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  • 1.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Billing, Erik A.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lowe, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    User Experience of Conveying Emotions by Touch2017In: Proceedings of the 26th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN), IEEE, 2017, p. 1240-1247Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, 64 users were asked to convey eight distinct emotion to a humanoid Nao robot via touch, and were then asked to evaluate their experiences of performing that task. Large differences between emotions were revealed. Users perceived conveying of positive/pro-social emotions as significantly easier than negative emotions, with love and disgust as the two extremes. When asked whether they would act differently towards a human, compared to the robot, the users’ replies varied. A content analysis of interviews revealed a generally positive user experience (UX) while interacting with the robot, but users also found the task challenging in several ways. Three major themes with impact on the UX emerged; responsiveness, robustness, and trickiness. The results are discussed in relation to a study of human-human affective tactile interaction, with implications for human-robot interaction (HRI) and design of social and affective robotics in particular. 

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  • 2.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University.
    Lowe, Robert
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Conveying Emotions by Touch to the Nao Robot: A User Experience Perspective2018In: Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, ISSN 2414-4088, Vol. 2, no 4, article id 82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social robots are expected gradually to be used by more and more people in a widerrange of settings, domestic as well as professional. As a consequence, the features and qualityrequirements on human–robot interaction will increase, comprising possibilities to communicateemotions, establishing a positive user experience, e.g., using touch. In this paper, the focus is ondepicting how humans, as the users of robots, experience tactile emotional communication with theNao Robot, as well as identifying aspects affecting the experience and touch behavior. A qualitativeinvestigation was conducted as part of a larger experiment. The major findings consist of 15 differentaspects that vary along one or more dimensions and how those influence the four dimensions ofuser experience that are present in the study, as well as the different parts of touch behavior ofconveying emotions.

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  • 3.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Analysing Action and Intention Recognition in Human-Robot Interaction with ANEMONE2021In: Human-Computer Interaction. Interaction Techniques and Novel Applications: Thematic Area, HCI 2021, Held as Part of the 23rd HCI International Conference, HCII 2021, Virtual Event, July 24–29, 2021, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Masaaki Kurosu, Cham: Springer, 2021, Vol. 12763, p. 181-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ANEMONE is a methodological approach for user experience (UX) evaluation of action and intention recognition in human-robot interaction that has activity theory as its theoretical lens in combination with the seven stages of action model and UX evaluation methodology. ANEMONE has been applied in a case where a prototype has been evaluated. The prototype was a workstation in assembly in manufacturing consisting of a collaborative robot, a pallet, a tablet, and a workbench, where one operator is working in the same physical space as one robot. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance on how to use ANEMONE, with a particular focus on the data analysis part, through describing a real example together with lessons learned and recommendations.

  • 4.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    User Experience of Socially Interactive Robots: Its Role and Relevance2015In: Handbook of Research on Synthesizing Human Emotion in Intelligent Systems and Robotics / [ed] Jordi Vallverdú, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA: IGI Global, 2015, p. 352-364Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socially interactive robots are expected to have an increasing importance in everyday life for a growing number of people, but negative user experience (UX) can entail reluctance to use robots. Positive user experience underpins proliferation of socially interactive robots. Therefore, it is essential for robot developers to put serious efforts to attain social robots that the users experience as positive. In current human-robot interaction (HRI) research, user experience is reckoned to be important and is used as an argument for stating that something is positive. However, the notion of user experience is noticeably often taken for granted and is neither described nor problematized. By recognizing the complexity of user experience the intended contributions can be even more valuable. Another trend in HRI research is to focus on user experience evaluation and examination of user experience. The current research paths of user experience of socially interactive robots are not enough. This chapter suggests that additional research directions are needed in order accomplish long-term, wide-spread success of socially interactive robots.

  • 5.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Information Technology, Visual Information & Interaction. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Computer & Information Science, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    User Experience in Social Human-Robot Interaction2017In: International Journal of Ambient Computing and Intelligence (IJACI), ISSN 1941-6237, E-ISSN 1941-6245, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 12-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Socially interactive robots are expected to have an increasing importance in human society. For social robots to provide long-term added value to people’s lives, it is of major importance to stressthe need for positive user experience (UX) of such robots. The human-centered view emphasizes various aspects that emerge in the interaction between humans and robots. However, a positive UX does not appear by itself but has to be designed for and evaluated systematically. In this paper, the focus is on the role and relevance of UX in human-robot interaction (HRI) and four trends concerning the role and relevance of UX related to socially interactive robots are identified, and three challenges related to its evaluation are also presented. It is argued that current research efforts and directions are not sufficient in HRI research, and that future research needs to further address interdisciplinary research in order to achieve long-term success of socially interactive robots.

  • 6.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Zaragoza-Sundqvist, Maximiliano
    AstraZeneca R&D, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Hanna, Atieh
    Volvo AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Towards a Framework of Human-Robot Interaction Strategies from an Operator 5.0 Perspective2023In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXVI: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, Incorporating the 37th National Conference on Manufacturing Research,  6th – 8th September 2023, Aberystwyth University, UK / [ed] Andrew Thomas; Lyndon Murphy; Wyn Morris; Vincenzo Dispenza; David Jones, Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press, 2023, p. 81-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial transition to Industrie 4.0 and subsequently Industrie 5.0 requires robots to be able to share physical and social space with humans in such a way that interaction and coexistence are positively experienced by the humans and where it is possible for the human and the robot to mutually perceive, interpret and act on each other's actions and intentions. To achieve this, strategies for humanrobot interaction are needed that are adapted to operators’ needs and characteristics in an industrial context, i.e., Operator 5.0. This paper presents a research design for the development of a framework for human-robot interaction strategies based on ANEMONE, which is an evaluation framework based on activity theory, the seven stages of action model, and user experience (UX) evaluation methodology. At two companies, ANEMONE is applied in two concrete use cases, collaborative kitting and mobile robot platforms for chemical laboratory assignments. The proposed research approach consists of 1) evaluations of existing demonstrators, 2) development of preliminary strategies that are implemented, 3) re-evaluations and 4) cross-analysis of results to produce an interaction strategy framework. The theoretically and empirically underpinned framework-to-be is expected to, in the long run, contribute to a sustainable work environment for Operator 5.0.

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  • 7.
    Alenljung, Zacharias
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    User Experience in Augmented Reality: A Holistic Evaluation of a Prototype for Assembly Instructions2021In: Design, User Experience, and Usability: Design for Contemporary Technological Environments: 10th International Conference, DUXU 2021, Held as Part of the 23rd HCI International Conference, HCII 2021, Virtual Event, July 24–29, 2021, Proceedings, Part III / [ed] Marcelo M. Soares; Elizabeth Rosenzweig; Aaron Marcus, Cham: Springer, 2021, Vol. 12781, p. 139-157Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industries are under development with new upcoming tools that will further streamline the work of operators, not least in assembly. Assembly instructions are usually visualized by traditional paper or databases. A new way of showing instruction is provided by augmented reality (AR). The focus of this paper is the user experience (UX) of AR-based instructions for assembly. In order to study the UX in AR, an evaluation matrix and an AR prototype has been developed and evaluated in a UX test, where data regarding both hedonic and pragmatic qualities was collected. The UX test yielded a result of three out of nine sub-goals completed while six did not. There was a general low degree of cognitive load while assembling but not low enough. However, there are promising results for AR-based instructions, though the technology still needs improvement and more testing is also necessary. The assembly scenario for this study was somewhat simple and could be one reason why this study generated ambiguous results.

