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  • 1.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Billing, Erik A.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    User Experience of Conveying Emotions by Touch2017In: Proceedings of the 26th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), IEEE, 2017, p. 1240-1247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, 64 users were asked to convey eight distinct emotion to a humanoid Nao robot via touch, and were then asked to evaluate their experiences of performing that task. Large differences between emotions were revealed. Users perceived conveying of positive/pro-social emotions as significantly easier than negative emotions, with love and disgust as the two extremes. When asked whether they would act differently towards a human, compared to the robot, the users’ replies varied. A content analysis of interviews revealed a generally positive user experience (UX) while interacting with the robot, but users also found the task challenging in several ways. Three major themes with impact on the UX emerged; responsiveness, robustness, and trickiness. The results are discussed in relation to a study of human-human affective tactile interaction, with implications for human-robot interaction (HRI) and design of social and affective robotics in particular. 

  • 2.
    Almér, Alexander
    et al.
    Göteborgs Universitet, Institutionen för tillämpad informationsteknologi.
    Lowe, RobertUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Göteborgs universitet.Billing, ErikUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proceedings of the 2016 Swecog conference2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Affective Touch in Human–Robot Interaction: Conveying Emotion to the Nao Robot2017In: International Journal of Social Robotics, ISSN 1875-4791, E-ISSN 1875-4805Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affective touch has a fundamental role in human development, social bonding, and for providing emotional support in interpersonal relationships. We present, what is to our knowledge, the first HRI study of tactile conveyance of both positive and negative emotions (affective touch) on the Nao robot, and based on an experimental set-up from a study of human–human tactile communication. In the present work, participants conveyed eight emotions to a small humanoid robot via touch. We found that female participants conveyed emotions for a longer time, using more varied interaction and touching more regions on the robot’s body, compared to male participants. Several differences between emotions were found such that emotions could be classified by the valence of the emotion conveyed, by combining touch amount and duration. Overall, these results show high agreement with those reported for human–human affective tactile communication and could also have impact on the design and placement of tactile sensors on humanoid robots.

  • 4.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sandamirskaya, Yulia
    Institute of Neuroinformatics, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Simultaneous Planning and Action: Neural-dynamic Sequencing of Elementary Behaviors in Robot Navigation2015In: Adaptive Behavior, ISSN 1059-7123, E-ISSN 1741-2633, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 243-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A technique for Simultaneous Planning and Action (SPA) based on Dynamic Field Theory (DFT) is presented. The model builds on previous workon representation of sequential behavior as attractors in dynamic neural fields. Here, we demonstrate how chains of competing attractors can be used to represent dynamic plans towards a goal state. The presentwork can be seen as an addition to a growing body of work that demonstratesthe role of DFT as a bridge between low-level reactive approachesand high-level symbol processing mechanisms. The architecture is evaluatedon a set of planning problems using a simulated e-puck robot, including analysis of the system's behavior in response to noise and temporary blockages ofthe planned route. The system makes no explicit distinction betweenplanning and execution phases, allowing continuous adaptation of the planned path. The proposed architecture exploits the DFT property of stability in relation to noise and changes in the environment. The neural dynamics are also exploited such that stay-or-switch action selection emerges where blockage of a planned path occurs: stay until the transient blockage is removed versus switch to an alternative route to the goal.

  • 5.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Svensson, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Göteborgs Universitet, Tillämpad IT.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University.
    Finding Your Way from the Bed to the Kitchen: Re-enacting and Re-combining Sensorimotor Episodes Learned from Human Demonstration2016In: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 3, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several simulation theories have been proposed as an explanation for how humans and other agents internalize an "inner world" that allows them to simulate interactions with the external real world - prospectively and retrospectively. Such internal simulation of interaction with the environment has been argued to be a key mechanism behind mentalizing and planning. In the present work, we study internal simulations in a robot acting in a simulated human environment. A model of sensory-motor interactions with the environment is generated from human demonstrations, and tested on a Robosoft Kompai robot. The model is used as a controller for the robot, reproducing the demonstrated behavior. Information from several different demonstrations is mixed, allowing the robot to produce novel paths through the environment, towards a goal specified by top-down contextual information. 

    The robot model is also used in a covert mode, where actions are inhibited and perceptions are generated by a forward model. As a result, the robot generates an internal simulation of the sensory-motor interactions with the environment. Similar to the overt mode, the model is able to reproduce the demonstrated behavior as internal simulations. When experiences from several demonstrations are combined with a top-down goal signal, the system produces internal simulations of novel paths through the environment. These results can be understood as the robot imagining an "inner world" generated from previous experience, allowing it to try out different possible futures without executing actions overtly.

    We found that the success rate in terms of reaching the specified goal was higher during internal simulation, compared to overt action. These results are linked to a reduction in prediction errors generated during covert action. Despite the fact that the model is quite successful in terms of generating covert behavior towards specified goals, internal simulations display different temporal distributions compared to their overt counterparts. Links to human cognition and specifically mental imagery are discussed.

