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  • 1.
    Andersson, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Vestman, Caroline
    Primary Health Care Center, Gullspång, Sweden.
    Kjellsdotter, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Experiences of specially trained personnel of group education for patients with type 2 diabetes: A lifeworld approach2019In: Nursing Open, E-ISSN 2054-1058, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 635-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:To describe how the group education process for people with type 2 diabetes is experienced by diabetes nurses and dietitians who support the patients’ learning, in a primary care setting.

    Design:The project took place at two primary care settings in the south of Sweden.

    Methods:Data collected from focus‐group interviews and reflection notes were subjected to phenomenological analysis.

    Results:The specially trained personnel experienced that group education made it possible for the patients to learn through reflection concerning their own and others’ experiences. Furthermore, group education entailed increased knowledge for the trained personnel. When the patients were challenged to make changes in their lives with the illness, the personnel experienced that both patients and personnel supported each other. The study concludes that the trained personnel person‐centred approach, with help of the didactic model, get tools to support patients learning.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Svanström, Rune
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Ek, Kristina
    University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Rosén, Helena
    Health Sciences, University of Lund, Lund.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    'The challenge to take charge of life with long-term illness': Nurses' experiences of supporting patients' learning with the didactic model2015In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 24, no 23-24, p. 3409-3416Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Att lära sig stödja patienters lärande2015In: Reflektion i lärande och vård: En utmaning för sjuksköterskan / [ed] Mia Berglund & Margaretha Ekebergh, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, p. 187-198Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Att ta rodret i livet med långvarig sjukdom2011In: CF-bladet - Medlemsblad för Riksförbundet Cystisk Fibros i Sverige, no 3, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Att ta rodret i livet med långvarig sjukdom: Lärande utmaningar vid långvarig sjukdom2011In: Dialäsen, ISSN 1104-4616, no 5, p. 37-40Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 6.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Att ta rodret i sitt liv: Lärande utmaningar vid långvarig sjukdom2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A starting point for this thesis is that patients’ learning has not received sufficient attention and thus has not featured in the study programmes in the field of caring. Focus has instead been placed on patients being given information and advice about their illness and treatment, advice that they are then expected to comply with. Too little attention has been paid to the individual who lives with his/her illness and who should be considered to have significant experiences. The overall aim has been to analyze and describe the phenomenon of learning to live with long-term illness as well as to develop a didactic model that can help carers to support patients’ learning processes.

    The theoretical perspective in the thesis is lifeworld theory, which permeates ontological, epistemological and methodological standpoints and also the view on learning. The design and carrying out of the research is based on a reflective lifeworld approach. The empirical study consists of interviews with people who live with different types of long-term illnesses.

    The learning that follows life with a long-term illness is generated in such a way as to respond to the will to live the well-known everyday life. A greater understanding of the empirical results has been achieved by a lifeworld philosophical elucidation, with a particular focus on learning turning points and the importance of reflection. Based on the empirical results, the lifeworld philosophical elucidation and the caring science lifeworld didactics a didactic model has been formulated. This model is entitled: The challenge – to take charge of one’s life with long-term illness. The model contains four theses: 1) Confronting one’s life situation and challenging to make a change, 2) Positioning oneself at a distance when creating a new whole, 3) Developing self-consciousness and taking responsibility, 4) Making learning visible with the aim of providing development and balance in life.

    The results in the thesis show that a genuine learning is something that differs from the learning of information and that the learning must be supported at an existential level based on the sufferer’s situation and for a long period of time.

