 8.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Gamers against All Odds2009In: Learning by playing : game-based education system design and development : 4th International Conference on E-Learning and Games, Edutainment 2009, Banff, Canada, August 9-11, 2009 : proceedings / [ed] Maiga Chang, Rita Kuo, Kinshuk, Gwo-Dong Chen, Michitaka Hirose, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of the project presented in this paper is to enable motor rehabilitation to stroke patients in their home environment and to utilise game enjoyment to achieve frequent training. Stroke patients have an average age above 70 years, which implies that they typically do not belong to a gaming generation. In addition, these patients suffer from motor, and many times cognitive impairments, which make traditional games extremely difficult to use. Nearly all work in this area has been conducted in a clinic environment where it is possible to overcome some of these difficulties by letting professionals assist and guide patients.

    In this paper, we present the challenges faced, the system itself and the result from a study where five patients were equipped with a game console in their homes for five weeks. The focus of this paper is on analysing the gaming behaviour of patients, which includes the amount of time they spent, the type of games they selected and their comments on the gaming experience. The conclusion from this analysis is that their behaviour resembles that of gamers. They spent significant voluntary time, and it has been possible for patients, with no prior experience of computer games, to enjoy gaming in their homes where they had no professional assistance.

  • 9.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    The Birth of Elinor: A Collaborative Development of a Game Based System for Stroke Rehabilitation2009In: 2009 Second International Conference in Visualisation / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Muhammad Sarfraz, Farzad Khosrowshahi, John Counsell, Richard Laing, Chris Moore, Andrew J. Cowell, Ming Hou, Gui Yun Tian, Mohammad Dastbaz, Mark Bannatyne, Jian J. Zhang, Vittorio Scarano, Rosario De Chiara, Ugo Erra, Anna Ursyn and Haim Levkowitz, IEEE, 2009, p. 52-60, article id 5230709Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elinor is a game based tool for rehabilitation of stroke patients to be used in their home environment. The application is the result of a creative and exploratory development project in which researchers in the serious games area and experts in stroke rehabilitation collaborated in order to develop a motivating, easy to use and relatively inexpensive tool for relearning functions lost due to a stroke. Elinor can be viewed as an integrated system for stroke rehabilitation in that it is both a system, controlled by movements, for training of its primary user group and a system for monitoring the training by medical expertise. In this paper, we will describe the Elinor application itself, the development process and the initial evaluation of it in order to identify implications for serious games.

     

  • 10.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The Coaching Cycle: A Coaching-by-Gaming Approach in Serious Games2012In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 648-672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Military organizations have a long history of using simulations, role-play, and games for training. This also encompasses good practices concerning how instructors utilize games and gaming behavior. Unfortunately, the work of instructors is rarely described explicitly in research relating to serious gaming. Decision makers also tend to have overconfidence in the pedagogical power of games and simulations, particularly where the instructor is taken out of the gaming loop. The authors propose a framework, the coaching cycle, that focuses on the roles of instructors. The roles include instructors acting as game players. The fact that the instructors take a more active part in all training activities will further improve learning. The coaching cycle integrates theories of experiential learning (where action precedes theory) and deliberate practice (where the trainee's skill is constantly challenged by a coach). Incorporating a coaching-by-gaming perspective complicates, but also strengthens, the player-centered design approach to game development in that we need to take into account two different types of players: trainees and instructor. Furthermore, the authors argue that the coaching cycle allows for a shift of focus to a more thorough debriefing, because it implies that learning of theoretical material before simulation/game playing is kept to a minimum. This shift will increase the transfer of knowledge.

  • 11.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    et al.
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Swedish School of Library and Information Science, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Centre for Prehospital Research, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden / Swedish Armed Forces Centre for Defence Medicine, Västra Frölunda, Sweden.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Measuring participants’ immersion in healthcare simulation: the development of an instrument2016In: Advances in Simulation, ISSN 2059-0628, Vol. 2016, no 1, article id 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Immersion is important for simulation-based education; however, questionnaire-based instruments to measure immersion have some limitations. The aim of the present work is to develop a new instrument to measure immersion among participants in healthcare simulation scenarios.

    Methods

    The instrument was developed in four phases: trigger identification, content validity scores, inter-rater reliability analysis and comparison with an existing immersion measure instrument. A modified Delphi process was used to develop the instrument and to establish validity and reliability. The expert panel consisted of 10 researchers. All the researchers in the team had previous experience of simulation in the health and/or fire and rescue services as researchers and/or educators and simulation designers. To identify triggers, the panel members independently screened video recordings from simulation scenarios. Here, a trigger is an event in a simulation that is considered a sign of reduced or enhanced immersion among simulation participants.

