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  • 1.
    Fogelberg, Emmie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment. Skövde University, Sweden.
    Kurdve, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Mattsson, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Salunkhe, Omkar
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Thuresson, Urban
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Metodik för produktframtagning.
    Current and best practices in information presentation2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization and automation in industry can have both positive and negative effects on social sustainability. On one hand it can be a basis for monotonous, uncreative, and even dangerous workplaces and in some cases might even result in people losing their work. On the other hand, it can be a base for ergonomically sound and inclusive work, engaging everyone in improvements. This project aims for moving the focus on positive effects for social sustainability while still staying cost efficient and effective in economic and ecologic sustainability for digitalization and automation of work instructions and training in manual operations like assembly, machine operation & setup, maintenance, and material handling. The Industry 4.0 paradigm offers radically increased opportunities for doing just that. For example, increased digitization can create efficiency improvements through shorter lead times and reduced disruptions to production. New generations of technology and software as well as information dissemination can be accelerated and the traceability of products and materials in the industrial systems can be greatly increased. Digitization also provides opportunities to increase industrial resilience to challenges coming from elsewhere, such as demographic change and climate threats. Advanced application of digitization is seen by industries and decision-makers as the most important enabler for achieving the strategic sustainability goals and Agenda2030. A crucial factor for competitiveness is the human contribution. Here too, digitalisation is radically changing the conditions. In the last 20 years, work instructions have been transformed from printed text on paper into an increasingly digital representation. As knowledge increases about how work instructions for the manufacturing industry should be designed, they are rarely designed according to user conditions. At best, this results in a missed opportunity for performance improvements and at worst, it could potentially result in quality deficiencies, efficiency deficiencies and a lower degree of inclusion of staff groups. Digitization and automation permeate both society and industry more and more and there are many different technologies on the market. These can contribute to both increased efficiency and flexibility for the industry. However, there are a lot of challenges to both implement, design, and use instructions. Studies conducted in industry 2014–2018 show that operators and assembly workers only use instructions in 20–25% of cases in the operational phase when they are perceived as inefficient (Fast-Berglund & Stahre, 2013; Mattsson et al., 2018). Of course, this also increases the risks of, for example, assembly errors by not using instructions to the extent that they should be used. The corporate culture and standards are also an important part of how instructions are created and used. Depending on the structure and condition of the company and the production unit, for example, an assembly instruction at one company may include information about the product, process, and work environment, while an assembly instruction at another company includes completely different or only parts of this information. Of course, this is a natural consequence of sometimes far-inherited corporate cultures and traditions, but experience has also shown that it is to a very large extent the nature of work that defines the type of support system needed. In line with increased automation and increasing product variation as a result of increased customisation, operators’ tasks will require more creative work than before where the aim is to enable and handle the results of individual workers' creative thoughts about improvements in their own work situation, increasing cognitive load (Taylor et al., 2020). The development of digitalisation has created new opportunities for improved communication among employees in the manufacturing industry (Oesterreich & Teuteberg, 2016). Therefore, this technological development can and should support operators cognitively (Kaasinen et al., 2020; Mattsson et al., 2016). Although many new digital technologies are being developed and are available (Romero et al., 2016), it is still difficult to implement these so that people's cognitive work is supported. This is often due to the fact that the implementation does not take place in a way that people are comfortable with (Parasuraman & Riley, 1997). In many cases, humans are expected to adapt to technology and not the other way around (Thorvald et al., 2021). To implement better support for their operators, companies should focus on identifying the information needs that exist (Haghi et al., 2018) and then visualize it in a way that is useful to operators. The central aim for the project is to demonstrate how knowledge and systematic development of cognitive support and information design can increase quality and flexibility in future production and how this can be considered in the implementation of digital work instructions. In the industrial case studies, current state-of-practice in information presentation will be investigated and analysed together with state-of-the art knowledge and technology to map successful efforts in industry, identify what it is that makes them successful, or how a particularly challenging situation can be further improved through our knowledge of cognitive work in production.