  • 7.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Lärande vid långvarig sjukdom: Utmaningar för patient och vårdare2012 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Nu satsar Högskolan i Skövde på omvårdnadshandledning2010In: Medlemsbladet, Handledning i omvårdnad, no 1, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Senaste nytt från Skövde2011In: Medlemsbladet, Handledning i omvårdnad, no 2, p. 7-7Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Utmaningen - att ta rodret i livet med långvarig sjukdom2012In: Njurfunk, ISSN 0347-1365, Vol. 1, no 39, p. 36-38Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Andersson, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Kjellsdotter, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Att drabbas av långvarig sjukdom2017In: Vägen till patientens värld och personcentrerad vård: Att bli lyssnad på och förstådd / [ed] Karin Dahlberg, Inger Ekman, Stockholm: Liber, 2017, 1, p. 93-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Ek, Kristina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Att förstå de didaktiska redskapen i utbildningen2015In: Reflektion i lärande och vård: En utmaning för sjuksköterskan / [ed] Mia Berglund & Margaretha Ekebergh, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, p. 47-68Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Ekebergh, MargarethaHögskolan i Borås.
    Reflektion i lärande och vård: En utmaning för sjuksköterskan2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Reflekterande KRAFT-givande samtal2017In: Vägen till patientens värld och personcentrerad vård: Att bli lyssnad på och förstådd / [ed] Karin Dahlberg, Inger Ekman, Stockholm: Liber, 2017, 1, p. 317-334Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Reflekterande KRAFT-givande samtal i vården av äldre som lever med långvarig smärta i hemmet2015In: Ä. Riksföreningen för Sjuksköterskan inom äldrevård, ISSN 2001-1164, no 1, p. 14-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Reflekterande KRAFT-givande samtal är en metod utvecklad för att användas som ett verktyg i vården. Syftet är att stärka människors hälsa och välbefinnande samt den egna förmågan att bemästra sin situation på ett sätt som ger glädje och mening i livet. För den äldre kan det innebära en möjlighet att kunna bo kvar längre i det egna hemmet. Metoden har utvecklats utifrån resultaten av två avhandlingar, en om hemmets betydelse och att leva med långvarig smärta samt en om lärande vid långvarig sjukdom.

  • 16.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, USA.
    Svanström, Rune
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Keys to person-centred care to persons living with dementia: Experiences from an educational program in Sweden2019In: Dementia, ISSN 1471-3012, E-ISSN 1741-2684, Vol. 18, no 7-8, p. 2695-2709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growing old entails an increased risk of disabilities and illnesses such as dementia. The orientation in Sweden on national level is that individuals remain in their own homes if desired and receive person-centred home care. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of an educational program and its influence on daily provision of care to persons with dementia. A lifeworld approach was used. Data were collected through group interviews with care providers in the context of home. The findings are presented in five themes: Increased knowledge about dementia and treatment, Relationship-building in order to provide good care, Open and flexible approach conveys calm, Continuity and flexibility are cornerstones in the care and Perceived improvements. This person-centred educational intervention resulted in a care that was based on each individual’s personality, preferences and priorities in life. Education given with continuity over time is key to improving provision of care to person with dementia.

  • 17.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Källerwald, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    The Movement to a New Understanding: A Life-World-Based Study about How People Learn to Live with Long-Term Illness2012In: Journal of Nursing & Care, ISSN 2167-1168, Vol. 1, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to analyze and describe the phenomenon of learning to live with long-term illness.

    Method: The design and implementation of the research was based on a reflective lifeworld approach. The study consisted of interviews with people who live with different types of long-term illness.

    Results: Learning to live with a long-term illness happens in such a way as to respond to the will to live everyday life. The essential meaning of learning to live with long-term illness is constituted by the following elements: learning to know and live with a stranger, the driving forces of learning, learning methods are a balancing act, making the illness visible, as well as seeking knowledge and understanding. The result of the learning process can be understood as movement to a new understanding that is shown in the way the person with the illness acts and gives herself with the illness more space in life.

    Conclusion: The results show that genuine learning is something that differs from learning information and that the learning must be supported by the sufferer’s situation for a long period of time at an existential level.