    Results

    The result consists of the Immersion Score Rating Instrument (ISRI). It contains 10 triggers, of which seven indicate reduced and three enhanced immersion. When using ISRI, a rater identifies trigger occurrences and assigns them strength between 1 and 3. The content validity analysis shows that all the 10 triggers meet an acceptable content validity index for items (I-CVI) standard. The inter-rater reliability (IRR) among raters was assessed using a two-way mixed, consistency, average-measures intra-class correlation (ICC). The ICC for the difference between weighted positive and negative triggers was 0.92, which indicates that the raters are in agreement. Comparison with results from an immersion questionnaire mirrors the ISRI results.

    Conclusions

    In conclusion, we present a novel and non-intrusive instrument for identifying and rating the level of immersion among participants in healthcare simulation scenarios.

  • 12.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Adopting the Knowledge Embedded in New Methods: the Challenge of Aligning Old and New Practices2004In: the 12th European Conference on Information Systems, Turkku School of Economics and Business Administration , 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many reports on how Information Systems Development (ISD) methods are adapted before they are used. The need to customise methods is explained by the variety of systems that are developed and the various situations in which information systems can be developed. This means that the development process knowledge embedded in an ISD method can be used in different ways in different situations. The study presented in this paper is a follow up of a study of how a widespread ISD method was adapted and introduced in an organisation. In this paper we focus on how the development method was actually used in a project. The paper extends an earlier model of analysis for characterising information systems development in terms of knowledge work. The model recognises four classes of knowledge work: routine, craft-like, professional, and creative knowledge work. We use that particular model to elaborate on how the various kinds of knowledge work presented interact in an actual development situation. The main contributions of the paper are the application of the analysis model on an empirical case and the extension of the analysis model to comprise the interactions between the different types of knowledge work.

  • 13.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Adopting the knowledge embedded in new methods: the challenge of aligning old and new practices2004In: 12th European Conference on Information Systems, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many reports on how Information Systems Development ISD) methods are adapted before they are used. The need to customise methods is explained by the variety of systems that are developed and the various situations in which information systems can be developed. This means that the development process knowledge embedded in an ISD method can be used in different ways in different situations. The study presented in this paper is a follow up of a study of how a widespread ISD method was adapted and introduced in an organisation. In this paper we focus on how the development method was actually used in a project. The paper extends an earlier model of analysis for characterising information systems development in terms of knowledge work. The model recognises four classes of knowledge work: routine, craft-like, professional, and creative knowledge work. We use that particular model to elaborate on how the various kinds of knowledge work presented interact in an actual development situation. The main contributions of the paper are the application of the analysis model on an empirical case and the extension of the analysis model to comprise the interactions between the different types of knowledge work.

  • 14.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ambulansträningscenter: Förstudie prehospitalt tränings- och simuleringscenter för Västra Götaland2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna förstudie presenterar förutsättningar och vision för ett ambulansträningscenter i Skövde. Förstudien är genomförd i samarbete mellan Högskolan i Skövde (Institutionen för kommunikation och information och Institutionen för vård och natur) och Ambulanssjukvårdens stabsenhet vid Skaraborgs sjukhus. Visionen för Ambulansträningscenter Skövde är ett simulatorträningscenter med inriktning mot prehospital sjukvård. Träningskonceptet integrerar vårdkedjan från omhändertagande på olycksplats till avlämning på akutmottagning så att hela processen tränas. Dessutom integreras flera aspekter av insatsen så att utryckningskörning, kommunikation, medicinskt omhändertagande, omvårdnad och teamsamarbete tränas samtidigt.

  • 15.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Development Process Knowledge Transfer through Method Adaptation, Implementation, and Use2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information Systems Engineering (ISE) is an interdisciplinary approach to enable the realisation of successful information systems in a broad sense. ISE comprises a number of areas of expertise that must be integrated and managed in order to build information systems. Since ISE is becoming progressively more complex there is an increasing need to codify and manage knowledge within and about the ISE process.

    From a knowledge perspective the different model types created in an ISE project are examples of codified knowledge about the future system. The descriptions of how work should proceed are examples of codified knowledge of the process of creating the system. In summary, one of the main concerns in the ISE process is to manage the substantial amount of knowledge associated with the process as such as well as with the target domain of the actual development project and the developed software.

    In the thesis I recognise three areas of knowledge in ISE: development process knowledge, target domain knowledge, and software knowledge. Furthermore, I use a set of knowledge perspectives in order to describe and analyse ISE from a knowledge perspective. Finally, I introduce three aspects: organisation, artefact, and individual in order to be able to discuss and analyse how methods are actually used in organisations and how they affect the work situation.

    The results are presented in the form of a framework for knowledge transfer in ISE that comprises the knowledge perspective, the knowledge area, and the aspect of knowledge transfer. The framework is thus used to analyse the results from the six papers enclosed in the thesis. The results also comprise an empirical characterisation of a method in use which is based on data collected during an ethnographical study. Finally the results are made concrete in the form of a pattern collection for method introduction and method use.

