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  • 1.
    Cardeña, Etzel
    et al.
    Center for Research on Consciousness and Anomalous Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Lund, PO Box 213, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Kallio, Sakari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Terhune, Devin B.
    Center for Research on Consciousness and Anomalous Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Lund, PO Box 213, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Buratti, Sandra
    Center for Research on Consciousness and Anomalous Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Lund, PO Box 213, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Lööf, Angelica
    Center for Research on Consciousness and Anomalous Psychology, Department of Psychology, University of Lund, PO Box 213, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    The effects of translation and sex on hypnotizability testing2007Ingår i: Contemporary Hypnosis, ISSN 0960-5290, E-ISSN 1557-0711, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 154-160Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We compared hypnotizability between two samples from different universities in Sweden. One test was administered in Swedish (University of Skövde) using a translated Swedish version of the HGSHS : A (Bergman, Trenter and Kallio, 2003). At Lund University, the original English version of the HGSHS : A (Shor and Orne, 1962) was used and participants also completed the Inventory Scale of Hypnotic Depth (ISHD; Field, 1965). The results suggest that administering the HGSHS : A in English to Swedish University students may only slightly reduce hypnotizability scores. Because the HGSHS : A was designed to be used for the initial screening of hypnotic suggestibility, for most practical purposes the original version seems a valid choice among non-English groups fl uent in English. The data also support some recent fi ndings about females exhibiting higher objective and subjective hypnotizability scores than male volunteers. Copyright © 2007 British Society of Experimental & Clinical Hypnosis. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  • 2.
    Fingelkurts, Alexander
    et al.
    BM-SCIENCE – Brain & Mind Technologies Research Centre, Finland.
    Fingelkurts, Andrew
    BM-SCIENCE – Brain & Mind Technologies Research Centre, Finland.
    Kallio, Sakari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Hypnosis Induces Reorganization in the Composition of Brain Oscillations in EEG: A case study2007Ingår i: Contemporary Hypnosis, ISSN 0960-5290, E-ISSN 1557-0711, Vol. 24, nr 1, s. 3-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive functions associated with the frontal lobes of the brain may be specifically involved in hypnosis. Thus, the frontal area of the brain has recently been of great interest when searching for neural changes associated with hypnosis. We tested the hypothesis that EEG during pure hypnosis would differ from the normal non-hypnotic EEG especially above the frontal area of the brain. The composition of brain oscillations was examined in a broad frequency band (1-30 Hz) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of a single virtuoso subject. Data was collected in two independent data collection periods separated by one year. The hypnotic and non-hypnotic conditions were repeated multiple times during each data acquisition session. We found that pure hypnosis induced reorganization in the composition of brain oscillations especially in prefrontal and right occipital EEG channels. Additionally, hypnosis was characterized by consistent right-side-dominance asymmetry. In the prefrontal EEG channels the composition of brain oscillations included spectral patterns during hypnosis that were completely different from those observed during non-hypnosis. Furthermore, the EEG spectral patterns observed overall during the hypnotic condition did not return to the pre-hypnotic baseline EEG immediately when hypnosis was terminated. This suggests that for the brain, the return to a normal neurophysiological baseline condition after hypnosis is a time-consuming process. The present results suggest that pure hypnosis is characterized by an increase in alertness and heightened attention, reflected as cognitive and neuronal activation. Taken together, the present data provide support for the hypothesis that in a very highly hypnotizable person (a hypnotic virtuoso) hypnosis as such may be accompanied by a changed pattern of neural activity in the brain. Copyright © 2007 British Society of Experimental & Clinical Hypnosis. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 3.
    Fingelkurts, Andrew
    et al.
    BM-SCIENCE - Brain and Mind Technologies Research Centre, P.O. Box 77, FI-02601 Espoo, Finland.
    Fingelkurts, Alexander
    BM-SCIENCE - Brain and Mind Technologies Research Centre, P.O. Box 77, FI-02601 Espoo, Finland.
    Kallio, Sakari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Cortex Functional Connectivity as a Neurophysiological Correlate of Hypnosis: an EEG Case Study2007Ingår i: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 45, nr 7, s. 1452-1462Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cortex functional connectivity associated with hypnosis was investigated in a single highly hypnotizable subject in a normal baseline condition and under neutral hypnosis during two sessions separated by a year. After the hypnotic induction, but without further suggestions as compared to the baseline condition, all studied parameters of local and remote functional connectivity were significantly changed. The significant differences between hypnosis and the baseline condition were observable (to different extent) in five studied independent frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma). The results were consistent and stable after 1 year. Based on these findings we conclude that alteration in functional connectivity of the brain may be regarded as a neuronal correlate of hypnosis (at least in very highly hypnotizable subjects) in which separate cognitive modules and subsystems may be temporarily incapable of communicating with each other normally