  • 18.
    Berglund, Mia M. U.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Learning turning points - in life with long-term illness - visualized with the help of the life-world philosophy2014In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 9, article id 22842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A long-term illness is an occurrence that changes one’s life and generates a need to learn how to live with it. This article is based on an empirical study of interviews on people living with different long-term illnesses. The results have shown that the learning process is a complex phenomenon interwoven with life as a whole. The essential meaning of learning to live with long-term illness concerns a movement toward a change of understanding of access to the world. In this movement, in which everyday lives as well as relationships with oneself and others are affected, a continual renegotiation is needed. Texts from existential/lifeworld philosopher, Heidegger and Gadamer, have been used to get a greater understanding of the empirical results. These texts have been analysed with particular focus on learning turning points and the importance of reflection. The results are highlighted under the following themes: Pursuit of balance*the aim of learning, The tense grip*the resistance to learning, To live more really*the possibilities of the learning, Distancing*the how of the learning, and The tense of the learning*the whole of the learning. In those learning turning points are present. Knowledge from this study has been used to make a didactic model designed to give caregivers a tool to support patients’ learning. The didactic model is called: The challenge to take charge of life with a long-term illness.

  • 19.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Nässén, Kristina
    Academy of Care, Working Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Borås, Sweden.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, USA.
    Fluctuation between Powerlessness and Sense of Meaning: A Qualitative Study of Health Care Professionals’ Experiences of Providing Health Care to Older Adults with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain2015In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 15, article id 96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is an increasing number of older adults living with long-term musculoskeletal pain and related disabilities. These problems are frequently unrecognized, underreported, and inadequately treated. Since many older adults desire to remain at home for as long as possible, it is important that individualized and holistically tailored care is provided in these settings. However, there is a complexity in providing care in this context.

    The aim of this study was to describe health care professionals’ experiences of providing health care to older adults living with long-term musculoskeletal pain at home.

    Methods: The phenomenon, “To provide health care to older adults living with long-term musculoskeletal pain at home”, was studied using reflective lifeworld research (RLR) which is based on phenomenological epistemology. Ten health care providers (nurse, physiotherapists, and occupational therapists) were interviewed and data was analysed.

    Results: The health care professional’s emotions fluctuated between powerlessness and meaningfulness. Needs, opportunities, understanding and respect had to be balanced in the striving to do good in the provision of health care in differing situations. Caring for older adults with long-term pain required courage to remain in the encounter despite feelings of insecurity and uncertainty about the direction of the dialogue. The essence of caring for older adults with long-term pain consisted of the following constituents: Sense of powerlessness; striving to provide good health care; and understanding and respect.

    Conclusions: The findings indicated that the health care professionals strived to do good and to provide health care that was holistic and sensitive to the older adults’ needs. A significant sense of powerlessness in the situation was experienced by the health care professionals. These findings address and support the need to develop methods that can be used to guide health care providers who support older adults in the context of their homes.

  • 20.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Nässén, Kristina
    Academy of Care, Working Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Hedén, Lena
    Academy of Care, Working Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Sweden.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Older Adults' Experiences of Reflective STRENGTH-Giving Dialogues: An Interview Study2016In: Journal of Gerontology & Geriatric Research, ISSN 2167-7182, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 1000304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A major health problem that frequently accompanies old age is long-term pain, but pain must be acknowledged by older adults and health care providers. Interventions are needed to alleviate pain and suffering’ while holistically providing health care that promotes wellbeing. The intervention project, Reflective STRENGTHGiving Dialogues© (STRENGTH) was implemented to increase health and wellbeing among community dwelling older adults living with long-term musculoskeletal pain at home.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the older adults’ experiences of the intervention Reflective STRENGTH-Giving Dialogue.

    Method: A life world hermeneutic approach was used in collection and analysis of data. Twenty community dwelling older adults participated were interviewed in their homes after the intervention.

    Findings: The findings consisted of five themes and showed that the older adults experienced the Reflective STRENGTH-Giving Dialogues as a continuous and trusting relationship that alleviates the pain and breaks the loneliness. They expressed it as a new way to talk about life with pain. The dialogues supported reflection and memory and resulted in a transition in orientation in life.

    Conclusion: The Reflective STRENGTH-Giving Dialogues helped the older adults to increase their intellectual, emotional, and physical engagement in daily living. The dialogues facilitated a transition in orientation from past to present, to the future, and from obstacles to opportunities. The dialogues were oriented towards enjoyments, meaning, courage and strength in life as a whole which promoted the older adults’ sense of well-being and vitality. The dialogues also facilitated carrying out small and large life projects. The Reflective STRENGTH-Giving Dialogues created a deepened caring relationship that contributed to an increased sense of security, strength and courage, all of which enhanced the potential for better health and wellbeing.