  • 6.
    Durán, Boris
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lee, Gauss
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Learning a DFT-based sequence with reinforcement learning: A NAO implementation2012In: Paladyn - Journal of Behavioral Robotics, ISSN 2080-9778, E-ISSN 2081-4836, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 181-187Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Kiryazov, Kiril
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The role of arousal in embodying the cue-deficit model in multi-resource human-robot interaction2013In: Advances in Artificial Life: ECAL 2013: 2-6 September 2013, Taormina, Italy: Proceedings of the twelfth European Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems / [ed] Pietro Liò, Orazio Miglino, Giuseppe Nicosia, Stefano Nolfi, Mario Pavone, MIT Press, 2013, p. 19-26Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Kiryazov, Kiril
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Becker-Asano, Christian
    Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Freiburg, Albertstrase, 1979104, Freiburg, Germany.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    From the virtual to the robotic: Bringing emoting and appraising agents into reality2011In: Proceedings of the 2nd European Future Technologies Conference and Exhibition 2011 (FET 11) / [ed] Elisabeth Giacobino and Rolf Pfeifer, Elsevier, 2011, Vol. - 7, p. 241-243Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    - A classical appraisal model of emotions extended with artificial metabolic mechanisms is presented. The new architecture is based on two existing models: WASABI and a model of Microbial Fuel Cell technology. WASABI is a top-down cognitive model which is implemented in several virtual world applications such as a museum guide. Microbial fuel cells provide energy for the robot through digesting food. The presented work is a first step towards imbuing a physical robot with emotions of human-like complexity. Classically, such integration has only been attempted in the virtual domain. The research aim is to study the embodied appraisal theory and to show the role of the body in the emotion mechanisms. Some initial tests of the architecture with humanoid NAO robot in a minimalistic scenario are presented. © Selection and peer-review under responsibility of FET11 conference organizers and published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 9.
    Kiryazov, Kiril
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Becker-Asano, Christian
    Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg.
    Randazzo, Marco
    Istittuto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genoa.
    The role of arousal in two-resource problem tasks for humanoid service robots2013In: RO-MAN, 2013 IEEE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 62-69Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Lee, Gauss
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Modelling Early Infant Walking: Testing a Generic CPG Architecture on the NAO Humanoid2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, a simple CPG network is shown to model early infant walking, in particular the onset of independent walking. The difference between early infant walking and early adult walking is addressed with respect to the underlying neurophysiology and evaluated according to gait attributes. Based on this, we successfully model the early infant walking gait on the NAO robot and compare its motion dynamics and performance to those of infants. Our model is able to capture the core properties of early infant walking. We identify differences in the morphologies between the robot and infant and the effect of this on their respective performance. In conclusion, early infant walking can be seen to develop as a function of the CPG network and morphological characteristics.

  • 11.
    Li, Cai
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Duran, Boris
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Humanoids that crawl: Comparing gait performance of iCub and NAO using a CPG architecture2011In: Proceedings - 2011 IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Automation Engineering, CSAE 2011 / [ed] Shaozi Li, Ying Dai, IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, p. 577-582Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, a generic CPG architecture is used to model infant crawling gaits and is implemented on the NAO robot platform. The CPG architecture is chosen via a systematic approach to designing CPG networks on the basis of group theory and dynamic systems theory. The NAO robot performance is compared to the iCub robot which has a different anatomical structure. Finally, the comparison of performance and NAO whole-body stability are assessed to show the adaptive property of the CPG architecture and the extent of its ability to transfer to different robot morphologies. © 2011 IEEE.

  • 12.
    Li, Cai
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Sweden.
    A Novel Approach to Locomotion Learning: Actor-Critic Architecture using Central Pattern Generators and Dynamic Motor Primitives2014In: Frontiers in Neurorobotics, ISSN 1662-5218, Vol. 8, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Li, Cai
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Crawling Posture Learning in Humanoid Robots using a Natural-Actor Critic CPG Architecture2013In: Advances in Artificial Life, ECAL 2013: Proceedings of the twelfth European Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems, 2013, p. 1182-1190Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Li, Cai
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Humanoids learning to crawl based on Natural CPG-Actor-Critic and Motor Primitives2013In: Proceedings of the IROS 2013 Workshopon Neuroscience and Robotics: Towards a robot-enabled,Neuroscience-guided healthy society, 2013, p. 7-15Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Li, Cai
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Humanoids learning to walk: a natural CPG-actor-critic architecture2013In: Frontiers in Neurorobotics, ISSN 1662-5218, Vol. 7, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The identification of learning mechanisms for locomotion has been the subject of much research for some time but many challenges remain. Dynamic systems theory (DST) offers a novel approach to humanoid learning through environmental interaction. Reinforcement learning (RL) has offered a promising method to adaptively link the dynamic system to the environment it interacts with via a reward-based value system. In this paper, we propose a model that integrates the above perspectives and applies it to the case of a humanoid (NAO) robot learning to walk the ability of which emerges from its value-based interaction with the environment. In the model, a simplified central pattern generator (CPG) architecture inspired by neuroscientific research and DST is integrated with an actor-critic approach to RL (cpg-actor-critic). In the cpg-actor-critic architecture, least-square-temporal-difference based learning converges to the optimal solution quickly by using natural gradient learning and balancing exploration and exploitation. Futhermore, rather than using a traditional (designer-specified) reward it uses a dynamic value function as a stability indicator that adapts to the environment. The results obtained are analyzed using a novel DST-based embodied cognition approach. Learning to walk, from this perspective, is a process of integrating levels of sensorimotor activity and value.