  • 4.
    Gerafi, Joel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / The Skaraborg Institute for Research and Development, Skövde, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, H.
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Viken, J. I.
    Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blomgren, C.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Claesson, L.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kallio, Sakari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Jern, C.
    Institute of Biomedicine, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blomstrand, C.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jood, K.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology,The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden / Department of Neurology, The Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Neglect and aphasia in the acute phase as predictors of functional outcome 7 years after ischemic stroke2017Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology, ISSN 1351-5101, E-ISSN 1468-1331, Vol. 24, nr 11, s. 1407-1415Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: Visuospatial inattention (VSI) and languageimpairment (LI) are often present early after stroke and associations with an unfavorable short-term functional outcome have been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a screening of VSI and LI as indicators of cortical symptoms early after stroke could predict long-term functional outcomes. Methods: A consecutive cohort of 375 patients with ischemic stroke was assessed for the occurrence of VSI at a median of 7 days after admission (interquartile range, 1–5 days) using the Star Cancellation Test and for LI (within the first 7 days) with the language item in the Scandinavian StrokeScale. Seven years later, functional outcomes were assessed by the modified Rankin scale and Frenchay Activities Index in 235 survivors without recurrent stroke. Relationships between baseline predictors and functional outcome at 7 years were analyzed with bivariate correlations and multiple categorical regressions with optimal scaling. Results: The regression model significantly explained variance in the modified Rankin scale (R2= 0.435, P < 0.001) and identified VSI (P=0.001) and neurological deficits (P < 0.001; Scandinavian Stroke Scale score without the language item) as the significant independent predictors. The model for FrenchayActivities Index was also significant (R2= 0.269, P < 0.001) with VSI(P = 0.035) and neurological deficits (P < 0.001) as significant independent predictors. Conclusions: Visuospatial inattention at acute stroke has an independent impact on long-term functional outcomes. Early recognition may enable targeted rehabilitative interventions.

  • 5.
    Hiltunen, Seppo
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Virta, Maarit
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Kallio, Sakari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Turku, Finland.
    Paavilainen, Petri
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    The effects of hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions on the mismatch negativity in highly hypnotizable subjects2019Ingår i: International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis, ISSN 0020-7144, E-ISSN 1744-5183, Vol. 67, nr 2, s. 192-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The neural mechanisms associated with hypnosis were investigated in a group of 9 high hypnotizable subjects by measuring the mismatch negativity (MMN) component of the auditory eventrelated potential (ERP). ERPs were recorded using a passive oddball paradigm to sinusoidal standard and deviant tone stimuli of 500 and 520 Hz, respectively, in four conditions: prehypnosis, neutral hypnosis, hypnotic suggestion for altering the tone perception, and posthypnotic conditions. Earlier studies have indicated that hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions might have an effect on MMN, but the results of our study contradict these results: No statistically significant differences were found between the conditions in the MMN amplitudes.

  • 6.
    Kallio, Sakari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Consciousness Research Group, Åbo, Finland.
    Hypnosis and altered state of consciousness2004Ingår i: Svensk neuropsykologi, ISSN 1402-6945, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 9-11Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 7.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Hyönä, Jukka
    Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Nummenmaa, Lauri
    Brain Research Unit, Low Temperature Laboratory, Aalto University School of Science, Espoo, Finland / Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University School of Science, Espoo, Finland / Turku PET Centre, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    The Existence of a Hypnotic State Revealed by Eye Movements2011Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 10, artikel-id e26374Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Posthypnotic Suggestion Alters Conscious Color Perception in an Automatic Manner2013Ingår i: International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis, ISSN 0020-7144, E-ISSN 1744-5183, Vol. 61, nr 4, s. 371-387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors studied whether a posthypnotic suggestion to see a brief, masked target as gray can change the color experience of a hypnotic virtuoso. The visibility of the target was manipulated by varying the delay between the target and the mask that followed it. The virtuoso's subjective reports indicated that her conscious color experience was altered already at short delays between the target and the subsequent mask. The virtuoso's objectively measured pattern of responding under posthypnotic suggestion could not be mimicked either by control participants nor the virtuoso herself. Due to posthypnotic amnesia, the virtuoso was unaware of suggestions given during hypnosis. Importantly, the virtuoso could not alter her color perception without a hypnotic suggestion. These results suggest that hypnosis can affect even a highly automatic process such as color perception.