  • 21.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Sjögren, Reet
    School of Health Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås/Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    Department of Health and Caring Sciences, Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Reflect and learn together - when two supervisors interact in the learning support process of nurse education2012In: Journal of Nursing Management, ISSN 0966-0429, E-ISSN 1365-2834, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 152-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim  To describe the importance of supervisors working together in supporting the learning process of nurse students through reflective caring science supervision.

    Background  A supervision model has been developed in order to meet the need for interweaving theory and practice. The model is characterized by learning reflection in caring science. A unique aspect of the present project was that the student groups were led by a teacher and a nurse.

    Method  Data were collected through interviews with the supervisors. The analysis was performed with a phenomenological approach.

    Results  The results showed that theory and practice can be made more tangible and interwoven by using two supervisors in a dual supervision. The essential structure is built on the constituents ‘Reflection as Learning Support’, ‘Interweaving Caring Science with the Patient’s Narrative’, ‘The Student as a Learning Subject’ and ‘The Learning Environment of Supervision’.

    Conclusion  The study concludes that supervision in pairs provides unique possibilities for interweaving and developing theory and practice.

    Implications for nursing management  The supervision model offers unique opportunities for cooperation, for the development of theory and practice and for the development of the professional roll of nurses and teachers.

  • 22.
    Berglund, Mia
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Westin, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Svanström, Rune
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Johansson Sundler, Annelie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Suffering caused by care - Patients' experiences from hospital settings2012In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 7, article id 18688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suffering and well-being are significant aspects of human existence; in particular, suffering and well-being are important aspects of patients’ experiences following diseases. Increased knowledge about existential dimensions of illness and healthcare experiences may be needed in order to improve care and reduce unnecessary suffering. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to illuminate the phenomenon of suffering experienced in relation to healthcare needs among patients in hospital settings in Sweden. In this study, we used a reflective lifeworld approach. The data were analysed with a focus on meanings. The results describe the essential meaning of the phenomenon of suffering in relation to healthcare needs. The patients were suffering during care-giving when they felt distrusted or mistreated and when their perspective on illness and health was overlooked. Suffering was found to arise due to healthcare actions that neglected a holistic and patient-centred approach to care. Unfortunately, healthcare experiences that cause patients to suffer seem to be something one needs to endure without being critical. The phenomenon can be described as having four constituents: to be mistreated; to struggle for one’s healthcare needs and autonomy; to feel powerless; and to feel fragmented and objectified. The study concludes that there are problems associated with patients experiencing suffering at the hands of healthcare providers, even if this suffering may not have been caused deliberately to the patient. Consequently, conscious improvements are needed to lessen the suffering caused by care-giving, as are strategies that promote more patient-centred care and patient participation.

  • 23.
    Gillsjö, Catharina
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. College of Nursing, University of Rhode Island, USA.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Reflective STRENGTH-Giving Dialogue Developed to Support Older Adults in Learning to Live with Long-Term Pain: A Method and a Study Design2014In: Journal of Gerontology & Geriatric Research, ISSN 2167-7182, Vol. 3, no 5, article id 187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Long-term musculoskeletal pain is a major health problem that significantly impacts quality of life among older adults. Many lack professional guidance and must learn on their own to live with pain. This calls for a holistic method that addresses older adults’ needs in their situations. The developed method has its foundation in the didactic model: “The challenge – to take control of one’s life with long-term illness.

    Aim: The aim was to describe the method, Reflective STRENGTH-Giving Dialogue, and present a study design where the method is learned and used by health care providers to support older adults in learning to live their lives with long-term pain at home in a way that promotes health, well-being, meaning and strength in life.