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  • 2.
    Iriondo Pascual, Aitor
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Högberg, Dan
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Ruiz Castro, Pamela
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Mahdavian, Nafise
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Hanson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment. Scania CV, Södertalje, Sweden.
    Proposal of an Intuitive Interface Structure for Ergonomics Evaluation Software2018In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume VIII: Ergonomics and Human Factors in Manufacturing, Agriculture, Building and Construction, Sustainable Development and Mining / [ed] Sebastiano Bagnara; Riccardo Tartaglia; Sara Albolino; Thomas Alexander; Yushi Fujita, Cham: Springer, 2018, Vol. 825, p. 289-300Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, different technologies and software for ergonomics evaluations are gaining greater relevance in the field of ergonomics and production development. The tools allow users such as ergonomists and engineers to perform assessments of ergonomic conditions of work, both related to work simulated in digital human modelling (DHM) tools or based on recordings of work performed by real operators. Regardless of approach, there are many dimensions of data that needs to be processed and presented to the users.

    The users may have a range of different expectations and purposes from reading the data. Examples of situations are to: judge and compare different design solutions; analyse data in relation to anthropometric differences among subjects; investigate different body regions; assess data based on different time perspectives; and to perform assessments according to different types of ergonomics evaluation methods. The range of different expectations and purposes from reading the data increases the complexity of creating an interface that considers all the necessary tools and functions that the users require, while at the same time offer high usability.

    This paper focuses on the structural design of a flexible and intuitive interface for an ergonomics evaluation software that possesses the required tools and functions to analyse work situations from different perspectives, where the data input can be either from DHM tools or from real operators while performing work. 

  • 3.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Managing Interruptions in Manufacturing: Towards a Theoretical Framework for Interruptions in Manufacturing Assembly2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of interruptions from ICT systems on assembly workers in manufacturing is examined in this thesis, as is how the risks of errors, increases in assembly time, increased cognitive load and resultant stress can be mitigated, as well as ensuring that important new information is acted upon. To these ends, a literature study was conducted, followed by two studies using an experimental approach in an environment that simulated a manufacturing assembly situation, and used tasks designed to be representative of manufacturing assembly tasks. The results of the literature study and the two studies are presented in four appended papers. The body of the thesis itself introduces similar material, and takes a step towards the creation of a theoretical framework that supports analysing the tasks and environments in question from a embodied and situated (DEEDS or 4E) viewpoint on cognition. This theoretical framework uses graphical representations similar to storyboards to support the analyst in maintaining an embodied and situated viewpoint during analyses of active tasks that require an examination of the interplay between brain, body, and environment. Supporting an embodied viewpoint during analysis has the purpose of facilitating the design of interruption coordination systems that take into account the embodied and situated nature of the tasks faced in manual tasks such as assembly in manufacturing.

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  • 4.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Situating interruptions in manufacturing assembly2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interruptions have been studied extensively, with interruptions experiments where tasks performed on computers are interrupted by another task received on the same computer having receiving much of the focus. Additionally, many of the tasks used in existing research have been designed specifically to test the effect of interruptions on humans by making both the interrupting task and the task being interrupted quite difficult. The studies introduced here show that these commonly used tasks do not accurately represent some aspects of the manual tasks commonly performed by humans outside of laboratory experiments, with the experiments in this thesis focusing on manual tasks in assembly. A notable difference identified here is that interruptions in manual assembly tasks were seen to always contain a negotiation element, meaning that the person being interrupted could always modify to some extent when to respond to interruptions. Another central finding is that breakpoints for smart interruption systems need to be chosen using even more care than suggested by existing research because of an effect that can cause a notification to be completely missed when sent at a point that seemed opportune. This is due to apparent lulls in the activity containing preparation for the next action, or anticipation of action, using the Activity Theory (AT) terms used in the analysis of this effect. AT was identified as a useful tool for the analysis of manual assembly as it supports a hierarchical analysis of the activity and takes into account operator skill (task familiarity) in an easy to understand manner.AT was further used in an observational study where current approaches to interruption management were observed and explored. A surprising conclusion was that classical interruptions, as commonly defined, where one task is interrupted and another task must be completed before resuming the main (primary) task were exceedingly uncommon. This was found to be due to the high task familiarity (skill level) of the workers, the assembly activities being designed to minimise the risk of interruptions, and workers being trained to always finish the current operation before switching to another task. Workers did however engage in conversation and an interesting style of communication, dubbed ebb-and-flow style of negotiation, was identified. The differences between the results found in literature and the results of the studies were synthesised into a theoretical framework, or a collection of theories that work together to support the analysis of interruptions, and a visual support tool for the theoretical framework was created. This visual support tool, called an activity board both binds together the theories in a way that should make the theoretical framework easier to understand, and provides the beginnings of an analysis tool for interruption using the framework.

