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  • 1.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment. Volvo Car Corporation.
    Augmented reality smart glasses as assembly operator support: A framework for enabling industrial integration2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing industry is seeing vast improvements in productivity and flexibility as the fourth industrial revolution continues to unfold. However, despite improved computation and automation capacity, there is still a role for operators to play in Industry 4.0, mirrored in the concept of Operator 4.0. Improved productivity and a more competitive global market have contributed to increasing manufacturing complexity, putting greater cognitive demands on operators. A technology that can support operators in this new manufacturing landscape is augmented reality (AR), specifically, headworn AR smart glasses (ARSG). With ARSG, operators can receive information interactively in real time, hands free and overlying their natural environment. ARSG are an emerging technology that is becoming more mature; there are early examples of their use in manufacturing industry, but ARSG are not yet widespread.

    Because ARSG are an emerging technology, there is still uncertainty as to how ARSG can be integrated, like other production equipment, in assembly lines. When current literature was analyzed, it was found that there is a need for more knowledge particularly from the manufacturing engineering perspective of practically integrating ARSG on the industrial shop floor in the long term. This thesis therefore aims to create a framework that supports industry in making strategic and practical decisions about integrating ARSG in production as an assembly operator support tool. The framework is designed to guide industrial decision makers in evaluating the suitability of ARSG as support in an assembly station and, further to offer specific recommendations and rationales for actions to take. It has two main perspectives: the operators using the ARSG and the manufacturing engineers conducting the integration into the production systems. The framework was iteratively developed, using design science combining qualitative and quantitative methods into mixed methods. Three research questions were developed and answered as steps toward creating and evaluating the framework.

    The results of the thesis show that ARSG integration should be considered in relation to the investment cost and efficiency gains. For instance, ARSG requires the digitalization of assembly instructions before it can be feasible. If operators are mostly stationary when working and have little need for spatial guidance, there might be cheaper alternatives to ARSG, such as monitors or pick-by-light, that merit prior consideration. The framework has been developed and tested iteratively with industrial experts from different fields, with the initial strawman design based on three literature reviews and previous research.

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  • 2.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Augmented reality smart glasses as assembly operator support: Towards a framework for enabling industrial integration2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Operators are likely to continue to play an integral part in industrial assembly for the foreseeable future. This is in part because increasingly shorter life-cycles and increased variety of products makes automation harder to achieve. As technological advancements enables greater digitalization, the demands for increased individual designs of products increases. These changes, combined with a global competition, does put an increasing strain on operators to handle large quantities of information in a short timeframe. Augmented reality (AR) has been identified as a technology that can present assembly information to operators in an efficient manner. AR smart glasses (ARSG) is an implementation of AR suitable for operators since they are hands-free and can provide individual instructions in the correct context directly in their real work environment. There are currently early adopters of ARSG in production within industry and there are many predictions that ARSG usage will continue to grow. However, to fully integrate ARSG as a tool among others in a modern and complex factory there are several perspectives that a company need to take into consideration. This thesis investigates both the operator perspective and the manufacturing engineering perspective to support industry in how to make the correct investment decisions as regards to ARSG.

    The aim of this licentiate thesis is to provide a basis for a framework to enable industry to choose and integrate ARSG in production as a value adding operator support. This is achieved by investigating the theoretical basis of ARSG related technology and its maturity as well as the needs operators have in ARSG for their usage in assembly. The philosophical paradigm that is followed is that of pragmatism. The methodology used is design science, set in the research paradigm of mixed methods. Data has been collected through experiments with demonstrators, interviews, observations, and literature reviews. This thesis provides partial answers to the overall research aim.

    The thesis shows that the topic is feasible, relevant to industry, and a novel scientific contribution. Observations, interviews, and a literature review gave an overview of the operator perspective. Some highlights from the results are that operators are willing to work with ARSG, that operators need help in unlearning old tasks as well as learning new ones, and that optimal weight distribution of ARSG is dependent on the operators’ head-positioning. Highlights from the preliminary findings for the manufacturing engineering perspective include a general lack of standards for AR as regards vertical industrial application, improved tools for faster instruction generation, and large variations in specifications of available ARSG.

    Future work includes a complete answer to the manufacturing engineering perspective as well as combining all the results to create a framework for ARSG integration in industry.