    Methods: The pilot study design consists of an educational program including continuous supervision to health care providers during the accomplishment of dialogues with community dwelling older adults. The key dimensions in Reflective STRENGTH-Giving Dialogue are:

    Situation: Confront and ascertain the facticity in the current situation; Transition from “one to I” and Take charge in the situation; Reflect upon possibilities and choices; Engagement in fulfilling small and large life projects that gives joy and meaning in life; Get inner strength and courage; Tactful and challenging approach and Holistic perspective. Data will be collected through interviews and questionnaires. Qualitative and quantitative methods (NRS, BPI-SF, GDS, KASAM, MSQ) will be used for analysis. A control-group will be enrolled.

    Discussion and Relevance of Study: STRENGTH can be used to secure and enhance the quality of personcentered care. The method for dialogues can be a way to holistically and individually guide and support older adults in finding ways to live a meaningful life despite pain and to fulfill their desire to remain at home as long as possible .

  • 24.
    Gustavsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Andersén, Annelie
    Department of Educational Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    To challenge and to be challenged – teachers collective learning in higher education2019In: Reflective Practice, ISSN 1462-3943, E-ISSN 1470-1103, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 339-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical analyzing and reflective competence are essential objectives in all higher education. In academic professional education, it is a challenge for the teacher to support and develop the student´s critical reflection of both academic and placement studies. The aim of this study is to identify the characteristics of the teacher role and the challenges of the reflective seminar within higher education. Data were gathered through group interviews and analyzed with a phenomenological hermeneutic approach. The result shows four themes; the experience of control and uncertainty, building trust and challenging ideas, the alternation between closeness and distance, and the parallel processes of supervising learning and being in a learning state. One conclusion is that the seminar teaching practice stimulates a collegial learning environment. This practice promotes the teachers pedagogical and didactical competence and an open attitude to each other´s teaching practice.

  • 25.
    Johansson, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Health and Care Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Science, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden / Department of Administration/Primary Care, Region Kronoberg County Council, Växjö, Sweden.
    Almerud Österberg, Sofia
    Department of Health and Care Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Science, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Leksell, Janeth
    School of Health and Social Sciences, University Dalarna, Falun, Sweden / Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Manoeuvring between anxiety and control: Patients' experience of learning to live with diabetes: A lifeworld phenomenological study2015In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 10, article id 27147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that people with diabetes want their lives to proceed as normally as possible, but some patients experience difficulty in reaching their desired goals with treatment. The learning process is a complex phenomenon interwoven into every facet of life. Patients and healthcare providers often have different perspectives in care which gives different expectations on what the patients need to learn and cope with. The aim of this study, therefore, is to describe the experience of learning to live with diabetes. Interviews were conducted with 12 patients afflicted with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The interviews were then analysed with reference to the reflective lifeworld research approach. The analysis shows that when the afflicted realize that their bodies undergo changes and that blood sugar levels are not always balanced as earlier in life, they can adjust to their new conditions early. The afflicted must take responsibility for balancing their blood sugar levels and incorporating the illness into their lives. Achieving such goals necessitates knowledge. The search for knowledge and sensitivity to changes are constant requirements for people with diabetes. Learning is driven by the tension caused by the need for and dependence on safe blood sugar control, the fear of losing such control, and the fear of future complications. The most important responsibilities for these patients are aspiring to understand their bodies as lived bodies, ensuring safety and security, and acquiring the knowledge essential to making conscious choices.

  • 26.
    Johansson, Karin
    et al.
    Department of Health and Care Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Science, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden / Department of Administration, Kronoberg County Council, Växjö, Sweden / Primary Care, Region Kronoberg County Council, Växjö, Sweden.
    Almerud Österberg, Sofia
    Department of Health and Care Sciences, Faculty of Health and Life Science, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Leksell, Janeth
    School of Health and Social Sciences, University Dalarna, Falun, Sweden / Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, Health and Education. University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Patients' experiences of support for learning to live with diabetes to promote health and well-being: A lifeworld phenomenological study2016In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 11, article id 31330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning to live with diabetes in such a way that the new conditions will be a normal and natural part of life imposes requirements on the person living with diabetes. Previous studies have shown that there is no clear picture of what and how the learning that would allow persons to incorporate the illness into their everyday life will be supported. The aim of this study is to describe the phenomenon of support for learning to live with diabetes to promote health and well-being, from the patient’s perspective. Data were collected by interviews with patients living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The interviews were analysed using a reflective lifeworld approach. The results show that reflection plays a central role for patients with diabetes in achieving a new understanding of the health process, and awareness of their own responsibility was found to be the key factor for such a reflection. The constituents are responsibility creating curiosity and willpower, openness enabling support, technology verifying bodily feelings, a permissive climate providing for participation and exchanging experiences with others. The study concludes that the challenge for caregivers is to create interactions in an open learning climate that initiates and supports reflection to promote health and well-being.