  • 16.
    Li, Cai
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Modelling Walking Behaviors Based on CPGs: A Simplified Bio-inspired Architecture2012In: From Animals to Animats 12: 12th International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior, SAB 2012Odense, Denamark, August 27-30, 2012 / [ed] Tom Ziemke, Christian Balkenius, John Hallam, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 156-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we use a recurrent neural network including four-cell core architecture to model the walking gait and implement it with the simulated and physical NAO robot. Meanwhile, inspired by the biological CPG models, we propose a simplified CPG model which comprises motorneurons, interneurons, sensor neurons and the simplified spinal cord. Within this model, the CPGs do not directly output trajectories to the servo motors. Instead, they only work to maintain the phase relation among ipsilateral and contralateral limbs. The final output is dependent on the integration of CPG signals, outputs of interneurons, motor neurons and sensor neurons (sensory feedback).

  • 17.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Designing for Emergent Ultrastable Behaviour in Complex Artificial Systems: The Quest for Minimizing Heteronomous Constraints2013In: Constructivist Foundations, ISSN 1782-348X, E-ISSN 1782-348X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 105-107Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Embodiment in Emotional Learning, Decision Making and Behaviour: The ‘What’ and the ‘How’ of Action2014In: Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Aging and Assistive Environments: 8th International Conference, UAHCI 2014, Held as Part of HCI International 2014, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, June 22-27, 2014, Proceedings, Part III / [ed] Constantine Stephanidis & Margherita Antona, Springer, 2014, p. 672-679Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Hertfordshire.
    The Evolution of Affective Displays and Related Strategies2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Almér, Alexander
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Sandamirskaya, Yulia
    Institute of Neuroinformatics, Neuroscience Center Zurich, University and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Balkenius, Christian
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Affective–associative two-process theory: a neurocomputational account of partial reinforcement extinction effects2017In: Biological Cybernetics, ISSN 0340-1200, E-ISSN 1432-0770, Vol. 111, no 5-6, p. 365-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) is an experimentally established phenomenon: behavioural response to a given stimulus is more persistent when previously inconsistently rewarded than when consistently rewarded. This phenomenon is, however, controversial in animal/human learning theory. Contradictory findings exist regarding when the PREE occurs. One body of research has found a within-subjects PREE, while another has found a within-subjects reversed PREE (RPREE). These opposing findings constitute what is considered the most important problem of PREE for theoreticians to explain. Here, we provide a neurocomputational account of the PREE, which helps to reconcile these seemingly contradictory findings of within-subjects experimental conditions. The performance of our model demonstrates how omission expectancy, learned according to low probability reward, comes to control response choice following discontinuation of reward presentation (extinction). We find that a PREE will occur when multiple responses become controlled by omission expectation in extinction, but not when only one omission-mediated response is available. Our model exploits the affective states of reward acquisition and reward omission expectancy in order to differentially classify stimuli and differentially mediate response choice. We demonstrate that stimulus–response (retrospective) and stimulus–expectation–response (prospective) routes are required to provide a necessary and sufficient explanation of the PREE versus RPREE data and that Omission representation is key for explaining the nonlinear nature of extinction data.

  • 21.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Ice Lab, Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Almér, Alexander
    Ice Lab, Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Gustaf
    Ice Lab, Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gander, Pierre
    Ice Lab, Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Michael, John
    Department of Cognitive Science, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Vesper, Cordula
    Department of Cognitive Science, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Minimalist Social-Affective Value for Use in Joint Action: A Neural-Computational Hypothesis2016In: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5188, E-ISSN 1662-5188, Vol. 10, article id 88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Joint Action is typically described as social interaction that requires coordination among two or more co-actors in order to achieve a common goal. In this article, we put forward a hypothesis for the existence of a neural-computational mechanism of affective valuation that may be critically exploited in Joint Action. Such a mechanism would serve to facilitate coordination between co-actors permitting a reduction of required information. Our hypothesized affective mechanism provides a value function based implementation of Associative Two-Process (ATP) theory that entails the classification of external stimuli according to outcome expectancies. This approach has been used to describe animal and human action that concerns differential outcome expectancies. Until now it has not been applied to social interaction. We describe our Affective ATP model as applied to social learning consistent with an “extended common currency” perspective in the social neuroscience literature. We contrast this to an alternative mechanism that provides an example implementation of the so-called social-specific value perspective. In brief, our Social-Affective ATP mechanism builds upon established formalisms for reinforcement learning (temporal difference learning models) nuanced to accommodate expectations (consistent with ATP theory) and extended to integrate non-social and social cues for use in Joint Action.