  • 8.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Jansson, Anders A.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Past and Future Challenges for Railway Research and the Role of a Systems Perspective2019In: Proceedings of the 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA 2018): Volume VII: Ergonomics in Design, Design for All, Activity Theories for Work Analysis and Design, Affective Design / [ed] Sebastiano Bagnara, Riccardo Tartaglia, Sara Albolino, Thomas Alexander, Yushi Fujita, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 1737-1746Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational train traffic is dependent on an efficient traffic plan monitored and executed by the traffic controllers, the proficient maneuvering of the trains by the train drivers, and on the interaction, communication, and coordination between these two work roles. The railway research community, and the branch of industry itself, has called for an integrated systems perspective for the whole train traffic system to achieve an efficient performance. As human-human and human-technology interactions are natural parts of the socio-technical system of train traffic, the aim of this paper is to provide illustrative examples for why a systems perspective is needed for the future of railway research. Furthermore, we present the theoretical framework of distributed cognition (DCog) as a necessary addition to the theoretical and methodological toolbox of the Human Factors and Ergonomics (HF&E) discipline. To realize efficient and coordinated processes involved in organizing and executing operational train traffic, the paper proposes that the DCog framework should be implemented in the train traffic domain as a viable approach forward.

  • 9.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Jansson, Anders A.
    Uppsala University.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    The coordination between train traffic controllers and train drivers: a distributed cognition perspective on railway2019In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 417-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there has long been a call for a holistic systems perspective to better understand real work in the complex domain of railway traffic, prior research has not strongly emphasised the socio-technical perspective. In operational railway traffic, the successful planning and execution of the traffic are the product of the socio-technical system comprised by both train drivers and traffic controllers. This paper presents a study inspired by cognitive ethnography with the aim to characterise the coordinating activities that are conducted by train traffic controllers and train drivers in the work practices of the socio-technical system of Swedish railway. The theoretical framework of distributed cognition (DCog) is used as a conceptual and analytical tool to make sense of the complex railway domain and the best practices as they are developed and performed “in the wild”. The analysis reveals a pattern of collaboration and coordination of actions among the workers and we introduce the concept of enacted actionable practices as a key concern for understanding how a successfully executed railway traffic emerges as a property of the socio-technical system. The implications for future railway research are briefly discussed.

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  • 10.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Distributed Cognition in Manufacturing: Collaborative Assembly Work2016In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXX / [ed] Yee Mey Goh, Keith Case, IOS Press, 2016, p. 243-248Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cognitive science is becoming increasingly central within humanfactors and ergonomics (HF&E) and there has long been a call for a more systemicperspective in the area with a somewhat broader unit of analysis. This paperpresents a case study applying the theoretical framework of distributed cognition(DCog), which shows how DCog would offer a more complete understanding ofmanufacturing within its greater context, including the social, cultural, andmaterial surroundings. This paper aims to characterize and analyse dock assemblyof forest machines as a complex socio-technical system from a DCog perspective;focusing on the creation of enacted landscapes in this particular setting. The paperalso exemplifies benefits of using the DCog framework in the manufacturingdomain as a way of grasping the assembly workers’ tacit competence and skills.

  • 11.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Interruptions in the wild: portraying the handling of interruptions in manufacturing from a distributed cognition lens2017In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 85-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study examining interruptionsin the wild by portraying the handling of interruptionsin manufacturing from a distributed cognitionlens. By studying how interruptions occur and are handledin the daily activities of a work team at a large foundry forcasting heavy diesel engines, we highlight situations whenthe propagation, transformation, and representation ofinformation are not supported by prescribed work processesand propose recommendations for how this can beamended. The study was conducted by several visits to theaforementioned factory with cognitive ethnography as thebasis for the data collection. The focus was on identifyinginterruptions and analysing these through a distributedcognition framework as an initial step towards studyinginterruptions in a manufacturing environment. The keyfindings include the identification of three, previouslyundefined, types of interruptions and the conclusion thatinterruptions do indeed affect the distributed workload ofthe socio-technical system and thus the overall productionperformance at the casting line.

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  • 12.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Department of Information Technology, Visual Information and Interaction, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Tool use and collaborative work of dock assembly in practice2017In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 164-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to deepen the understanding of the intrinsic interactions andinterplay between humans, tools, and environment from a systemsperspective, research in the wild (RITW) approaches have gainedtraction during recent decades as they provide a higher ecologicalvalidity of findings. This paper presents a RITW study, investigatinghow assembly, in this case dock assembly of forwarders, was donein practice. As our theoretical foundation, we used the framework ofdistributed cognition, which is one of the main pillars of RITW. Thefindings are presented in narrative form, describing and highlightingthat the workers achieve an efficient production outcome by beingintegral parts of the whole production process and doing so throughcoordination of activities benefitting the shared goal of the distributedsocio-technical system.

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  • 13.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Towards an increased degree of usability work in organizations2015In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 5739-5746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely recognized that there is a substantial gap between usability research and practice where UCD approaches are rarelyapplied in practice due to arguments regarding the intricate nature of its methods and techniques. This paper presents an actionresearch study designed to investigate and analyze the potentials for an increased degree of UCD activities in the earlydevelopment phases of advanced information systems technology. The results demonstrate that there is a large interest inusability but that organizational priority and competence is often lacking. Instead one relies heavily on questionable conceptssuch as „trained professionals‟ to excuse the low effort towards usability. Based on the results, six recommendations forimproved usability work in R&D organizations are presented, focusing on the importance of prioritization of, and education inusability work.

  • 14.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, JessicaUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.Ziemke, TomUniversity of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Proceedings of the 2015 SWECOG conference2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
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    Proceedings of the 2015 SweCog Conference
  • 15.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Rosén, Julia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Expectations of robot technology in welfare2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report findings from a survey on expectations of robot technology in welfare, within the coming 20 years. 34 assistant nurses answered a questionnaire on which tasks, from their daily work, that they believe robots can perform, already today or in the near future. Additionally, the Negative attitudes toward robots scale (NARS) was used to estimate participants' attitudes towards robots in general. Results reveal high expectations of robots, where at least half of the participants answered Already today or Within 10 years to 9 out of 10 investigated tasks. Participants were also fairly positive towards robots, reporting low scores on NARS. The obtained results can be interpreted as a serious over-estimation of what robots will be able to do in the near future, but also large varieties in participants' interpretation of what robots are. We identify challenges in communicating both excitement towards a technology in rapid development and realistic limitations of this technology.