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  • 3.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Designing Augmented Reality Interfaces for Human-Robot Collaboration in Engine Assembly: Research Proposal2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Customers are becoming more and more individualistic, products are getting more variation and the global market drives for shorter lifecycles for products. The industry is introducing more robots but even though they become more flexible there is still a need for human workers. Fenceless robots and new standards in robotics have made it possible for humans and robots to directly collaborate, allowing them to complement each other with their respective strengths. But how can humans keep up with the increased need for learning new products while collaborating with robots?Studies in using Augmented Reality (AR) show that it might help workers to perform complex operations more efficiently.AR can spatially orient information and thereby present it in context to reality. But AR in actual industrial assembly is still in its infancy, there is a lack of general AR implementations as most AR is done for specific cases and there is still little knowledge about how to generally design AR-based interfaces efficiently.This project aims to explore how AR is most efficiently used in industrial engine assembly. It focuses on cases with Human-Robot Collaboration since the current trend is clear that this will be very common in the future. The goal is to find basic design guidelines for how to best present information to workers; when to present it, what to present and how to present it.Industry representatives will help in creating an evaluation-framework that is relevant for real situations. The guidelines will be iteratively evaluated with this evaluation-framework and designed through the methodology of design science. The goal of this research project is to contribute with a framework for how to evaluate AR-based operator instructions and design guidelines that creates generally more efficient instructions for operators.

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  • 4.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Terminator technology - this is how it can help the manufacturing industry: The University of Skövde conducting research regarding AR as a form of support for operators2015In: The Vehicle Component, ISSN 1652-862X, no 4, p. 35-36Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Augmented Reality Smart Glasses for Industrial Assembly Operators: A Meta-Analysis and Categorization2019In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXIII: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 34th National Conference on Manufacturing Research, 10–12 September 2019, Queen’s University, Belfast, UK / [ed] Yan Jin; Mark Price, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2019, Vol. 9, p. 173-179Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented reality smart glasses (ARSG) are an emerging technology that has the potential to revolutionize how operators interact with information in cyber-physical systems. However, augmented reality is currently not widespread in industrial assembly. The aim of this paper is to investigate and map ARSG in manufacturing from the perspectives of the operator, of manufacturing engineering, and of its technological maturity. This mapping provides an overview of topics relevant to enabling the implementation of ARSG in a manufacturing system, thus facilitating future exploration of the three perspectives. This investigation was done using a meta-analysis of literature reviews of applications of augmented reality in industrial manufacturing. The meta-analysis categorized previously identified topics within augmented reality in industrial manufacturing and mapped those to the scope of the three perspectives.

  • 6.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Augmented reality smart glasses for operators in production: Survey of relevant categories for supporting operators2020In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 93, p. 1298-1303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the current knowledge and future challenges of augmented reality smart glasses (ARSG) for use by industrial operators. This is accomplished through a survey of the operator perspective of ARSG for industrial application, aiming for faster implementation of ARSG for operators in manufacturing. The survey considers the categories assembly instructions, human factors, design, support, and training from the operator perspective to provide insights for efficient use of ARSG in production. The main findings include a lack of standards in the design of assembly instructions, the field of view of ARSG are limited, and the guidelines for designing instructions focus on presenting context-relevant information and limiting the disturbance of reality. Furthermore, operator task routine is becoming more difficult to achieve and testing has mainly been with non-operator testers and overly simplified tasks. Future challenges identified from the review include: longitudinal user-tests of ARSG, a deeper evaluation of how to distribute the weight of ARSG, further improvement of the sensors and visual recognition to facilitate better interaction, and task complexity is likely to increase.

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  • 7.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Augmented reality smart glasses in industrial assembly: Current status and future challenges2020In: Journal of Industrial Information Integration, ISSN 2467-964X, E-ISSN 2452-414X, Vol. 20, article id 100175Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to provide a better understanding of Augmented Reality Smart Glasses (ARSG) for assembly operators from two perspectives, namely, manufacturing engineering and technological maturity. A literature survey considers both these perspectives of ARSG. The article's contribution is an investigation of the current status as well as challenges for future development of ARSG regarding usage in the manufacturing industry in relation to the two perspectives. This survey thereby facilitate a better future integration of ARSG in manufacturing. Findings include that commercially available ARSG differ considerably in their hardware specifications. The Technological Readiness Level (TRL) of some of the components of ARSG is still low, with displays having a TRL of 7 and tracking a TRL of 5. A mapping of tracking technologies and their suitability for industrial ARSG was done and identified Bluetooth, micro-electro mechanical sensors (MEMS) and infrared sensors as potentially suitable technologies to improve tracking. Future work identified is to also explore the operator perspective of ARSG in manufacturing. © 2020