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  • 5.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. University of Skövde.
    Data-Driven Personas: Expanding DHM for a Holistic Approach2021In: Advances in Simulation and Digital Human Modeling: Proceedings of the AHFE 2021 Virtual Conferences on Human Factors and Simulation, and Digital Human Modeling and Applied Optimization, July 25-29, 2021, USA / [ed] Julia L. Wright; Daniel Barber; Sofia Scataglini; Sudhakar L. Rajulu, Springer, 2021, Vol. 264, p. 296-303Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we detail research and development of data-driven personas in the IPS-IMMA digital human modelling system. Semi-automatically generating personas for working with user experience (UX) aspects of the Operator 4.0 side of Industry 4.0 is suggested as a viable approach for contributing to operator well-being and diversity by supporting workstation designers to take these factors into account early in the workstation design process. These data-driven personas are being developed to be generated using anthropometric data from the manikin family generation module of IPS-IMMA. Specific design suggestions are presented, what should be taken into account and how that will be implemented, and the current state of development of the data-driven personas module is discussed. Prototypes are planned under the coming year.

  • 6.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Showing uncertainty in aircraft cockpits using icons2015In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 2905-2912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines an icon set designed for displaying uncertainty surrounding threat levels of an approaching object in anaircraft cockpit. This is done through an experiment that compares an icon set designed for this experiment with two icon setsfrom existing research that were tested in static laboratory conditions. The experiment used a flight simulator to simulate realisticflight conditions. The results showed that the icon set designed for this experiment was easier to read. Guidelines for the designof icons for displaying uncertainty are presented based on the results of the experiment.

  • 7.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Fogelberg, Emmie
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Information display preferences for assembly instructions in 6 industrial settings2023In: Cognitive Computing and Internet of Things: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics and the Affiliated Conferences, San Francisco, USA, 20-24 July, 2023 / [ed] Lucas Paletta; Hasan Ayaz; Umer Asgher, New York: AHFE International Open Access , 2023, p. 152-161Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We detail the results of an ongoing study into the preference of workers in 6 different industrial companies for assembly instruction display types and modalities for their tasks. This study is performed as a part of a project that aims to create a theoretical framework for understanding requirements for instruction presentation in industry, and providing guidance to the creators of assembly instructions. The study, as well as the project as a whole, aims to expand on approaches from the Industry 4.0 framework, with a particular focus on the more recent Operator 4.0 approach that adds a focus on more human-centric aspects of digitalisation in industry. The study being presented is comprised of facility visits to each partner company where the current state of practice was presented by each company, an examination of information presentation and ope- rating procedures by the authors, and in-depth interviews with assembly workers at each site. All companies examined deal with variants in production, and the comple- xity of assembly spans from low to extremely high. The companies involved mostly rely on experienced workers, with high training, and relatively long times to train new personnel. The interviews led to findings such as simplified images being strongly pre- ferred for both beginners and experienced workers, with an emphasis on the image matching the worker’s viewpoint to the product, and experienced workers preferring simplified images with highlighted markings for details that can be seen from where the task is performed, and more. The findings will be used in further work to create a theoretical framework around digital work instructions, as well as used directly to help partner companies better standardise their instructions to support the cognitive abilities and limitations of their assembly workers. The goal with this is to create safe, comfortable and profitable workplaces that fulfil goals of social sustainability in the long term.

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    Information Display Preferences for Assembly Instructions in 6 Industrial Settings
  • 8.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Classification of Collaboration Levels for Human-Robot Cooperation in Manufacturing2018In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018,  University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, p. 151-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 aims to support the factory of the future, which involves increased amounts of information systems and new ways of using automation. One new usage is collaboration between human and industrial robot in manufacturing, with both partners sharing work on a single task. Supporting human-robot collaboration (HRC) requires understanding the requirements of HRC as well as the differences to existing approaches where the goal is more automation, such as in the case of self-driving cars. We propose a framework that we call levels of collaboration to support this, and posit that this framework supports a mental model conducive to the design of lines incorporating HRC.