  • 22.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lund, Anja
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden / The Swedish School of Textiles, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Designing for a Wearable Affective Interface for the NAO Robot: A Study of Emotion Conveyance by Touch2018In: Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, ISSN 2414-4088, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We here present results and analysis from a study of affective tactile communication between human and humanoid robot (the NAO robot). In the present work, participants conveyed eight emotions to the NAO via touch. In this study, we sought to understand the potential for using a wearable affective (tactile) interface, or WAffI. The aims of our study were to address the following: (i) how emotions and affective states can be conveyed (encoded) to such a humanoid robot, (ii) what are the effects of dressing the NAO in the WAffI on emotion conveyance and (iii) what is the potential for decoding emotion and affective states. We found that subjects conveyed touch for longer duration and over more locations on the robot when the NAO was dressed with WAffI than when it was not. Our analysis illuminates ways by which affective valence, and separate emotions, might be decoded by a humanoid robot according to the different features of touch: intensity, duration, location, type. Finally, we discuss the types of sensors and their distribution as they may be embedded within the WAffI and that would likely benefit Human-NAO (and Human-Humanoid) interaction along the affective tactile dimension.

  • 23.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Barakova, Emilia
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Broekens, Joost
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Grounding emotions in robots: An introduction to the special issue2016In: Adaptive Behavior, ISSN 1059-7123, E-ISSN 1741-2633, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 263-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Robots inhabiting human environments need to act in relation to their own experience and embodiment as well as to social and emotional aspects. Robots that learn, act upon and incorporate their own experience and perception of others’ emotions into their responses make not only more productive artificial agents but also agents with whom humans can appropriately interact. This special issue seeks to address the significance of grounding of emotions in robots in relation to aspects of physical and homeostatic interaction in the world at an individual and social level. Specific questions concern: How can emotion and social interaction be grounded in the behavioral activity of the robotic system? Is a robot able to have intrinsic emotions? How can emotions, grounded in the embodiment of the robot, facilitate individually and socially adaptive behavior to the robot? This opening chapter provides an introduction to the articles that comprise this special issue and briefly discusses their relationship to grounding emotions in robots.

  • 24.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Göteborgs Universitet, Tillämpad IT.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Affective-Associative Two-Process theory: A neural network investigation of adaptive behaviour in differential outcomes training2017In: Adaptive Behavior, ISSN 1059-7123, E-ISSN 1741-2633, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 5-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we present a novel neural network implementation of Associative Two-Process (ATP) theory based on an Actor–Critic-like architecture. Our implementation emphasizes the affective components of differential reward magnitude and reward omission expectation and thus we model Affective-Associative Two-Process theory (Aff-ATP). ATP has been used to explain the findings of differential outcomes training (DOT) procedures, which emphasize learning differentially valuated outcomes for cueing actions previously associated with those outcomes. ATP hypothesizes the existence of a ‘prospective’ memory route through which outcome expectations can bring to bear on decision making and can even substitute for decision making based on the ‘retrospective’ inputs of standard working memory. While DOT procedures are well recognized in the animal learning literature they have not previously been computationally modelled. The model presented in this article helps clarify the role of ATP computationally through the capturing of empirical data based on DOT. Our Aff-ATP model illuminates the different roles that prospective and retrospective memory can have in decision making (combining inputs to action selection functions). In specific cases, the model’s prospective route allows for adaptive switching (correct action selection prior to learning) following changes in the stimulus–response–outcome contingencies.

  • 25.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire.
    Cañamero, Lola
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire.
    Nehaniv, Chrystopher L.
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire.
    Polani, Daniel
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, School of Computer Science, University of Hertfordshire.
    The Evolution of Affect-Related Displays, Recognition and Related Strategies2004In: Artificial Life IX: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on the Simulation and Synthesis of Living Systems / [ed] Jordan Pollack, Mark Bedau, Phil Husbands, Takashi Ikegami, & Richard A. Watson, MIT Press, 2004, p. 176-181Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Hertfordshire.
    Cañamero, Lola
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Hertfordshire.
    Nehaniv, Chrystopher
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Hertfordshire.
    Polani, Daniel
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Hertfordshire.
    Strategies in the Evolution of Affect Related Displays and Recognition2004In: The Logic of Artificial Life: Abstracting And Synthesizing The Principles Of Living Systems: Proceedings of the 6th German Workshop on Artificial Life, April 14-16, 2004, Bamberg, Germany, IOS Press, 2004, p. 89-95Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Almer, Alexander
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Predictive regulation in affective and adaptive behaviour: An allostatic-cybernetics perspective2017In: Advanced Research on Biologically Inspired Cognitive Architectures / [ed] Jordi Vallverdú, Manuel Mazzara, Max Talanov, Salvatore Distefano and Robert Lowe, IGI Global, 2017, p. 149-176Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, different notions of allostasis (the process of achieving stability through change ) as they apply to adaptive behavior are presented. The authors discuss how notions of allostasis can be usefully applied to Cybernetics-based homeostatic systems. Particular emphasis is placed upon affective states - motivational and emotional - and, above all, the notion of 'predictive' regulation, as distinct from forms of 'reactive' regulation, in homeostatic systems. The authors focus here on Ashby's ultrastability concept that entails behavior change for correcting homeostatic errors (deviations from the healthy range of essential, physiological, variables). The authors consider how the ultrastability concept can be broadened to incorporate allostatic mechanisms and how they may enhance adaptive physiological and behavioral activity. Finally, this chapter references different Cybernetics frameworks that incorporate the notion of allostasis. The article then attempts to untangle how the given perspectives fit into the 'allostatic ultrastable systems' framework postulated. 