  • 16.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Identifying Situational Factors for IS development Processes: Applying the Method-in-Action Framework2002In: AMCIS 2002 Proceedings, AISeL , 2002, p. 1370-1380Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are a large number of Information Systems Engineering methods available. The aim of these methods is to support the development process. In doing so, they become subject to the forces, which have an impact on the development process. The paper applies the method-in-action framework on four different cases in order to describe the adaptations, which are made when utilising a method. The situational factors and methodological issues identified in this project show that the method-in-action framework may be used in order to extend the area of use for situational factors. We have also identified some factors, which supplement the characteristics of the sets of factors in the method-in-action framework.

  • 17.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Introducing New IT Project Management Practices: a Case Study2004In: AMCIS 2004 Proceedings, 2004, p. 784-792Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity of information systems development (ISD) projects calls for improved project management practices. This, together with an endeavor to improve the success rate of ISD projects, has served as drivers for various efforts in process improvement such as the introduction of new development methods. An ISD method may be perceived as a means for managing projects. Commercial development methods are typically combined with in-house methods for managing parts of the development process. In this paper we investigate in what way in-house methods and commercial methods are combined and used in an ISD project. In order to get a better understanding for how these issues are actually dealt with in the daily work, we have followed a project with a focus on how the group and the individuals implement the managerial decision to introduce a new development method.

  • 18.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    ISD as Knowledge Work: An Analysis of How a Development Method is Used in Practice2005In: Information Systems Development: Advances in Theory, Practice,and Education / [ed] Olegas Vasilecas, Wita Wojtkowski, Jože Zupančič, Albertas Caplinskas, W. Gregory Wojtkowski, Stanisław Wrycza, New York: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2005, p. 125-136Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    On the research approaches employed at recent european conferences on information systems (ecis 2002 - ECIS 2004)2005In: Information systems in a rapidly changing economy: ECIS 2005, 13th European Conference on Information Systems, Regensburg, May 26-28, 2005; proceedings / [ed] Dieter Bartmann, Association for Information Systems, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European Information Systems research is reflected in the papers presented at the European Conference for Information Systems (ECIS). It seems that we employ a number of different approaches for research in the IS community. There has been a debate on methodological appropriateness and choice of research approach over the years. This paper adds to that debate by presenting a snapshot of what research approaches have been employed at recent ECIS. This paper presents a classification scheme for discussing research approaches and applies that scheme to analyse the papers presented at the three most recent ECIS. The results show that the proportion of studies employing qualitative interviews in combination with document studies has increased. The proportion of studies employing prolonged organisational engagement is relatively stable, while experimental studies where artefacts are constructed and/or tested are decreasing.

  • 20.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Serious games research at InGaMe Lab, University of Skövde, Sweden2008In: ISSBD Bulletin, ISSN 2040-5243, no 2, p. 19-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Carlén, Urban
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Tactical Incident Commander - an Online Training Game for Incident Commander Training2011In: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Game Based Learning (ECGBL 2011) / [ed] D. Gouscos, M. Meimaris, Academic Conferences Limited, 2011, p. 9-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an online training game for incident commanders to enact and create incident scenarios. The incident commander is the person in command on site when a rescue team is dispatched to a fire emergency. The challenge we are addressing in this work is to design a game and a game-based training process which can be used to support the change of work practice of fire fighters to become incident commanders (i.e. taking on a new professional role). The incident commander training game consists of two integrated parts: the IT artifact and the usage process. The two are integrated to provide necessary support for incident commander training via distance learning. The game is online and comprises three modules: The scenario player; the scenario creator, and; the log tool. The game and its pedagogical usage procedure are based on the theories of communities of practice and experiential learning. The novelty of this application lies in the combination of pedagogical theory and a specifically designed game. In comparison to other games for accident management training, the possibility for domain experts lacking of game design skills to create scenarios is an essential feature. Furthermore, the underlying fire simulation renders better "replayability" than a strictly branched scenario as the scenario creation is actually more of a process of setting conditions for the scenario than predicting each action of the player.

  • 22.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Slijper, Angelique
    Department of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Svensson, Karin
    Department of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Poucette, Jesper
    Ågårdsskogens Primary Care Centre, Skaraborg Primary Care, Lidköping, Sweden.
    Stibrant Sunnerhagen, Katharina
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Section for Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Evaluation of usefulness of the Elinor console for home-based stroke rehabilitation2011In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference in Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games 2011) / [ed] Fotis Liarokapis, Anastasios Doulamis, Vassilios Vescoukis, IEEE Computer Society, 2011, p. 98-103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual rehabilitation has emerged as a promising tool over the last decade. However the field is diverse and there is no unified understanding of the concept and in which situations it should be used. The most common usage context is a rehabilitation clinic but there is an urge to offer motivating virtual rehabilitation to be used in the homes of patients. The main drive for using such systems is to enhance motivation by introducing an interesting challenge and an element of fun. This paper describes and evaluates the feasibility of Elinor, a gamebased system for stroke rehabilitation in the home.