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  • 9.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Foundation for a classification of collaboration levels for human-robot cooperation in manufacturing2019In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 448-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 aims to support the factory of the future, involving increased use of information systems and new ways of using automation, such as collaboration where a robot and a human share work on a single task. We propose a classification of collaboration levels for Human-Robot collaboration (HRC) in manufacturing that we call levels of collaboration (LoC), formed to provide a conceptual model conducive to the design of assembly lines incorporating HRC. This paper aims to provide a more theoretical foundation for such a tool based on relevant theories from cognitive science and other perspectives of human-technology interaction, strengthening the validity and scientific rigour of the envisioned LoC tool. The main contributions consist of a theoretical grounding to motivate the transition from automation to collaboration, which are intended to facilitate expanding the LoC classification to support HRC, as well as an initial visualization of the LoC approach. Future work includes fully defining the LoC classification as well as operationalizing functionally different cooperation types. We conclude that collaboration is a means to an end, so collaboration is not entered for its own sake, and that collaboration differs fundamentally from more commonly used views where automation is the focus.

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  • 10.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Mind the body: How embodied cognition matters in manufacturing2015In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 5184-5191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embodied cognition can provide human factors and applied ergonomics practitioners with better embodied cognition design principles. This paper investigates and analyzes observational video-recorded data from an experiment that simulated a manufacturing environment. The operator was interrupted during a primary assembly task via a handheld computing device which delivered different classes of notifications. The focus is on the embodied aspect of notifications in an active environment, and why one class of notifications called mediated notifications failed at a specific point previously thought to be suitable. Guidelines for analyzing tasks from an embodied cognition perspective that complements and expands traditional human factors and applied ergonomics approaches were developed and are included.

  • 11.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Employing UX Processes for More Focused Development in Research Projects2020In: DHM2020: Proceedings of the 6th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium, August 31 – September 2, 2020 / [ed] Lars Hanson, Dan Högberg, Erik Brolin, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2020, p. 288-298Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of this paper is to highlight some benefits of incorporating usability/user experience (UX) approaches in the software development process of research projects advancing digital human modeling (DHM), and how these processes, approaches, and methods can help keeping the development process more focused and efficient. Research projects that contain large software development components may receive funding only to complete the core tasks, and including additional persons in a project may seem like a waste of resources. This paper introduces user research that relied on a UX approach called contextual inquiry to ascertain user goals and how those might be translated into features for DHM named IMMA that has been developed as a part of numerous research projects in the last decade. The goal of the study is to support DHM development in general through highlighting methods and approaches that can be used, with specific results aimed to support the continued development of IMMA. Results clearly show that existing functions do not support the goals of the user group examined, and highlights the need of understanding user goals and creating functions to support achieving those goals, rather than assuming what functionalities might be needed. By understanding user goals, interpreting those into activities and functionalities time and resources can be used more effectively, which is important for small to medium research projects, where both time and budget may be limited.

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  • 12.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Missing mediated interruptions in manual assembly: Critical aspects of breakpoint selection2017In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 61, p. 90-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The factory of the future aims to make manufacturing more effective and easily customisable, using advanced sensors and communications to support information management. In this paper, we examine how breakpoint selection during interruption management can fail, even when using recommendations for interruption management from existing research. We present an experiment based on prior work where mediated interruptions (i.e. smart interruptions that should interrupt at opportune moments) were missed by participants when sent at one of two pre-defined breakpoints. These breakpoints were selected based on existing research to minimise the cost of interruption, which can involve longer times to complete tasks as well as making errors on tasks. Missing mediated interruptions in this way was unexpected, and the prior study was not configured to measure this effect, which has led to the experiment detailed here. We strive to explore whether there is a risk of missing notifications when mediated interruptions are used, and how this is affected by breakpoint selection. This was investigated through an experiment that uses tasks and environments that simulate a manufacturing assembly facility.