  • 9.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Koivisto, Mika
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Seeing Blue As Red: A Hypnotic Suggestion Can Alter Visual Awareness of Colors2016Ingår i: International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis, ISSN 0020-7144, E-ISSN 1744-5183, Vol. 64, nr 3, s. 261-284Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Some highly hypnotizable individuals have reported changes in objects' color with suggestions given in normal waking state. However, it is not clear whether this occurs only in their imagination. The authors show that, although subjects could imagine colors, a posthypnotic suggestion was necessary for seeing altered colors, even for a hypnotic virtuoso. She reported posthypnotic color alterations also selectively in response to specific target shapes in briefly presented object arrays. Surprisingly, another highly hypnotizable person showed a very different pattern of results. The control participants could not simulate virtuosos' results by applying cognitive strategies. The results imply that hypnosis can alter the functioning of automatic visual processes but only in some of the most hypnotizable individuals.

  • 10.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku Institute for Advanced Studies and Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Koivisto, Mika
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Turku, Finland / Turku Institute for Advanced Studies and Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Kaakinen, Johanna K.
    Turku Institute for Advanced Studies and Department of Psychology, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
    Synaesthesia-type associations and perceptual changes induced by hypnotic suggestion2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, artikel-id 17310Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Are synaesthetic experiences congenital and so hard-wired, or can a functional analogue be created? We induced an equivalent of form-colour synaesthesia using hypnotic suggestions in which symbols in an array (circles, crosses, squares) were suggested always to have a certain colour. In a Stroop type-naming task, three of the four highly hypnotizable participants showed a strong synaesthesia-type association between symbol and colour. This was verified both by their subjective reports and objective eye-movement behaviour. Two resembled a projector-and one an associator-type synaesthete. Participant interviews revealed that subjective experiences differed somewhat from typical (congenital) synaesthesia. Control participants who mimicked the task using cognitive strategies showed a very different response pattern. Overall, the results show that the targeted, preconsciously triggered associations and perceptual changes seen in association with congenital synaesthesia can rapidly be induced by hypnosis. They suggest that each participant's subjective experience of the task should be carefully evaluated, especially when studying hypnotic hallucinations. Studying such experiences can increase understanding of perception, automaticity, and awareness and open unique opportunities in cognitive neuroscience and consciousness research.

  • 11.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Altering the state of the altered state debate: reply to commentaries2005Ingår i: Contemporary Hypnosis, ISSN 0960-5290, E-ISSN 1557-0711, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 46-55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main point of our article Hypnotic phenomena and altered states of consciousness: A multilevel framework of description and explanation was to clarify, explicate and reveal the differences between current theoretical viewpoints in explaining hypnosis. Furthermore, we wanted to present a research programme and propose some experiments that if carried out, might lend decisive support to either the Nonstate View (NSV) or the State View (SV) approaches to hypnosis. The commentaries revealed that the concept of altered state of consciousness (ASC) still lacks a commonly accepted definition and is in need of further clarification. The controversy between NSV and SV of hypnosis seems to boil down to the question concerning the explanatory power of the neural level and especially to what the results at this level tell us. In this reply we further clarify the multilevel framework of explanation, the problems associated with the concept of ASC, and we explain the rationale for our proposal of using virtuosos as a model system in hypnosis research. Copyright © 2005 British Society of Experimental and Clinical Hypnosis

  • 12.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Hypnotic phenomena and altered states of consciousness: A multilevel framework of description and explanation2003Ingår i: Contemporary Hypnosis, ISSN 0960-5290, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 111-164Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently agreement that, in addition to the changes in external behaviour, suggestions presented in a hypnotic context may give rise to changes in subjective experience. Yet, there is no general agreement about the theoretical framework within which these changes in experience should be explained. Though different theories about hypnosis overlap in many respects, there is still disagreement on whether reference to a specific internal state of the individual is necessary in order to explain these changes. We place the explanatory task in the context of a multilevel framework of explanation, which reveals that the disagreement between the state and nonstate view is about the level of description at which the phenomenon hypnosis should be conceptualized. We propose a novel approach using the multilevel explanation which helps to formulate empirically testable hypotheses about the nature of hypnosis. We will outline the basic elements of such an approach and hope that our proposition will help hypnosis research to integrate with the multidisciplinary research on other phenomena of consciousness.