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  • 16.
    Cort, Rebecca
    et al.
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    Department of Information Technology, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sensing the breakdown: managing complexity at the railway2023In: Culture and Organization, ISSN 1475-9551, E-ISSN 1477-2760, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the complex and time-critical work practices within operational train traffic in Sweden by reporting on an incident causing an infrastructure breakdown and large traffic disruptions. Based on a workplace study approach, we report on how the control room workers – train traffic controllers and information officers – grasp, make sense of, and handle the consequences of the incident as it unfolds in real-time. We portray how the workers develop and acquire a sense of place in relation to the incident’s severity which is essential for successfully handling the situation. By introducing the ‘sense of place’ concept originally derived from the field of natural resources to the domain of operational train traffic, we provide a deepened understanding of the challenges characterising remote control work from a safety-critical socio-technical systems perspective. Finally, reflections on the application of the ‘sense of place’ concept, safety aspects and directions for future research are provided.

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  • 17.
    Holm, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Senington, Richard
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Wang, Wei
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Real-World Industrial Demonstrators on Human–Robot Collaborative Assembly2021In: Advanced Human-Robot Collaboration in Manufacturing / [ed] Lihui Wang; Xi Vincent Wang; József Váncza; Zsolt Kemény, Cham: Springer, 2021, 1, p. 413-438Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of human–robot collaboration (HRC) is expected to have increasing importance in Industry 4.0 for a growing number of companies. The purpose of this chapter is to address the role and relevance of jointly designed, developed and implemented industrial demonstrators of HRC systems in projects, resulting in an increased knowledge—both for academia and industrial partners—of how to successfully present the obtained research results in an industrial environment. In particular, the chapter focuses on the role of demonstrators and presents three perspectives related to the use of demonstrators in bridging the gap between current knowledge and the work practice on the shop floor. One perspective is the joint process of developing three industrial demonstrators of HRC within the SYMBIO-TIC project, in order to provide the envisioned benefits for the addressed industrial requirements from the companies. Another perspective is how to evaluate the intended operators’ perceptions and experiences of these HRC systems from a human’s perspective as well as presenting the results obtained from such an evaluation. The last perspective is the voices raised from the industrial project partners’ views about jointly building industrial demonstrators as well as the benefits of participating in the research project. The chapter ends with conclusions, an identified research challenge and future work. It also addresses the societal impact of using collaborative robots in industry, and their contributions to society.

  • 18.
    Holmgren, Noél
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Kazemi, Ali
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Persson, Anne
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Pihlström, Malin
    University of Skövde.
    Billing, Anna
    University of Skövde.
    Nilsson, Ulf-Göran
    University of Skövde, University library.
    Grönborg, Lisa
    University of Skövde, University library.
    Johannesson, Krister
    University of Skövde, University library.
    Syberfeldt, Anna
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Pehrsson, Leif
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Tengblad, Stefan
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Nilsson, Pernilla
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Elowson, Anne-louise
    University of Skövde.
    Vizlin, Albina
    University of Skövde.
    Andersson, Monica
    University of Skövde.
    Klingspor, Pernilla
    University of Skövde.
    Blomgren, Lars-Göran
    University of Skövde.
    Larsson, Matts
    University of Skövde.
    Taylor, Mario
    University of Skövde.
    Akersten, Eva
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Bergh, Ingrid
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Lundell, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Olsson, Björn
    University of Skövde, School of Life Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Josef
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Assessment of Research and Collaboration 20132013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 19.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Brolin, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. University of Skövde.
    Data-Driven Personas: Expanding DHM for a Holistic Approach2021In: Advances in Simulation and Digital Human Modeling: Proceedings of the AHFE 2021 Virtual Conferences on Human Factors and Simulation, and Digital Human Modeling and Applied Optimization, July 25-29, 2021, USA / [ed] Julia L. Wright; Daniel Barber; Sofia Scataglini; Sudhakar L. Rajulu, Springer, 2021, Vol. 264, p. 296-303Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we detail research and development of data-driven personas in the IPS-IMMA digital human modelling system. Semi-automatically generating personas for working with user experience (UX) aspects of the Operator 4.0 side of Industry 4.0 is suggested as a viable approach for contributing to operator well-being and diversity by supporting workstation designers to take these factors into account early in the workstation design process. These data-driven personas are being developed to be generated using anthropometric data from the manikin family generation module of IPS-IMMA. Specific design suggestions are presented, what should be taken into account and how that will be implemented, and the current state of development of the data-driven personas module is discussed. Prototypes are planned under the coming year.

  • 20.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Falkman, Göran
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Showing uncertainty in aircraft cockpits using icons2015In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 2905-2912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines an icon set designed for displaying uncertainty surrounding threat levels of an approaching object in anaircraft cockpit. This is done through an experiment that compares an icon set designed for this experiment with two icon setsfrom existing research that were tested in static laboratory conditions. The experiment used a flight simulator to simulate realisticflight conditions. The results showed that the icon set designed for this experiment was easier to read. Guidelines for the designof icons for displaying uncertainty are presented based on the results of the experiment.

  • 21.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Classification of Collaboration Levels for Human-Robot Cooperation in Manufacturing2018In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXII: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, incorporating the 33rd National Conference on Manufacturing Research, September 11–13, 2018,  University of Skövde, Sweden / [ed] Peter Thorvald, Keith Case, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2018, p. 151-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 aims to support the factory of the future, which involves increased amounts of information systems and new ways of using automation. One new usage is collaboration between human and industrial robot in manufacturing, with both partners sharing work on a single task. Supporting human-robot collaboration (HRC) requires understanding the requirements of HRC as well as the differences to existing approaches where the goal is more automation, such as in the case of self-driving cars. We propose a framework that we call levels of collaboration to support this, and posit that this framework supports a mental model conducive to the design of lines incorporating HRC.

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  • 22.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Foundation for a classification of collaboration levels for human-robot cooperation in manufacturing2019In: Production & Manufacturing Research, ISSN 2169-3277, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 448-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry 4.0 aims to support the factory of the future, involving increased use of information systems and new ways of using automation, such as collaboration where a robot and a human share work on a single task. We propose a classification of collaboration levels for Human-Robot collaboration (HRC) in manufacturing that we call levels of collaboration (LoC), formed to provide a conceptual model conducive to the design of assembly lines incorporating HRC. This paper aims to provide a more theoretical foundation for such a tool based on relevant theories from cognitive science and other perspectives of human-technology interaction, strengthening the validity and scientific rigour of the envisioned LoC tool. The main contributions consist of a theoretical grounding to motivate the transition from automation to collaboration, which are intended to facilitate expanding the LoC classification to support HRC, as well as an initial visualization of the LoC approach. Future work includes fully defining the LoC classification as well as operationalizing functionally different cooperation types. We conclude that collaboration is a means to an end, so collaboration is not entered for its own sake, and that collaboration differs fundamentally from more commonly used views where automation is the focus.

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  • 23.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Mind the body: How embodied cognition matters in manufacturing2015In: Procedia Manufacturing, ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 3, p. 5184-5191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embodied cognition can provide human factors and applied ergonomics practitioners with better embodied cognition design principles. This paper investigates and analyzes observational video-recorded data from an experiment that simulated a manufacturing environment. The operator was interrupted during a primary assembly task via a handheld computing device which delivered different classes of notifications. The focus is on the embodied aspect of notifications in an active environment, and why one class of notifications called mediated notifications failed at a specific point previously thought to be suitable. Guidelines for analyzing tasks from an embodied cognition perspective that complements and expands traditional human factors and applied ergonomics approaches were developed and are included.