    The results indicate that the effect exists, i.e. that participants miss significantly more notifications when interrupted at fine breakpoints than when interrupted at coarse breakpoints. An embodied cognition perspective was used for analysis of the tasks to understand the cause of the effect. This analysis shows that an overlap between “action” and “anticipation of action” can account for why participants miss notifications at fine breakpoints. Based on these findings, recommendations were developed for designing interruption systems that minimise the costs (errors and time) imposed by interruptions during assembly tasks in manufacturing.

  • 13.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Palmquist, Adam
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Sánchez, Juan Luis Jiménez
    Scania Sverige AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    To What Extent is Gamification an Effective Tool for Onboarding Users into a DHM Tool2021In: Design, User Experience, and Usability: UX Research and Design: 10th International Conference, DUXU 2021, Held as Part of the 23rd HCI International Conference, HCII 2021, Virtual Event, July 24–29, 2021, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Marcelo M. Soares; Elizabeth Rosenzweig; Aaron Marcus, Cham: Springer, 2021, Vol. 12779, p. 48-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying game-like elements to tasks or computer systems meant for serious, non-game, activities is becoming more common, and is seen as a way to support users in learning a system or to support users in performing tasks better. Applying game-like elements requires an understanding of users, the target task, and what can motivate the target users in their tasks. As in any system development, the success of the design requires validating, and this may be done multiple times in the development cycle. Some concepts, such as usability or user experience have well-established testing methods, while gamification is still a relatively immature field and evaluation methods are still being developed. This paper follows the first evaluation of a gamification system to aid with onboarding new users into the IPS IMMA digital human modelling system, offering details on the heuristic evaluation method. So early in the process, it is inevitable that problems were found, largely to do with how the motivation of users was handled, and multiple suggestions for improvements are offered.

  • 14.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Context aware interruptions: Existing research and required research2014In: Advances in Cognitive Engineering and Neuroergonomics / [ed] Kay Stanney; Kelly S. Hale, AHFE , 2014, p. 260-272Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies in various fields are developing information systems that are supposed to show information in a context sensitive manner. This involves modifying user interfaces based on the current activity and location of the user. The research that exists for context aware, task aware, and location aware systems come mostly from research in the office environment and using stationary work computers using standard mouse and keyboard-operated systems. Other environments, such as manufacturing environments, have not received the same research attention, and therefore research is required to see whether existing theories and frameworks apply to the manufacturing domain. Adding to this, context aware systems are now being created for new classes of devices such as mobile and wearable devices, to be used in multiple domains. All this requires an investigation and validation of older research, and shows how the research of the basic human factors surrounding new devices and domains has fallen behind the development of the devices themselves. This paper examines shortly how recent changes advances in technology affect what is required from the field of interruption research, as well as what is needed to support other domains than the office environment. 

  • 15.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Coordinating the interruption of assembly workers in manufacturing2017In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 58, p. 361-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how interruptions from information and communications technology systems affect errors and the time to complete tasks for assembly workers. Interruptions have previously been examined in laboratory experiments and office environments, but not much work has been performed in other authentic environments. This paper contains the results of an experiment that was performed in a simulated manufacturing assembly environment, which tested the effects of interruptions on a manual assembly task. The experiment used existing interruption coordination methods as a basis, and the results showed a difference in the effect of interruptions and interruption coordination between cognitively complex laboratory tasks and manual assembly tasks in an authentic environment. Most notably, the negative effects of interruptions delivered without consideration were smaller in this experiment. Based on these findings, recommendations were developed for designing interruption systems for minimizing the costs (errors and time) imposed by interruptions during assembly tasks in manufacturing.

  • 16.
    Kuipers, Nathanaël
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Appropriate Assembly Instruction Modes: Factors to Consider2021In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXIV: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 35th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 7–10 September 2021, University of Derby, Derby, UK / [ed] Mahmoud Shafik; Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2021, Vol. 15, p. 27-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presented is a literature study into the importance of how information in assembly instructions in manual assembly is presented, more specifically how various factors such as the complexity of the assembly itself, the mental and physical workload of the worker, as well as the experience and skill level of the worker affect the requirements for information presentation. The requirements made by Industry 4.0 on flexibility in production lines and an increased number of variants produced causes increased demands on workers, which leads to more cognitive demands being made on assembly workers. Studies exist around assembly instruction modes, but have in many cases ignored factors such as worker skill level, mental workload, and task complexity and how these affect the requirements for information presentation, which is a major contribution of this study. The findings are that no single solution fits all requirements, but that the aforementioned factors should be taken into account.