  • 28.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Duran, Boris
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Dynamic Field Theoretic Model of Iowa Gambling Task Performance2010In: 2010 IEEE 9th International Conference on Development and Learning (ICDL): Ann Arbor, MI, August 18-21, 2010, IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. 297-304Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Choice behaviour where outcome-contingencies vary or are prohabilistic has been the focus of many benchmark tasks of infant to adult development in the psychology literature. Dynamic field theoretic (DFT) investigations of cognitive and behavioural competencies have been used in order to identify parameters critical to infant development. In this paper we report the findings of a DFT model that is able to replicate normal functioning adult  performance on the Iowa gambling task (IGT).  The model offers a simple demonstration proof of the parsimonious reversal learning alternative to Damasio’s somatic marker  explanation of IGT performance. Our simple model demonstrates a potentially important role for reinforcement/reward learning to generating behaviour that allows for advantageous performance. We compare our DFT modelling approach to one used on the A-not-B infant paradigm and suggest that a critical aspect of development lies in the ability to flexibly trade off perseverative versus exploratory behaviour in order to capture statistical choice-outcome contingencies. Finally, we discuss the importance of an investigation of the IGT in an embodied setting where reward prediction learning may provide critical means by which adaptive behavioural reversals can be enacted.

  • 29.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Herrera, Carlos
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Morse, Anthony
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The Embodied Dynamics of Emotion, Appraisal and Attention2007In: Attention in Cognitive Systems: Theories and Systems from an Interdisciplinary Viewpoint / [ed] Lucas Paletta, Erich Rome, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2007, p. 1-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions can be considered inextricably linked to embodied appraisals - perceptions of bodily states that inform agents of how they are faring in the world relative to their own well-being. Emotion-appraisals are thus relational phenomena the relevance of which can be learned or evolutionarily selected for given a reliable coupling between agent-internal and environmental states. An emotion-appraisal attentional disposition permits agents to produce behaviour that exploits such couplings allowing for adaptive agent performance across agent-environment interactions. This chapter discusses emotions in terms of dynamical processes whereby attentional dispositions are considered central to an understanding of behaviour. The need to reconcile a dynamical systems perspective with an approach that views emotions as attentional dispositions representative of embodied relational phenomena (embodied appraisals) is argued for. Attention and emotion are considered to be features of adaptive agent behaviour that are interdependent in their temporal, structural and organizational relations.

  • 30.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Humphries, Mark
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Psychol, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The dual-route hypothesis: evaluating a neurocomputational model of fear conditioning in rats2009In: Connection science (Print), ISSN 0954-0091, E-ISSN 1360-0494, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 15-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Research on the neural bases of emotion raises much controversy and few quantitative models exist that can help address the issues raised. Here we replicate and dissect one of those models, Armony and colleagues’neurocomputational model of fear conditioning, which is based on LeDoux’s dual-route hypothesis regarding the rat fear circuitry. The importance of the model’s modular abstraction of the neuroanatomy, its use of population coding, and in particular the interplay between thalamo-amygdala and thalamo-cortical pathways are tested. We show that a trivially minimal version of the model can produce conditioning to a reinforced stimulus without recourse to the dual pathway structure, but a modification of the original model, which nevertheless preserves the thalamo-amygdala and (reduced) thalamo-cortical pathways, enables stronger conditioning to a conditioned stimulus. Implications for neurocomputational modelling approaches are discussed.