  • 24.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Employing UX Processes for More Focused Development in Research Projects2020In: DHM2020: Proceedings of the 6th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium, August 31 – September 2, 2020 / [ed] Lars Hanson, Dan Högberg, Erik Brolin, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2020, p. 288-298Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of this paper is to highlight some benefits of incorporating usability/user experience (UX) approaches in the software development process of research projects advancing digital human modeling (DHM), and how these processes, approaches, and methods can help keeping the development process more focused and efficient. Research projects that contain large software development components may receive funding only to complete the core tasks, and including additional persons in a project may seem like a waste of resources. This paper introduces user research that relied on a UX approach called contextual inquiry to ascertain user goals and how those might be translated into features for DHM named IMMA that has been developed as a part of numerous research projects in the last decade. The goal of the study is to support DHM development in general through highlighting methods and approaches that can be used, with specific results aimed to support the continued development of IMMA. Results clearly show that existing functions do not support the goals of the user group examined, and highlights the need of understanding user goals and creating functions to support achieving those goals, rather than assuming what functionalities might be needed. By understanding user goals, interpreting those into activities and functionalities time and resources can be used more effectively, which is important for small to medium research projects, where both time and budget may be limited.

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  • 25.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Missing mediated interruptions in manual assembly: Critical aspects of breakpoint selection2017In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 61, p. 90-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The factory of the future aims to make manufacturing more effective and easily customisable, using advanced sensors and communications to support information management. In this paper, we examine how breakpoint selection during interruption management can fail, even when using recommendations for interruption management from existing research. We present an experiment based on prior work where mediated interruptions (i.e. smart interruptions that should interrupt at opportune moments) were missed by participants when sent at one of two pre-defined breakpoints. These breakpoints were selected based on existing research to minimise the cost of interruption, which can involve longer times to complete tasks as well as making errors on tasks. Missing mediated interruptions in this way was unexpected, and the prior study was not configured to measure this effect, which has led to the experiment detailed here. We strive to explore whether there is a risk of missing notifications when mediated interruptions are used, and how this is affected by breakpoint selection. This was investigated through an experiment that uses tasks and environments that simulate a manufacturing assembly facility.

    The results indicate that the effect exists, i.e. that participants miss significantly more notifications when interrupted at fine breakpoints than when interrupted at coarse breakpoints. An embodied cognition perspective was used for analysis of the tasks to understand the cause of the effect. This analysis shows that an overlap between “action” and “anticipation of action” can account for why participants miss notifications at fine breakpoints. Based on these findings, recommendations were developed for designing interruption systems that minimise the costs (errors and time) imposed by interruptions during assembly tasks in manufacturing.

  • 26.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Palmquist, Adam
    Department of Applied IT, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Sánchez, Juan Luis Jiménez
    Scania Sverige AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    To What Extent is Gamification an Effective Tool for Onboarding Users into a DHM Tool2021In: Design, User Experience, and Usability: UX Research and Design: 10th International Conference, DUXU 2021, Held as Part of the 23rd HCI International Conference, HCII 2021, Virtual Event, July 24–29, 2021, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Marcelo M. Soares; Elizabeth Rosenzweig; Aaron Marcus, Cham: Springer, 2021, Vol. 12779, p. 48-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying game-like elements to tasks or computer systems meant for serious, non-game, activities is becoming more common, and is seen as a way to support users in learning a system or to support users in performing tasks better. Applying game-like elements requires an understanding of users, the target task, and what can motivate the target users in their tasks. As in any system development, the success of the design requires validating, and this may be done multiple times in the development cycle. Some concepts, such as usability or user experience have well-established testing methods, while gamification is still a relatively immature field and evaluation methods are still being developed. This paper follows the first evaluation of a gamification system to aid with onboarding new users into the IPS IMMA digital human modelling system, offering details on the heuristic evaluation method. So early in the process, it is inevitable that problems were found, largely to do with how the motivation of users was handled, and multiple suggestions for improvements are offered.

  • 27.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Context aware interruptions: Existing research and required research2014In: Advances in Cognitive Engineering and Neuroergonomics / [ed] Kay Stanney; Kelly S. Hale, AHFE , 2014, p. 260-272Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies in various fields are developing information systems that are supposed to show information in a context sensitive manner. This involves modifying user interfaces based on the current activity and location of the user. The research that exists for context aware, task aware, and location aware systems come mostly from research in the office environment and using stationary work computers using standard mouse and keyboard-operated systems. Other environments, such as manufacturing environments, have not received the same research attention, and therefore research is required to see whether existing theories and frameworks apply to the manufacturing domain. Adding to this, context aware systems are now being created for new classes of devices such as mobile and wearable devices, to be used in multiple domains. All this requires an investigation and validation of older research, and shows how the research of the basic human factors surrounding new devices and domains has fallen behind the development of the devices themselves. This paper examines shortly how recent changes advances in technology affect what is required from the field of interruption research, as well as what is needed to support other domains than the office environment. 

  • 28.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, The Virtual Systems Research Centre.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Coordinating the interruption of assembly workers in manufacturing2017In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 58, p. 361-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines how interruptions from information and communications technology systems affect errors and the time to complete tasks for assembly workers. Interruptions have previously been examined in laboratory experiments and office environments, but not much work has been performed in other authentic environments. This paper contains the results of an experiment that was performed in a simulated manufacturing assembly environment, which tested the effects of interruptions on a manual assembly task. The experiment used existing interruption coordination methods as a basis, and the results showed a difference in the effect of interruptions and interruption coordination between cognitively complex laboratory tasks and manual assembly tasks in an authentic environment. Most notably, the negative effects of interruptions delivered without consideration were smaller in this experiment. Based on these findings, recommendations were developed for designing interruption systems for minimizing the costs (errors and time) imposed by interruptions during assembly tasks in manufacturing.

  • 29.
    Kristensen, Josefin
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    How Young People Living with Disability Experience the Use of Assistive Technology2021In: Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction. Design Methods and User Experience: 15th International Conference, UAHCI 2021, Held as Part of the 23rd HCI International Conference, HCII 2021, Virtual Event, July 24–29, 2021, Proceedings, Part I / [ed] Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis, Cham: Springer, 2021, Vol. 12768, p. 250-268Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate and analyze how young people that have motor impairments experience and have access to various forms of Information and Communications Technology (ICT). The aim is to gain a deeper understanding of how various assistive technologies (AT) mediate between young people and ICT systems, exploring how the user experience is perceived in practice. We apply the lens of the cultural-historical activity theory framework via a series of mainly qualitative explorations in Sweden, studying the user experience of ATs. The obtained findings reveal that there are many breakdowns in the interaction with ICT at the micro-level, mainly due to limited fine motor impairments in the hands, which the used ICT - with or without AT - could not handle properly. Still, the young adults perceived a positive UX in general. When comparing their parents’ view on the access to and experience of ICT a more negative UX of the available ICT systems emerged from a macro level. The parents often mentioned the lack of appropriate ICT and AT as well as relevant support from the educational institutions and other authorities. Some identified deficits framed from the perspective of sustainable accessibility are discussed from the societal level. Especially, the need for proper education that is enabled by credible ICT and AT, otherwise disabled young people are hindered to fully participate in society.