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  • 17.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Introducing Functional Tones for Analysing Action Perception in Manufacturing: Explaining What Affordances Cannot2021In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXIV: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 35th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 7–10 September 2021, University of Derby, Derby, UK / [ed] Mahmoud Shafik; Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2021, Vol. 15, p. 47-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional tones is a concept that originates in theoretical biology and resembles how the concept ‘affordances’ is used. Both functional tones and affordances are concepts dealing with particularly salient features in an individual’s immediate environment. The concept of affordances has proven useful for practitioners of usability and design as it supports intuitive ways of classifying how action possibilities match between a person and an object [1]. Functional tones have, however, thus far remained obscure among practitioners, despite functional tones having a stronger theoretical foundation and facilitates a deeper and more human-centred analysis of interaction. The functional tones related to an object depend not only on the modes of sensation and action the perceiver is capable of, but also more subjective aspects such as experience, motivation and emotions. Using functional tones in design or analysis of interaction provides a fundamentally user experience centred perspective while avoiding the philosophical luggage of affordances.

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  • 18.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Narrowing the Gap of Cognitive and Physical Ergonomics in DHM through Embodied Tool Use2020In: DHM2020: Proceedings of the 6th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium, August 31 – September 2, 2020 / [ed] Lars Hanson, Dan Högberg, Erik Brolin, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2020, p. 311-322Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fields of human factors and ergonomics are systemic by nature, focusing on studying complex interaction between human and technology. However, the levels of explanation have resulted in physical or cognitive ergonomics. Modern understandings of human cognition and technology-mediated interaction, such as embodied cognition, activity theory and user experience (UX) is used as a frame of reference to analyze and illustrate the usage of a digital human modeling (DHM) tool in practice. In so doing, we try to narrow the gap between physical and cognitive ergonomics through embodied tool use. An identified core problem is to understand how a 2D devices should properly interact within 3D objects and manikins in a DMH tool that results in negative UX. The embodied concept of body schema clarifies the cognitive foundation for the negative UX. Some future work is presented, which could be beneficial for DHM, and, in the long run, promote a positive UX at work for various end-users of DHM tools.

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  • 19.
    Thorvald, Peter
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Fogelberg, Emmie
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    A Review on Communicative Mechanisms of External HMIs in Human-Technology Interaction2022In: 2022 IEEE 27th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), IEEE, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Operator 4.0 typology depicts the collaborative operator as one of eight operator working scenarios of operators in Industry 4.0. It signifies collaborative robot applications and the interaction between humans and robots working collaboratively or cooperatively towards a common goal. For this collaboration to run seamlessly and effortlessly, human-robot communication is essential. We briefly discuss what trust, predictability, and intentions are, before investigating the communicative features of both self-driving cars and collaborative robots. We found that although communicative external HMIs could arguably provide some benefits in both domains, an abundance of clues to what an autonomous car or a robot is about to do are easily accessible through the environment or could be created simply by understanding and designing legible motions.

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  • 20.
    Thorvald, Peter
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Embodied Interactions in Cognitive Manufacturing2020In: Advances in Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering, and the AHFE International Conference on Industrial Cognitive Ergonomics and Engineering Psychology, July 24-28, 2019, Washington D.C., USA / [ed] Hasan Ayaz, Springer, 2020, p. 419-426Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a discussion on the role of embodied interaction with a basis in social embodiment effects and how they can be viewed in light of manufacturing ergonomics. The social embodiment effects are four statements, grounded in empirical findings, which highlight the interplay of social stimuli, embodied responses, and cognitive processing. They suggest and base an argument for how embodiment is central to cognitive processing, how bodily states interact extensively with cognitive states, and ultimately how embodied interaction is ubiquitous in human cognition. The paper further presents a view on how human based manufacturing can be studied in light of this argument, exploring other areas where social embodiment has been further researched, with an aim to suggest examples of where social embodiment effects might be found in manufacturing ergonomics and form a basis for future investigations. 

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