    The Elinor prototype has been positively evaluated with respect to its usability, user acceptance and motivational factors. This paper reports on the initial findings concerning the rehabilitation effect of Elinor. No persons suffered any serious adverse effects from training. We had positive results with respect to the assessment of motor and process skills (AMPS). Even though these improvements were not significant they are still positive enough to motivate future work. The self-reported improvements in the motor activity logs (MAL) also motivate future work.

  • 23.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Slijper, Angelique
    Skaraborg Hospital, Department of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Skövde, Sweden.
    Svensson, Karin
    Skaraborg Hospital, Department of Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Skövde, Sweden.
    Poucette, Jesper
    Skaraborg Primary Care, Ågårdsskogens Primary Care Centre, Lidköping, Sweden.
    Stibrant Sunnerhagen, Katharina
    The Sahlgrenska Academy, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Section for Clinical Neuroscience and Rehabilitation, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Games on prescription!: Evaluation of the Elinor console for home-based stroke rehabilitation2013In: Transactions on Edutainment IX / [ed] Zhigeng Pan, Adrian David Cheok, Wolfgang Müller, Fotis Liarokapis, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 49-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the feasibility of Elinor, a game-based system for stroke rehabilitation in the home. The Elinor prototype has been positively evaluated with respect to its usability, user acceptance and motivational factors as well as its rehabilitation effect. This paper reports the findings from the whole project. To summarize the results, we find that game factors can be used to enhance motivation for rehabilitation. We had positive results with respect to many of the rehabilitation measurements employed. For example, the assessment of motor and process skills was positive as were also the self-reported improvements in daily activities. Furthermore, it seems that an increased self-efficacy with respect to the belief that the treatment can have an effect is positive and expected to increase motivation to undergo necessary rehabilitation. The usability and perceived usefulness of the system were also positively evaluated and the subjects expressed a positive attitude towards the system as well as a belief in its usefulness. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  • 24.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Carlsson, SvenUniversity of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.Söderström, EvaUniversity of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    BIR 2005: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Business Informatics Research2005Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Toftedahl, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Developing games for non-leisure contexts: Identification of challenges and research gaps2017In: 2017 9th International Conference on Virtual Worlds and Games for Serious Applications (VS-Games): Proceedings / [ed] F. Liarokapis et al., IEEE Computer Society Digital Library, 2017, p. 15-22, article id 8055806Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of games in non-leisure contexts is referred to as serious games. The tradition of using games for purposes beyond entertainment goes back a long time before digital games. However, with the advent of digital games, serious games development has become an issue of both game design and technology development in various combinations. This paper presents a literature review of what types of topics are studied in the realm of serious games development, and contrasts the results with challenges and problems expressed by a panel of developers and researchers in serious games and gamification to identify research gaps. Our findings indicate a lack of research on the actual usage situations of serious games. It seems that the phase of organizational deployment and use is most often overseen. Furthermore, we identified a lack of client/customer perspective in most research on the development of gamified solutions.

  • 26.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Gustavsson, Martin
    University of Skövde.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Sjörs, Emmy
    University of Skövde.
    SIDH: A Game-Based Architecture for a Training Simulator2009In: International Journal of Computer Games Technology, ISSN 1687-7047, E-ISSN 1687-7055, article id 472672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Game-based simulators, sometimes referred to as "lightweight" simulators, have benefits such as flexible technology and economic feasibility. In this article, we extend the notion of a game-based simulator by introducing multiple screen view and physical interaction. These features are expected to enhance immersion and fidelity. By utilizing these concepts we have constructed a training simulator for breathing apparatus entry. Game hardware and software have been used to produce the application. More important, the application itself is deliberately designed to be a game. Indeed, one important design goal is to create an entertaining and motivating experience combined with learning goals in order to create a serious game. The system has been evaluated in cooperation with the Swedish Rescue Services Agency to see which architectural features contribute to perceived fidelity. The modes of visualization and interaction as well as level design contribute to the usefulness of the system.

  • 27.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Hammar, Cecilia
    University of Skövde.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Sidh: a Game Based Firefighter Training Simulation2007In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference Information Visualization (IV '07) / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Remo Aslak Burkhard, Georges Grinstein, Liz Stuart, Theodor G. Wyeld, Gennady Andrienko, Jason Dykes, Mikael Jern, Anthony Faiola, Dennis Groth, Anna Ursyn, Andrew J. Cowell, and Ming Hou, IEEE Computer Society, 2007, p. 899-907Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents Sidh - a game based firefighter training simulator developed in cooperation between the University of Sk¨ovde and the Swedish Rescue Services Agency. Sidh is based on computer game hardware and software solutions but adds a novel interaction model and gameplay specifically developed for the purpose of training firefighters. The simulator environment is a Cave where the player is interacting with the game through a set of sensors. Players move in the virtual world by movements in the physical world and a substantial physical effort is required to accomplish game tasks. Sidh has been used in a feasibility study where 31 firefighter students have been playing the game and the performance of these students as well as their reflections from using the game have been analyzed. Results from this study show that Sidh is a useful complement to traditional training methods and that the subjects give very high grades on the entertainment value of the game which indicate that this form of training may be self-motivating which is an important issue for voluntary, after-hours training.