  • 30.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    A Radical Reassessment of the Body in Social Cognition2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 987Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main issue addressed in this paper is to provide a reassessment of the role and relevance of the body in social cognition from a radical embodied cognitive science perspective. Initially, I provide a historical introduction of the traditional account of the body in cognitive science, which I here call the cognitivist view. I then present several lines of criticism raised against the cognitivist view advanced by more embodied, enacted and situated approaches in cognitive science, and related disciplines. Next, I analyze several approaches under the umbrella of embodied social cognition. My line of argument is that some of these approaches, although pointing toward the right direction of conceiving that the social mind is not merely contained inside the head, still fail to fully acknowledge the radically embodied social mind. I argue that the failure of these accounts of embodied social cognition could be associated with so-called ‘simple embodiment.’ The third part of this paper focuses on elaborating an alternative characterization of the radically embodied social mind that also tries to reduce the remaining problems with ‘simple embodiment.’ I draw upon two turns in radically embodied cognitive science, the enactive turn, and the intersubjective turn. On the one hand, there is the risk of focusing too much on the individual level in social cognition that may result in new kinds of methodological individualism that partly neglect the social dimension. On the other hand, socially distributed and socially extended approaches that pay more attention to the dynamics within social interaction may encounter the risk of ignoring the individual during social interaction dynamics and simultaneously not emphasizing the role of embodiment. The approach taken is to consider several ways of describing and incorporating the (individual) social mind at the social level that includes language. I outline some ideas and motivations for how to study and expand the field of radical embodied social cognition in the future, as well as pose the ubiquitous hazard of falling back into a cognitivism view in several ways.

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  • 31.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Embodied action as a 'helping' hand in social interaction2006In: 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society in Cooperation with the 5th International Conference of the Cognitive Science Society: CogSci/ICCS 2006 / [ed] Ron Sun; Naomi Miyake, Cognitive Science Society, Inc., 2006, p. 509-514Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although embodiment has become an important concept in many areas of cognitive science during the past two decades, most research has focused on individual agents and their interactions with the environment. This paper focuses on thesocial dimension of embodiment, and offers a conceptual framework that addresses embodied actions in the social realm. The framework identifies some fundamental functions of embodiment in social interaction, which are also illustrated by a case study in an everyday social setting. Generally speaking, embodied actions provide a helping hand in social interaction, both in a literal and practical sense.

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  • 32.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Embodied Social Cognition2015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book clarifies the role and relevance of the body in social interaction and cognition from an embodied cognitive science perspective. Theories of embodied cognition have during the last decades offered a radical shift in explanations of the human mind, from traditional computationalism, to emphasizing the way cognition is shaped by the body and its sensorimotor interaction with the surrounding social and material world.

    This book presents a theoretical framework for the relational nature of embodied social cognition, which is based on an interdisciplinary approach that ranges historically in time and across different disciplines. It includes work in cognitive science, artificial intelligence, phenomenology, ethology, developmental psychology, neuroscience, social psychology, linguistics, communication and gesture studies.

    The theoretical framework is illustrated by empirical work that provides some detailed observational fieldwork on embodied actions captured in three different episodes of spontaneous social interaction and cognition in situ.

    Furthermore, the theoretical contributions and implications of the study of embodied social cognition are discussed and summed up. Finally, the issue what it would take for an artificial system to be socially embodied is addressed and discussed, as well as the practical relevance for applications to artificial intelligence (AI) and socially interactive technology.

  • 33.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Intersubjectivity as a socially embodied and distributed phenomenon2009In: Enacting intersubjectivity: paving the way for a dialogue between cognitive science, social cognition and neuroscience / [ed] Antonella Carassa, Francesca Morganti, Giuseppe Riva, Lugano: Università della Svizzera italiana , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Mead and Socially Embodied Cognition: Reaping the Best of Both Worlds2012In: Connected Minds: Cognition and Interaction in the Social World / [ed] Nicolas Payette, Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2012, p. 51-65Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Meaning-making as a Socially Distributed and Embodied Practice2015In: Aesthetics and the Embodied Mind: Beyond Art Theory and the Cartesian Mind-Body Dichotomy / [ed] Alfonsina Scarinzi, Springer Netherlands, 2015, p. 3-19Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter briefly contrasts the ongoing debate concerning the nature and kinds of meaning-making within cognitive science and related disciplines. Based on the shortcomings of traditional approaches of meaning making activity it integrates the theoretical framework of Distributed Cognition (DC) with more recent, embodied approaches of social interaction and cognition. The focus is mostly on radically” embodiment theories, but also clarifies different notions of embodiment and its role in cognition and social interaction. Integrating a broad range of theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence from mainly social neuroscience, phenomenology, embodied linguistics and gesture studies, four fundamental functions of the body in social interaction are identified. (1) the body  as a social resonance mechanism, (2) the body as a means and end in communication and social interaction, (3) embodied  action and gesture as a helping hand in shaping, expressing and sharing thoughts, and (4) the body as a representational device.  The theoretical discussions are illustrated with an example from a case study of embodied social interaction “in the wild”, with a focus on the importance of crossmodal interaction in the process of meaning-making activity. The DC perspective functions as an appropriate approach of illustrating how bodily interaction and meaning is enacted when embodied agents are co-operatively engaged in meaning-making activity. It is concluded that the body is of crucial importance in understanding social interaction and cognition in general, and in particular the relational and distributed nature of meaning making activity in joint actions.

  • 36.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics.
    Minding the Body: interacting socially through embodied action2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation clarifies the role and relevance of the body in social interaction and cognition from an embodied cognitive science perspective. Theories of embodied cognition have during the past two decades offered a radical shift in explanations of the human mind, from traditional computationalism which considers cognition in terms of internal symbolic representations and computational processes, to emphasizing the way cognition is shaped by the body and its sensorimotor interaction with the surrounding social and material world. This thesis develops a framework for the embodied nature of social interaction and cognition, which is based on an interdisciplinary approach that ranges historically in time and across different disciplines. The theoretical framework presents a thorough and integrated understanding that supports and explains the embodied nature of social interaction and cognition. It is argued that embodiment is the part and parcel of social interaction and cognition in the most general and specific ways, in which dynamically embodied actions themselves have meaning and agency. The framework is illustrated by empirical work that provides some detailed observational fieldwork on embodied actions captured in three different episodes of spontaneous social interaction in situ. Besides illustrating the theoretical issues discussed in the thesis, the empirical work also reveals some novel characteristics of embodied action in social interaction and cognition. Furthermore, the ontogeny of social interaction and cognition is considered, in which social scaffolding and embodied experience play crucial roles during child development. In addition, the issue what it would take for an artificial system to be (socially) embodied is discussed from the perspectives of cognitive modeling and technology. Finally, the theoretical contributions and implications of the study of embodied actions in social interaction and cognition for cognitive science and related disciplines are summed up. The practical relevance for applications to artificial intelligence and human-computer interaction is also outlined as well as some aspects for future work.