  • 27.
    Johansson, Karin
    et al.
    Region Kronoberg.
    Almerud Österberg, Sofia
    Linnaeus University.
    Leksell, Janeth
    University Dalarna / Uppsala University.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Supporting patients learning to live with diabetes: a phenomenological study2018In: British Journal of Nursing, ISSN 0966-0461, E-ISSN 2052-2819, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 697-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes a study of the phenomenon of supporting patients who are learning to live with diabetes, from a diabetes specialist nurse (DSN) perspective. Guided by principles of reflective lifeworld research, data from six interviews (four in groups and two individual) with 16 DSNs were analysed. The results show that, in order to support learning, DSNs use a self-critical approach with the insight that they should not take over responsibility for their patients’ diabetes. The DSNs support, encourage and challenge the patients to self-reflect and take responsibility based on patients’ own goals and needs. To provide support, DSNs need to assume a tactful, critically challenging approach, dare to confront patients’ fears and other emotions and have the insight to know that the responsibility for learning and integration of the condition lies with the patient. To be able to support patients in this way, it is necessary that the DSN is mentored and supported in this role.

  • 28.
    Johansson Sundler, Annelie
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Växjö universitet.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. Växjö universitet.
    Summer Meranius, Martina
    Växjö universitet / Mälardalens högskola.
    Thurang, Anna
    eroendecentrum Stockholm / Växjö universitet.
    Rusner, Marie
    Södra Älvsborgs Sjukhus, Borås / Högskolan i Borås / Växjö universitet.
    Nilsson, Christina
    Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset, Göteborg / Högskolan i Borås / Växjö universitet.
    Karlsson, Ann-Christin
    Blekinge tekniska högskola / Växjö universitet.
    Pettersson, Bengt-Olof
    Växjö universitet.
    Bremer, Anders
    Högskolan i Borås / Växjö universitet.
    Varför vårdvetenskap?2008In: Vårdvetenskapliga vägskäl / [ed] Maria Berglund, Annelie Johansson Sundler, Åsa Roxberg, Växjö: Växjö universitet , 2008, p. 49-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Klaeson, Kicki
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. Skaraborgs Hospital, Department of Oncology, Skövde, Sweden.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Gustavsson, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    The character of nursing students' critical reflection at the end of their education2017In: Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, ISSN 1925-4040, E-ISSN 1925-4059, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 55-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In nursing education, theoretical and practical knowledge are intertwined and integrated in the prospective nurses’ lifeworld. To enable this, and to develop a critical reflective approach, students should adopt a critical attitude. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of the character of prospective nurses’ critical reflection.

    Methods: This is a descriptive qualitative study. Data were gathered using written narratives, individual and focus group interviews. Qualitative content analysis was employed.

    Results: Three themes were identified: being open to changes, distancing oneself, and challenging one’s understanding. In the first theme, students’ critical reflection was expressed through an openness to changes of self-perception and openness to professional development during the education. In the second theme, critical reflection was identified as variations on distancetaking.

    Inserting distance from a direct experience makes the experience easier to process, understand and relate to the learner’s concept of nursing. In the third theme, courage to question what was taken for granted is identified as a necessity to challenging self-understanding and willingness to engage in uncertainty.

    Conclusions: It would appear that the academic part of training, with the possibility of reflection in small groups, provides students with conceptual tools for reflective learning as well as giving them the opportunity to relate critically to professional practice and to the professional nurse role.