  • 28.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Computer Gaming and Driving Education2006In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Computers in Education, ICCE 2006: Pedagogical Design of Educational Games, 2006, p. 9-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the learning effects of playing racing, action, and sports computer games. In particular we focus on traffic school students’ driving behavior. A survey conducted at three driving schools, questioned driving students about their gaming habits. The driving instructors evaluated their students’ driving skills and traffic safety attitudes. The results indicate that experience in computer games can have a positive effect on driving performance. Experienced gamers were ranked significantly higher by their instructors regarding their overall driving skills compared to students with low experience in computer games. However, no evidence was found to indicate that experienced gamers have a worse attitude towards fellow road-users or traffic safety. Experiments conducted in a driving simulator, using a game developed purposely to enhance certain traffic safety variables, reveals that it is possible to provide an entertaining game with serious content. Preliminary results, however, indicate that the version of the game where the explicit game goals are hidden was found to be the most entertaining one. The results of the investigation warrant further review into the development and utilization of computer games for traffic safety and education purposes.

  • 29.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Games and Traffic Safety: an Experimental Study in a Game-Based Simulation Environment2007In: 11th International Conference Information Visualization / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Remo Aslak Burkhard, Georges Grinstein, Liz Stuart, Theodor G Wyeld, Gennady Andrienko, Jason Dykes, Mikael Jern, Anthony Faiola, Dennis Groth, Anna Ursyn, Andrew J. Cowell & Ming Hou, IEEE Computer Society, 2007, p. 908-914, article id 4272086Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we report results from an experimental study of games and traffic safety performed in an advanced gaming environment. During car simulator-sessions we collected data over different traffic safety variables, such as speed, headway distance and lane change behavior, from 70 subjects. The data was analyzed in order to investigate possible individual learning effects and differences between groupings of subjects. The experiment shows clear positive individual learning effects for all traffic safety variables analyzed. Hence we conclude that game based simulations can be used to enhance learning in driving education.

  • 30.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Games for traffic education: An experimental study of a game-based driving simulator2010In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 145-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, the authors report on the construction and evaluation of a game-based driving simulator using a real car as a joystick. The simulator is constructed from off-the-shelf hardware and the simulation runs on open-source software. The feasibility of the simulator as a learning tool has been experimentally evaluated. Results are reported from an experimental study of games and traffic safety performed in an advanced gaming environment. During car simulator sessions, the authors collected data about different traffic safety variables, such as speed, headway distance, and lane change behavior, from 70 participants. The data were analyzed to investigate possible individual learning effects and differences between groupings of participants. The experiment shows clear, positive, individual learning effects for all traffic safety variables analyzed. The authors also made a qualitative analysis of the participants’ perception of the simulator as a learning tool. From the results, it is concluded that a game-based simulation can be used to enhance learning in driving education.

  • 31.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Spel och Trafiksäkerhet (Sp&Ts)2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denna delrapport presenterar Sp&Ts-projektets aktiviteter och resultat. Projektet har tre huvuddelar: ett spelutvecklingsprojekt, en spelvaneundersökning bland elever på ett antal trafikskolor och experiment i Högskolan i Skövdes körsimulator. Projektet har delredovisats i två lägesrapporter (hösten 2005 och våren 2006). Denna rapport sammanfattar hela projektet och de resultat som föreligger vid projektavslutet. Samtidigt utgör slutrapporten startskottet för Sp&Ts2 som kommer att bli en fortsättning på detta arbete. I Sp&Ts utvecklas ett bilspel med fokus på säker bilköring, realistiska situationer och en rolig spelupplevelse där spelaren, i en "cave-miljö” och med ett fullt realistiskt gränssnitt, får köra bil i ett antal olika scenarier. Scenarierna är tänkta att testa olika aspekter av bilkörning och på olika sätt utmana spelaren. Under utvecklingsprojektet har vi fört diskussioner med Länsförsäkringar Skaraborg, trafikskolor och Statens Väg och Transportforskningsinstitut (VTI) för att få in trafiksäkerhetsaspekter i arbetet. Under projektet har en enkätundersökning bland elever och lärare på tre trafikskolor (Thorells i Falköping; Anderssons i Mariestad; PO:s i Skövde) genomförts, detta för att undersöka sambandet mellan spelvanor och bedömd körskicklighet. Resultaten från analysen av enkätsvaren redovisades även i lägesrapport 2, våren 2006. I projektets avslutande fas har vi knutit ihop spelutvecklingsprojektet med enkätundersökningen i ett experiment som genomförts i den körsimulator som byggts i samband med projektet. I denna rapport redogörs för genomförandet av dessa experiment. Vi ger även en inledande dataanalys som ligger till grund för det publiceringsarbete som kommer att fortgå.