  • 37.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    On the Embodied and Sense-Making Nature of the Artful Mind2021In: Meaningful Relations: The Enactivist Making of Experiential Worlds / [ed] Alfonsina Scarinzi, Baden-Baden: Academia Verlag, 2021, 1, p. 263-284Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The over-reaching purpose of this chapter is to address the sense-making and embodied nature of the artful mind. In doing so, I will reformulate Merlin Donald’s (2006) governing cognitive principles for art, advocating the enactive, emergent, situated, and distributed aspects of art and aesthetic experience as sense-making practices that are compatible with a radical view of embodied cognitive science. I therefore introduce, disentangle and present a more radical view of the human and artful mind, i.e. the idea that mind emerges in the interaction of an agent with a material and social environment as a result of sensorimotor activity. In short, sense-making practices. I then address some implications to the artful mind related to the topics presented here. In doing so, I reformulate Donald’s seven governing cognitive principles of the artful mind - from a rather traditional cognitivist view - to a more radically embodied perspective. The chapter ends with some concluding remarks.

  • 38.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    On the embodied nature of communication2009In: LACUS Forum XXXIV: Speech and beyond / [ed] Patricia Sutcliffe, Lois Stanford, and Arle Lommel, Linguistic Association of Canada and the United States (LACUS) , 2009, p. 157-167Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Socially Embodied Human-Robot Interaction: Addressing human Emotions with Theories of Embodied Cognition2015In: Handbook of Research on Synthesizing Human Emotion in Intelligent Systems and Robotics / [ed] Jordi Vallverdú, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA: IGI Global, 2015, p. 169-190Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental challenge of human interaction with socially interactive robots, compared to other interactive products, comes from them being embodied. The embodied nature of social robots questions to what degree humans can interact ‘naturally' with robots, and what impact the interaction quality has on the user experience (UX). UX is fundamentally about emotions that arise and form in humans through the use of technology in a particular situation. This chapter aims to contribute to the field of human-robot interaction (HRI) by addressing, in further detail, the role and relevance of embodied cognition for human social interaction, and consequently what role embodiment can play in HRI, especially for socially interactive robots. Furthermore, some challenges for socially embodied interaction between humans and socially interactive robots are outlined and possible directions for future research are presented. It is concluded that the body is of crucial importance in understanding emotion and cognition in general, and, in particular, for a positive user experience to emerge when interacting with socially interactive robots.

  • 40.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    The ANEMONE: Theoretical Foundations for UX Evaluation of Action and Intention Recognitionin Human-Robot Interaction2020In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 20, no 15, article id 4284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coexistence of robots and humans in shared physical and social spaces is expected toincrease. A key enabler of high-quality interaction is a mutual understanding of each other’s actionsand intentions. In this paper, we motivate and present a systematic user experience (UX) evaluationframework of action and intention recognition between humans and robots from a UX perspective,because there is an identified lack of this kind of evaluation methodology. The evaluationframework is packaged into a methodological approach called ANEMONE (action and intentionrecognition in human robot interaction). ANEMONE has its foundation in cultural-historicalactivity theory (AT) as the theoretical lens, the seven stages of action model, and user experience(UX) evaluation methodology, which together are useful in motivating and framing the workpresented in this paper. The proposed methodological approach of ANEMONE provides guidanceon how to measure, assess, and evaluate the mutual recognition of actions and intentions betweenhumans and robots for investigators of UX evaluation. The paper ends with a discussion, addressesfuture work, and some concluding remarks.

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  • 41.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    The Quest for Appropriate Human-Robot Interaction Strategies in Industrial Contexts2023In: Advances in Manufacturing Technology XXXVI: Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, Incorporating the 37th National Conference on Manufacturing Research,  6th – 8th September 2023, Aberystwyth University, UK / [ed] Andrew Thomas; Lyndon Murphy; Wyn Morris; Vincenzo Dispenza; David Jones, Amsterdam, Netherlands: IOS Press, 2023, p. 87-92Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial evolutions require robots to be able to share physical and social space with humans in such a way that interaction and coexistence arepositively experienced by human workers. A prerequisite is the possibility for the human and the robot to mutually perceive, interpret and act on each other's actions and intentions. To achieve this, strategies for human-robot interaction are needed that are adapted to operators’ needs and characteristics in the industrial contexts. In this paper, we aim to present various taxonomies of levels of automation, humanrobot interaction, and human-robot collaboration suggested for the envisioned factories of the future. Based on this foundation, we propose a compass direction for continued research efforts which both zooms in and zooms out on how to develop applicable human-robot interaction strategies that are worker-centric in order to obtain effective, efficient, safe, sustainable, and pleasant human-robot collaboration and coexistence.

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  • 42.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Alenljung, Beatrice
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Evaluating the User Experience of Human-Robot Interaction2020In: Human-Robot Interaction: Evaluation Methods and Their Standardization / [ed] Céline Jost, Brigitte Le Pévédic, Tony Belpaeme, Cindy Bethel, Dimitrios Chrysostomou, Nigel Crook, Marine Grandgeorge, Nicole Mirnig, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 231-256Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For social robots, like in all other digitally interactive systems, products, services, and devices, positive user experience (UX) is necessary in order to achieve the intended benefits and societal relevance of human–robot interaction (HRI). The experiences that humans have when interacting with robots have the power to enable, or disable, the robots’ acceptance rate and utilization in society. For a commercial robot product, it is the achieved UX in the natural context when fulfilling its intended purpose that will determine its success. The increased number of socially interactive robots in human environments and their level of participation in everyday activities obviously highlights the importance of systematically evaluating the quality of the interaction from a human-centered perspective. There is also a need for robot developers to acquire knowledge about proper UX evaluation, both in theory and in practice. In this chapter we are asking: What is UX evaluation? Why should UX evaluation be performed? When is it appropriate to conduct a UX evaluation? How could a UX evaluation be carried out? Where could UX evaluation take place? Who should perform the UX evaluation and for whom? The aim is to briefly answer these questions in the context of doing UX evaluation in HRI, highlighting evaluation processes and methods that have methodological validity and reliability as well as practical applicability. We argue that each specific HRI project needs to take the UX perspective into account during the whole development process. We suggest that a more diverse use of methods in HRI will benefit the field, and the future users of social robots will benefit even more.

  • 43.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Att främja studenternas förberedelser inför yrkeslivet2016In: NU2016 Högskolan i samhället - samhället i högskolan, 2016, article id 1.3.3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Högskoleförordningens krav på att studenter ska kunna identifiera sitt kompetensbehov och behov av ytterligare kunskap tenderar att hamna i skymundan inom högre utbildning. Vi har infört ett examinationsmoment som syftar till att förbereda studenterna inför sin yrkesverksamhet och som var relativt enkelt att implementera och som uppskattades av studenterna.

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  • 44.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Rambusch, Jana
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Svensson, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Fem framgångsfaktorer för utveckling av pedagogisk digital kompetens för nätbaserat lärande inom högre utbildning2012In: NU2012: Gränslöst lärande: Göteborg, 17-19 oktober, 2012, p. 188-189Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utbredningen av kommunikations- och IT-verktyg (IKT) i samhället influerar även undervisningen inom högre utbildning (se t.ex., Ala-Mutka, Punie & Redecker, 2008; Glenn, 2008). Olika lärplattformar har utvecklats som möjliggör skilda former av interaktion mellan lärare och studenter. En konsekvens av detta är att andelen distansstudenter kraftigt ökat de senaste åren. Förutom de möjligheter och begränsningar som de nya tekniska verktygen erbjuder för nätbaserat lärande, behövs det även nya kunskaper hos den undervisande universitetsläraren och behovet av en god pedagogisk digital kompetens blir därmed aktuellt (EUT, 2006; Glenn, 2008; Krumsvik, 2008).