  • 8.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Evaluation Framework for Augmented Reality Smart Glasses as Assembly Operator Support: Case Study of Tool Implementation2021In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 9, p. 104904-104914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented reality smart glasses (ARSG) have been identified as relevant support tools for the Operator 4.0 paradigm. Although ARSG are starting to be used in industry, their use is not yet widespread. A previously developed online tool based on a framework for evaluating ARSG as assembly operator support is iteratively improved in this paper with expanded functionality. The added functionality consists of practical recommendations for implementing ARSG in production. These recommendations were produced with the help of five focus groups of industrial representatives working in production. The recommendations were evaluated using case studies at three different companies. The recommendations were found to be detailed and a good support for the process of considering ARSG integration into production. The companies overall found the tool and its recommendations to be relevant and correct for their cases.

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  • 9.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Brewster, Rodney
    Volvo Car Corporation, Skövde, Sweden.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, Stockholm.
    Assessing Instructions in Augmented Reality for Human-Robot Collaborative Assembly by Using Demonstrators2017In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 63, p. 89-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots are becoming more adaptive and aware of their surroundings. This has opened up the research area of tight human-robot collaboration,where humans and robots work directly interconnected rather than in separate cells. The manufacturing industry is in constant need ofdeveloping new products. This means that operators are in constant need of learning new ways of manufacturing. If instructions to operatorsand interaction between operators and robots can be virtualized this has the potential of being more modifiable and available to the operators.Augmented Reality has previously shown to be effective in giving operators instructions in assembly, but there are still knowledge gapsregarding evaluation and general design guidelines. This paper has two aims. Firstly it aims to assess if demonstrators can be used to simulatehuman-robot collaboration. Secondly it aims to assess if Augmented Reality-based interfaces can be used to guide test-persons through apreviously unknown assembly procedure. The long-term goal of the demonstrator is to function as a test-module for how to efficiently instructoperators collaborating with a robot. Pilot-tests have shown that Augmented Reality instructions can give enough information for untrainedworkers to perform simple assembly-tasks where parts of the steps are done with direct collaboration with a robot. Misunderstandings of theinstructions from the test-persons led to multiple errors during assembly so future research is needed in how to efficiently design instructions.

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  • 10.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Integration of Augmented Reality Smart Glasses as Assembly Support: A Framework Implementation in a Quick Evaluation Tool2023In: International Journal of Manufacturing Research, ISSN 1750-0591, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 144-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented reality smart glasses (ARSG) have been successfully used as operator support in production. However, their use is not yet widespread, likely in part due to a lack of knowledge about how to integrate ARSG into production. This lack of knowledge can also make it hard to estimate whether this is a worthwhile investment. Our solution is to provide an online evaluation tool to help production planners estimate the likelihood that ARSG will be worth the investment cost in specific production cases. Based on a strawman design, multiple design iterations were followed by a pilot test performed by participants from different manufacturing companies involved in planning production for operators. A Likert scale survey was used to evaluate the tool. The results show a slightly positive evaluation of the tool with suggestions for improvement, including widening the scope and granularity of the tool. Future works include further iterations and case studies.

  • 11.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Institue of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Operators perspective on augmented reality as a support tool in engine assembly2018In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 72, p. 45-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented Reality (AR) has shown its potential in supporting operators in manufacturing. AR-glasses as a platform both in industrial use are emerging markets, thereby making portable and hands-free AR more and more feasible. An important aspect of integrating AR as a support tool for operators is their acceptance of the technology. This paper presents the results of interviewing operators regarding their view on AR technology in their field and observing them working in automotive engine assembly and how they interact with current instructions. The observations and follow-up questions identified three main aspects of the information that the operators looked at: validating screw torque, their current assembly time, and if something went wrong. The interviews showed that a large amount of the operators were positive towards using AR in assembly. This has given an insight in both the current information interaction the operators do and their view on the potential in using AR. Based on these insights we suggest a mock-up design of an AR-interface for engine assembly to serve as a base for future prototype designs.