    Rapporten beskriver projektets genomförande (Kapitel 2), genomförande av experiment och initial dataanalys (Kapitel 3) samt exponering av arbete och resultat (Kapitel 4).

  • 32.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Enhancing Immersion with Contextualized Scenarios: Role-playing in prehospital care training2015In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications / [ed] Per Backlund, Henrik Engström & Fotis Liarokapis, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 167-170Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Danielsson, Magnus
    Västra Götalandsregionen.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Lundberg, Lars
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    Högskolan i Borås.
    The S.A.R.E.K Simulation Environment: Technical description of a flexible training environment for prehospital care.2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report contains a technical description of the result of the S.A.R.E.K (Simulation – Ambulance – Research – Education - Kinship) collaboration project and the Sim2020 project. The projects are collaborations between researchers in healthcare and IT, and prehospital care practitioners, with the aim to design, develop and test a contextualized simulation environment for prehospital care. We built a simulation environment representing the full depth and width of a prehospital care process. Breadth refers to including all phases of a prehospital mission, from dispatch to handover; while depth refers to detailed representations and recreation of artefacts, information and context for each of these phases. This report outlines the details of the overall design, all equipment and practical solutions used to create this.  

    Apart from the installation which is described in this report we have also developed methods and carried out a variety of tests and experiments which are reported elsewhere. The focus of this report is the system and its components.

  • 34.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Sjödén, Björn
    Lund University.
    Designing for self-efficacy in a game based simulator: An experimental study and its implications for serious games design2008In: Proceedings International Conference Visualisation VIS 2008: Visualisation in Built and Rural Environments / [ed] Mark Bannatyne, John Counsell, Andrew J. Cowell, Mohamad Dastbaz, Ming Hou, Farzad Khosrowshahi, Richard Laing, Vittorio Scarano, Gui Yun Tian, Anna Ursyn & Jian J. Zhang, IEEE Computer Society, 2008, p. 106-113Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study on designing for self-efficacy in a game based driving simulator. Self-efficacy refers to how people´s beliefs in their capabilities affect their actions. The results show that the design of the feedback system can be used to increae self-efficacy measures thus affecting performance in a driving simulator environment. Self-efficacy has consequences not only for the performance of the particular task, but also for what activities he/she chooses to engage in and the persistence invested in them. Hence we find the results from this study relevant to various aspects of serious games design.

  • 35.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, HenrikUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.Liarokapis, FotisMasaryk University, Czech Republic.
    VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Hallenborg, Christina
    Ericsson AB, Centre for Radio Network Control, Datalinjen 3, SE-583 30 Linköping, SWEDEN.
    Hallgrimsson, Guðmundur
    Radar Agency, ISSF, Building 131, Keflavíkurflugvöllur, 108 Reykjavik, ICELAND.
    Transfer of Development Process Knowledge through Method Adaptation and Implementation2003In: Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2003), Association for Information Systems, 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge transfer is one of the key problem areas in knowledge management. This paper focuses on the transfer of knowledge about the software development process. There is an aim to improve process knowledge and one way of doing it is to introduce commercial development methods. However, doing this is not an easy task. We present a study of how such an introduction of a widespread method was carried out in two large software development organisations. We conclude that a new method has to be adapted and implemented in the organisation in order to make it a part of the organisation specific knowledge base. The new method has to become an integrated part of the existing development process knowledge of the organisation, meaning that it has to be adapted to fit with other organisation specific processes. The ability to do so is the absorptive capacity: the capability to identify and recognise the value of new external knowledge, assimilate it, and apply it.

  • 37.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Heldal, Ilona
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Collaboration Patterns in Mixed Reality Environments for a New Emergency Training Center2013In: Proceedings UKSim-AMSS Seventh European Modelling Symposium on Computer Modelling and Simulation EMS2013, IEEE Computer Society, 2013, p. 483-488Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Training actors from public safety agencies (PSA), e.g. emergency medical services, fire departments, police departments involves different technologies and communication and collaboration activities. New technologies promise better support, not only for training, but also for logging relevant information for future analysis and learning. However, choosing the right technologies, defining proper set-ups for the training activities, and identifying premises for long-term use of technical facilities is both difficult and time consuming. Applying earlier lessons from evaluating work in Virtual Environments (VEs) [1], our aim is to develop a better understanding of the impact of new technologies by identifying collaboration patterns influencing training. Collaboration is examined via social, technical, and task related interaction, distinguishable in the different phases of training, from starting an alarm to ending the emergency activities. Our main results illustrate the benefits of (1) building scenarios, and training whole activity chains for certain rescue or other emergency activities, (2) using simulations for better understanding physical places, the task, and (3) distinguishing technical, social and task focused characteristics for factors influencing emergency focused collaboration. Moreover, the results also contribute to understanding the benefits of considering specific simulation technologies when training for emergency and rescue activities.