     

  • 31.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Kiryazov, Kiril
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Utilizing Emotions in Autonomous Robots: An Enactive Approach2014In: Emotion Modeling: Towards Pragmatic Computational Models of Affective Processes / [ed] Tibor Bosse, Joost Broekens, João Dias & Janneke van der Zwaan, Springer, 2014, p. 76-98Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Mannella, Francesco
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, Laboratory of Computational Embodied Neuroscience.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Baldassarre, Gianluca
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, Laboratory of Computational Embodied Neuroscience.
    Modelling coordination of learning systems: A reservoir systems approach to dopamine modulated pavlovian conditioning2011In: Advances in Artificial Life: Darwin Meets von Neumann / [ed] Kampis, György, Karsai, István, Szathmáry, Eörs, Berlin: Springer, 2011, no PART 1, p. 410-417Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ieropoulos, Ioannis
    University of West England, Bristol Robotics Lab, UK.
    Greenman, John
    University of West England, Bristol Robotics Lab, UK.
    Melhuish, Chris
    University of West England, Bristol Robotics Lab, UK.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Grounding Motivation in Energy Autonomy: A Study of Artificial Metabolism Constrained Robot Dynamics2010In: Artificial Life XII: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems / [ed] Harold Fellermann, Mark Dörr, Martin Hanczyc, Lone Ladegaard Laursen, Sarah Maurer, Daniel Merkle, Pierre-Alain Monnard, Kasper Støy, Steen Rasmussen, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: MIT Press, 2010, p. 725-732Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an evolutionary robotics investigation into the metabolism constrained homeostatic dynamics of a simulated robot. Unlike existing research that has focused on either energy or motivation autonomy the robot described here is considered in terms of energy-motivation autonomy. This stipulation is made according to a requirement of autonomous systems to spatiotemporally integrate environmental and physiological sensed information. In our experiment, the latter is generated by a simulated artificial metabolism (a microbial fuel cell batch) and its integration with the former is determined by an E-GasNet-active vision interface. The investigation centres on robot performance in a three-dimensional simulator on a stereotyped two-resource problem. Motivationlike states emerge according to periodic dynamics identifiable for two viable sensorimotor strategies. Robot adaptivity is found to be sensitive to experimenter-manipulated deviations from evolved metabolic constraints. Deviations detrimentally affect the viability of cognitive (anticipatory) capacities even where constraints are significantly lessened. These results support the hypothesis that grounding motivationally autonomous robots is critical to adaptivity and cognition.

  • 34.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Morse, Anthony
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Predictive Regulation: Allostasis, Behavioural Flexibility and Fear Learning2008In: Proceedings of The Fourth Workshop on Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning Systems, Muncih, june 26th, 2008 / [ed] Giovanni Pezzulo, Martin V. Butz, Olivier Sigaud, Gianluca Baldassarre, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione - CNR , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Philippe, Pierre
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Morse, Anthony
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Affective Modulation of Embodied Dynamics2008In: The role of emotion in adaptive behaviour and cognitive robotics / [ed] Robert Lowe, Anthony Morse, Tom Ziemke, 2008, p. 48-64Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom.
    Polani, Daniel
    Adaptive Systems Research Group, Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom.
    Preventing bluff agent invasions in honest societies2003In: Advances in Artificial Life: 7th European Conference, ECAL 2003, Dortmund, Germany, September 14-17, 2003. Proceedings / [ed] Wolfgang Banzhaf, Jens Ziegler, Thomas Christaller, Peter Dittrich, Jan T. Kim, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2003, p. 118-127Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Sandarmirskaya, Yulia
    Theory of Cognitive Systems, Institut für Neuroinformatik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Neural Dynamic Model of Associative Two-Process Theory: The Differential Outcomes Effect and Infant Development2014In: IEEE ICDL-EPIROB 2014: The Fourth Joint IEEE International Conference on Development and Learning and on Epigenetic Robotics, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 440-447Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Exploring the relationship of reward and Punishment in reinforcement learning: Evolving action meta-learning functions in goal navigation2013In: Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE Symposium on Adaptive Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning (ADPRL), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 140-147Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The feeling of action tendencies: on the emotional regulation of goal-directed behavior2011In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 2, no Dec, p. Article 346-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we review the nature of the functional and causal relationship between neurophysiologically/psychologically generated states of emotional feeling and action tendencies and extrapolate a novel perspective. Emotion theory, over the past century and beyond, has tended to regard feeling and action tendency as independent phenomena: attempts to outline the functional and causal relationship that exists between them have been framed therein. Classically, such relationships have been viewed as unidirectional, but an argument for bidirectionality rooted in a dynamic systems perspective has gained strength in recent years whereby the feeling-action tendency relationship is viewed as a composite whole. On the basis of our review of somatic-visceral theories of feelings, we argue that feelings are grounded upon neural-dynamic representations (elevated and stable activation patterns) of action tendency. Such representations amount to predictions updated by cognitive and bodily feedback. Specifically, we view emotional feelings as minimalist predictions of the action tendency (what the agent is physiologically and cognitively primed to do) in a given situation. The essence of this point is captured by our exposition of action tendency prediction-feedback loops with we consider, above all, in the context of emotion regulation, and in particular, of emotional regulation of goal-directed behavior. The perspective outlined may be of use to emotion theorists, computational modelers, and roboticists.