  • 13.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    The observer remains hidden2005Ingår i: Contemporary Hypnosis, ISSN 0960-5290, E-ISSN 1557-0711, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 138-143Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of hidden observer is one of the most controversial issues in hypnosis research. Green, Page, Handley and Rasekhy (this issue) approach it by using an ideomotor task which has not previously been used in association with the hidden observer. We regard their experiment as interesting; however, there are conceptual and methodological problems that hamper the impact of their study. In our commentary, we take the opportunity to point out some problems in their paper as well as to stress the importance to integrate concepts used in hypnosis research to mainstream cognitive neuroscience and consciousness research. Copyright © 2005 British Society of Experimental & Clinical Hypnosis. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 14.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Fingelkurts, Andrew A.
    Fingelkurts, Alexander A.
    Change in the cortical functional connectivity as a candidate for psychophysiological correlate of hypnosis2006Ingår i: International Journal of Psychophysiology, ISSN 0167-8760, E-ISSN 1872-7697, Vol. 61, nr 3, s. 301-302Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Kallio, Sakari
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Lang, H
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Can hypnosis and hypnotic hallucination change information processing in the brain: A case report2005Ingår i: Hypnos: Swedish journal of hypnosis in psychotherapy and psychosomatic medicine, ISSN 0282-5090, Vol. 32, nr 1, s. 25-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Kirsch, Irving
    et al.
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Cardena, Etzel
    Lund University.
    Derbyshire, Stuart
    University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.
    Dienes, Zoltan
    University of Sussex, United Kingdom.
    Heap, Michael
    University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Kallio, Sakari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Mazzoni, Giuliana
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Naish, Peter
    Open University, United Kingdom.
    Oakley, David
    University College London, United Kingdom.
    Potter, Catherine
    University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Walters, Val
    University College London, United Kingdom.
    Whalley, Matthew
    University College London, United Kingdom.
    Definitions of Hypnosis and Hypnotizability and their Relation to Suggestion and Suggestibility: A Consensus Statement2011Ingår i: Contemporary Hypnosis, ISSN 0960-5290, E-ISSN 1557-0711, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 107-115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reports a consensus that was reached at an Advanced Workshop in Experimental Hypnosis held as part of the joint annual conference of the British Society of Medical and Dental Hypnosis (BSMDH) and the British Society of Experimental and Clinical Hypnosis (BSECH). The unanimous consensus was that conventional definitions of hypnosis and hypnotizability are logically inconsistent and that at least one of them needed to be changed. Participants were divided between the alternatives of (1) broadening the operational definition of hypnosis so as to include responding to so-called waking suggestion and (2) limiting the term 'hypnotizability' to the effects of administering a hypnotic induction.

  • 17.
    Koivisto, Mika
    et al.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kirjanen, Svetlana
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    Kallio, Sakari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi.
    A Preconscious Neural Mechanism of Hypnotically Altered Colors: A Double Case Study2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 8, artikel-id e70900Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypnotic suggestions may change the perceived color of objects. Given that chromatic stimulus information is processed rapidly and automatically by the visual system, how can hypnotic suggestions affect perceived colors in a seemingly immediate fashion? We studied the mechanisms of such color alterations by measuring electroencephalography in two highly suggestible participants as they perceived briefly presented visual shapes under posthypnotic color alternation suggestions such as "all the squares are blue''. One participant consistently reported seeing the suggested colors. Her reports correlated with enhanced evoked upper beta-band activity (22 Hz) 70-120 ms after stimulus in response to the shapes mentioned in the suggestion. This effect was not observed in a control condition where the participants merely tried to simulate the effects of the suggestion on behavior. The second participant neither reported color alterations nor showed the evoked beta activity, although her subjective experience and event-related potentials were changed by the suggestions. The results indicate a preconscious mechanism that first compares early visual input with a memory representation of the suggestion and consequently triggers the color alteration process in response to the objects specified by the suggestion. Conscious color experience is not purely the result of bottom-up processing but it can be modulated, at least in some individuals, by top-down factors such as hypnotic suggestions.