  • 30.
    Leksell, Janeth
    et al.
    School of Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Koinberg, Ingalill
    Health and care sciences; Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Ringsberg, Karin
    Health and care sciences; Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Friberg, Febe
    Department of Health Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Stavanger, Norway.
    The capability approach as a framework for person-centered learning?2014In: / [ed] Harshida Patel,, Göteborgs universitet, 2014, p. 193-194Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Sundler, Annelie Johansson
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalens University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Annika
    Department of Radiology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Undergraduate nursing students' experiences when examining nursing skills in clinical simulation laboratories with high-fidelity patient simulators: A phenomenological research study2015In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 35, no 12, p. 1257-1261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation has become a widely used and established pedagogy for teaching clinical nursing skills. Nevertheless, the evidence in favour of this pedagogical approach is weak, and more knowledge is needed in support of its use. The aim of this study was (a) to explore the experiences of undergraduate nursing students when examining knowledge, skills and competences in clinical simulation laboratories with high-fidelity patient simulators and (b) to analyse these students' learning experiences during the examination. A phenomenological approach was used, and qualitative interviews were conducted among 23 second-year undergraduate nursing students-17 women and 6 men. The findings revealed that, irrespective of whether they passed or failed the examination, it was experienced as a valuable assessment of the students' knowledge and skills. Even if the students felt that the examination was challenging, they described it as a learning opportunity. In the examination, the students were able to integrate theory with practice, and earlier established knowledge was scrutinised when reflecting on the scenarios. The examination added aspects to the students' learning that prepared them for the real world of nursing in a safe environment without risking patient safety. The study findings suggest that examinations in clinical simulation laboratories can be a useful teaching strategy in nursing education. The use of high-fidelity patient simulators made the examination authentic. The reflections and feedback on the scenario were described as significant for the students' learning. Undergraduate nursing students can improve their knowledge, understanding, competence and skills when such examinations are performed in the manner used in this study.

  • 32.
    Svanström, Rune
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Andersson, Susanne
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Rosén, Helena
    Health Sciences, University of Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Moving from theory to practice: experience of implementing a learning supporting model designed to increase patient involvement and autonomy in care2016In: BMC Research Notes, ISSN 1756-0500, E-ISSN 1756-0500, Vol. 9, article id 361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In implementing new programs of care, such as person-centered care, there is a risk that the focus will be at an organizational level, instead of a level that describes what happens in the personal development among staff. The aim of this study was to describe experiences of the implementation process of a learning supporting model designed to increase patient involvement and autonomy in care. The project, which lasted 2 years, involved training sessions, supervision and reflective meetings. Over the period, the staff who participated focused on developing their dialogues with patients to make the patients aware of their own capabilities and to encourage them to be fully involved in the treatment. A reflective lifeworld approach was used. Data were collected through interviews, notes and written stories, and analyzed using hermeneutic analysis with a focus on meanings.

    RESULTS: At the beginning of the project, the participants perceived the model as abstract and difficult to understand but supervision and reflection sessions enabled understanding and changed the participants' approach to caring. The participants described the model as an approach used in challenging patients to become involved in their care and to take charge of their lives when living with a chronic life-threatening disease. The participants' experience of implementing the model has not been easy but has led to increased self-confidence and feelings of improved competence in dialogue with patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: Using the PARISH model when critically examining the results shows that in the implementation process there were some difficulties, e.g. the context was supportive and facilitating but there was no appointed facilitator. By making participation in improvement work voluntary, the impact of such work becomes less efficient, less cost-effective and probably less sustainable. Furthermore, implementation needs encouragement since changing approaches takes time and requires patience. Group supervision sessions seem an appropriate way to translate research into practice; systematic scheduled and mandatory group supervision sessions would, therefore, probably make implementation more robust and sustainable. In addition, a well-trained facilitator would be able to motivate staff to undertake daily reflection and participate in group supervision sessions. Reflection seems to be a key component in the personal learning necessary to change work routines and approaches.