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  • 12.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Moore, Philip
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    Sustainable Manufacturing, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Stockholm.
    Adaptive instructions to novice shop-floor operators using Augmented Reality2017In: Journal of Industrial and Production Engineering, ISSN 2168-1015, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 362-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel system using Augmented Reality and Expert Systems to enhance the quality and efficiency of shop-floor operators. The novel system proposed provides an adaptive tool that facilitates and enhances support on the shop-floor, due to its ability to dynamically customize the instructions displayed, dependent upon the competence of the user. A comparative study has been made between an existing method of quality control instructions at a machining line in an automotive engine plant and this novel system. It has been shown that the new approach outcompetes the existing system, not only in terms of perceived usability but also with respect to two other important shop-floor variables: quality and productivity. Along with previous research, the outcomes of these test cases indicate the value of using Augmented Reality technology to enhance shop-floor operators’ ability to learn and master new tasks.

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  • 13.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Gustavsson, Patrik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Augmented Reality Smart Glasses in the Smart Factory: Product Evaluation Guidelines and Review of Available Products2017In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 5, p. 9118-9130, article id 7927376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented reality smart glasses (ARSG) are increasingly popular and have been identified as a vital technology supporting shop-floor operators in the smart factories of the future. By improving our knowledge of how to efficiently evaluate and select ARSG for the shop-floor context, this paper aims to facilitate and accelerate the adoption of ARSG by the manufacturing industry. The market for ARSG has exploded in recent years, and the large variety of products to select from makes it not only difficult but also time consuming to identify the best alternative. To address this problem, this paper presents an efficient step-by-step process for evaluating ARSG, including concrete guidelines as to what parameters to consider and their recommended minimum values. Using the suggested evaluation process, manufacturing companies can quickly make optimal decisions about what products to implement on their shop floors. The paper demonstrates the evaluation process in practice, presenting a comprehensive review of currently available products along with a recommended best buy. The paper also identifies and discusses topics meriting research attention to ensure that ARSG are successfully implemented on the industrial shop floor.

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  • 14.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Ekblom, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Augmented Reality at the Industrial Shop-Floor2014In: Augmented and Virtual Reality: First International Conference, AVR 2014, Lecce, Italy, September 17-20, 2014, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Lucio Tommaso De Paolis; Antonio Mongelli, Springer International Publishing Switzerland , 2014, 1, p. 201-209Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a study of the potential of using augmented real-ityat the industrial shop-floor with the aim ofimprovingthe capability of the shop-floor operators. In the study, aprototype systemfor augmented reality is developed based on the Oculus Rift platform. The systemisevaluated through an experimentin which a physical three-dimensionalpuzzleis to be assembled.

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    Augmented Reality at the Industrial Shop-Floor
  • 15.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dynamic operator instructions based on augmented reality and rule-based expert systems2016In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 41, p. 346-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented reality is currently a hot research topic within manufacturing and a great potential of the technique is seen. In this study, we aim to increase the knowledge of the adaptation and usability of augmented reality for the training of operators. We propose an approach of using dynamic information content that is automatically adjusted to the individual operator and his/her learning progress for increased efficiency and shorter learning times. The approach make use of the concept of expert systems from the field of artificial intelligence for determine the information content on-line. We develop a framework called "Augmented Reality Expert System" (ARES) that combines AR and expert systems. A proof-of-concept evaluation of the framework is presented in the paper and possible future extensions are discussed.

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  • 16.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Visual Assembling Guidance Using Augmented Reality2015In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 1, p. 98-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a study of using the concept of augmented reality for supporting assembly line workers in carrying out their task optimally. By overlaying virtual information on real world objects – and thereby enhance the human’s perception of reality – augmented reality makes it possible to improve the visual guidance to the workers.  In the study, a prototype system is developed based on the Oculus Rift platform and evaluated using a simulated assembling task. The main aim is to investigate user acceptance and how this can possible be improved. 

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  • 17.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Holm, Magnus
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Danielsson, Oscar
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Wang, Lihui
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindgren Brewster, Rodney
    Volvo Cars Engine, Skövde, Sweden.
    Support Systems on the Industrial Shop-floors of the Future: Operators' Perspective on Augmented Reality2016In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 44, p. 108-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With augmented reality, virtual information can be overlaid on the real world in order to enhance a human’s perception of reality. In this study, we aim to deepen the knowledge of augmented reality in the shop-floor context and analyze its role within smart factories of the future. The study evaluates a number of approaches for realizing augmented reality and discusses advantages and disadvantages of different solutions from a shop-floor operator’s perspective. The evaluation is done in collaboration with industrial companies, including Volvo Cars and Volvo GTO amongst others. The study also identifies important future research directions for utilizing the full potential of the technology and successfully implement it on industrial shop-floors.

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