  • 40.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The role of reinforcement in affective computation2013In: Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence for Creativity and Affective Computing, CICAC 2013, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 17-24Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Lowe, Robert
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Towards a cognitive robotics methodology for reward-based decision-making: dynamical systems modelling of the Iowa Gambling Task2010In: Connection science (Print), ISSN 0954-0091, E-ISSN 1360-0494, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 247-289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) posits that the role of emotions and mental states in decision-making manifests through bodily responses to stimuli of import to the organism’s welfare. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), proposed by Bechara and Damasio in the mid-1990s, has provided the major source of empirical validation to the role of somatic markers in the service of flexible and cost-effective decision-making in humans. In recent years the IGT has been the subject of much criticism concerning: (1) whether measures of somatic markers reveal that they are important for decision-making as opposed to behaviour preparation; (2) the underlying neural substrate posited as critical to decision-making of the type relevant to the task; and (3) aspects of the methodological approach used, particularly on the canonical version of the task. In this paper, a cognitive robotics methodology is proposed to explore a dynamical systems approach as it applies to the neural computation of reward-based learning and issues concerning embodiment. This approach is particularly relevant in light of a strongly emerging alternative hypothesis to the SMH, the reversal learning hypothesis, which links, behaviourally and neurocomputationally, a number of more or less complex reward-based decision-making tasks, including the ‘A-not-B’ task – already subject to dynamical systems investigations with a focus on neural activation dynamics. It is also suggested that the cognitive robotics methodology may be used to extend systematically the IGT benchmark to more naturalised, but nevertheless controlled, settings that might better explore the extent to which the SMH, and somatic states per se, impact on complex decision-making.

  • 42.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    (Em)powering Emergent Cognition: Realistic proto-allostasis as a foundational route to cognitive ability2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ieropoulos, Ioannis
    Bristol Robotics Laboratory, University of Bristol and University of the West of England, UK.
    Melhuish, Chris
    Bristol Robotics Laboratory, University of Bristol and University of the West of England, UK.
    Greenman, John
    Microbiology Research Lab, University of the West of England, UK.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Microbial fuel cell driven behavioural dynamics in robot simulations2010In: Artificial Life XII: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on the Synthesis and Simulation of Living Systems / [ed] Harold Fellermann, Mark Dörr, Martin Hanczyc, Lone Ladegaard Laursen, Sarah Maurer, Daniel Merkle, Pierre-Alain Monnard, Kasper Støy, Steen Rasmussen, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2010, p. 749-756Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the present study we report the first application of a recently proposed model for realistic microbial fuel cells (MFCs) energy generation dynamics, suitable for robotic simulations with minimal and extremely limited computational overhead. A simulated agent was adapted in order to engage in a viable interaction with its environment. It achieved energy autonomy by maintaining viable levels of the critical variables of MFCs, namely cathodic hydration and anodic substrate biochemical energy. After unsupervised adaptation by genetic algorithm, these crucial variables modulate the behavioral dynamics expressed by viable robots in their interaction with the environment. The analysis of this physically rooted and self-organized dynamic action selection mechanism constitutes a novel practical contribution of this work. We also compare two different viable strategies, a self-organized continuous and a pulsed behavior, in order to foresee the possible cognitive implications of such biologicalmechatronics hybrid symbionts in a novel scenario of ecologically grounded energy and motivational autonomy.

  • 44.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Embodied anticipation for swift re-adaptation in neurocomputational cognitive architectures for robotic agents2009In: Proceedings of the 31th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society / [ed] Niels Taatgen & Hedderik van Rijn, Austin: Cognitive Science Society, Inc., 2009, p. 3082-3087Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coupling between a body (in an extended sense that encompasses both neural and non-neural dynamics) and its environment is here conceived as a critical substrate for cognition. We propose and discuss the plan for a neurocomputational cognitive architecture for robotic agents, so far implemented in its minimalist form for supporting the behavior of a simple simulated agent. A non-neural internal bodily mechanism (crucially characterized by a time scale much slower than the normal sensory-motor interactions of the robot with its environment) extends the cognitive potential of a system composed of purely reactive parts with a dynamic action selection mechanism and the capacity to integrate information over time. The same non-neural mechanism is the foundation for a novel, minimalist anticipatory architecture, capable of swift re-adaptation to related yet novel tasks.