    Syftet med detta bidrag är att delge andra universitetslärare som vill börja med eller vidareutveckla nätbaserad undervisning våra praktiska erfarenheter och kunskaper för hur detta kan genomföras med utgångspunkt utifrån pedagogisk digital kompetens.

    Utifrån en fallstudie (Patton, 2002) har vi genom ett aktionsforskningsperspektiv identifierat fem framgångsfaktorer för utveckling av pedagogisk digital kompetens vid högre studier:

    • En gemensam pedagogisk grundsyn
    • Teamwork
    • Undervisningskultur
    • Positiv inställning till teknik
    • Administrativa, pedagogiska och tekniska stödresurser

    De identifierade framgångsfaktorerna presenteras med ett abduktivt upplägg. Vi utgår utifrån våra praktiska erfarenheter och kopplar samman dessa med teorier och relevant litteratur inom området för varje framgångsfaktor.

    För att aktivt arbeta med att utveckla den digitala pedagogiska kompetensen är det viktigt att inte enbart fokusera på de tillgängliga tekniska verktygen, utan det är viktigt att framhäva i vilket sammanhang ett visst undervisningsmoment ingår i. Det är väldigt lätt att se läraren som en ensam individ som ska stödja studentens kunskapsutveckling under en kurs, men verkligheten är något helt annat. En bra lärare, enligt oss, är en lärare som kan se sin egen undervisning i ett större sammanhang, t.ex. hur en kurs hänger ihop med andra kurser inom utbildningen eller hur den kopplar till en framtida yrkesroll. På så sätt har man större möjlighet att motivera sina studenter till lärande och i det större perspektivet till ett kontinuerligt lärande som fortgår under hela livet i dagens kunskapssamhälle. En fara med informationssamhället är att den tolkande och värderande förmågan underskattas (Gärdenfors, 2005) vilket vi anser har konsekvenser för högre utbildning, som bör undvika att begå detta misstag genom att fokusera i alltför stor grad på IKT-lösningar i sig, utan satsa större resurser på att stödja och utveckla studenternas lärande och tolkande förmåga av olika former av information och källor. Med andra ord, fokusera mer på innehållet än på formen, och detta ökar vikten av en god pedagogisk digital kompetens.

    Referenser

    Ala-Mutka, K., Punie, Y & Redecker, C. (2008) Digital competence for lifelong learning. JRC Technical Notes. Policy brief by the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS), part of the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC). Tillgänglig på http://ftp.jrc.es/EURdoc/JRC48708.TN.pdf [Hämtad: 2011-05-28].

    EUT (Europeiska unionens officiella tidning) (2006) L 394 10.

    Glenn, M. (2008) The future of higher education: How technology will shape learning. A report from the Economist Intelligence Unit.

    Gärdenfors, P. (2005) Tankens vindlar: Om språk, minne och berättande. Nora: Nya Doxa

    Krumsvik, R. J. (2008) Situated learning and teachers’ digital competence. Education and Information Technologies, 13, 279–290.

    Patton, M.Q. (2002) Qualitative research and evaluation methods. (3:e upplagan). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

  • 45.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Alklind Taylor, Anna-Sofia
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Rambusch, Jana
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Svensson, Henrik
    University of Skövde, School of Humanities and Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Pedagogisk digital kompetens för nätbaserat lärande inom högskolan2011In: Utbildning & Lärande, ISSN 1653-0594, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 54-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of information technology and the Internet has important academic implications, which in the long run will have far reaching consequences for teaching and learning on university level. With this in mind, five different success factors for the development of digital literacy and competence in higher education in general, and online courses in particular, are being identified and discussed in this article. These factors are: a shared view on learning and teaching, teamwork, a collaborative teaching culture, a positive attitude towards technology, as well as administrative, pedagogical and technical support resources. The dicussion is largely based on theories on learning and e-learning, and many examples draw from the authors' own experiences and observations.

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  • 46.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Andreasson, Rebecca
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Numera vid Uppsala universitet.
    Current Challenges for UX Evaluation of Human-Robot Interaction2016In: Advances in Ergonomics of Manufacturing: Managing the Enterprise of the Future: Proceedings of the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Human Aspects of Advanced Manufacturing, July 27-31, 2016, Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA / [ed] Christopher Schlick; Stefan Trzcieliński, Cham: Springer, 2016, p. 267-277Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of socially interactive robots is expected to have anincreasing importance in everyday life for a growing number of people. For social robots to provide long-term added value to people’s lives, it is of major importanceto stress the need for developing a positive user experience (UX). The human-centered view emphasizes various aspects including acceptance, usability,and credibility, as they emerge in the interaction between humans and robots. In current human-robot interaction (HRI) research, UX is reckoned to be important,but is often taken for granted. However, a positive user experience does not appearby itself but has to be systematically designed and evaluated. In this paper, we focus on the role and relevance of UX in HRI and present three challenges related to the evaluation of UX in interaction with robots, addressing the need for interdisciplinary research in order to achieve long-term success of socially interactive robots.

  • 47.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Gündert, Jonna
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Managing Mediated Interruptions in Manufacturing: Selected Strategies Used for Coping with Cognitive Load2017In: Advances in Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering: Proceedings of the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Neuroergonomics and Cognitive Engineering, July 27-31, 2016, Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA / [ed] Kelly S. Hale, Kay M. Stanney, Springer, 2017, p. 389-403Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interruption research can provide human factors and applied ergonomics with an enhanced understanding of how to notify assembly workers in manufacturing. The paper investigates and analyzes what happens in the transition phase when resuming to the primary task; to understand what kind of support assembly workers may need during this critical and cognitively demanding phase—so that the interval between the interrupted and the primary tasks can be shortened to increase efficiency, during mediated interruptions. Subjects were interrupted during primary assembly tasks via a mobile device which delivered various notifications. We focused on the selected cognitive strategies applied when decreasing the subjects’ experienced cognitive load as they resumed to their primary task. Based on the obtained results, some recommendations from a distributed cognition perspective are provided when analyzing “cognitive workscapes”.