  • 33.
    Svanström, Rune
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Johansson Sundler, Annelie
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences. School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Westin, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Suffering caused by care - elderly patients’ experiences in community care2013In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 20603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Growing old involves many changes in life and implies an increased risks of illness and different forms of disabilities. Life may change in a radical way when a person gets a disease like dementia or moves to a nursing home due to disabilities or needs. In both cases, it often leads to an increased dependency on care where the patient becomes exposed and vulnerable and thereby at a higher risk for experiencing different forms of suffering.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to elucidate and gain a deeper understanding of elderly patients’ experiences of suffering in relation to community care in nursing homes and home care services.

    Materials and methods: A lifeworld hermeneutical approach was used. Phenomenological interviews and conversations with an open approach were conducted and analysed with a focus on meanings.

    Findings: The findings were presented in four main themes; an absence of the other in care, an absence of dialogues, a sense of alienation and a sense of insecurity. The findings in this study revealed that persons who were cared for in nursing homes and home care services sometimes were exposed to an unnecessary suffering. The suffering sometimes was caused by various caring actions, that is, unnecessary suffering. The suffering caused by care that aroused was due to caregiver’s inability to be present, to show their face, and truly meet the patient.

    Conclusion: Suffering from care increased the elderly patients’ feelings of insecurity, loneliness, and alienation; this seemed to be the foundation for patients’ experiences of being outside a human community. There was a lack of knowledge and understanding about the patient’s lifeworld.

  • 34.
    Vestman, C.
    et al.
    Department of Dialysis, Skaraborgs Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Hasselroth, M.
    Department of Dialysis, Skaraborgs Hospital, Skövde, Sweden.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Freedom and Confinement: Patients' Experiences of Life with Home Haemodialysis2014In: Nursing Research and Practice, ISSN 2090-1429, E-ISSN 2090-1437, article id 252643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with chronic end stage renal disease need dialysis to survive; however, they also need a treatment that suits their life situation. It is important that healthcare providers provide reliable, up-to-date information about different dialysis treatment options. Since home haemodialysis is a relatively new treatment, it is necessary to gather more knowledge about what the treatment entails from the patient’s perspective. The aim of this study was to describe patients’ experiences of having home haemodialysis. To gain access to the patients’ experiences, they were asked to write narratives, which describe both their good and bad experiences of life with the treatment. The narratives were analysed with a qualitative method. The results of this analysis are subdivided into five themes: freedom to be at home and control their own treatment, feeling of being alone with the responsibility, changes in the home environment, need for support, and security and well-being with home haemodialysis. The conclusion is that home haemodialysis provides a certain level of freedom, but the freedom is limited as the treatment itself is restrictive. In order to improve patients’ experiences with home haemodialysis, more research based on patients’ experiences is needed and it is necessary to involve the patients in the development of the care.

  • 35.
    Westin, Lars
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Sundler, Annelie Johansson
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education. School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalens University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Berglund, Mia
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Students' experiences of learning in relation to didactic strategies during the first year of a nursing programme: a qualitative study2015In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 15, article id 49Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In university undergraduate nursing programmes, didactic strategies that enable students to learn nursing skills, solve problems and develop reflective and critical thinking and practice are needed. The aim of this study was to explore how different didactic strategies support nursing students’ experiences of learning during the first year of a reconstructed nursing curriculum.

    Methods

    This study employed a qualitative approach. The data were gathered through written narratives that were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results

    Nursing students’ experiences of learning through different didactic strategies, were evident in the text. These perspectives were organised into the following themes: To focus on the patient perspective and paying more attention to others, Learning from discussions and reflections on one’s own learning, Training for the professional role and becoming more courage, and Gaining insights into nursing and increasing one’s self-awareness. The education increased the students’ self-awareness, which helped them to pay greater attention to patients and their relative. During the learning process, the students became more courageous, reflected and discovered their shortcomings.

    Conclusion

    Stated didactic strategies supported a broad base of knowledge on nursing and the professional role of nurses. Educators are challenged to strengthen meaningful learning in nursing and to facilitate the progression of nursing programmes.

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