  • 45.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Embodied anticipation in neurocomputational cognitive architectures for robotic agents2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coupling between a body (in an extended sense that encompasses both neural and non-neural dynamics) and its environment is here conceived as a critical substrate for cognition. We propose and discuss the plan for a neurocomputational cognitive architecture for robotic agents, so far implemented in its minimal form for supporting the behavior of a simple simulated robotic agent. A non-neural internal bodily mechanism (crucially characterized by a time scale much slower than the normal sensory-motor interactions of the robot with its environment) extends the cognitive potential of a system composed of purely reactive parts with a dynamic action selection mechanism and the capacity to integrate information over time. The same non-neural mechanism is the foundation for a novel, minimalist anticipatory architecture, implementing our bodily-anticipation hypothesis and capable of swift readaptation to related yet novel tasks.1

  • 46.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Energy Constraints and Behavioral Complexity: The Case of a Robot with a Living Core2011In: Complex Adaptive Systems: Energy, Information, and Intelligence: Papers from the AAAI Fall Symposium / [ed] Mirsad Hadžikadić, Ted Carmichael, Palo Alto, Calif.: AAAI Press, 2011, p. 109-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new scenarios of contemporary adaptive robotics seem to suggest a transformation of the traditional methods. In the search for new approaches to the control of adaptive autonomous systems, the mind becomes a fundamental source of inspiration. In this paper we anticipate, through the use of simulation, the cognitive and behavioral properties that emerge from a recent prototype robotic platform, EcoBot, a family of bio-mechatronic symbionts provided with an 'artificial metabolism', that has been under physical development during recent years. Its energy reliance on a biological component and the consequent limitation of its supplied energy determine a special kind of dynamic coupling between the robot and its environment. Rather than just an obstacle, energetic constraints become the opportunity for the development of a rich set of behavioral and cognitive properties.

  • 47.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    More from the Body: Embodied anticipation for swift re-adaptation in neurocomputational cognitive architectures for robotic agents2010In: Advances in Cognitive Systems / [ed] Nefti-Meziani, Samia, Stevenage: Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2010, p. 249-270Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coupling between a body (in an extended sense that encompasses  both neural and non-neural dynamics) and its environment is here conceived as a critical substrate for cognition. We propose and discuss the plan for a neurocomputational cognitive architecture for robotic agents, so far implemented in its minimal form for supporting the behavior of a simple simulated robotic agent. A non-neural internal bodily mechanism (crucially characterized by a time scale much slower than the normal sensory-motor interactions of the robot with its environment) extends the cognitive potential of a system composed of purely reactive parts with a dynamic action selection mechanism and the capacity to integrate information over time. The same non-neural mechanism is the foundation for a novel, minimalist anticipatory architecture, implementing our bodily-anticipation hypothesis and capable of swift re-adaptation to related yet novel tasks.

  • 48.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The Cognitive Body: From Dynamic Modulation to Anticipation2009In: Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning Systems, ABiALS 2008: From Psychological Theories to Artificial Cognitive Systems / [ed] Giovanni Pezzulo, Martin V. Butz, Olivier Sigaud, Gianluca Baldassarre, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 132-151Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Starting from the situated and embodied perspective on the study of cognition as a source of inspiration, this paper programmatically outlines a path towards an experimental exploration of the role of the body in a minimal anticipatory cognitive architecture. Cognition is here conceived and synthetically analyzed as a broadly extended and distributed dynamic process emerging from the interplay between a body, a nervous system and their environment. Firstly, we show how a non-neural internal state, crucially characterized by slowly changing dynamics, can modulate the activity of a simple neurocontroller. The result, emergent from the use of a standard evolutionary robotic simulation, is a selforganized, dynamic action selection mechanism, effectively operating in a context dependent way. Secondly, we show how these characteristics can be exploited by a novel minimalist anticipatory cognitive architecture. Rather than a direct causal connection between the anticipationprocess and the selection of the appropriate behavior, it implements a model for dynamic anticipation that operates via bodily mediation (bodily-anticipation hypothesis). This allows the system to swiftly scale up to more complex tasks never experienced before, achieving flexible and robust behavior with minimal adaptive cost.

  • 49.
    Montebelli, Alberto
    et al.
    Department of Automation and Systems Technology, Aalto University, Finland.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Toward Metabolic Robotics: Insights from Modeling Embodied Cognition in a Biomechatronic Symbiont2013In: Artificial Life, ISSN 1064-5462, E-ISSN 1530-9185, Vol. 19, no 3-4, p. 299-315Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Morse, Anthony F.
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    A Neurocomputational Model of Anticipation and Sustained Inattentional Blindness in Hierarchies2009In: Anticipatory Behavior in Adaptive Learning systems, ABiALS 2008 / [ed] Giovanni Pezzulo, Martin V. Butz, Olivier Sigaud, Gianluca Baldassarre, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, p. 152-169Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anticipation and prediction have been identified as key functions of many brain areas facilitating recognition, perception, and planning. In this chapter we present a hierarchical neurocomputational model in which feedback, effectively predicting or anticipating task-relevant features, leads to sustained inattentional blindness. A psychological experiment on sustained inattentional blindness in human subjects is simulated to provide visual input to a hierarchy of Echo State Networks. Other parts of the model receive input relevant to tracking the attended object and also detecting the unexpected object, feedback from which is then used to simulate engagement in the task and compared to results obtained without feedback, simulating passive observation. We find a significant effect of anticipation enhancing performance at the task and simultaneously degrading detection of unexpected features, thereby modelling the sustained inattentional blindness effect. We therefore suggest that anticipatory /predictive mechanisms are responsible for sustained inattentional blindness.

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