  • 48.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Kjellström, Anita
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education. University of Skövde, Health and Education.
    Pedagogisk meritering och pedagogisk karriärstege utifrån ett akademiskt lärarskap2018In: NU2018 - Det akademiska lärarskapet, 2018, article id 829Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är allmänt vedertaget att högre utbildning har flera olika syften, bland annat att förbereda studenterna för ett aktivt medborgarskap, framtida yrkesliv, anställningsbarhet samt bidra till personlig utveckling. För att kunna nå upp till dessa syften behöver det finnas en pedagogisk praktik inom högre utbildning som främjar ett vetenskapligt förhållningssätt till studenternas lärande. Från ett studentperspektiv driver Sveriges förenade studentkårer (SFS) [1] ett arbete för att främja förutsättningar för en god undervisning vid högskolestudier. Ett sätt att främja det systematiska kvalitetsarbetet är att fokusera på pedagogisk meritering av lärare. I arbetet med att revidera samt vidareutveckla innehållet i och processerna för pedagogisk meritering vid lärosätet har utgångspunkten varit att meritera engagerade, kunniga och ämneskompetenta lärare med hänsyn till lärargärningens olika möjligheter och begräsningar för att bedriva ett systematiskt kvalitetsutvecklingsarbete. Det övergripande syftet för lärosätets modell för pedagogisk karriärstege är att bidra till den excellenta lärmiljön genom kvalitetsdrivande högskolepedagogiska processer i högre utbildning. Målet med den pedagogiska karriärstegen är att kompetensutveckla och bedöma ämneskunniga lärares skicklighet i att bedriva pedagogisk verksamhet i praktiken. Detta kan exempelvis ske genom att stimulera lärare att utveckla en hög pedagogisk kompetens, stimulera lärosätet och institutionerna att skapa goda förutsättningar för pedagogisk utveckling samt uppmärksamma och premiera hög högskolepedagogisk kompetens hos undervisande personal.

    Motiveringen till att utgå ifrån begreppet akademiskt lärarskap (eng. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning [2], SoTL) för den reviderade pedagogiska karriärstegen är att den är i linje med Sveriges universitets- och högskoleförbunds (SUHF:s) uppdaterade rekommendation [3] om mål för behörighetsgivande högskolepedagogisk utbildning samt ömsesidigt erkännande (Rek 2016:1).

    I vårt bidrag åskådliggörs det akademiska lärarskapet utifrån ett högskoleperspektiv, med utgångspunkt i processen att revidera och förankra synen på pedagogisk meritering och denpedagogiska karriärstegen vid lärosätet. I styrdokumentet ”Riktlinjer för pedagogisk karriärstege vid Högskolan i Skövde” (Dnr HS 2017/405) [4] beskrivs begreppet akademiskt läarskap som ”… att ha ett vetenskapligt förhållningssät till kunskap och kunskapsbildning och vad det innebä att vara lärare i höre utbildning. Det akademiska lärarskapet innebär en kvalitetsdrivande strategi där läraren reflekterar över och argumenterar för sin lärargäning i ett kontinuerligt utvecklingsarbete. Ett akademiskt lärarskap innefattar förutom skicklighet i undervisning och handledning även inslag av pedagogisk kritisk sjävreflektion”. Som ett resultat av det genomförda reviderings- och utvecklingsarbetet har exempelvis begreppet akademiskt lärarskap introducerats i lärosätets utvecklingsplan 2017-2022 [5] samt att ett råd för högskolepedagogisk meritering har inrättats. Vi kommer att beskriva vå utvecklings- och revideringsprocess och beskriva de möjligheter och utmaningar som vi stött på i olika sammanhang under resans gång med att förankra begreppet akademiskt lärarskap i organisationen. Dessutom diskuterar vi våra förväntningar och farhågor under det pågående och framtida arbetet. Vi hoppas att inspirera andra lärosäten som planerar att inrätta någon form av pedagogisk meritering utifrån ett akademiskt lärarskap.

    Referenser

    [1] https://www.sfs.se/publikation/agenda-pedagogik

    [2] Kreber, C. (2002). “Teaching excellence, teaching expertise, and the scholarship of teaching.” Innovative Higher Education, 27(1), pp. 5-23.

    [3] REK 2016-1 Mål för behörighetsgivande högskolepedagogisk utbildning samt ömsesidigt erkännande. Tillgäglig på

    http://www.suhf.se/BinaryLoader.axd?OwnerID=f66b107a-bb35-44b1-a4bd-98518d2d6950&OwnerType=0&PropertyName=EmbeddedFile_1937ad3d-3d25-4e4d-8dc5-

    9c490b27432e&FileName=REK+2016-

    1+Om+beh%c3%b6righetsgivande+h%c3%b6gskolepedagogisk+utbildning_Dnr+024-16.pdf&Attachment=True

    [4] http://www.his.se/Policies/Forskning_utbildning_forskningsniva/Riktlinjer%20pedagogisk%20meritering%20-%20beslutad.pdf

    [5] http://www.his.se/Policies/StrategierKvalitetOrganisation/utvecklingsplan_for_his_2017_2022.pdf

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  • 49.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Kolbeinsson, Ari
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Thorvald, Peter
    University of Skövde, School of Engineering Science. University of Skövde, Virtual Engineering Research Environment.
    Narrowing the Gap of Cognitive and Physical Ergonomics in DHM through Embodied Tool Use2020In: DHM2020: Proceedings of the 6th International Digital Human Modeling Symposium, August 31 – September 2, 2020 / [ed] Lars Hanson, Dan Högberg, Erik Brolin, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2020, p. 311-322Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fields of human factors and ergonomics are systemic by nature, focusing on studying complex interaction between human and technology. However, the levels of explanation have resulted in physical or cognitive ergonomics. Modern understandings of human cognition and technology-mediated interaction, such as embodied cognition, activity theory and user experience (UX) is used as a frame of reference to analyze and illustrate the usage of a digital human modeling (DHM) tool in practice. In so doing, we try to narrow the gap between physical and cognitive ergonomics through embodied tool use. An identified core problem is to understand how a 2D devices should properly interact within 3D objects and manikins in a DMH tool that results in negative UX. The embodied concept of body schema clarifies the cognitive foundation for the negative UX. Some future work is presented, which could be beneficial for DHM, and, in the long run, promote a positive UX at work for various end-users of DHM tools.

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  • 50.
    Lindblom, Jessica
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Lundström, Christina
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Lantbrukares beslutsfattande och lantbruksrådgivning: en förstudie (DEMIPROF)2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this pilot study was to decrease the lack of understanding concerning farmers’ decision-making in order to gain a deeper portrayal of farmers' decision-making by studying decision-making in practice. Farmers' decision-making is a process that is influenced by a variety of factors and requires that farmers are versed in many specialized areas. Previous research in this area lacks a holistic perspective where biological, technical, economic, ethical and social factors are integrated, in order to describe the farmers’ lifeworld. Three farmers from western Sweden were included in the study, which has been conducted as a multiple case study, in the form of workplace studies, in order to identify the participating farmers' lifeworld, the support through advisors and various external resources, eg. IT tools. This qualitative research design has resulted in a number of detailed descriptions of how choices and decisions are made at the farm level, than had not been possible with more quantitative methods and statistical analysis of socio-economic variables. According to researchers in the field "farm management" this kind of studies are currently missing in the agricultural domain, and this study is considered to be a first step in that direction. The result highlights a number of factors regarding how the farmers consider their situation and lifeworld, of the advisory role and the impact of IT and other tangible artifacts. The report includes a discussion of the results obtained, different views and explanations of knowledge and thinking, and provides suggestions for further research. The report ends with some conclusions which indicate that farmers’ being-in-the-world is complex and can be described as a dynamic system without clear linear causality, which is both fascinating and frustrating. The advisory service is primarily considered as a support function and a sounding board for more current decisions regarding crops, spraying and fertilizing, while major and strategic decisions are initially discussed in other networks. The advisory service needs to develop by expanding a little more outside the comfort zone of ordinary activities and take some height in more strategic terms for the farm as a whole

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