  • 38.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Hendrix, Maurice
    Serious Games Institute, Coventry University, UK.
    Educational Games: Are They Worth the Effort?2013In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games 2013), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. CFP1338G-ART-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade educational games have become more and more popular. There are many games specifically designed as educational games, as well as a number of entertainment games that have been successfully used for educational purposes. The EduGameLab project aims to stimulate the use of games in the classroom. This paper presents a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of game-based learning and focuses specifically on empirical evidence on the effectiveness of using games in education in the last decade. Moreover, the study focuses on usage in formalized school contexts, i.e. pre-school, elementary school, secondary school, high school and higher education. As secondary aims we also assess whether there are any clear methodological trends and whether a link could be found between the outcome of empirical studies and the evaluator being a stakeholder in the game development.

  • 39.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Jonasson, Ingi
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Patterns as a means for managing knowledge in the information systems engineering process2002In: Proceedings of the Baltic Conference, BalticDB&IS 2002, Institute of Cybernetics at Tallin Technical University , 2002, p. 15-26Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Combining Project Management Methods: a Case Study of Distributed Work Practices2006In: Advances in Information Systems Development: Bridging the Gap between Academia and Industry / [ed] Anders G. Nilsson, Remigijus Gustas, Wita Wojtkowski, W. Gregory Wojtkowski, Stanisław Wrycza, Jože Zupančič, Springer, 2006, p. 253-264Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distribution is a multifaceted concept and one aspect concerns the adoption of ideas from a combination of methods for project management. Such distribution imposes new demands on project management and coordination since the project management aspect is an integral part of information systems development methods. This paper reports from a case study of coordinating project management practices in a commercial development method and an in-house method for project management. In order to conduct the study of how methods are combined and utilized, one of the researchers followed a development project for six months. The general aim of the project under study is to replace the numerous system registers in use with one general register, which will aid in making system maintenance more efficient. The project also has two organisational goals: to give the team members an opportunity to use RUP in a real project setting; and to introduce new technology and a new development tool. The study highlights the importance of taking a start in current work practice as opposed to focusing on the new method as such. In summary, we stress the importance of taking a start in the work practice in terms of a method in use as opposed to method proponents’ push for new methods. Any long term change in work practices has to be internalised by the stakeholders in the practical context of method use. Hence, the case study presented here adds to the body of knowledge which distinguishes between the method as used and the method as prescribed by its proponents.

  • 41.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lings, Brian
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Emerging work Practices in a Systems Development Project: Observations On a Distributed Development Project2006In: Proceedings of AIS SIGSAND European Symposium on Systems Analysis and Design: Practice and Research / [ed] Michael Lang, Briony J. Oates, Keng Siau, Galway: Centre for Innovation and Structural Change (CISC), J. E. Cairnes Graduate School of Business & Public Policy, National University of Ireland , 2006, p. 15-27Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Scacchi, Walt
    Workshop – Open Source Software for Computer Games and Virtual Worlds: Practice and Future2010In: Open Source Software: New Horizons, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, p. 419-420Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Scacchi, Walt
    Workshop – Serious Games and Open Source: Practice and Futures2009In: Open Source Ecosystems: Diverse Communities Interacting, Springer, 2009, p. 361-362Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Maurin Söderholm, Hanna
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Breaking Out of the Bubble Putting Simulation Into Context to Increase Immersion and Performance2018In: Journal Simulation & Gaming, ISSN 1046-8781, E-ISSN 1552-826X, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 642-660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Simulation based training with full-size mannequins is a prominent means of training within the healthcare sector. Prehospital missions include all parts of the healthcare process which take place before a patient is handed over to the receiving hospital. This implies that the context for prehospital care is varied and potentially challenging or dangerous in several ways. In this article we present a study which explores immersion and performance by emergency medical services (EMS) professionals in in a training situation which takes the specifics of prehospital interventions into account.

    Methods. The study was carried out as a field experiment at an ambulance unit. The experiment was designed to compare the differences between two types of medical scenarios: basic and contextualized. We analyzed the levels of immersion throughout the scenarios and then team performance was evaluated by independent experts. Both analyses were made by observing video recordings from multiple camera angles with a custom made analysis tool.

    Results. Our results show that the contextualization of a medical scenario increases both immersion as measured by the Immersion Score Rating Instrument (ISRI) and team performance as measured by the Global Rating Scale (GRS). The overall ISRI score was higher in the contextualized condition as compared to the basic condition, with an average team wise difference of 2.94 (sd = 1.45). This difference is significant using a paired, two-tailed t-test (p<.001). The GRS score was higher for overall clinical performance in the contextualized scenario with an average team wise difference of 0.83 (sd = 0.83, p=.005).

    Conclusions. Full-size mannequin simulation based training for EMS professionals may be enhanced by contextualizing the medical scenarios. The main benefits are that the contextualized scenarios better take prehospital medical challenges into account and allow participants to perform better.