  • 18.
    Noreika, Valdas
    et al.
    Univ Turku, Ctr Cognit Neurosci, Dept Behav Sci & Philosophy, Turku 20014, Finland / Univ Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England.
    Falter, Christine M.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England / Univ Groningen, NL-9700 AB Groningen, Netherlands.
    Arstila, Valtteri
    Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Philosophy, University of Turku, Assistentinkatu 7, 20014 Turku, Finland.
    Wearden, John H.
    Keele Univ, Keele, Staffs, England .
    Kallio, Sakari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information.
    Perception of Short Time Scale Intervals in a Hypnotic Virtuoso2012Ingår i: International journal of clinical and experimental hypnosis, ISSN 0020-7144, E-ISSN 1744-5183, Vol. 60, nr 3, s. 318-337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies showed that hypnotized individuals underestimate temporal intervals in the range of several seconds to tens of minutes. However, no previous work has investigated whether duration perception is equally disorderly when shorter time intervals are probed. In this study, duration perception of a hypnotic virtuoso was tested using repeated standard temporal generalization and duration estimation tasks. When compared to the baseline state, hypnosis affected perception of intervals spread around 600 ms in the temporal generalization task but did not alter perception of slightly longer intervals spread around 1000 ms. Furthermore, generalization of temporal intervals was more orderly under hypnosis than in the baseline state. In contrast, the hypnotic virtuoso showed a typical time underestimation effect when perception of longer supra-second intervals was tested in the duration estimation task, replicating results of the previous hypnosis studies.

  • 19.
    Revonsuo, Antti
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Department of Psychology/Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland.
    Kallio, Sakari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för kommunikation och information. Department of Psychology/Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland.
    Sikka, Pilleriin
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Department of Psychology/Centre for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Turku, Finland.
    What is an altered state of consciousness?2009Ingår i: Philosophical Psychology, ISSN 0951-5089, E-ISSN 1465-394X, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 187-204Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ‘‘Altered State of Consciousness’’ (ASC) has been defined as a changed overall pattern of conscious experience, or as the subjective feeling and explicit recognition that one’s own subjective experience has changed. We argue that these traditional definitions fail to draw a clear line between altered and normal states of consciousness (NSC). We outline a new definition of ASC and argue that the proper way to understand the concept of ASC is to regard it as a representational notion: the alteration that has happened is not an alteration of consciousness (or subjective experience) per se, but an alteration in the informational or representational relationships between consciousness and the world. An altered state of consciousness is defined as a state in which the neurocognitive background mechanisms of consciousness have an increased tendency to produce misrepresentations such as hallucinations, delusions, and memory distortions. Paradigm examples of such generally misrepresentational, temporary, and reversible states are dreaming, psychotic episodes, psychedelic drug experiences, some epileptic seizures, and hypnosis in highly hypnotizable subjects. The representational definition of ASC should be applied in the theoretical and empirical studies of ASCs to unify and clarify the conceptual basis of ASC research.

  • 20.
    Virta, Maarit
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Seppo
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Mattsson, Markus
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Kallio, Sakari
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för biovetenskap. Högskolan i Skövde, Forskningscentrum för Systembiologi. University of Turku, Finland.
    The impact of hypnotic suggestions on reaction times in continuous performance test in adults with ADHD and healthy controls2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 5, artikel-id e0126497Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Attention is one of the key factors in both hypnotic processes and patients with ADHD. In addition, the brain areas associated with hypnosis and ADHD overlap in many respects. However, the use of hypnosis in ADHD patients has still received only minor attention in research. The main purpose of the present work was to investigate whether hypnosis and hypnotic suggestions influence the performance of adult ADHD (n = 27) and control participants (n = 31) in the continuous performance test (CPT). The hypnotic susceptibility of the participants was measured by the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A) and the attentional task was a three minute long auditory version of the CPT. The CPT task was administered four times: before hypnosis (CPT1), after a hypnotic induction (CPT2), after suggestions about speed and accuracy (CPT3), and after the termination of hypnosis (CPT4). The susceptibility of the groups measured by HGSHS:A did not differ. There was a statistically significant decrease in reaction times in both ADHD and control groups between CPT2 and CPT3. The differences between CPT1 and CPT2, even though non-significant, were different in the two groups: in the ADHD group reaction times decreased whereas in the control group they increased. Both groups made very few errors in the short CPT. This study indicates that hypnotic suggestions have an effect on reaction times in the sustained attention task both in adult ADHD patients and control subjects. The theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

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