  • 45.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ralyté, Jolita
    Jeusfeld, Manfred A
    Kühn, Harald
    Arni-Bloch, Nicolas
    Goossenaerts, Jan B M
    Lillehagen, Frank
    An Interoperability Classification Framework for Method Chunk Repositories2007In: Advances in Information Systems Development, Springer, 2007, p. 153-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The competitiveness and efficiency of an enterprise is dependent on its ability to interact with other enterprises and organisations. In this context interoperability is defined as the ability of business processes as well as enterprise software and applications to interact. Interoperability remains a problem and there are numerous issues to be resolved in different situations. We propose method engineering as an approach to organise interoperability knowledge in a method chunk repository. In order to organise the knowledge repository we need an interoperability classification framework associated to it. In this paper we propose a generic architecture for a method chunk repository, elaborate on a classification framework and associate it to some existing bodies of knowledge. We also show how the proposed framework can be applied in a working example.

  • 46.
    Backlund, Per
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Wangler, Benkt
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Söderström, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Toms, Anders
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Åhlfeldt, Rose-Mharie
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ontology driven business processes integration – a position paper2004In: Proceedings of the CAiSE*04 workshops: Enterprise Modelling and Ontologies for Interoperability, 2004, p. 280-283Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Dahlin, Carl-Johan
    ius information AB, Skövde, Sweden.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Wilhelmsson, Ulf
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Game-Based Approach to Support Social Presence and Awareness in Distributed Project-Based Learning2014In: International Journal of Games Based Learning, ISSN 2155-6849, E-ISSN 2155-6857, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important factor for success in project-based learning (PBL) is that the involved project groups establish an atmosphere of social interaction in their working environment. In PBL-scenarios situated in distributed environments, most of a group's work-processes are mediated through the use of production-focused tools that are unconcerned with the important informal and social aspects of a project. On the other hand, there are plenty of tools and platforms that focus on doing the opposite and mainly support informal bonding (e.g., Facebook), but these types of environments can be obtrusive and contain distractions that can be detrimental to a group's productivity and are thus often excluded from working environments. The aim of this paper is to examine how a game-based multi-user environment (MUVE) can be designed to support project-based learning by bridging the gap between productivity-focused and social software. To explore this, the authors developed a game-based MUVE which was evaluated in a PBL-scenario. The result of the study revealed several crucial design elements that are needed to make such a MUVE work effectively, and that the acceptance towards game-based MUVEs is high, even with a rudimentary execution.

  • 48.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The Practicalities of Educational Games: Challenges of taking games into formal educational settings2014In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS-Games 2014) / [ed] Vanessa Camilleri, Alexiei Dingli & Matthew Montebello, University of Malta: IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 82-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexity of balancing educational purpose and engaging gameplay mechanics through appropriate design decisions has frequently been discussed in learning game literature. The discussion has primarily focused on highlighting connections between game design principles and learning principles and making guidelines for achieving engaging learning scenarios through game mechanics tailored to specific subject matters. Play, and the learning derived from it, is thus often studied as a phenomenon of the two disparate forces of education and gameplay colliding inside a closed system. The complexity of designing games for educational purposes is subsequently also seen as a product of the dichotomies between these two forces. However, the discussions on the design of learning games and their potential as learning tools seldom take the practicalities of formal educational environments into consideration. In this paper, learning game design principles are investigated alongside developers’ and educators’ working practices. In our analysis we identify and examine a set of issues that complicate learning game design and development. The primary conclusion of this research is that the contexts in which learning games are used significantly alter the way they can be played by introducing constraints as well as facilitating conditions to the play sessions. The paper concludes with an argument for a shift of attention from the product centric view of today to a view that takes pedagogical contexts and organizational values into better account.

  • 49.
    Berg Marklund, Björn
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Children's collaboration in emergent game environments2013In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games (FDG 2013), Society for the Advancement of the Science of Digital Games , 2013, p. 306-313Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Bevilacqua, Fernando
    et al.
    Federal University of Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, Brazil.
    Backlund, Per
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Engström, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proposal for Non-contact Analysis of Multimodal Inputs to Measure Stress Level in Serious Games2015In: VS-Games 2015: 7th International Conference on Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications / [ed] Per Backlund, Henrik Engström & Fotis Liarokapis, Red Hook, NY: IEEE Computer Society, 2015, p. 171-174Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The process of monitoring user emotions in serious games or human-computer interaction is usually obtrusive. The work-flow is typically based on sensors that are physically attached to the user. Sometimes those sensors completely disturb the user experience, such as finger sensors that prevent the use of keyboard/mouse. This short paper presents techniques used to remotely measure different signals produced by a person, e.g. heart rate, through the use of a camera and computer vision techniques. The analysis of a combination of such signals (multimodal input) can be used in a variety of applications such as emotion assessment and measurement of cognitive stress. We present a research proposal for measurement of player’s stress level based on a non-contact analysis of multimodal user inputs. Our main contribution is a survey of commonly used methods to remotely measure user input signals related to stress assessment.

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